G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 50/57kDa, V1 subunit H
G00000098 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000047249 (Ensembl human gene)
51606 (Entrez Gene)
434 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP6V1H (GeneCards)
608861 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:18303 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UI12 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • CGI-11
  • SFD
  • SFDalpha
  • SFDbeta
  • VMA13

Literature (21)

Pubmed - other

  • The vacuolar-ATPase B1 subunit in distal tubular acidosis: novel mutations and mechanisms for dysfunction.

    Fuster DG, Zhang J, Xie XS and Moe OW

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Mutations in the B1 subunit of the multisubunit vacuolar ATPase cause autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis and sensorineural deafness. Here, we report a novel frameshift mutation that truncates the C-terminus of the human B1 subunit. This mutant protein failed to assemble with other subunits in the cytosol to form the complex that can be targeted to vesicular structures in mammalian cells. Loss of proton pump activity was demonstrated in a functional complementation assay in B-subunit null yeast. The mutation caused loss of a discreet C-terminal region critical for subunit interaction not related to the C-terminal PDZ motif. Co-expression studies failed to demonstrate dominant negative effects of this truncated mutant over wild-type B1. Analysis of 12 reported B1 subunit missense mutations showed one polymorphic allele had intact pump function, two point mutants had intact assembly but defective proton pumping, and the remaining nine had disrupted assembly with no pump function. One presumed polymorphic allele was actually an inactivating mutation. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms of pump dysfunction result from B1 subunit mutations with a common outcome being defective assembly. Polymorphisms of the B1 subunit in the general population may affect renal acidification and urinary chemistry.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-20543, DK-48482

    Kidney international 2008;73;10;1151-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Human immunodeficiency virus Nef induces rapid internalization of the T-cell coreceptor CD8alphabeta.

    Stove V, Van de Walle I, Naessens E, Coene E, Stove C, Plum J and Verhasselt B

    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University Hospita, Belgium.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef is a membrane-associated protein decreasing surface expression of CD4, CD28, and major histocompatibility complex class I on infected cells. We report that Nef strongly down-modulates surface expression of the beta-chain of the CD8alphabeta receptor by accelerated endocytosis, while CD8 alpha-chain expression is less affected. By mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic tail of the CD8 beta-chain, an FMK amino acid motif was shown to be critical for Nef-induced endocytosis. Although independent of CD4, endocytosis of the CD8 beta-chain was abrogated by the same mutations in Nef that affect CD4 down-regulation, suggesting common molecular interactions. The ability to down-regulate the human CD8 beta-chain was conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Nef and required an intact AP-2 complex. The Nef-mediated internalization of receptors, such as CD4, major histocompatibility complex class I, CD28, and CD8alphabeta, may contribute to the subversion of the host immune system and progression towards AIDS.

    Journal of virology 2005;79;17;11422-33

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase.

    Morel N

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France. nicolas.morel@nbcm.cnrs-gif.fr

    Vacuolar-H+ATPase (V-ATPase) is a complex enzyme with numerous subunits organized in two domains. The membrane domain V0 contains a proteolipid hexameric ring that translocates protons when ATP is hydrolysed by the catalytic cytoplasmic sector (V1). In nerve terminals, V-ATPase generates an electrochemical proton gradient that is acid and positive inside synaptic vesicles. It is used by specific neurotransmitter-proton antiporters to accumulate neurotransmitters inside their storage organelles. During synaptic activity, neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles docked at specialized portions of the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zones. A fusion pore opens that allows the neurotransmitter to be released from the synaptic vesicle lumen into the synaptic cleft. We briefly review experimental data suggesting that the membrane domain of V-ATPase could be such a fusion pore. We also discuss the functional implications for quantal neurotransmitter release of the sequential use of the same V-ATPase membrane domain in two different events, neurotransmitter accumulation in synaptic vesicles first, and then release from these organelles during synaptic activity.

    Biology of the cell 2003;95;7;453-7

  • Revised nomenclature for mammalian vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase subunit genes.

    Smith AN, Lovering RC, Futai M, Takeda J, Brown D and Karet FE

    To date, the nomenclature of mammalian genes encoding the numerous subunits and their many isoforms that comprise the family of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases has not been systematic, resulting in confusion both in the literature and among investigators. We present the official new system for these genes, approved by both Human and Mouse Gene Nomenclature Committees.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;801-3

  • Proton translocation driven by ATP hydrolysis in V-ATPases.

    Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave., Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments and, in certain cases, proton transport across the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. They are multisubunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V(1)) responsible for ATP hydrolysis and an integral domain (V(0)) responsible for proton translocation. Based upon their structural similarity to the F(1)F(0) ATP synthases, the V-ATPases are thought to operate by a rotary mechanism in which ATP hydrolysis in V(1) drives rotation of a ring of proteolipid subunits in V(0). This review is focused on the current structural knowledge of the V-ATPases as it relates to the mechanism of ATP-driven proton translocation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 34478, R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    FEBS letters 2003;545;1;76-85

  • The amino-terminal domain of the E subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) interacts with the H subunit and is required for V-ATPase function.

    Lu M, Vergara S, Zhang L, Holliday LS, Aris J and Gluck SL

    Department of Medicine University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. luming@medicine.ufl.edu

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved proton pumps that couple hydrolysis of cytosolic ATP to proton transport out of the cytosol. Although it is generally believed that V-ATPases transport protons by a rotary catalytic mechanism analogous to that used by F(1)F(0)-ATPases, the structure and subunit composition of the central or peripheral stalk of the multisubunit complex are not well understood. We searched for proteins that bind to the E subunit of V-ATPase using the yeast two-hybrid assay and identified the H subunit as an interacting partner. Physical association between the E and H subunits of V-ATPase was confirmed in vitro by precipitation assays. Deletion mapping analysis revealed that a 78-amino acid fragment at the amino terminus of the E subunit was sufficient for binding to the H subunit. Expression of the amino-terminal fragments of the E subunits from human and yeast as dominant-negative mutants resulted in dramatic decreases in bafilomycin A(1)-sensitive ATP hydrolysis and proton transport activities of V-ATPase. Our data demonstrate the physiological significance of the interaction between the E and H subunits of V-ATPase and extend previous studies on the arrangement of subunits on the peripheral stalk of V-ATPase.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK38848, R01 DK54362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38409-15

  • Transport ATPases in biological systems and relationship to human disease: a brief overview.

    Pedersen PL

    Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA. ppederse@jhmi.edu

    Interest in the field of transport ATPases has grown dramatically during the past 20 years and gained considerable visibility for several reasons. First, it was shown that most transport ATPases can be lumped into only a few categories designated simply as P, V, F, and ABC types, the latter consisting of a large superfamily. Second, it has been shown that many transport ATPases have a clear relevance to human disease. Third, the field of transport ATPases has become rather advanced in the study of the reaction mechanisms and structure-function relationships associated with several of these enzymes. Finally, the Nobel committee recently recognized major accomplishments in this field of research. Here, the author provides a brief discussion of transport ATPases that are present in biological systems and their relevance or possible relevance to human disease.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 43962

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 2002;34;5;327-32

  • Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery.

    Geyer M, Yu H, Mandic R, Linnemann T, Zheng YH, Fackler OT and Peterlin BM

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0703, USA.

    Nef is an accessory protein of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) that is required for efficient viral infectivity and pathogenicity. It decreases the expression of CD4 on the surface of infected cells. V1H is the regulatory subunit H of the vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase). Previously, the interaction between Nef and V1H has been found to facilitate the internalization of CD4, suggesting that V1H could connect Nef to the endocytic machinery. In this study, we demonstrate that V1H binds to the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef from HIV-1 and to the medium chain (mu2) of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) in vitro and in vivo. The interaction sites of V1H and mu2 were mapped to a central region in V1H from positions 133 to 363, which contains 4 armadillo repeats, and to the N-terminal adaptin-binding domain in mu2 from positions 1 to 145. Fusing Nef to V1H reproduced the appropriate trafficking of Nef. This chimera internalized CD4 even in the absence of the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef. Finally, blocking the expression of V1H decreased the enhancement of virion infectivity by Nef. Thus, V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1R01AI38532-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;32;28521-9

  • Subunit H of the V-ATPase involved in endocytosis shows homology to beta-adaptins.

    Geyer M, Fackler OT and Peterlin BM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, California 94143-0703, USA. geyer@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de

    The vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multisubunit enzyme that facilitates the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells and plays an important role in receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular trafficking processes, and protein degradation. In this study we show that the C-terminal fragment of 350 residues of the regulatory subunit H (V1H) of the V-ATPase shares structural and functional homologies with the beta-chains of adaptor protein complexes. Moreover, the fragment is similar to a region in the beta-subunit of COPI coatomer complexes, which suggests the existence of a shared domain in these three different families of proteins. For beta-adaptins, this fragment binds to cytoplasmic di-leucine-based sorting motifs such as in HIV-1 Nef that mediate endocytic trafficking. Expression of this fragment in cells blocks the internalization of transmembrane proteins, which depend on di-leucine-based motifs, whereas mutation of the consensus sequence GEY only partly diminishes the recognition of the sorting motif. Based on recent structural analysis, our results suggest that the di-leucine-binding domain consists of a HEAT or ARM repeat protein fold.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;6;2045-56

  • The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases--nature's most versatile proton pumps.

    Nishi T and Forgac M

    Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The pH of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells is a carefully controlled parameter that affects many cellular processes, including intracellular membrane transport, prohormone processing and transport of neurotransmitters, as well as the entry of many viruses into cells. The transporters responsible for controlling this crucial parameter in many intracellular compartments are the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases). Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and regulation of the V-ATPases, together with the mapping of human genetic defects to genes that encode V-ATPase subunits, have led to tremendous excitement in this field.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478, R37 GM034478

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2002;3;2;94-103

  • Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef.

    Geyer M, Fackler OT and Peterlin BM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0703, CA, USA. mgeyer@cc.ucsf.edu

    The accessory Nef protein of HIV and SIV is essential for viral pathogenesis, yet it is perplexing in its multitude of molecular functions. In this review we analyse the structure-function relationships of motifs recently proposed to play roles in aspects of Nef modification, signalling and trafficking, and thereby to impinge on the ability of the virus to survive in, and to manipulate, its cellular host. Based on the full-length structure assembly of HIV Nef, we correlate surface accessibility with secondary structure elements and sequence conservation. Motifs involved in Nef-mediated CD4 and MHC I downregulation are located in flexible regions of Nef, suggesting that the formation of the transient trafficking complexes involved in these processes depends on the recognition of primary sequences. In contrast, the interaction sites for signalling molecules that contain SH3 domains or the p21-activated kinases are associated with the well folded core domain, suggesting the recognition of highly structured protein surfaces.

    EMBO reports 2001;2;7;580-5

  • Negative factor from SIV binds to the catalytic subunit of the V-ATPase to internalize CD4 and to increase viral infectivity.

    Mandic R, Fackler OT, Geyer M, Linnemann T, Zheng YH and Peterlin BM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0703, USA.

    The accessory protein negative factor (Nef) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is required for optimal viral infectivity and the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nef interacts with the endocytic machinery, resulting in the down-regulation of cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules on the surface of infected cells. Mutations in the C-terminal flexible loop of Nef result in a lower rate of internalization by this viral protein. However, no loop-dependent binding of Nef to adaptor protein-2 (AP-2), which is the adaptor protein complex that is required for the internalization of proteins from the plasma membrane, could be demonstrated. In this study we investigated the relevance of different motifs in Nef from SIV(mac239) for its internalization, CD4 down-regulation, binding to components of the trafficking machinery, and viral infectivity. Our data suggest that the binding of Nef to the catalytic subunit H of the vacuolar membrane ATPase (V-ATPase) facilitates its internalization. This binding depends on the integrity of the whole flexible loop. Subsequent studies on Nef mutant viruses revealed that the flexible loop is essential for optimal viral infectivity. Therefore, our data demonstrate how Nef contacts the endocytic machinery in the absence of its direct binding to AP-2 and suggest an important role for subunit H of the V-ATPase in viral infectivity.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1RO1AI38523-01

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;2;463-73

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics.

    Lai CH, Chou CY, Ch'ang LY, Liu CS and Lin W

    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Modern biomedical research greatly benefits from large-scale genome-sequencing projects ranging from studies of viruses, bacteria, and yeast to multicellular organisms, like Caenorhabditis elegans. Comparative genomic studies offer a vast array of prospects for identification and functional annotation of human ortholog genes. We presented a novel comparative proteomic approach for assembling human gene contigs and assisting gene discovery. The C. elegans proteome was used as an alignment template to assist in novel human gene identification from human EST nucleotide databases. Among the available 18,452 C. elegans protein sequences, our results indicate that at least 83% (15,344 sequences) of C. elegans proteome has human homologous genes, with 7,954 records of C. elegans proteins matching known human gene transcripts. Only 11% or less of C. elegans proteome contains nematode-specific genes. We found that the remaining 7,390 sequences might lead to discoveries of novel human genes, and over 150 putative full-length human gene transcripts were assembled upon further database analyses. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the

    Genome research 2000;10;5;703-13

  • Interactions between HIV1 Nef and vacuolar ATPase facilitate the internalization of CD4.

    Lu X, Yu H, Liu SH, Brodsky FM and Peterlin BM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 94143-0703, USA.

    CD4 is the primary receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nef is an accessory protein of HIV that decreases the expression of CD4 on the surface of infected cells. In this study, we identified the Nef binding protein 1 (NBP1), which interacts specifically with Nef in vitro and in vivo. Since it shares sequence similarity with the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and complements the loss of this VMA13 gene in yeast, NBP1 is the human homolog of Vma13p. Direct interactions between Nef and NBP1 were correlated with the ability of Nef to internalize CD4. The expression of the antisense NBP1 abrogated these effects. We conclude that NBP1 helps to connect Nef with the endocytic pathway.

    Funded by: FDA HHS: BM38093; NIAID NIH HHS: AI38532; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM57657

    Immunity 1998;8;5;647-56

  • Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase.

    Stevens TH and Forgac M

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403-1229, USA. stevens@molbio.uoregon.edu

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (or V-ATPases) function in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. The V-ATPases are multisubunit complexes composed of two functional domains. The peripheral V1 domain, a 500-kDa complex responsible for ATP hydrolysis, contains at least eight different subunits of molecular weight 70-13 (subunits A-H). The integral V0 domain, a 250-kDa complex, functions in proton translocation and contains at least five different subunits of molecular weight 100-17 (subunits a-d). Biochemical and genetic analysis has been used to identify subunits and residues involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, proton translocation, and coupling of these activities. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of vacuolar acidification in vivo, including control of pump density, regulation of assembly of V1 and V0 domains, disulfide bond formation, activator or inhibitor proteins, and regulation of counterion conductance. Recent information concerning targeting and regulation of V-ATPases has also been obtained.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM034478

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;779-808

  • Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef.

    Garcia JV and Miller AD

    Program in molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104.

    A decline in the T-cell population usually marks the onset of progressive immunological disease in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Because CD4+ cells help to coordinate efficient immune responses, some of the defects in the immune function in advanced cases of AIDS may be explained by the disappearance of these cells. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms used by HIV to induce the reduction of CD4+ cells is important. Here we use a Moloney murine leukaemia virus-based retroviral vector in order to express the nef gene of HIV-1 in three lymphocytic cell lines expressing CD4. In all cases we find that cell-surface CD4 expression is inversely related to nef expression. However, nef does not alter steady-state levels of CD4 RNA or CD4 protein. Also, nef can downregulate a CD4 triple mutant (Ser----Ala) that is neither phosphorylated nor down-regulated by phorbol esters, indicating that nef is acting by a different mechanism.

    Nature 1991;350;6318;508-11

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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