G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001340
Gene symbol
VDAC1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
voltage-dependent anion channel 1
Orthologue
G00000091 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Gene
ENSG00000073905 (Ensembl human gene)
7416 (Entrez Gene)
131 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
VDAC1 (GeneCards)
Literature
604492 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12669 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
5885 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P21796 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • MGC111064
  • PORIN

Literature (79)

Pubmed - other

  • PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is dependent on VDAC1 and p62/SQSTM1.

    Geisler S, Holmström KM, Skujat D, Fiesel FC, Rothfuss OC, Kahle PJ and Springer W

    Laboratory of Functional Neurogenetics, Otfried-Müller-Strasse 27, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN are the most frequent causes of recessive Parkinson's disease. However, their molecular contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we reveal important mechanistic steps of a PINK1/Parkin-directed pathway linking mitochondrial damage, ubiquitylation and autophagy in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. PINK1 kinase activity and its mitochondrial localization sequence are prerequisites to induce translocation of the E3 ligase Parkin to depolarized mitochondria. Subsequently, Parkin mediates the formation of two distinct poly-ubiquitin chains, linked through Lys 63 and Lys 27. In addition, the autophagic adaptor p62/SQSTM1 is recruited to mitochondrial clusters and is essential for the clearance of mitochondria. Strikingly, we identified VDAC1 (voltage-dependent anion channel 1) as a target for Parkin-mediated Lys 27 poly-ubiquitylation and mitophagy. Moreover, pathogenic Parkin mutations interfere with distinct steps of mitochondrial translocation, ubiquitylation and/or final clearance through mitophagy. Thus, our data provide functional links between PINK1, Parkin and the selective autophagy of mitochondria, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    Nature cell biology 2010;12;2;119-31

  • Outer membrane VDAC1 controls permeability transition of the inner mitochondrial membrane in cellulo during stress-induced apoptosis.

    Tomasello F, Messina A, Lartigue L, Schembri L, Medina C, Reina S, Thoraval D, Crouzet M, Ichas F, De Pinto V and De Giorgi F

    INSERM U916, Université Bordeaux 2, Institut Bergonié, 33076 Bordeaux, France.

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)1 is the main channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and it has been proposed to be part of the permeability transition pore (PTP), a putative multiprotein complex candidate agent of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Working at the single live cell level, we found that overexpression of VDAC1 triggers MPT at the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). Conversely, silencing VDAC1 expression results in the inhibition of MPT caused by selenite-induced oxidative stress. This MOM-MIM crosstalk was modulated by Cyclosporin A and mitochondrial Cyclophilin D, but not by Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), indicative of PTP operation. VDAC1-dependent MPT engages a positive feedback loop involving reactive oxygen species and p38-MAPK, and secondarily triggers a canonical apoptotic response including Bax activation, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. Our data thus support a model of the PTP complex involving VDAC1 at the MOM, and indicate that VDAC1-dependent MPT is an upstream mechanism playing a causal role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    Cell research 2009;19;12;1363-76

  • VDAC and ERalpha interaction in caveolae from human cortex is altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    Ramírez CM, González M, Díaz M, Alonso R, Ferrer I, Santpere G, Puig B, Meyer G and Marin R

    Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Institute of Biomedical Technologies, University of La Laguna, 38071 Sta. Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a mitochondrial porin also found in the neuronal membrane (pl-VDAC), where its function may be related to redox homeostasis and apoptosis. Murine models have evidenced pl-VDAC into caveolae in a complex with estrogen receptor alpha (mERalpha), which participates in neuroprotection against amyloid beta (Abeta), and whose integration into this hydrophobic domain remains unclear. Here, we have demonstrated in caveolae of human cortex and hippocampus the presence of pl-VDAC and mERalpha, in a complex with scaffolding caveolin-1 which likely provides mERalpha stability at the plasma membrane. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, VDAC was accumulated in caveolae, and it was observed in dystrophic neurites of senile plaques, whereas ERalpha was expressed in astrocytes surrounding the plaques. Together with previous data in murine neurons demonstrating the participation of pl-VDAC in Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, these data suggest that the channel may be involved in membrane dysfunctioning observed in AD neuropathology.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2009;42;3;172-83

  • Paraquat toxicity induced by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 acts as an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase.

    Shimada H, Hirai K, Simamura E, Hatta T, Iwakiri H, Mizuki K, Hatta T, Sawasaki T, Matsunaga S, Endo Y and Shimizu S

    Molecular and Cell Structural Science, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan. simada-h@kanazawa-med.ac.jp

    Paraquat (PQ), a herbicide used worldwide, causes fatal injury to organs upon high dose ingestion. Treatments for PQ poisoning are unreliable, and numerous deaths have been attributed inappropriate usage of the agent. It is generally speculated that a microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system is responsible for PQ toxicity. However, recent studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity via mitochondria, and therefore, the cytotoxic mechanism remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial NADH-dependent PQ reductase containing a voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is responsible for PQ cytotoxicity. When mitochondria were incubated with NADH and PQ, superoxide anion (O(2)(*)) was produced, and the mitochondria ruptured. Outer membrane extract oxidized NADH in a PQ dose-dependent manner, and oxidation was suppressed by VDAC inhibitors. Zymographic analysis revealed the presence of VDAC1 protein in the oxidoreductase, and the direct binding of PQ to VDAC1 was demonstrated using biotinylated PQ. VDAC1-overexpressing cells showed increased O(2)(*) production and cytotoxicity, both of which were suppressed in VDAC1 knockdown cells. These results indicated that a VDAC1-containing mitochondrial system is involved in PQ poisoning. These insights into the mechanism of PQ poisoning not only demonstrated novel physiological functions of VDAC protein, but they may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: 27307C2007

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;42;28642-9

  • Key regions of VDAC1 functioning in apoptosis induction and regulation by hexokinase.

    Shoshan-Barmatz V, Zakar M, Rosenthal K and Abu-Hamad S

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel. vardasb@bgu.ac.il

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), located in the mitochondrial outer membrane, functions as gatekeeper for the entry and exit of mitochondrial metabolites, and thus controls cross-talk between mitochondria and the cytosol. VDAC also serves as a site for the docking of cytosolic proteins, such as hexokinase, and is recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The role of VDAC in apoptosis has emerged from various studies showing its involvement in cytochrome c release and apoptotic cell death as well as its interaction with proteins regulating apoptosis, including the mitochondria-bound isoforms of hexokinase (HK-I, HK-II). Recently, the functional HK-VDAC association has shifted from being considered in a predominantly metabolic light to the recognition of its major impact on the regulation of apoptotic responsiveness of the cell. Here, we demonstrate that the HK-VDAC1 interaction can be disrupted by mutating VDAC1 and by VDAC1-based peptides, consequently leading to diminished HK anti-apoptotic activity, suggesting that disruption of HK binding to VDAC1 can decrease tumor cell survival. Indeed, understanding structure-function relationships of VDAC is critical for deciphering how this channel can perform such a variety of differing functions, all important for cell life and death. By expressing VDAC1 mutants and VDAC1-based peptides, we have identified VDAC1 amino acid residues and domains important for interaction with HK and protection against apoptosis. These include negatively- and positively-charged residues, some of which are located within beta-strands of the protein. The N-terminal region of VDAC1 binds HK-I and prevents HK-mediated protection against apoptosis induced by STS, while expression of a VDAC N-terminal peptide detaches HK-I-GFP from mitochondria. These findings indicate that the interaction of HK with VDAC1 involves charged residues in several beta-strands and in the N-terminal domain. Displacing HK, serving as the 'guardian of the mitochondrion', from its binding site on VDAC1 may thus be exploited as an approach to cancer therapy.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1787;5;421-30

  • Voltage-dependent anion channel 1-based peptides interact with hexokinase to prevent its anti-apoptotic activity.

    Arzoine L, Zilberberg N, Ben-Romano R and Shoshan-Barmatz V

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84105.

    In brain and tumor cells, the hexokinase isoforms, HK-I and HK-II, bind to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane. The VDAC domains interacting with these anti-apoptotic proteins were recently defined using site-directed mutagenesis. Now, we demonstrate that synthetic peptides corresponding to the VDAC1 N-terminal region and selected sequences bound specifically, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, to immobilized HK-I, as revealed by real time surface plasmon resonance technology. The same VDAC1-based peptides also detached HK bound to brain or tumor-derived mitochondria. Moreover, expression of the VDAC1-based peptides in cells overexpressing HK-I or HK-II prevented HK-mediated protection against staurosporine-induced release of cytochrome c and subsequent cell death. One loop-shaped VDAC1-based peptide corresponding to a selected sequence and fused to a cell-penetrating peptide entered the cell and prevented the anti-apoptotic effects of HK-I and HK-II. This peptide detached mitochondrial-bound HK better than did the same peptide in its linear form. Both cell-expressed and exogenously added cell-penetrating peptide detached mitochondrial-bound HK-I-GFP. These results point to HK-I and HK-II as promoting tumor cell survival through binding to VDAC1, thereby inhibiting cytochrome c release and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, VDAC1-based peptides interfering with HK-mediated anti-apoptotic activity may potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;6;3946-55

  • Structure of the human voltage-dependent anion channel.

    Bayrhuber M, Meins T, Habeck M, Becker S, Giller K, Villinger S, Vonrhein C, Griesinger C, Zweckstetter M and Zeth K

    Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), also known as mitochondrial porin, is the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). VDAC is the channel known to guide the metabolic flux across the MOM and plays a key role in mitochondrially induced apoptosis. Here, we present the 3D structure of human VDAC1, which was solved conjointly by NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Human VDAC1 (hVDAC1) adopts a beta-barrel architecture composed of 19 beta-strands with an alpha-helix located horizontally midway within the pore. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that this channel architecture is common to all VDAC proteins and is adopted by the general import pore TOM40 of mammals, which is also located in the MOM.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;40;15370-5

  • Solution structure of the integral human membrane protein VDAC-1 in detergent micelles.

    Hiller S, Garces RG, Malia TJ, Orekhov VY, Colombini M and Wagner G

    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) mediates trafficking of small molecules and ions across the eukaryotic outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC also interacts with antiapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family, and this interaction inhibits release of apoptogenic proteins from the mitochondrion. We present the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of recombinant human VDAC-1 reconstituted in detergent micelles. It forms a 19-stranded beta barrel with the first and last strand parallel. The hydrophobic outside perimeter of the barrel is covered by detergent molecules in a beltlike fashion. In the presence of cholesterol, recombinant VDAC-1 can form voltage-gated channels in phospholipid bilayers similar to those of the native protein. NMR measurements revealed the binding sites of VDAC-1 for the Bcl-2 protein Bcl-x(L), for reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and for cholesterol. Bcl-x(L) interacts with the VDAC barrel laterally at strands 17 and 18.

    Funded by: NIBIB NIH HHS: EB002026, P41 EB002026, P41 EB002026-28, P41 EB002026-29, P41 EB002026-30, P41 EB002026-31, P41 EB002026-32, P41 EB002026-33; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM066360, GM075879, GM47467, P01 GM047467, P01 GM047467-11, P01 GM047467-12, P01 GM047467-12S2, P01 GM047467-13, P01 GM047467-14, P01 GM047467-14S1, P01 GM047467-15, P01 GM047467-16, P01 GM047467-17, P41 GM066360, P41 GM066360-01, P41 GM066360-02, P41 GM066360-03, P41 GM066360-04, P41 GM066360-05, R01 GM075879, R01 GM075879-01, R01 GM075879-02, R01 GM075879-03, R01 GM075879-04

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008;321;5893;1206-10

  • Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is involved in endostatin-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    Yuan S, Fu Y, Wang X, Shi H, Huang Y, Song X, Li L, Song N and Luo Y

    Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    Endostatin (ES) was reported to stimulate apoptosis in endothelial cells, but the exact mechanism remains controversial. In the present study, we elucidate the mechanism of ES-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Our results indicate that ES induces cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) at the concentration of 1 microM for 24 h, which initiates the apoptosis process. Further, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and tubule formation assays showed that ES promotes the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening via voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a major component of mitochondrial outer membrane. Knocking down VDAC1 by small interfering RNA attenuates ES-induced apoptosis, while overexpression of VDAC1 enhances the sensitivity of endothelial cells to ES. Moreover, we reveal that ES induces the reduction of hexokinase 2 (HK2), which, in turn, promotes VDAC1 phosphorylation and accumulation. Data from two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoprecipitation, mPTP opening, and caspase-3 activation assays indicate that two serine residues of VDAC1, Ser-12 and Ser-103, can modulate VDAC1 protein level and thus the sensitivity to apoptosis stimuli. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that VDAC1 plays a vital role in modulating ES-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2008;22;8;2809-20

  • Hierarchical involvement of Bak, VDAC1 and Bax in cisplatin-induced cell death.

    Tajeddine N, Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Hangen E, Morselli E, Senovilla L, Araujo N, Pinna G, Larochette N, Zamzami N, Modjtahedi N, Harel-Bellan A and Kroemer G

    INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France.

    Following the screening of a battery of distinct small-interfering RNAs that target various components of the apoptotic machinery, we found that knockdown of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was particularly efficient in preventing cell death induced by cisplatin (CDDP) in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Both the downregulation of VDAC1 and its chemical inhibition with 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid reduced the apoptosis-associated modifications induced by CDDP, including mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation and plasma membrane permeabilization. VDAC1 inhibition strongly reduced the CDDP-induced conformational activation of Bax, yet had no discernible effect on the activation of Bak, suggesting that VDAC1 acts downstream of Bak and upstream of Bax. Accordingly, knockdown of Bak abolished the activation of Bax, whereas Bax downregulation had no effect on Bak activation. In VDAC1-depleted cells, the failure of CDDP to activate Bax could be reversed by means of the Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) antagonist ABT-737, which concomitantly restored CDDP cytotoxicity. Altogether, these results delineate a novel pathway for the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) in the course of CDDP-induced cell death that involves a hierarchical contribution of Bak, VDAC1 and Bax. Moreover, our data suggest that VDAC1 may act as a facultative regulator/effector of MMP, depending on the initial cytotoxic event.

    Oncogene 2008;27;30;4221-32

  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human voltage-dependent anion channel isoform I (HVDAC1).

    Meins T, Vonrhein C and Zeth K

    Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    The major channel by which metabolites can pass through the outer mitochondrial membrane is formed by the voltage-dependent anion-channel (VDAC) family. Functionally, VDAC is involved in the limited exchange of ATP, ADP and small hydrophilic molecules across the outer membrane. Moreover, there is compelling evidence that VDAC isoforms in mammals may act in the cross-talk between mitochondria and the cytoplasm by direct interaction with enzymes involved in energy metabolism and proteins involved in mitochondrial-induced apoptosis. To obtain a high-resolution structure of this channel, human VDAC protein isoform I was overproduced in Escherichia coli. After refolding and testing the correct fold using circular dichroism, a subsequent broad-range screening in different detergents resulted in a variety of crystals which diffracted to 3.5 A resolution. The crystal lattice belongs to the trigonal space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 78.9, c = 165.7 A and one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

    Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications 2008;64;Pt 7;651-5

  • Approaching the structure of human VDAC1, a key molecule in mitochondrial cross-talk.

    Zeth K, Meins T and Vonrhein C

    Department of Protein Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany. kornelius.zeth@tuebingen.mpg.de

    The voltage dependent anion-channel, VDAC, is the major constitutive protein of the outer membrane of mitochondria. Functionally, VDAC is involved in the exchange of small metabolites over the mitochondrial outer membrane and supports enzymes of the cytoplasm with energy precursors i.e. ATP. Moreover, the channel alone or in complex with proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane or the intermembrane space provides a basis for docking of cytosolic proteins which can regulate outer membrane permeability in several ways. Structurally, this channel has a bacterial origin by evolution and partly resembles bacterial porin functions. However, the structure seems more complex as a variety of interactions on both channel sides can occur. Therefore, our work described is aiming to determine the structure of VDAC at atomic resolution and together with functional data to understand better how this channel can carry out such a variety of differing functions.

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 2008;40;3;127-32

  • Hexokinase-I protection against apoptotic cell death is mediated via interaction with the voltage-dependent anion channel-1: mapping the site of binding.

    Abu-Hamad S, Zaid H, Israelson A, Nahon E and Shoshan-Barmatz V

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel.

    In brain and tumor cells, the hexokinase isoforms HK-I and HK-II bind to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane. We have previously shown that HK-I decreases murine VDAC1 (mVDAC1) channel conductance, inhibits cytochrome c release, and protects against apoptotic cell death. Now, we define mVDAC1 residues, found in two cytoplasmic domains, involved in the interaction with HK-I. Protection against cell death by HK-I, as induced by overexpression of native or mutated mVDAC1, served to identify the mVDAC1 amino acids required for interaction with HK-I. HK-I binding to mVDAC1 either in isolated mitochondria or reconstituted in a bilayer was inhibited upon mutation of specific VDAC1 residues. HK-I anti-apoptotic activity was also diminished upon mutation of these amino acids. HK-I-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c release induced by staurosporine was also diminished in cells expressing VDAC1 mutants. Our results thus offer new insights into the mechanism by which HK-I promotes tumor cell survival via inhibition of cytochrome c release through HK-I binding to VDAC1. These results, moreover, point to VDAC1 as a key player in mitochondrially mediated apoptosis and implicate an HK-I-VDAC1 interaction in the regulation of apoptosis. Finally, these findings suggest that interference with the binding of HK-I to mitochondria by VDAC1-derived peptides may offer a novel strategy by which to potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;19;13482-90

  • Steroidogenic activity of StAR requires contact with mitochondrial VDAC1 and phosphate carrier protein.

    Bose M, Whittal RM, Miller WL and Bose HS

    Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. bosehi1@memorialhealth.com

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is required for adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis and for male sexual differentiation. StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to facilitate movement of cholesterol from the OMM to the inner mitochondrial membrane to be converted to pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroid hormones. The mechanisms of the action of StAR remain unclear; the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, an OMM protein, appears to be involved, but the identity of OMM proteins that interact with StAR remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylated StAR interacts with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on the OMM, which then facilitates processing of the 37-kDa phospho-StAR to the 32-kDa intermediate. In the absence of VDAC1, phospho-StAR is degraded by cysteine proteases prior to mitochondrial import. Phosphorylation of StAR by protein kinase A requires phosphate carrier protein on the OMM, which appears to interact with StAR before it interacts with VDAC1. VDAC1 and phosphate carrier protein are the first OMM proteins shown to contact StAR.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 37922

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;14;8837-45

  • The layered structure of human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids.

    Bogenhagen DF, Rousseau D and Burke S

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8651, USA. dan@pharm.sunysb.edu

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) occurs in cells in nucleoids containing several copies of the genome. Previous studies have identified proteins associated with these large DNA structures when they are biochemically purified by sedimentation and immunoaffinity chromatography. In this study, formaldehyde cross-linking was performed to determine which nucleoid proteins are in close contact with the mtDNA. A set of core nucleoid proteins is found in both native and cross-linked nucleoids, including 13 proteins with known roles in mtDNA transactions. Several other metabolic proteins and chaperones identified in native nucleoids, including ATAD3, were not observed to cross-link to mtDNA. Additional immunofluorescence and protease susceptibility studies showed that an N-terminal domain of ATAD3 previously proposed to bind to the mtDNA D-loop is directed away from the mitochondrial matrix, so it is unlikely to interact with mtDNA in vivo. These results are discussed in relation to a model for a layered structure of mtDNA nucleoids in which replication and transcription occur in the central core, whereas translation and complex assembly may occur in the peripheral region.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R01-ES12039

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;6;3665-75

  • Human voltage-dependent anion selective channel 1 is a target antigen for antiglomerular endothelial cell antibody in mixed connective tissue disease.

    Kikuchi T, Yoshida Y, Morioka T, Gejyo F and Oite T

    Department of Cellular Physiology, Institute of Nephrology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the endothelial cell antigens that react with circulating antiendothelial antibody (AECA) in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We screened serum AECA reactivity in 23 patients with MCTD using a human glomerular endothelial cell (HGEC) cellular ELISA. Proteomics, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to identify the endothelial cell antigens of HGECs that reacted with serum antibodies from MCTD patients. Sera from 12 patients (52.0%) were positive for anti-HGEC antibody based on cellular ELISA. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry used in combination with immunoblotting using serum antibody revealed one protein spot that represented a 36-kDa cell component of HGECs, with an isoelectric point (IP) of about 9, which had a high homology with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC-1). This protein spot was confirmed to react with the antibody specific to VDAC-1. This is the first report of the presence of antibody to VDAC-1 from HGECs in the sera from MCTD patients. Although future studies will be needed to clarify the disease specificity of the a-VDAC-1 antibody in MCTD, the results show that modern proteomics technology is useful for identifying antigens that react with AECA in autoimmune diseases such as MCTD.

    Modern rheumatology 2008;18;6;570-7

  • Correct folding of the beta-barrel of the human membrane protein VDAC requires a lipid bilayer.

    Shanmugavadivu B, Apell HJ, Meins T, Zeth K and Kleinschmidt JH

    Fachbereich Biologie, Universität Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10, D-78464 Konstanz, Germany.

    Spontaneous membrane insertion and folding of beta-barrel membrane proteins from an unfolded state into lipid bilayers has been shown previously only for few outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we investigated membrane insertion and folding of a human membrane protein, the isoform 1 of the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (hVDAC1) of mitochondrial outer membranes. Two classes of transmembrane proteins with either alpha-helical or beta-barrel membrane domains are known from the solved high-resolution structures. VDAC forms a transmembrane beta-barrel with an additional N-terminal alpha-helix. We demonstrate that similar to bacterial OmpA, urea-unfolded hVDAC1 spontaneously inserts and folds into lipid bilayers upon denaturant dilution in the absence of folding assistants or energy sources like ATP. Recordings of the voltage-dependence of the single channel conductance confirmed folding of hVDAC1 to its active form. hVDAC1 developed first beta-sheet secondary structure in aqueous solution, while the alpha-helical structure was formed in the presence of lipid or detergent. In stark contrast to bacterial beta-barrel membrane proteins, hVDAC1 formed different structures in detergent micelles and phospholipid bilayers, with higher content of beta-sheet and lower content of alpha-helix when inserted and folded into lipid bilayers. Experiments with mixtures of lipid and detergent indicated that the content of beta-sheet secondary structure in hVDAC1 decreased at increased detergent content. Unlike bacterial beta-barrel membrane proteins, hVDAC1 was not stable even in mild detergents such as LDAO or dodecylmaltoside. Spontaneous folding of outer membrane proteins into lipid bilayers indicates that in cells, the main purpose of membrane-inserted or associated assembly factors may be to select and target beta-barrel membrane proteins towards the outer membrane instead of actively assembling them under consumption of energy as described for the translocons of cytoplasmic membranes.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;368;1;66-78

  • High-level expression, refolding and probing the natural fold of the human voltage-dependent anion channel isoforms I and II.

    Engelhardt H, Meins T, Poynor M, Adams V, Nussberger S, Welte W and Zeth K

    Department of Molecular Structure Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the major protein found in the outer membrane of mitochondria. The channel is responsible for the exchange of ATP/ADP and the translocation of ions and other small metabolites over the membrane. In order to obtain large amounts of pure and suitably folded human VDAC for functional and structural studies, the genes of the human isoforms I and II (HVDAC1 and HVDAC2) were cloned in Escherichia coli. High-level expression led to inclusion body formation. Both proteins could be refolded in vitro by adding denatured protein to a solution of zwitterionic or nonionic detergents. A highly efficient and fast protocol for refolding was developed that yielded more than 50 mg of pure human VDACs per liter of cell culture. The native and functional state of the refolded porins was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the secondary structure composition and by electrophysiological measurements, demonstrating the pore-forming activity of HVDAC1. Furthermore, binding of HVDAC1 to immobilized ATP was demonstrated. Limited proteolysis of HVDAC1 protein embedded in detergent micelles in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis was applied to identify micelle-exposed regions of the protein and to develop an improved topology model. Our analysis strongly suggests a 16-stranded, antiparallel beta-barrel with one large and seven short loops and turns. Initial crystallization trials of the protein yielded crystals diffracting to 8 Angstrom resolution.

    The Journal of membrane biology 2007;216;2-3;93-105

  • Gelsolin segment 5 inhibits HIV-induced T-cell apoptosis via Vpr-binding to VDAC.

    Qiao H and McMillan JR

    Department of Dermatology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan. qiao@igm.hokudai.ac.jp

    Viral protein R (Vpr) from the human immunodeficiency virus induces cell cycle arrest in proliferating cells, stimulates virus transcription, and regulates activation and apoptosis of infected T-lymphocytes. We report that Jurkat cells overexpressing full-length gelsolin show resistance to Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis with abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and the release of cytochrome c. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in HEK293T cells demonstrated that overexpression of full-length or segment 5 (G5) but not G5-deleted gelsolin (DeltaG5) bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that the G5 subunit can inhibit HIV-1-Vpr-binding to VDAC. We also confirmed that full-length gelsolin has the same effect in Jurkat cells. Clonogenic analysis showed that transfection of G5 but not DeltaG5 cDNA protects Jurkat T cells from HIV-Vpr-Tet induced T-cell apoptosis and promoted cell survival, as did full-length gelsolin. These results suggest that the gelsolin G5 domain inhibits HIV-Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis by blocking the interaction between Vpr and VDAC, and might be used as a protective treatment against HIV-Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;3;535-40

  • NMR structural investigation of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC and its interaction with antiapoptotic Bcl-xL.

    Malia TJ and Wagner G

    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Bcl-2 family proteins are essential regulators of cell death and exert their primary pro- or antiapoptotic roles at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have been shown to interact with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC is a 283-residue integral membrane protein that forms an aqueous pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane, through which metabolites and other small molecules pass between the cytosol and intermembrane space. The essential life-sustaining function of VDAC in metabolite trafficking is believed to be regulated by proteins of the Bcl-2 family. The protective role of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL may be through its interaction with VDAC. Here, VDAC has been expressed, purified, and refolded into a functional form amenable to NMR studies. Various biophysical experiments indicate that micelle-bound VDAC is in intermediate exchange between monomer and trimer. Using NMR spectroscopy, gel filtration, and chemical cross-linking, we obtained direct evidence for binding of Bcl-xL to VDAC in a detergent micelle system. The VDAC-interacting region of Bcl-xL was characterized by NMR with chemical shift perturbation and transferred cross-saturation. The interaction region was mapped to a putative helical hairpin motif of Bcl-xL that was found to insert into detergent micelles. Our results suggest that Bcl-xL can bind to one or two VDAC molecules forming heterodimers and heterotrimers. Our characterization of the VDAC/Bcl-xL complex offers initial structural insight into the role of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL in regulating apoptotic events in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    Funded by: NIBIB NIH HHS: P41 EB002026, P41 EB002026-28, P41 EB002026-29, P41 EB002026-30, P41 EB002026-31, P41 EB002026-32, P41 EB002026-33; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM075879, P01 GM047467, P01 GM047467-15, P01 GM047467-16, P41 GM066360, P41 GM066360-03, P41 GM066360-04, P41 GM066360-05, R01 GM075879, R01 GM075879-01, R01 GM075879-02

    Biochemistry 2007;46;2;514-25

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The expression level of the voltage-dependent anion channel controls life and death of the cell.

    Abu-Hamad S, Sivan S and Shoshan-Barmatz V

    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel.

    Mitochondria not only generate cellular energy, but also act as the point for cellular decisions leading to apoptosis. The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), as a major mitochondrial outer-membrane transporter, has an important role in energy production by controlling metabolite traffic and is also recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In this study, the role of VDAC1 in regulating cell survival and death was investigated by silencing endogenous human (h)VDAC1 expression by using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing vector. The shRNA effectively down-regulated the expression in human T-REx-293 cells of hVDAC1 but not murine (m)VDAC1. Cells in which hVDAC1 expression was decreased by approximately 90% proliferated extremely slowly. Normal growth was, however, restored upon expression of mVDAC1 in a tetracycline-regulated manner. Although low tetracycline concentrations promoted cell growth, high concentrations induced mVDAC1 overexpression, leading to cell death. Cells with low levels of VDAC1 showed 4-fold-lower ATP-synthesis capacity and contained low ATP and ADP levels, with a strong correlation between ATP levels and cell growth, suggesting limited metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. The possibility of suppressing endogenous hVDAC1 expression and introducing native and mutated mVDAC1 is used to further explore the involvement of VDAC1 in apoptosis. Cells suppressed for hVDAC1 but expressing either native mVDAC1 or an E72Q mutant underwent apoptosis induced by various stimuli that can be inhibited by ruthenium red in the native cells but not in the mutated cells, suggesting that VDAC1 regulates apoptosis independent of the apoptosis-inducing pathway.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;15;5787-92

  • Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle.

    Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA and Körner R

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates the sister chromatids into two nascent cells, such that each daughter cell inherits one complete set of chromosomes. Errors in spindle formation can result in both chromosome missegregation and cytokinesis defects and hence lead to genomic instability. To ensure the correct function of the spindle, the activity and localization of spindle associated proteins has to be tightly regulated in time and space. Reversible phosphorylation has been shown to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms for the organization of the mitotic spindle. The relatively low number of identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of spindle components, however, has hampered functional analysis of regulatory spindle networks. A more complete inventory of the phosphorylation sites of spindle-associated proteins would therefore constitute an important advance. Here, we describe the mass spectrometry-based identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites from purified human mitotic spindles. In total, 736 phosphorylation sites were identified, of which 312 could be attributed to known spindle proteins. Among these are phosphorylation sites that were previously shown to be important for the regulation of spindle-associated proteins. Importantly, this data set also comprises 279 novel phosphorylation sites of known spindle proteins for future functional studies. This inventory of spindle phosphorylation sites should thus make an important contribution to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation, function, and integrity of the mitotic spindle.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;14;5391-6

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • In vitro interactions between the two mitochondrial membrane proteins VDAC and cytochrome c oxidase.

    Roman I, Figys J, Steurs G and Zizi M

    Department of Physiology, FYSP-Neurophysiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels 1090, Belgium.

    VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, is involved in the control of aerobic metabolism and in apoptotic processes via numerous protein-protein interactions. To unveil those interactions, we screened a human liver cDNA library with the phage display methodology optimized to target VDAC reconstituted into a membrane environment. One positively selected clone yielded a sequence matching a part of the subunit I of human cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme. Such putative interaction was never reported before. This interaction proved to be functional as evidenced by the effect of the human and yeast isoforms of VDAC on the oxidation of cytochrome c by the pure holoenzyme and by the effect of the COX epitope on VDAC permeability. Our results providing four independently obtained evidences of VDAC-COX interaction in vitro, would support a novel and potentially important level of mitochondrial regulation given the respective locations and functions of both proteins.

    Biochemistry 2005;44;39;13192-201

  • Influenza virus PB1-F2 protein induces cell death through mitochondrial ANT3 and VDAC1.

    Zamarin D, García-Sastre A, Xiao X, Wang R and Palese P

    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

    The influenza virus PB1-F2 is an 87-amino acid mitochondrial protein that previously has been shown to induce cell death, although the mechanism of apoptosis induction has remained unclear. In the process of characterizing its mechanism of action we found that the viral PB1-F2 protein sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, as demonstrated by increased cleavage of caspase 3 substrates in PB1-F2-expressing cells. Moreover, treatment of purified mouse liver mitochondria with recombinant PB1-F2 protein resulted in cytochrome c release, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and enhancement of tBid-induced mitochondrial permeabilization, suggesting a possible mechanism for the observed cellular sensitization to apoptosis. Using glutathione-S-transferase pulldowns with subsequent mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the mitochondrial interactors of the PB1-F2 protein and showed that the viral protein uniquely interacts with the inner mitochondrial membrane adenine nucleotide translocator 3 and the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel 1, both of which are implicated in the mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis. Consistent with this interaction, blockers of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) inhibited PB1-F2-induced mitochondrial permeabilization. Based on our findings, we propose a model whereby the proapoptotic PB1-F2 protein acts through the mitochondrial PTPC and may play a role in the down-regulation of the host immune response to infection.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R24 CA088325, R24 CA095823; NIAID NIH HHS: T32 AI007647

    PLoS pathogens 2005;1;1;e4

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Dissection of the mitochondrial import and assembly pathway for human Tom40.

    Humphries AD, Streimann IC, Stojanovski D, Johnston AJ, Yano M, Hoogenraad NJ and Ryan MT

    Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, Melbourne 3086, Australia.

    Tom40 is the channel-forming subunit of the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex), essential for protein import into mitochondria. Tom40 is synthesized in the cytosol and contains information for its mitochondrial targeting and assembly. A number of stable import intermediates have been identified for Tom40 precursors in fungi, the first being an association with the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) of the outer membrane. By examining the import pathway of human Tom40, we have been able to elucidate additional features in its import. We identify that Hsp90 is involved in delivery of the Tom40 precursor to mitochondria in an ATP-dependent manner. The precursor then forms its first stable intermediate with the outer face of the TOM complex before its membrane integration and assembly. Deletion of an evolutionary conserved region within Tom40 disrupts the TOM complex intermediate and causes it to stall at a new complex in the intermembrane space that we identify to be the mammalian SAM. Unlike its fungal counterparts, the human Tom40 precursor is not found stably arrested at a SAM intermediate. Nevertheless, we show that Tom40 assembly is reduced in mitochondria depleted of human Sam50. These findings are discussed in context with current models from fungal studies.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;12;11535-43

  • Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells.

    Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y and Tang H

    Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 100080.

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces programmed cell death through the caspase activation cascade and translocation of cleaved Bid (tBid) by the apical caspase-8 to mitochondria to induce oligomerization of multidomain Bax and Bak. However, the roles of prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins in TRAIL apoptosis remain elusive. Here we showed that, besides the specific cleavage and activation of Bid by caspase-8 and caspase-3, TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells required the specific cleavage of Mcl-1 at Asp-127 and Asp-157 by caspase-3, while other prototypic antiapoptotic factors such as Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) seemed not to be affected. Mutation at Asp-127 and Asp-157 of Mcl-1 led to cellular resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In sharp contrast to cycloheximide-induced Mcl-1 dilapidation, TRAIL did not activate proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 in Jurkat cells. We further established for the first time that the C-terminal domain of Mcl-1 became proapoptotic as a result of caspase-3 cleavage, and its physical interaction and cooperation with tBid, Bak, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 promoted mitochondrial apoptosis. These results suggested that removal of N-terminal domains of Bid by caspase-8 and Mcl-1 by caspase-3 enabled the maximal mitochondrial perturbation that potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;10491-500

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.

    Schmutz J, Martin J, Terry A, Couronne O, Grimwood J, Lowry S, Gordon LA, Scott D, Xie G, Huang W, Hellsten U, Tran-Gyamfi M, She X, Prabhakar S, Aerts A, Altherr M, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caoile C, Challacombe JF, Chan YM, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Goodstein D, Grigoriev I, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Lopez F, Lou Y, Martinez D, Medina C, Morgan J, Nandkeshwar R, Noonan JP, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Predki P, Priest J, Ramirez L, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wheeler J, Wu K, Yang J, Dickson M, Cheng JF, Eichler EE, Olsen A, Pennacchio LA, Rokhsar DS, Richardson P, Lucas SM, Myers RM and Rubin EM

    Stanford Human Genome Center, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 975 California Ave, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. jeremy@shgc.stanford.edu

    Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains numerous intrachromosomal duplications, yet it has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of noncoding conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting that they are functionally constrained. In total, we compiled 177.7 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence containing 923 manually curated protein-coding genes including the protocadherin and interleukin gene families. We also completely sequenced versions of the large chromosome-5-specific internal duplications. These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and probably have a mechanistic role in human physiological variation, as deletions in these regions are the cause of debilitating disorders including spinal muscular atrophy.

    Nature 2004;431;7006;268-74

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Essential role of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and cytochrome c release induced by arsenic trioxide.

    Zheng Y, Shi Y, Tian C, Jiang C, Jin H, Chen J, Almasan A, Tang H and Chen Q

    The Laboratory of Apoptosis and Cancer Biology, The State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, PR China.

    The precise molecular mechanism underlying arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced apoptosis is a subject of extensive study. Here, we show that clinically relevant doses of As(2)O(3) can induce typical apoptosis in IM-9, a multiple myeloma cell line, in a Bcl-2 inhibitable manner. We confirmed that As(2)O(3) directly induced cytochrome c (cyto c) release from isolated mouse liver mitochondria via the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and we further identified the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) as a biological target of As(2)O(3) responsible for eliciting cyto c release in apoptosis. First, pretreatment of the isolated mitochondria with an anti-VDAC antibody specifically prevented As(2)O(3)-induced cyto c release. Second, in proteoliposome experiments, VDAC by itself was sufficient to mediate As(2)O(3)-induced cyto c release, which could be specifically inhibited by Bcl-X(L). Third, As(2)O(3) induced mitochondria membrane potential (DeltaPsim) reduction and cyto c release only in the VDAC-expressing, but not in the VDAC-deficient yeast strain. Finally, we found that As(2)O(3) induced the increased expression and homodimerization of VDAC in IM-9 cells, but not in Bcl-2 overexpressing cells, suggesting that VDAC homodimerization could potentially determine its gating capacity to cyto c, and Bcl-2 blockage of VDAC homodimerization represents a novel mechanism for its inhibition of apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81504, CA82858, R01 CA081504, R01 CA081504-05, R01 CA082858

    Oncogene 2004;23;6;1239-47

  • VDAC1 is a transplasma membrane NADH-ferricyanide reductase.

    Baker MA, Lane DJ, Ly JD, De Pinto V and Lawen A

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Building 13D, 100 Wellington Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.

    Porin isoform 1 or VDAC (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel) 1 is the predominant protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. We demonstrated previously that a plasma membrane NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity becomes up-regulated upon mitochondrial perturbation, and therefore suggested that it functions as a cellular redox sensor. VDAC1 is known to be expressed in the plasma membrane; however, its function there remained a mystery. Here we show that VDAC1, when expressed in the plasma membrane, functions as a NADH-ferricyanide reductase. VDAC1 preparations purified from both plasma membrane and mitochondria fractions exhibit NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity, which can be immunoprecipitated with poly- and monoclonal antibodies directed against VDAC(1). Transfecting cells with pl-VDAC1-GFP, which carries an N-terminal signal peptide, directs VDAC1 to the plasma membrane, as shown by confocal microscopy and FACS analysis, and significantly increases the plasma membrane NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity of the transfected cells. This novel enzymatic activity of the well known VDAC1 molecule may provide an explanation for its role in the plasma membrane. Our data suggest that a major function of VDAC1 in the plasma membrane is that of a NADH(-ferricyanide) reductase that may be involved in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;6;4811-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Characterization of VDAC1 as a plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase.

    Baker MA, Ly JD and Lawen A

    ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Science, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

    We have recently demonstrated that voltage dependent anion selective channel~1 (porin, isoform 1) can function as a transplasma membrane NADH:ferricyanide-reductase. However, both the specific redox characteristics and the mechanism of electron transport in this enzyme presently remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the redox capability of porin 1 is specific for ferricyanide as this same enzyme cannot reduce DCIP or cytochrome c in vitro. Furthermore, NADH-dependent ferricyanide reduction associated with VDAC1 is not sensitive to the anion channel inhibitors DIDS and dextran sulfate. However, this activity can be inhibited by thiol chelators, suggesting that at least one of the two cysteine groups present in VDAC1 are critical for electron transfer. We propose a model on how electron transport may occur in VDAC1.

    BioFactors (Oxford, England) 2004;21;1-4;215-21

  • Study of PTPC composition during apoptosis for identification of viral protein target.

    Verrier F, Mignotte B, Jan G and Brenner C

    CNRS FRE 2445, Université de Versailles/St. Quentin, 45, avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles, France.

    The permeability transition pore complex (PTPC), a mitochondrial polyprotein complex, has been previously described to be involved in the control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. PTPC may contain proteins from both mitochondrial membranes [e.g., voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), PRAX-1, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)], from cytosol (e.g., hexokinase II, glycerol kinase), from matrix [e.g., cyclophilin D (CypD)], and from intermembrane space (e.g., creatine kinase). PTPC may also interact with tumor suppressor proteins (i.e., Bax and Bid), oncoprotein homologues of Bcl-2 and some viral proteins, which can regulate apoptosis induced by pore opening. ANT and VDAC are the target of numerous pro-apoptotic MMP inducers. However, the precise composition of PTPC as well as the respective role of each PTPC component represent major issues in the understanding MMP process. Using several experimental strategies that combine co-immunoprecipitation, proteomics, and functional tests with proteoliposomes, we and others have been able to characterize some of the intra/inter-PTPC protein interactions leading to a better understanding of the process of MMP. In addition, this approach could identify new putative members and regulators of PTPC pro-apoptotic function and new targets of viral protein involved in the modulation of apoptosis during infection.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2003;1010;126-42

  • The voltage-dependent anion channel is a receptor for plasminogen kringle 5 on human endothelial cells.

    Gonzalez-Gronow M, Kalfa T, Johnson CE, Gawdi G and Pizzo SV

    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. gonza002@mc.duke.edu

    Human plasminogen contains structural domains that are termed kringles. Proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen yields kringles 1-3 or 4 and kringle 5 (K5), which regulate endothelial cell proliferation. The receptor for kringles 1-3 or 4 has been identified as cell surface-associated ATP synthase; however, the receptor for K5 is not known. Sequence homology exists between the plasminogen activator streptokinase and the human voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC); however, a functional relationship between these proteins has not been reported. A streptokinase binding site for K5 is located between residues Tyr252-Lys283, which is homologous to the primary sequence of VDAC residues Tyr224-Lys255. Antibodies against these sequences react with VDAC and detect this protein on the plasma membrane of human endothelial cells. K5 binds with high affinity (Kd of 28 nm) to endothelial cells, and binding is inhibited by these antibodies. Purified VDAC binds to K5 but only when reconstituted into liposomes. K5 also interferes with mechanisms controlling the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ via its interaction with VDAC. K5 binding to endothelial cells also induces a decrease in intracellular pH and hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. These studies suggest that VDAC is a receptor for K5.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-86344

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;29;27312-8

  • Identification of the protein-protein contact site and interaction mode of human VDAC1 with Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Shi Y, Chen J, Weng C, Chen R, Zheng Y, Chen Q and Tang H

    The Center for Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.

    Bcl-2 family of proteins plays differential roles in regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, by either promoting or inhibiting the release of apoptogenic molecules from mitochondria to cytosol. Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the mitochondrial permeability through interaction with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), ADP/ATP exchange, or oxidative phosphorylation during apoptosis. Although the mitochondrial homeostasis is affected by the relative ratio of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, the molecular mechanism underlying the release of mitochondrial intermembrane proteins remains elusive. Here we reported the biochemical evidence that both pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L) might simultaneously contact the putative loop regions of human VDAC1, and the existence of VDAC1-Bax-Bcl-X(L) tertiary complex in vitro suggested that VDAC1 channel conformation and mitochondrial permeability could be determined by the delicate balance between Bax and Bcl-X(L).

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;305;4;989-96

  • Voltage-dependent anion channel localises to the plasma membrane and peripheral but not perinuclear mitochondria.

    Bahamonde MI and Valverde MA

    Unitat de Senyalització Cellular, Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, C/Dr. Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

    Activity of the antioestrogen-activated maxi-Cl(-) channel has been recorded in different cell types, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle, endothelial and neuroblastoma cells. Its electrophysiological properties resemble those of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane, a channel of particular relevance to the physiology and pathophysiology of mitochondria. The hypothesis that VDAC could be the molecular correlate of the plasma membrane maxi-Cl(-) channel has been debated over the last few years, with the lack of clear evidence for the presence of VDAC in the plasma membrane constituting the main argument of the detractors. In the present study, we investigated the cellular localisation of VDAC in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. The presence of a plasma membrane VDAC was demonstrated by immunoblotting of membrane fractions with monoclonal antibodies against the VDAC and by RT-PCR using primers that hybridise to a VDAC sequence coding for a N-terminal leader peptide required for its plasma membrane sorting. In addition, confocal microscopy studies showed the colocalisation of VDAC with caveolin-1. As expected, VDAC also localised to mitochondria. Colocalisation studies with TOM-20, a protein also present in the outer mitochondrial membrane, showed that VDAC proteins localised only to peripheral and not to perinuclear mitochondria.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2003;446;3;309-13

  • Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with and inhibits the permeability transition pore in cardiac mitochondria.

    Baines CP, Song CX, Zheng YT, Wang GW, Zhang J, Wang OL, Guo Y, Bolli R, Cardwell EM and Ping P

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky, USA. CPBaines@gmx.net

    Although functional coupling between protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and mitochondria has been implicated in the genesis of cardioprotection, the signal transduction mechanisms that enable this link and the identities of the mitochondrial proteins modulated by PKCepsilon remain unknown. Based on recent evidence that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore may be involved in ischemia/reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that protein-protein interactions between PKCepsilon and mitochondrial pore components may serve as a signaling mechanism to modulate pore function and thus engender cardioprotection. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-based affinity pull-down from mouse cardiac mitochondria revealed interaction of PKCepsilon with components of the pore, namely voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and hexokinase II (HKII). VDAC1, ANT1, and HKII were present in the PKCepsilon complex at approximately 2%, approximately 0.2%, and approximately 1% of their total expression, respectively. Moreover, in vitro studies demonstrated that PKCepsilon can directly bind and phosphorylate VDAC1. Incubation of isolated cardiac mitochondria with recombinant PKCepsilon resulted in a significant inhibition of Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling, an index of pore opening. Furthermore, cardiac-specific expression of active PKCepsilon in mice, which is cardioprotective, greatly increased interaction of PKCepsilon with the pore components and inhibited Ca2+-induced pore opening. In contrast, cardiac expression of kinase-inactive PKCepsilon did not affect pore opening. Finally, administration of the pore opener atractyloside significantly attenuated the infarct-sparing effect of PKCepsilon transgenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PKCepsilon forms physical interactions with components of the cardiac mitochondrial pore. This in turn inhibits the pathological function of the pore and contributes to PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-43151, HL-63901, R01 HL043151, R01 HL055757, R01 HL063901, R01 HL065431, R01 HL068088, R37 HL063901; PHS HHS: 55757, 65431, 68088

    Circulation research 2003;92;8;873-80

  • Tubulin is an inherent component of mitochondrial membranes that interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel.

    Carré M, André N, Carles G, Borghi H, Brichese L, Briand C and Braguer D

    UMR CNRS 6032, UFR Pharmacy, University of La Méditerranée, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.

    We have previously reported that anti-tubulin agents induce the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria. In this study, we show that tubulin is present in mitochondria isolated from different human cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. The absence of polymerized microtubules and cytosolic proteins was checked to ensure that this tubulin is an inherent component of the mitochondria. In addition, a salt wash did not release the tubulin from the mitochondria. By using electron microscopy, we then showed that tubulin is localized in the mitochondrial membranes. As compared with cellular tubulin, mitochondrial tubulin is enriched in acetylated and tyrosinated alpha-tubulin and is also enriched in the class III beta-tubulin isotype but contains very little of the class IV beta-tubulin isotype. The mitochondrial tubulin is likely to be organized in alpha/beta dimers and represents 2.2 +/- 0.5% of total cellular tubulin. Lastly, we showed by immunoprecipitation experiments that the mitochondrial tubulin is specifically associated with the voltage-dependent anion channel, the main component of the permeability transition pore. Thus, tubulin is an inherent component of mitochondrial membranes, and it could play a role in apoptosis via interaction with the permeability transition pore.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;37;33664-9

  • Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) interacts with the dynein light chain Tctex1 and the heat-shock protein PBP74.

    Schwarzer C, Barnikol-Watanabe S, Thinnes FP and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Department of Immunochemistry, Hermann-Rein Street 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    The voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 (VDAC1), i.e. eukaryotic porin, functions as a channel in membranous structures as described for the outer mitochondrial membrane, the cell membrane, endosomes, caveolae, the sarcoplasmatic reticulum, synaptosomes, and post-synaptic density fraction. The identification of VDAC1 interacting proteins may be a promising approach for better understanding the biological context and function of the channel protein. In this study human VDAC1 was used as a bait protein in a two-hybrid screening, which is based on the Sos recruitment system (SRS). hVDAC1 interacts with the dynein light chain Tctex-1 and the heat-shock protein peptide-binding protein 74 (PBP74)/mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 (mtHSP70)/glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75)/mortalin in vivo. Both interactions were confirmed by overlay-assays using recombinant partner proteins and purified hVDAC1. Indirect immunofluorescence on HeLa cells indicates a co-localisation of hVDAC1 with the dynein light chain and the PBP74. In addition, HeLa cells were transfected transiently with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-hVDAC1 fusion proteins, which also clearly co-localise with both proteins. The functional relevance of the identified protein interactions was analysed in planar lipid bilayer (PLB) experiments. In these experiments both recombinant binding partners altered the electrophysiological properties of hVDAC1. While rTctex-1 increases the voltage-dependence of hVDAC1 slightly, the rPBP74 drastically minimises the voltage-dependence, indicating a modulation of channel properties in each case. Since the identified proteins are known to be involved in the transport or processing of proteins, the results of this study represent additional evidence of membrane-associated trafficking of the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1.

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2002;34;9;1059-70

  • Activation of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel by apro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim.

    Sugiyama T, Shimizu S, Matsuoka Y, Yoneda Y and Tsujimoto Y

    Osaka University Medical School and Graduate School of Medicine, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial membrane permeability. We have previously shown that the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays a crucial role in apoptotic changes of the mitochondria and its activity is directly regulated by some Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) and Bax/Bak but not Bid. Here, we showed that in isolated mitochondria, Bim induced loss of membrane potential and cytochrome c release like Bax/Bak, with these changes being inhibited by an anti-VDAC antibody. In addition, microinjection of the anti-VDAC antibody significantly reduced Bim-induced apoptosis. Study using purified proteins indicated that Bim directly interacts with the VDAC. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Bim interacts with the VDAC and the interaction is remarkably enhanced during apoptosis. An experiment using liposomes indicated that Bim enhanced VDAC activity, as did Bax/Bak. Furthermore, Bim (but not tBid) was able to induce apoptotic changes of yeast mitochondria in a VDAC-dependent manner, and also induced the lysis of red blood cells, with this effect being inhibited by the anti-VDAC antibody. These results indicate that Bim has an ability to activate directly the VDAC, which plays an important role in apoptosis of mammalian cells.

    Oncogene 2002;21;32;4944-56

  • Negative regulation of mitochondrial VDAC channels by C-Raf kinase.

    Le Mellay V, Troppmair J, Benz R and Rapp UR

    Institut für Medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung (MSZ), Universität Würzburg, 97078 Würzburg, Germany. lemellay@univ-montp2.fr

    Background: Growth of cancer cells results from the disturbance of positive and negative growth control mechanisms and the prolonged survival of these genetically altered cells due to the failure of cellular suicide programs. Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified Raf family serine/threonine kinases B-Raf and C-Raf as major mediators of cell survival. C-Raf cooperates with Bcl-2/Bcl-XL in suppression of apoptosis by a mechanism that involves targeting of C-Raf to the outer mitochondrial membrane and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad. However, apoptosis suppression by C-Raf also occurs in cells lacking expression of Bad or Bcl-2.

    Results: Here we show that even in the absence of Bcl-2/Bcl-XL, mitochondria-targeted C-Raf inhibits cytochrome c release and caspase activation induced by growth factor withdrawal. To clarify the mechanism of Bcl-2 independent survival control by C-Raf at the mitochondria a search for novel mitochondrial targets was undertaken that identified voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a mitochondrial protein (porin) involved in exchange of metabolites for oxidative phosphorylation. C-Raf forms a complex with VDAC in vivo and blocks reconstitution of VDAC channels in planar bilayer membranes in vitro.

    Conclusion: We propose that this interaction may be responsible for the Raf-induced inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria in growth factor starved cells. Moreover, C-Raf kinase-induced VDAC inhibition may regulate the metabolic function of mitochondria and mediate the switch to aerobic glycolysis that is common to cancer cells.

    BMC cell biology 2002;3;14

  • Bax releases cytochrome c preferentially from a complex between porin and adenine nucleotide translocator. Hexokinase activity suppresses this effect.

    Vyssokikh MY, Zorova L, Zorov D, Heimlich G, Jürgensmeier JJ and Brdiczka D

    A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University.

    The mechanism by which external Bax releases cytochrome c is still controversial and may also depend on the type of mitochondria and the actual localisation of cytochrome c. Outer membrane porin acquires high binding affinity for hexokinase by interacting with the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in the contact sites. (I) The hexokinase protein was thus used as a tool to isolate the contact site forming complex between outer membrane porin and inner membrane ANT from a TritonX100 extract of brain membranes. (II) A significant amount of cytochrome c was co-purified with the isolated hexokinase porin ANT complexes that were reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Bax-AC released the endogenous cytochrome c from the vesicles without forming unspecific pores. This was shown by loading the vesicles with malate that was not liberated by Bax-AC. (III) The Bax-AC effect was dependent on a specific association of cytochrome c with the porin ANT complex, as dissociation of the complex by bongkrekate abolished the Bax dependent cytochrome c liberation. (IV) The Bax-AC effect was as well suppressed by hexokinase phosphorylating glucose.

    Molecular biology reports 2002;29;1-2;93-6

  • Mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitochondrial outer membrane porin show a direct interaction that is modulated by calcium.

    Schlattner U, Dolder M, Wallimann T and Tokarska-Schlattner M

    Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Hönggerberg HPM, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland. schlattn@cell.biol.ethz.ch

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) co-localizes with mitochondrial porin (voltage-dependent anion channel) and adenine nucleotide translocator in mitochondrial contact sites. A specific, direct protein-protein interaction between MtCK and mitochondrial porin was demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This interaction was independent of the immobilized binding partner (porin reconstituted in liposomes or MtCK) or the analyzed isoform (chicken sarcomeric MtCK or human ubiquitous MtCK, human recombinant porin, or purified bovine porin). Increased ionic strength reduced the binding of MtCK to porin, suggesting predominantly ionic interactions. By contrast, micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) increased the amount of bound MtCK, indicating a physiological regulation of complex formation. No interaction of MtCK with reconstituted adenine nucleotide translocator was detectable in our experimental setup. The relevance of these findings for structure and function of mitochondrial contact sites is discussed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48027-30

  • Control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by adenine nucleotide translocator interacting with HIV-1 viral protein rR and Bcl-2.

    Jacotot E, Ferri KF, El Hamel C, Brenner C, Druillennec S, Hoebeke J, Rustin P, Métivier D, Lenoir C, Geuskens M, Vieira HL, Loeffler M, Belzacq AS, Briand JP, Zamzami N, Edelman L, Xie ZH, Reed JC, Roques BP and Kroemer G

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 1599, Institut Gustave Roussy, F-94805 Villejuif, France.

    Viral protein R (Vpr), an apoptogenic accessory protein encoded by HIV-1, induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) via a specific interaction with the permeability transition pore complex, which comprises the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane (OM) and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in the inner membrane. Here, we demonstrate that a synthetic Vpr-derived peptide (Vpr52-96) specifically binds to the intermembrane face of the ANT with an affinity in the nanomolar range. Taking advantage of this specific interaction, we determined the role of ANT in the control of MMP. In planar lipid bilayers, Vpr52-96 and purified ANT cooperatively form large conductance channels. This cooperative channel formation relies on a direct protein-protein interaction since it is abolished by the addition of a peptide corresponding to the Vpr binding site of ANT. When added to isolated mitochondria, Vpr52-96 uncouples the respiratory chain and induces a rapid inner MMP to protons and NADH. This inner MMP precedes outer MMP to cytochrome c. Vpr52-96-induced matrix swelling and inner MMP both are prevented by preincubation of purified mitochondria with recombinant Bcl-2 protein. In contrast to König's polyanion (PA10), a specific inhibitor of the VDAC, Bcl-2 fails to prevent Vpr52-96 from crossing the mitochondrial OM. Rather, Bcl-2 reduces the ANT-Vpr interaction, as determined by affinity purification and plasmon resonance studies. Concomitantly, Bcl-2 suppresses channel formation by the ANT-Vpr complex in synthetic membranes. In conclusion, both Vpr and Bcl-2 modulate MMP through a direct interaction with ANT.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM060554

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2001;193;4;509-19

  • Gadolinium as an opener of the outwardly rectifying Cl(-) channel (ORCC). Is there relevance for cystic fibrosis therapy?

    Thinnes FP, Walter G, Hellmann KP, Hellmann T, Merker R, Kiafard Z, Eben-Brunnen J, Schwarzer C, Götz H and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. fthinne@gwdg.de

    There is indirect evidence that the plasmalemma-integrated eukaryotic porin (the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel, VDAC) functions as the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC). The channel, which is believed to play a role in cell volume regulation, appears to be relevant for cystic fibrosis (CF) therapy, in that it may function as an alternative Cl(-) channel. In the present study we showed first that Gd(3+) altered the voltage dependence of human type-1 porin incorporated into artificial planar lipid bilayers. Next, using a light-scattering approach on transformed normal or CF human B-lymphocytes in hypotonic Ringer solution, we found slightly differing regulatory volume decrease (RVD) curves for the cell lines under study. Addition of 15-60 microM GdCl3 in hypotonic Ringer increased light scattering, pointing to cell swelling beyond normal values. RVD was not observed in those experiments. A corresponding effect was seen in isotonic Ringer containing GdCl3. In either osmotic situation Gd(3+)-induced cell swelling was abolished by monoclonal mouse anti-human type-1 porin antibodies. Agonist and antibody effects were dose dependent. Finally, videocamera-monitored control experiments with adherent HeLa cells verified the direct effect of the agonist on cell swelling in hypo- or isotonic situations and its prevention by the antibodies. We conclude that GdCl3 opens plasmalemma-integrated porin channels, allowing ions to following their gradients, resulting in cell swelling. Since respiratory epithelium expresses porin channels in the apical membrane, the use of gadolinium to activate ORCC may represent a new therapeutic approach in CF.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2001;443 Suppl 1;S111-6

  • Human gelsolin prevents apoptosis by inhibiting apoptotic mitochondrial changes via closing VDAC.

    Kusano H, Shimizu S, Koya RC, Fujita H, Kamada S, Kuzumaki N and Tsujimoto Y

    Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, Suita, Japan.

    Gelsolin is a Ca2+-dependent actin-regulatory protein that modulates actin assembly and disassembly, and is believed to regulate cell motility through modulation of the actin network. Gelsolin was also recently suggested to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis: human gelsolin (hGsn) has anti-apoptotic activity, whereas mouse gelsolin (mGsn) exerts either proapoptotic or anti-apoptotic activity depending on different cell types. Here, we studied the basis of anti-apoptotic activity of hGsn. We showed that both endogenous and overexpressed hGsn has anti-apoptotic activity, that depends on its C-terminal half. We also found that hGsn and its C-terminal half but not mGsn could prevent apoptotic mitochondrial changes such as Apsi loss and cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria to a similar extent as Bcl-xL, indicating that hGsn targets the mitochondria to prevent apoptosis via its C-terminal half. In the same way as anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL, which we recently found to prevent apoptotic mitochondrial changes by binding and closing the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), hGsn and its C-terminal half inhibited the activity of VDAC on liposomes through direct binding in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results suggest that hGsn inhibits apoptosis by blocking mitochondrial VDAC activity.

    Oncogene 2000;19;42;4807-14

  • Human voltage-dependent anion-selective channel expressed in the plasmalemma of Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Schwarzer C, Becker S, Awni LA, Cole T, Merker R, Barnikol-Watanabe S, Thinnes FP and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Hermann-Rein Strasse 3, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

    Recent studies indicate a plasmalemmal localisation of eukaryotic porin, i.e. voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC), and there is evidence that the channel in this cell compartment is engaged in cell volume regulation. Until recently, others and we have used immuno-topochemical and biochemical methods to demonstrate the integration of the channel into the cell membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vertebrate cells. In the present study, we used molecular biological methods to induce the heterologous expression of tagged human type-1 porin in oocytes of Xenopus laevis and to illustrate its appearance at the plasma membrane of these cells. Applying confocal fluorescent microscopy, green fluorescent protein attached to the C-terminus of porin could clearly be recorded at the cell surface. N-terminal green fluorescent protein-porin fusion proteins remained in the cytoplasm, indicating a strong influence of the porin N-terminus on protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. FLAG-tagged porin was also expressed in frog oocytes. Here, plasmalemmal expression was observed using anti-FLAG M2 monoclonal antibodies and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies, followed by silver enhancement through scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to the EGFP-porin fusion protein, the influence of the small FLAG-epitope (8 amino acids) did not prevent plasmalemmal expression of N-terminally tagged porin. These results indicate the definite expression of human type-1 porin in the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes. They thus corroborate our early data on the extra-mitochondrial expression of the eukaryotic porin channel and are essential for future electrophysiological studies on the channel.

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2000;32;10;1075-84

  • Structure of the 5' region of the human hexokinase type I (HKI) gene and identification of an additional testis-specific HKI mRNA.

    Andreoni F, Ruzzo A and Magnani M

    'G. Fornaini' Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Urbino, Via Saffi 2, 61029, Urbino, Italy.

    We previously reported the structure of the human hexokinase type I (HKI) gene and provided direct evidence of an alternative red blood cell-specific exon 1 located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Three unique HKI mRNA species have also been described in human spermatogenic cells. These mRNAs contain a testis-specific sequence not present in somatic cell HKI, but lack the sequence for the porin-binding domain necessary for HKI to bind to porin on the outer mitochondrial membrane. The present study reports a new mRNA isoform, hHKI-td, isolated from human sperm. hHKI-td mRNA contains both a testis-specific sequence at the 5' end common to the three other mRNA isoforms and an additional unique sequence. Screening of a cosmid library and analysis of the cosmids containing the HKI gene revealed that testis-specific sequences are encoded by six different exons. Five of these exons are located upstream from the somatic exon 1 (5.6-30 kb) and one within intron 1. This study shows that a single human HKI gene spanning at least 100 kb encodes multiple transcripts that are generated by alternative splicing of different 5' exons. Testis-specific transcripts are probably produced by a separate promoter that induces the expression of the HKI gene in spermatogenic cells.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1493;1-2;19-26

  • Neisseria meningitidis porin PorB interacts with mitochondria and protects cells from apoptosis.

    Massari P, Ho Y and Wetzler LM

    Evans Biomedical Research Center, 650 Albany Street, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

    Neisserial porins are strong immune adjuvants and B cell activators. The effect of neisserial porin PorB on activation-induced cell death was investigated, as a potential additional mechanism of the porin's immunopotentiating ability. Neisserial porins interact with target cells to localize intracellularly in the mitochondrial compartment without negatively affecting cellular survival. Pretreatment with Neisseria meningitidis PorB porin decreased or abrogated the mitochondrial damage induced by apoptotic stimuli. In addition, end stage determinants of apoptosis, including DNA breakdown, were diminished by PorB. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PorB interacts with the mitochondrial porin VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel). The mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of neisserial porins could be explained by the protein-protein interaction of PorB with VDAC, similar to the interaction of VDAC with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, resulting in an enhancement of cell survival and continued activation of B cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI40944, R01 AI040944, R56 AI040944

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9070-5

  • Characterization of the human porin isoform 1 (HVDAC1) gene by amplification on the whole human genome: A tool for porin deficiency analysis.

    Messina A, Guarino F, Oliva M, van den Heuvel LP, Smeitink J and De Pinto V

    Department of Chemical Sciences, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Università di Catania, viale A. Doria 6, Catania, I-95125, Italy. mess@mbox.unict.it

    The deficiency of porin isoform 1 (HVDAC1) in human skeletal muscle has been associated with a pathological phenotype related to defects in the bioenergetic metabolism. In the best studied case, porin deficiency was not apparent in cultured fibroblasts: this observation raised the conclusion that no molecular defect was in the cDNA sequence coding for the protein. To get more insight in the pathogenetic mechanism that is involved in porin isoform 1 deficiency, we have determined the whole structure of the corresponding human gene. On the basis of the corresponding mouse gene structure and the human cDNA sequence, we designed long extension PCR amplifications using the whole genomic DNA as a template. Exonic/intronic regions were isolated and the exons and surrounding introns sequenced. The 5' and 3' extremities of the gene were determined by genome walking. The porin isoform 1 human gene is made up of 9 exons and spans about 33 kbp. A whole panel of PCR parameters was set and is now ready to be used for specific amplification upon patients' genomic DNA. The analysis of the putative promoter sequence was performed. It revealed the presence of a sterol Repressor element (SRE), an SRY, the testis-determining factor, and a nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2) binding site. These sites, according to results from literature, could be involved in the functional modulation of the gene expression.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;270;3;787-92

  • BH4 domain of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members closes voltage-dependent anion channel and inhibits apoptotic mitochondrial changes and cell death.

    Shimizu S, Konishi A, Kodama T and Tsujimoto Y

    Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita.

    A change of mitochondrial membrane permeability is essential for apoptosis, leading to translocation of apoptogenic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor into the cytoplasm. We recently showed that the Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) by directly modulating the activity of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) through binding. Here we investigated the biochemical role of the conserved N-terminal homology domain (BH4) of Bcl-x(L), which has been shown to be essential for inhibition of apoptosis, with respect to the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability and found that BH4 was required for Bcl-x(L) to prevent cytochrome c release and Deltapsi loss. A study using VDAC liposomes revealed that Bcl-x(L), but not Bcl-x(L) lacking the BH4 domain, inhibited VDAC activity. Furthermore, BH4 oligopeptides of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), but not mutant peptides, were able to inhibit both VDAC activity on liposomes even in the presence of Bax and apoptotic Deltapsi loss in isolated mitochondria. It was also shown that the BH4 domain, fused to the protein transduction domain of HIV TAT protein (TAT-BH4), efficiently prevented apoptotic cell death. These results indicate that the BH4 of Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) is essential and sufficient for inhibiting VDAC activity, which in turn prevents apoptotic mitochondrial changes, and for preventing apoptotic cell death. Finally, the data suggest that the TAT-BH4 peptide is potentially useful as a therapeutic agent for diseases caused by accelerated apoptosis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;7;3100-5

  • Proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family members induce cytochrome c release, but not mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and do not directly modulate voltage-dependent anion channel activity.

    Shimizu S and Tsujimoto Y

    Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, CREST of Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Through direct interaction with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Bax and Bak induce apoptogenic mitochondrial cytochrome c release and membrane potential (Deltapsi) loss in isolated mitochondria. Using isolated mitochondria, we showed that Bid and Bik, BH3-only proteins from the Bcl-2 family, induced cytochrome c release but not Deltapsi loss. Unlike Bax/Bak, the cytochrome c release induced by Bid/Bik was Ca(2+)-independent, cyclosporin A-insensitive, and respiration-independent. Furthermore, in contrast to Bax/Bak, Bid/Bik neither interacted with VDAC nor directly affected the VDAC activity in liposomes. Consistently, Bid/Bik induced apoptosis without Deltapsi loss, whereas Bax induced apoptosis with Deltapsi loss. These findings indicated the involvement of a different mechanism in BH3-only, protein-induced apoptogenic cytochrome c release.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;2;577-82

  • The HIV-1 viral protein R induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    Jacotot E, Ravagnan L, Loeffler M, Ferri KF, Vieira HL, Zamzami N, Costantini P, Druillennec S, Hoebeke J, Briand JP, Irinopoulou T, Daugas E, Susin SA, Cointe D, Xie ZH, Reed JC, Roques BP and Kroemer G

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F-94801 Villejuif, France.

    Viral protein R (Vpr) encoded by HIV-1 is a facultative inducer of apoptosis. When added to intact cells or purified mitochondria, micromolar and submicromolar doses of synthetic Vpr cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), as well as the mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome c or apoptosis inducing factor. The same structural motifs relevant for cell killing are responsible for the mitochondriotoxic effects of Vpr. Both mitochondrial and cytotoxic Vpr effects are prevented by Bcl-2, an inhibitor of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). Coincubation of purified organelles revealed that nuclear apoptosis is only induced by Vpr when mitochondria are present yet can be abolished by PTPC inhibitors. Vpr favors the permeabilization of artificial membranes containing the purified PTPC or defined PTPC components such as the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) combined with Bax. Again, this effect is prevented by addition of recombinant Bcl-2. The Vpr COOH terminus binds purified ANT, as well as a molecular complex containing ANT and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), another PTPC component. Yeast strains lacking ANT or VDAC are less susceptible to Vpr-induced killing than control cells yet recover Vpr sensitivity when retransfected with yeast ANT or human VDAC. Hence, Vpr induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial PTPC.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;191;1;33-46

  • Mitochondria-derived and extra-mitochondrial human type-1 porin are identical as revealed by amino acid sequencing and electrophysiological characterisation.

    Stadtmüller U, Eben-Brunnen J, Schmid A, Hesse D, Klebert S, Kratzin HD, Hesse J, Zimmermann B, Reymann S, Thinnes FP, Benz R, Götz H and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Göttingen, Germany.

    In mammalian cells porin channels are localised in both mitochondrial outer membranes and extra-mitochondrial membranes. We isolated mitochondria-derived porin of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line, determined its amino acid sequence and characterised its channel properties. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of this porin preparation and, correspondingly, its electrophysiological characteristics in a reconstituted system were identical to those of 'Porin 31HL', the human type-1 porin purified from a crude membrane preparation of the same cell line using a different purification protocol. The results raise questions about targeting, insertion and orientation of human type-1 porin in different membranes.

    Biological chemistry 1999;380;12;1461-6

  • Revised fine mapping of the human voltage-dependent anion channel loci by radiation hybrid analysis.

    Decker WK, Bowles KR, Schatte EC, Towbin JA and Craigen WJ

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL53392; NICHD NIH HHS: 1P30-HD27823; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM055713-02

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1999;10;10;1041-2

  • Bcl-2 family proteins regulate the release of apoptogenic cytochrome c by the mitochondrial channel VDAC.

    Shimizu S, Narita M and Tsujimoto Y

    Osaka University Medical School, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, Suita, Japan.

    During transduction of an apoptotic (death) signal into the cell, there is an alteration in the permeability of the membranes of the cell's mitochondria, which causes the translocation of the apoptogenic protein cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, which in turn activates death-driving proteolytic proteins known as caspases. The Bcl-2 family of proteins, whose members may be anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic, regulates cell death by controlling this mitochondrial membrane permeability during apoptosis, but how that is achieved is unclear. Here we create liposomes that carry the mitochondrial porin channel (also called the voltage-dependent anion channel, or VDAC) to show that the recombinant pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak accelerate the opening of VDAC, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) closes VDAC by binding to it directly. Bax and Bak allow cytochrome c to pass through VDAC out of liposomes, but passage is prevented by Bcl-x(L). In agreement with this, VDAC1-deficient mitochondria from a mutant yeast did not exhibit a Bax/Bak-induced loss in membrane potential and cytochrome c release, both of which were inhibited by Bcl-x(L). Our results indicate that the Bcl-2 family of proteins bind to the VDAC in order to regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c during apoptosis.

    Nature 1999;399;6735;483-7

  • Mapping of the human Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel isoforms 1 and 2 reconsidered.

    Messina A, Oliva M, Rosato C, Huizing M, Ruitenbeek W, van den Heuvel LP, Forte M, Rocchi M and De Pinto V

    Istituto di Scienze Biochimiche e Farmacologiche, Catania, Italy.

    Eukaryotic porins or VDACs (Voltage-Dependent Anion-selective Channels) are integral membrane proteins forming large hydrophilic pores. Three functioning genes for VDAC isoforms have been detected in mouse and the corresponding cDNAs are known also in humans. Tissue-specific VDAC isoform 1 (HVDAC1) deficiency in human skeletal muscle is responsible of a rare mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, fatal in childhood. Since coding sequences are not affected in the patient, we focused our interest in the gene structure. HVDAC1 and 2 have been previously mapped at chromosomes Xq13-21 and 21, respectively. Screening of an human chromosome X cosmid library resulted only in the isolation of processed pseudogenes, finely mapped at Xq22 and Xp11.2. Here, we report the mapping of HVDAC1 to chromosome 5q31 and HVDAC2 to chromosome 10q22 by FISH. Exon/intron probes, designed on the basis of the mouse gene structures, were obtained by long extension PCR amplification using the whole genomic DNA as a template. The sequence of the probe extremities clearly pointed to a genuine VDAC genomic sequence. Human and mouse regions where VDAC 1 and 2 genes were mapped are known to be synthetic, thus reinforcing the mapping of the human homologues.

    Funded by: Telethon: E.0672

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;255;3;707-10

  • Bax interacts with the permeability transition pore to induce permeability transition and cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria.

    Narita M, Shimizu S, Ito T, Chittenden T, Lutz RJ, Matsuda H and Tsujimoto Y

    Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial permeability transition (PT), including loss of the transmembrane potential (Deltapsi), play an important role in apoptosis. Using isolated mitochondria, we found that recombinant Bax and Bak, proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, induced mitochondrial Deltapsi loss, swelling, and cytochrome c release. All of these changes were dependent on Ca2+ and were prevented by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid, both of which close the PT pores (megachannels), indicating that Bax- and Bak-induced mitochondrial changes were mediated through the opening of these pores. Bax-induced mitochondrial changes were inhibited by recombinant Bcl-xL and transgene-derived Bcl-2, antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, as well as by oligomycin, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of F0F1-ATPase on Bax-induced mitochondrial changes. Proapoptotic Bax- and Bak-BH3 (Bcl-2 homology) peptides, but not a mutant BH3 peptide nor a mutant Bak lacking BH3, induced the mitochondrial changes, indicating an essential role of the BH3 region. A coimmunoprecipitation study revealed that Bax and Bak interacted with the voltage-dependent anion channel, which is a component of PT pores. Taken together, these findings suggest that proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, including Bax and Bak, induce the mitochondrial PT and cytochrome c release by interacting with the PT pores.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;25;14681-6

  • Cyclophilin-D binds strongly to complexes of the voltage-dependent anion channel and the adenine nucleotide translocase to form the permeability transition pore.

    Crompton M, Virji S and Ward JM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, UK. m.crompton@bsm.biochemistry.ucl.ac.uk

    A cyclophilin-D affinity matrix was employed to isolate components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. A cDNA encoding cyclophilin-D was cloned from a rat liver library and ligated into pGEX to allow expression of a glutathione S-transferase/cyclophilin-D fusion protein in Escherichia coli XL1 cells. The cyclophilin-D in the fusion was functionally normal as judged by its peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity and its inhibition by cyclosporin A. The fusion protein was bound to glutathione-agarose to form the cyclophilin-D affinity matrix. The matrix selectively bound 32-kDa proteins of mitochondrial membrane extracts, but no H2O-soluble proteins were bound. The 32-kDa band on SDS/PAGE resolved into a doublet and reacted with antibodies against the voltage-dependent anion channel (porin) and the adenine nucleotide translocase. These two proteins were also selectively retained by the affinity matrix in the presence of cyclosporin A. The thus-purified voltage-dependent anion channel, adenine nucleotide translocase and the fusion protein were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine liposomes containing fluorescein sulphonate. The proteoliposomes were permeabilized by Ca2+ plus phosphate, and this was blocked completely by cyclosporin A. These properties are identical to those of the permeability transition pore in mitochondria. It is concluded that the basic permeability transition pore structure comprises the voltage-dependent anion channel (outer membrane), adenine nucleotide translocase (inner membrane) and cyclophilin-D, and forms at contact sites between the two membranes.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    European journal of biochemistry 1998;258;2;729-35

  • Endosomes: another extra-mitochondrial location of type-1 porin/voltage-dependent anion-selective channels.

    Reymann S, Haase W, Krick W, Burckhardt G and Thinnes FP

    Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Hermann-Rein-Strasse 3, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    Endocytotic vesicles (EV) isolated from rat renal cortex were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. A monoclonal antibody against human type-1 porin (31 kDa) detected a strong band of 31 kDa. The same antibody has been used as the primary antibody in indirect immunocytochemistry. Light microscopy of cryostat sections of rat renal cortex showed a heavy staining of EV underneath the brush-border membrane. Electron microscopy was performed by "preembedding immunogold staining" of rat renal cortex, the sections of which showed an extensive labelling of EV with gold particles. These results demonstrate that the expression of type-1 porin is not restricted to outer mitochondrial membranes. The biological function of endosomal type-1 porin has as yet to be ascertained.

    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 1998;436;3;478-80

  • Human mitochondrial import receptor, Tom20p. Use of glutathione to reveal specific interactions between Tom20-glutathione S-transferase and mitochondrial precursor proteins.

    Schleiff E, Shore GC and Goping IS

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

    The cytosolic domain of the human mitochondrial protein import receptor, hTom20, has been expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in bacteria and the purified protein immobilized on Sepharose beads. To discriminate between specific binding of precursor proteins with the receptor and non-specific binding, precursors were recovered as a complex with GST-hTom20 following competitive elution from the beads with reduced glutathione. Here, we describe the specificity of this assay and demonstrate that the cytosolic domain of hTom20 interacts directly with the transcription-translation product of precursor proteins that bear a diverse array of targeting signals. Such proteins include a matrix protein (pODHFR), a polytopic integral protein of the inner membrane (uncoupling protein), a beta-barrel protein of the outer membrane (VDAC/porin) as well as bitopic integral proteins which are inserted into the outer membrane by either an NH2-terminal or COOH-terminal signal anchor sequence (yTom70(1-29)DHFR and Bcl-2, respectively).

    FEBS letters 1997;404;2-3;314-8

  • Subcellular localization of human voltage-dependent anion channel isoforms.

    Yu WH, Wolfgang W and Forte M

    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel of the outer mitochondrial membrane, VDAC (also known as mitochondrial porin), is a small abundant protein which forms a voltage-gated pore when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. This protein forms the primary pathway for movement of major metabolites through the outer membrane. Recently, it has been demonstrated that two human VDAC genes, HVDAC1 and HVDAC2, produce three proteins that differ most significantly at their amino termini. These results suggest that the distinct amino termini lead to the targeting of individual VDAC isoforms to different cellular compartments. Consistent with this hypothesis, recent reports suggest that HIV-DAC1 is found in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. To define the subcellular location of HVDAC isoforms, HVDAC genes were modified so that the encoded proteins contain COOH-terminal epitopes recognized by either of two monoclonal antibodies. Introduction of these epitope tags had no effect on the function of modified VDAC proteins. Epitope-tagged proteins were then individually expressed in COS7 cells or rat astrocytes and the intracellular location of each isoform subsequently identified by subcellular fractionation, light level immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that each HVDAC protein is exclusively located in fractions or subcellular regions containing mitochondrial marker proteins. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy show that an individual mitochondrion can contain both HVDAC1 and HVDAC2. Our results call into question previous reports demonstrating VDAC molecules in the plasma membrane and suggest that functional differences between individual VDAC isoforms may result in distinct regulatory processes within a single mitochondrion.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM35759

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;23;13998-4006

  • In vitro complex formation between the octamer of mitochondrial creatine kinase and porin.

    Brdiczka D, Kaldis P and Wallimann T

    Faculty of Biology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

    An interaction of mitochondrial creatine kinase with purified outer mitochondrial porin (voltage-dependent anion channel) was shown by co-sedimentation assays as well as by gel permeation chromatography. Porin formed high M(r) complexes with wild-type mitochondrial creatine kinase as well as with an N-terminal deletion mutant, lacking the first five N-terminal amino acids. The complexes were identified by creatine kinase activity in parallel with immunoblotting using specific antibodies against the two proteins. In addition, porin induced octamerization of the N-terminal creatine kinase mutant, which under the same conditions without porin, did not polymerize but remained more than 90% dimeric. Furthermore, binding of mitochondrial creatine kinase to porin affected the conductance of porin when reconstituted in "black membranes." At 10 mV the pore in the complex adopted a low conductance (1.5-2 nanosiemens) state, compared to the high conductance state (3-4 nanosiemens) of the free incorporated pores. The former state of the pore is known to be cationically selective. Thus, besides a specific structural interaction, a defined physiological function is assumed of the mitochondrial creatine kinase-porin complexes that are discussed here.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;44;27640-4

  • Human genes encoding the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane: mapping and identification of two new isoforms.

    Blachly-Dyson E, Baldini A, Litt M, McCabe ER and Forte M

    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane (VDAC) is a small, abundant pore-forming protein found in the outer membranes of all eukaryotic mitochondria. The VDAC protein is believed to form the major pathway for movement of adenine nucleotides through the outer membrane and to be the mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase and glycerol kinase. Previous studies have indicated that at least two human VDAC isoforms are expressed. Here, we report the mapping of VDAC1 to the X chromosome in the interval Xq13-q21 and VDAC2 to chromosome 21 by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis of a human/rodent somatic cell mapping panel. In the process of mapping these genes, we identified and mapped two additional sequences highly homologous to VDAC1. VDAC3 maps to chromosome 12 and VDAC4 maps to chromosome 1. The locations of VDAC1 and VDAC4 have been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Future studies will be aimed at defining the specific physiological role of each member of this family of channel proteins.

    Genomics 1994;20;1;62-7

  • Mapping of residues forming the voltage sensor of the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel.

    Thomas L, Blachly-Dyson E, Colombini M and Forte M

    Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742.

    Voltage-gated ion-channel proteins contain "voltage-sensing" domains that drive the conformational transitions between open and closed states in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues affecting the voltage sensitivity of a mitochondrial channel, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC). Although charge changes at many sites had no effect, at other sites substitutions that increased positive charge also increased the steepness of voltage dependence and substitutions that decreased positive charge decreased voltage dependence by an appropriate amount. In contrast to the plasma membrane K+ and Na+ channels, these residues are distributed over large parts of the VDAC protein. These results have been used to define the conformational transitions that accompany voltage gating of an ion channel. This gating mechanism requires the movement of large portions of the VDAC protein through the membrane.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;12;5446-9

  • Cloning and functional expression in yeast of two human isoforms of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, the voltage-dependent anion channel.

    Blachly-Dyson E, Zambronicz EB, Yu WH, Adams V, McCabe ER, Adelman J, Colombini M and Forte M

    Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Portland, Oregon.

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane is a small abundant protein found in all eukaryotic kingdoms which forms a voltage-gated pore when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. VDAC is also the site of binding of the metabolic enzymes hexokinase and glycerol kinase to the mitochondrion in what may be a significant metabolic regulatory interaction. Recently, there has been speculation that there may be multiple forms of VDAC in mammals which differ in their localization in the outer mitochondrial membrane and in their physiological function. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of two human cDNAs encoding VDAC homologs (HVDAC1 and HVDAC2). To confirm VDAC function, each human protein has been expressed in yeast lacking the endogenous VDAC gene. Human proteins isolated from yeast mitochondria formed channels with the characteristics expected of VDAC when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. In addition, expression of the human proteins in such strains can complement phenotypic defects associated with elimination of the endogenous yeast VDAC gene. Since VDAC is the site of binding of hexokinase to the outer mitochondrial membrane, the binding capacity of each VDAC isoform expressed in yeast mitochondria was assessed. When compared with the binding of hexokinase to mitochondria lacking VDAC, the results show that mitochondria expressing HVDAC1 are capable of specifically binding hexokinase, whereas mitochondria expressing HVDAC2 only bind hexokinase at background levels. The expression of each human cDNA has been assessed by Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction techniques. With one exception, each is expressed in all human cell lines and tissues examined.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;3;1835-41

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Isolation of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor: association with the voltage-dependent anion channel and the adenine nucleotide carrier.

    McEnery MW, Snowman AM, Trifiletti RR and Snyder SH

    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2185.

    The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR) has been solubilized with retention of reversible ligand binding, and the associated subunits were characterized. mBzR comprises immunologically distinct protein subunits of 18-, 30-, and 32-kDa. The 18-kDa protein is labeled by the isoquinoline carboxamide mBzR ligand [3H]PK14105, whereas the 30- and 32-kDa subunits are labeled by the benzodiazepine (Bz) ligands [3H]flunitrazepam and [3H]AHN-086. Selective antibodies and reagents identify the 32- and 30-kDa proteins as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide carrier (ADC), respectively. While isoquinoline carboxamide and Bz ligands target different subunits, they interact allosterically, as the binding of Bz and isoquinoline carboxamide ligands is mutually competitive at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, eosin-5-maleimide and mercuric chloride inhibit [3H]PK11195 binding to the intact receptor via sulfhydryl groups that are present in ADC. VDAC and ADC, outer and inner mitochondrial membrane channel proteins, respectively, together with the 18-kDa subunit, may comprise mBzR at functionally important transport sites at the junction of two mitochondrial membranes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00074, DA-00266

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;8;3170-4

  • Studies on human porin. IV. The primary structures of "Porin 31HM" purified from human skeletal muscle membranes and of "Porin 31HL" derived from human B lymphocyte membranes are identical.

    Jürgens L, Ilsemann P, Kratzin HD, Hesse D, Eckart K, Thinnes FP and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Göttingen.

    We report on the purification of "Porin 31HM" from the crude plasma membrane fraction of human skeletal muscle. Furthermore, all tryptic peptides of the molecule were purified and characterized by different methods. The alignment of the peptides with the complete primary structure of the human B lymphocyte plasma membrane-derived "Porin 31HL", published by us recently (Kayser, H. et al. (1989) this Journal 370, 1265-1278), proved both structures to be completely identical. Our data demonstrate that porin fractions from crude plasma membranes of different human cell types do not show any variation on the primary structure level.

    Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1991;372;7;455-63

  • [Identification of human porins. II. Characterization and primary structure of a 31-lDa porin from human B lymphocytes (Porin 31HL)].

    Kayser H, Kratzin HD, Thinnes FP, Götz H, Schmidt WE, Eckart K and Hilschmann N

    Max-Planck-Institut für experimentelle Medizin, Abteilung Immunchemie, Göttingen.

    We characterize and describe for the first time the primary structure of a human porin with the molecular mass of 31 kDa derived from the plasmalemm of B-lymphocytes (Porin 31HL). Porin 31HL is shown to be a basic, channel forming membrane protein. The protein chain is composed of 282 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 30641 Da without derivatisation. It is not a glycoprotein. The N-terminus is acetylated. Altogether the amino-acid sequence shows 56% hydrophilic or charged amino acids arranged in alternating regions of hydrophilic or hydrophobic character as it is typical for porins. In addition the 18 N-terminal amino acids of Porin 31HL can be arranged to an amphilic alpha-helix like in other porins. Porin 31HL shows approx. 29% or 24% identity to the primary structure of mitochondrial porins of Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Partial data on mitochondrial porins from rat kidney and beef heart show sequence identity of about 90% to the human B cell porin elaborated here.

    Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1989;370;12;1265-78

Gene lists (11)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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