G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001338
Gene symbol
KCNJ4 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 4
Orthologue
G00000089 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000030860 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000168135 (Ensembl human gene)
3761 (Entrez Gene)
425 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
KCNJ4 (GeneCards)
Literature
600504 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6265 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3270 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P48050 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • HIR
  • HRK1
  • IRK3
  • Kir2.3
  • hIRK2

Literature (30)

Pubmed - other

  • Molecular mechanism of inward rectifier potassium channel 2.3 regulation by tax-interacting protein-1.

    Yan X, Zhou H, Zhang J, Shi C, Xie X, Wu Y, Tian C, Shen Y and Long J

    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Protein Science, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

    Inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2.3 (Kir2.3) is specifically targeted on the basolateral membranes of epithelial and neuronal cells, and it thus plays an important role in maintaining potassium homeostasis. Tax-interacting protein-1 (TIP-1), an atypical PDZ-domain-containing protein, binds to Kir2.3 with a high affinity, causing the intracellular accumulation of Kir2.3 in cultured epithelial cells. However, the molecular basis of the TIP-1/Kir2.3 interaction is still poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of TIP-1 in complex with the C-terminal Kir2.3-peptide (residues 436-445) to reveal the molecular details of the interaction between them. Moreover, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that the C-terminal Kir2.3-peptide binds much more strongly to TIP-1 than to mammalian Lin-7, indicating that TIP-1 can compete with mammalian Lin-7 to uncouple Kir2.3 from its basolateral membrane anchoring complex. We further show that the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Ser443 within the C-terminal Kir2.3 PDZ-binding motif RRESAI dynamically regulates the Kir2.3/TIP-1 association in heterologous HEK293T cells. These data suggest that TIP-1 may act as an important regulator for the endocytic pathway of Kir2.3.

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;392;4;967-76

  • Kir2.3 knock-down decreases IK1 current in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    He Y, Pan Q, Li J, Chen H, Zhou Q, Hong K, Brugada R, Perez GJ, Brugada P and Chen YH

    Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

    Inward rectifier potassium Kir2.x channels mediate cardiac inward rectifier potassium currents (I(K1)). As a subunit of Kir2.x, the physiological role of Kir2.3 in native cardiomyocytes has not been reported. This study shows that Kir2.3 knock-down remarkably down-regulates Kir2.3 expression (Kir2.3 protein was reduced to 19.91+/-3.24% on the 2nd or 3rd day) and I(K1) current densities (at -120 mV, control vs. knock-down: -5.03+/-0.24 pA/pF, n=5 vs. -1.16+/-0.19 pA/pF, n=7, P<0.001) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The data suggest that Kir2.3 plays a potentially important role in I(K1) currents in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    FEBS letters 2008;582;15;2338-42

  • Rare independent mutations in renal salt handling genes contribute to blood pressure variation.

    Ji W, Foo JN, O'Roak BJ, Zhao H, Larson MG, Simon DB, Newton-Cheh C, State MW, Levy D and Lifton RP

    Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

    The effects of alleles in many genes are believed to contribute to common complex diseases such as hypertension. Whether risk alleles comprise a small number of common variants or many rare independent mutations at trait loci is largely unknown. We screened members of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) for variation in three genes-SLC12A3 (NCCT), SLC12A1 (NKCC2) and KCNJ1 (ROMK)-causing rare recessive diseases featuring large reductions in blood pressure. Using comparative genomics, genetics and biochemistry, we identified subjects with mutations proven or inferred to be functional. These mutations, all heterozygous and rare, produce clinically significant blood pressure reduction and protect from development of hypertension. Our findings implicate many rare alleles that alter renal salt handling in blood pressure variation in the general population, and identify alleles with health benefit that are nonetheless under purifying selection. These findings have implications for the genetic architecture of hypertension and other common complex traits.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-25195, N01HC25195, P50 HL055007

    Nature genetics 2008;40;5;592-599

  • AP-2-dependent internalization of potassium channel Kir2.3 is driven by a novel di-hydrophobic signal.

    Mason AK, Jacobs BE and Welling PA

    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    The localization and density of Kir2.3 channels are influenced by the balance between PDZ protein interaction at the cell surface and routing into the endocytic pathway. Here, we explore mechanisms by which the Kir2.3 channel is directed into the endocytic pathway. We found that Kir2.3 channels are constitutively internalized from the cell surface in a dynamin-dependent manner, indicative of vesicle-mediated endocytosis. The rate of Kir2.3 endocytosis was dramatically attenuated following RNA interference-mediated knockdown of either alpha adaptin (AP-2 clathrin adaptor) or clathrin heavy chain, revealing that Kir2.3 is internalized by an AP-2 clathrin-dependent mechanism. Structure-rationalized mutagenesis studies of a number of different potential AP-2 interaction motifs indicate that internalization of Kir2.3 is largely dependent on a non-canonical di-isoleucine motif (II413) embedded within the C terminus. Internalization assays using CD4-Kir2.3 chimeras demonstrate that the di-isoleucine signal acts in an autonomous and transplantable manner. Kir2.3 co-immunoprecipitates with alpha adaptin, and disruption of the di-isoleucine motif decreased interaction of the channel with AP-2. Replacement of the di-isoleucine motif with a canonical di-leucine internalization signal actually blocked Kir2.3 endocytosis. Moreover, in yeast three-hybrid studies, the Kir2.3 di-isoleucine motif does not bind the AP-2 alphaC-sigma2 hemicomplex in the way that has been recently observed for canonical di-leucine signals. Altogether, the results indicate that Kir2.3 channels are marked for clathrin-dependent internalization from the plasma membrane by a novel AP-2-dependent signal.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 063049; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM 08181

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;10;5973-84

  • Novel insights into the structural basis of pH-sensitivity in inward rectifier K+ channels Kir2.3.

    Ureche ON, Baltaev R, Ureche L, Strutz-Seebohm N, Lang F and Seebohm G

    Physiology I, University of Tuebingen, Germany.

    The Kir2 channels belong to a family of potassium selective channels with characteristic strong inward rectification. Heteromeric assemblies of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels underly membrane potential stabilizing currents in ventricular myocytes, neurons and skeletal muscle. Kir2 channels differ substantially in their sensitivity to extracellular pH. The extracellular histidine Kir2.3(H117) contributes to the pH dependence of K-channels containing Kir2.3. Here, we study the possibility of intramolecular interactions of the residue Kir2.3(H117) with conserved cysteines in close proximity to the selectivity filter. We engineered a cobalt coordination site and reduction/oxidation sensitivity in Kir2.3 by introduction of a cysteine into the putatively hydrogen bonding residue (Kir2.3(H117C)) confirming that this residue is in proximity to Kir2.3(C141). Using SCAM we determined the location of the Kir2.3(H117) in the outer pore mouth and incorporated these data into a 3D model. We conclude that formation of a hydrogen bond at low pH may stabilize the outer pore domain to favour the selectivity filter in a slightly distorted conformation thus reducing ion permeation. The data provide molecular insight into the unique pH regulation of inward rectifier channels.

    Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2008;21;5-6;347-56

  • Differential polyamine sensitivity in inwardly rectifying Kir2 potassium channels.

    Panama BK and Lopatin AN

    University of Michigan, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, USA.

    Recent studies have shown that Kir2 channels display differential sensitivity to intracellular polyamines, and have raised a number of questions about several properties of inward rectification important to the understanding of their physiological roles. In this study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of steady-state and kinetic properties of block of Kir2.1-3 channels by spermine. High-resolution recordings from outside-out patches showed that in all Kir2 channels current-voltage relationships display a 'crossover' effect upon change in extracellular K+. Experiments at different concentrations of spermine allowed for the characterization of two distinct shallow components of rectification, with the voltages for half-block negative (V1(1/2)) and positive (V2(1/2)) to the voltage of half-block for the major steep component of rectification (V0(1/2)). While V1(1/2) and V2(1/2) voltages differ significantly between Kir2 channels, they were coupled to each other according to the equation V1(1/2)-V2(1/2) = constant, strongly suggesting that similar structures may underlie both components. In Kir2.3 channels, the V2(1/2) was approximately 50 mV positive to V0(1/2), leading to a pattern of outward currents distinct from that of Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels. The effective valency of spermine block (Z0) was highest in Kir2.2 channels while the valencies in Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 channels were not significantly different. The voltage dependence of spermine unblock was similar in all Kir2 channels, but the rates of unblock were approximately 7-fold and approximately 16-fold slower in Kir2.3 channels than those in Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 when measured at high and physiological extracellular K+, respectively. In all Kir2 channels, the instantaneous phase of activation was present. The instantaneous phase was difficult to resolve at high extracellular K+ but it became evident and accounted for nearly 30-50% of the total current when recorded at physiological extracellular K+. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the universal mechanism of rectification in Kir2 channels, but also point to significant, and physiologically important, quantitative differences between Kir2 isoforms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL069052, R01 HL69052; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM008322; PHS HHS: T-32 G008322

    The Journal of physiology 2006;571;Pt 2;287-302

  • Regulation of cardiac inwardly rectifying potassium current IK1 and Kir2.x channels by endothelin-1.

    Kiesecker C, Zitron E, Scherer D, Lueck S, Bloehs R, Scholz EP, Pirot M, Kathöfer S, Thomas D, Kreye VA, Kiehn J, Borst MM, Katus HA, Schoels W and Karle CA

    Department of Cardiology, Medical University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    To elucidate the ionic mechanism of endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the regulation of I(K1) and its main molecular correlates, Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels, by ET-1 was investigated. Native I(K1) in human atrial cardiomyocytes was studied with whole-cell patch clamp. Human endothelin receptors were coexpressed with human Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were measured with a two-microelectrode voltage clamp. In human cardiomyocytes, ET-1 induced a marked inhibition of I(K1) that could be suppressed by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporine. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation, we studied the coupling of ET(A) receptors to homomeric and heteromeric Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. ET(A) receptors coupled functionally to Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels but not to Kir2.1 channels. In Kir2.2 channels lacking functional PKC phosphorylation sites, the inhibitory effect was abolished. The inhibition of Kir2.3 currents could be suppressed by the PKC inhibitors staurosporine and chelerythrine. The coupling of ET(A) receptors to heteromeric Kir2.1/Kir2.2 and Kir2.2/Kir2.3 channels resulted in a strong inhibition of currents comparable with the effect observed in Kir2.2 homomers. Surprisingly, in heteromeric Kir2.1/Kir2.3 channels, no effect was observed. ET-1 inhibits human cardiac I(K1) current via a PKC-mediated phosphorylation of Kir2.2 channel subunits and additional regulatory effects on Kir2.3 channels. This mechanism may contribute to the intrinsic arrhythmogenic potential of ET-1.

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2006;84;1;46-56

  • International Union of Pharmacology. LIV. Nomenclature and molecular relationships of inwardly rectifying potassium channels.

    Kubo Y, Adelman JP, Clapham DE, Jan LY, Karschin A, Kurachi Y, Lazdunski M, Nichols CG, Seino S and Vandenberg CA

    Division of Biophysics and Neurobiology, Department of Molecular Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Nishigoh-naka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585, Japan.

    Pharmacological reviews 2005;57;4;509-26

  • Functional expression of Kir2.x in human aortic endothelial cells: the dominant role of Kir2.2.

    Fang Y, Schram G, Romanenko VG, Shi C, Conti L, Vandenberg CA, Davies PF, Nattel S and Levitan I

    Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 1160 Vagelos Research Labs, 3340 Smith Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kir) are a significant determinant of endothelial cell (EC) membrane potential, which plays an important role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. In the present study, several complementary strategies were applied to determine the Kir2 subunit composition of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Expression levels of Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.4 mRNA were similar, whereas Kir2.3 mRNA expression was significantly weaker. Western blot analysis showed clear Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 protein expression, but Kir2.3 protein was undetectable. Functional analysis of endothelial inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K)) demonstrated that 1) I(K) current sensitivity to Ba(2+) and pH were consistent with currents determined using Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 but not Kir2.3 and Kir2.4, and 2) unitary conductance distributions showed two prominent peaks corresponding to known unitary conductances of Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels with a ratio of approximately 4:6. When HAECs were transfected with dominant-negative (dn)Kir2.x mutants, endogenous current was reduced approximately 50% by dnKir2.1 and approximately 85% by dnKir2.2, whereas no significant effect was observed with dnKir2.3 or dnKir2.4. These studies suggest that Kir2.2 and Kir2.1 are primary determinants of endogenous K(+) conductance in HAECs under resting conditions and that Kir2.2 provides the dominant conductance in these cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-073965-01A1, HL-64388, R01 HL073965; NINDS NIH HHS: NS43377

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2005;289;5;C1134-44

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Protein trafficking and anchoring complexes revealed by proteomic analysis of inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.x)-associated proteins.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Anderson S, Radeke CM, McGuire LM, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Yates JR and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play important roles in the maintenance and control of cell excitability. Both intracellular trafficking and modulation of Kir channel activity are regulated by protein-protein interactions. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify proteins associated with Kir2 channels via the channel C-terminal PDZ binding motif. Detergent-solubilized rat brain and heart extracts were subjected to affinity chromatography using a Kir2.2 C-terminal matrix to purify channel-interacting proteins. Proteins were identified with multidimensional high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, N-terminal microsequencing, and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. We identified eight members of the MAGUK family of proteins (SAP97, PSD-95, Chapsyn-110, SAP102, CASK, Dlg2, Dlg3, and Pals2), two isoforms of Veli (Veli-1 and Veli-3), Mint1, and actin-binding LIM protein (abLIM) as Kir2.2-associated brain proteins. From heart extract purifications, SAP97, CASK, Veli-3, and Mint1 also were found to associate with Kir2 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, including alpha1-, beta1-, and beta2-syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin, interact with Kir2 channels, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and affinity chromatography from skeletal and cardiac muscle and brain. Affinity pull-down experiments revealed that Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir4.1 all bind to scaffolding proteins but with different affinities for the dystrophin-associated protein complex and SAP97, CASK, and Veli. Immunofluorescent localization studies demonstrated that Kir2.2 co-localizes with syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin at skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions. These results suggest that Kir2 channels associate with protein complexes that may be important to target and traffic channels to specific subcellular locations, as well as anchor and stabilize channels in the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33145, NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;21;22331-46

  • A multiprotein trafficking complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 is associated with inward rectifier Kir2 potassium channels.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Radeke CM, McGuire LM and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, and Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Strong inward rectifier potassium (Kir2) channels are important in the control of cell excitability, and their functions are modulated by interactions with intracellular proteins. Here we identified a complex of scaffolding/trafficking proteins in brain that associate with Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 channels. By using a combination of affinity interaction pulldown assays and co-immunoprecipitations from brain and transfected cells, we demonstrated that a complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 associates with Kir2 channels via the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We further demonstrated by using in vitro protein interaction assays that SAP97, Veli-1, or Veli-3 binds directly to the Kir2.2 C terminus and recruits CASK. Co-immunoprecipitations indicated that specific Veli isoforms participate in forming distinct protein complexes in brain, where Veli-1 stably associates with CASK and SAP97, Veli-2 associates with CASK and Mint1, and Veli-3 associates with CASK, SAP97, and Mint1. Additionally, immunocytochemistry of rat cerebellum revealed overlapping expression of Kir2.2, SAP97, CASK, Mint1, with Veli-1 in the granule cell layer and Veli-3 in the molecular layer. We propose a model whereby Kir2.2 associates with distinct SAP97-CASK-Veli-Mint1 complexes. In one complex, SAP97 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK, Veli, and Mint1. Alternatively, Veli-1 or Veli-3 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK and SAP97; association of Mint1 with the complex requires Veli-3. Expression of Kir2.2 in polarized epithelial cells resulted in targeting of the channels to the basolateral membrane and co-localization with SAP97 and CASK, whereas a dominant interfering form of CASK caused the channels to mislocalize. Therefore, CASK appears to be a central protein of a macromolecular complex that participates in trafficking and plasma membrane localization of Kir2 channels.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;18;19051-63

  • A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome.

    Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM and Dunham I

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

    We have developed a systematic approach to generating cDNA clones containing full-length open reading frames (ORFs), exploiting knowledge of gene structure from genomic sequence. Each ORF was amplified by PCR from a pool of primary cDNAs, cloned and confirmed by sequencing. We obtained clones representing 70% of genes on human chromosome 22, whereas searching available cDNA clone collections found at best 48% from a single collection and 60% for all collections combined.

    Genome biology 2004;5;10;R84

  • Inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.3 is localized at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses.

    Inanobe A, Fujita A, Ito M, Tomoike H, Inageda K and Kurachi Y

    Department of Pharmacology II, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Classical inwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir2.0) are responsible for maintaining the resting membrane potential near the K+ equilibrium potential in various cells, including neurons. Although Kir2.3 is known to be expressed abundantly in the forebrain, its precise localization has not been identified. Using an antibody specific to Kir2.3, we examined the subcellular localization of Kir2.3 in mouse brain. Kir2.3 immunoreactivity was detected in a granular pattern in restricted areas of the brain, including the olfactory bulb (OB). Immunoelectron microscopy of the OB revealed that Kir2.3 immunoreactivity was specifically clustered on the postsynaptic membrane of asymmetric synapses between granule cells and mitral/tufted cells. The immunoprecipitants for Kir2.3 obtained from brain contained PSD-95 and chapsyn-110, PDZ domain-containing anchoring proteins. In vitro binding assay further revealed that the COOH-terminal end of Kir2.3 is responsible for the association with these anchoring proteins. Therefore, the Kir channel may be involved in formation of the resting membrane potential of the spines and, thus, would affect the response of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor channels at the excitatory postsynaptic membrane.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2002;282;6;C1396-403

  • Heteromerization of Kir2.x potassium channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome.

    Preisig-Müller R, Schlichthörl G, Goerge T, Heinen S, Brüggemann A, Rajan S, Derst C, Veh RW and Daut J

    Institute of Physiology, Marburg University, Deutschhausstrasse 2, 35037 Marburg, Germany.

    Andersen's syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder related to mutations of the potassium channel Kir2.1, is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic bone structure. The aim of our study was to find out whether heteromerization of Kir2.1 channels with wild-type Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome. The following results show that Kir2.x channels can form functional heteromers: (i) HEK293 cells transfected with Kir2.x-Kir2.y concatemers expressed inwardly rectifying K(+) channels with a conductance of 28-30 pS. (ii) Expression of Kir2.x-Kir2.y concatemers in Xenopus oocytes produced inwardly rectifying, Ba(2+) sensitive currents. (iii) When Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes the IC(50) for Ba(2+) block of the inward rectifier current differed substantially from the value expected for independent expression of homomeric channels. (iv) Coexpression of nonfunctional Kir2.x constructs, in which the GYG region of the pore region was replaced by AAA, with wild-type Kir2.x channels produced both homomeric and heteromeric dominant-negative effects. (v) Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 channels could be coimmunoprecipitated in membrane extracts from isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes. (vi) Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed interaction between the N- and C-terminal intracellular domains of different Kir2.x subunits. Coexpression of Kir2.1 mutants related to Andersen's syndrome with wild-type Kir2.x channels showed a dominant negative effect, the extent of which varied between different mutants. Our results suggest that differential tetramerization of the mutant allele of Kir2.1 with wild-type Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 channels represents the molecular basis of the extraordinary pleiotropy of Andersen's syndrome.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;11;7774-9

  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 regulates Kir2.3 inward rectifier K+ channels via phospholipase C and protein kinase C-delta in reactive astrocytes from adult rat brain.

    Perillan PR, Chen M, Potts EA and Simard JM

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    The multifunctional cytokine, transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), exerts complex effects on astrocytes with early signaling events being less well characterized than transcriptional mechanisms. We examined the effect of TGF-beta(1) on the 14-pS Kir2.3 inward rectifier K(+) channel in rat primary cultured reactive astrocytes. Immunofluorescence study showed that cells co-expressed TGF-beta(1) receptors 1 and 2, Kir2.3, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Patch clamp study showed that TGF-beta(1) (0.1-100 ng/ml) caused a rapid (<5 min) depolarization because of dose-dependent down-regulation of Kir2.3 channels, which was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10-500 nm) and which was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (100 nm), by PKC desensitization produced by 3 h of exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nm), and by the PKC-delta isoform-specific inhibitor rottlerin (50 microm). Immunoblot analysis and confocal imaging showed that TGF-beta(1) caused PKC-delta translocation to membrane, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that TGF-beta(1) enhanced association between Kir2.3 and PKC-delta. Additional electrophysiological experiments showed that Kir2.3 channel down-regulation was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitors, neomycin (100 microm) and D609 (200 microm). Given the commonality of signaling involving PLC-PKC-delta, we speculate that TGF-beta(1)-evoked depolarization may be an early signaling event related to gene transcription in astrocytes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;3;1974-80

  • Basolateral membrane expression of the Kir 2.3 channel is coordinated by PDZ interaction with Lin-7/CASK complex.

    Olsen O, Liu H, Wade JB, Merot J and Welling PA

    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    The basolateral membrane sorting determinant of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir 2.3, is comprised of a unique arrangement of trafficking motifs containing tandem, conceivably overlapping, biosynthetic targeting and PDZ-based signals. In the present study, we elucidate a mechanism by which a PDZ interaction coordinates one step in a basolateral membrane sorting program. In contrast to apical missorting of channels lacking the entire sorting domain, deletion of the PDZ binding motif caused channels to accumulate into an endosomal compartment. Here, we identify a new human ortholog of a Caenorhabditis elegans PDZ protein, hLin-7b, that interacts with the COOH-terminal tail of Kir 2.3 in renal epithelia. hLin-7b associates with the channel as a part of a multimeric complex on the basolateral membrane similar to a basolateral membrane complex in C. elegans vulva progenitor cells. Coexpression of hLin-7b with Kir 2.3 dramatically increases channel activity by stabilizing plasma membrane expression. The discovery identifies one component of the sorting machinery and provides evidence for a retention mechanism in a hierarchical basolateral trafficking program.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-32839, DK-54231

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2002;282;1;C183-95

  • Direct activation of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel by arachidonic acid.

    Liu Y, Liu D, Heath L, Meyers DM, Krafte DS, Wagoner PK, Silvia CP, Yu W and Curran ME

    ICAgen, Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA. yliu@icagen.com

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is an important constituent of membrane phospholipids and can be liberated by activation of cellular phospholipases. AA modulates a variety of ion channels via diverse mechanisms, including both direct effects by AA itself and indirect actions through AA metabolites. Here, we report excitatory effects of AA on a cloned human inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, Kir2.3, which is highly expressed in the brain and heart and is critical in regulating cell excitability. AA potently and reversibly increased Kir2.3 current amplitudes in whole-cell and excised macro-patch recordings (maximal whole-cell response to AA was 258 +/- 21% of control, with an EC(50) value of 447 nM at -97 mV). This effect was apparently caused by an action of AA at an extracellular site and was not prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase C, free oxygen radicals, or AA metabolic pathways. Fatty acids that are not substrates for metabolism also potentiated Kir2.3 current. AA had no effect on the currents flowing through Kir2.1, Kir2.2, or Kir2.4 channels. Experiments with Kir2.1/2.3 chimeras suggested that, although AA may bind to both Kir2.1 and Kir2.3, the transmembrane and/or intracellular domains of Kir2.3 were essential for channel potentiation. These results argue for a direct mechanism of AA modulation of Kir2.3.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL60723; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33138

    Molecular pharmacology 2001;59;5;1061-8

  • Inward rectifier potassium channel Kir2.2 is associated with synapse-associated protein SAP97.

    Leonoudakis D, Mailliard W, Wingerd K, Clegg D and Vandenberg C

    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, and Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

    The strong inwardly rectifying potassium channels Kir2.x are involved in maintenance and control of cell excitability. Recent studies reveal that the function and localization of ion channels are regulated by interactions with members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family. To identify novel interacting MAGUK family members, we constructed GST-fusion proteins with the C termini of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3. GST affinity-pulldown assays from solubilized rat cerebellum and heart membrane proteins revealed an interaction between all three Kir2.x C-terminal fusion proteins and the MAGUK protein synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). A truncated form of the C-terminal GST-Kir2.2 fusion protein indicated that the last three amino acids (S-E-I) are essential for association with SAP97. Affinity interactions using GST-fusion proteins containing the modular domains of SAP97 demonstrate that the second PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is sufficient for interaction with Kir2.2. Coimmunoprecipitations demonstrated that endogenous Kir2.2 associates with SAP97 in rat cerebellum and heart. Additionally, phosphorylation of the Kir2.2 C terminus by protein kinase A inhibited the association with SAP97. In rat cardiac ventricular myocytes, Kir2.2 and SAP97 colocalized in striated bands corresponding to T-tubules. In rat cerebellum, Kir2.2 was present in a punctate pattern along SAP97-positive processes of Bergmann glia in the molecular layer, and colocalized with astrocytes and granule cells in the granule cell layer. These results identify a direct association of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 with the MAGUK family member SAP97 that may form part of a macromolecular signaling complex in many different tissues.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL41656, IF32HL10239-01

    Journal of cell science 2001;114;Pt 5;987-98

  • Neuronal inwardly rectifying K(+) channels differentially couple to PDZ proteins of the PSD-95/SAP90 family.

    Nehring RB, Wischmeyer E, Döring F, Veh RW, Sheng M and Karschin A

    Molecular Neurobiology of Signal Transduction, Max-Planck-Institut for Biophysical Chemistry, 37070 Göttingen, Germany.

    Several signaling proteins clustered at the postsynaptic density specialization in neurons harbor a conserved C-terminal PDZ domain recognition sequence (X-S/T-X-V/I) that mediates binding to members of the PSD-95/SAP90 protein family. This motif is also present in the C termini of some inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels. Constitutively active Kir2 channels as well as G protein-gated Kir3 channels, which are fundamental for neuronal excitability, were analyzed as candidates for binding to PSD-95/SAP90 family members. Therefore C termini of Kir2.1(+), Kir2.3(+), Kir2.4(-), Kir3.1(-), Kir3.2(+), Kir3.3(+) and Kir3.4(-) subunits (+, motif present; -, motif absent) were used as baits in the yeast two-hybrid assay to screen for in vivo interaction with PDZ domains 1-3 of PSD-95/SAP90. In contrast to Kir2.1 and Kir2.3, all Kir3 fragments failed to bind PSD-95 in this assay, which was supported by the lack of coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of the entire proteins in mammalian cells. A detailed analysis of interaction domains demonstrated that the C-terminal motif in Kir3 channels is insufficient for binding PDZ domains. Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 subunits on the other hand coprecipitate with PSD-95. When coexpressed in a bicistronic internal ribosome entry site expression vector in HEK-293 cells macroscopic and elementary current analysis revealed that PSD-95 suppressed the activity of Kir2.3 channels by >50%. This inhibitory action of PSD-95, which predominantly affects the single-channel conductance, is likely attributable to a molecular association with additional internal interaction sites in the Kir2.3 protein.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;1;156-62

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22.

    Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP et al.

    Sanger Centre, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. id1@sanger.ac.uk

    Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.

    Nature 1999;402;6761;489-95

  • Neuronal interleukin-16 (NIL-16): a dual function PDZ domain protein.

    Kurschner C and Yuzaki M

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    Interleukin (IL)-16 is a proinflammatory cytokine that has attracted widespread attention because of its ability to block HIV replication. We describe the identification and characterization of a large neuronal IL-16 precursor, NIL-16. The N-terminal half of NIL-16 constitutes a novel PDZ domain protein sequence, whereas the C terminus is identical with splenocyte-derived mouse pro-IL-16. IL-16 has been characterized only in the immune system, and the identification of NIL-16 marks a previously unsuspected connection between the immune and the nervous systems. NIL-16 is a cytosolic protein that is detected only in neurons of the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The N-terminal portion of NIL-16 interacts selectively with a variety of neuronal ion channels, which is similar to the function of many other PDZ domain proteins that serve as intracellular scaffolding proteins. Among the NIL-16-interacting proteins is the class C alpha1 subunit of a mouse brain calcium channel (mbC alpha1). The C terminus of NIL-16 can be processed by caspase-3, resulting in the release of secreted IL-16. Furthermore, in cultured cerebellar granule neurons undergoing apoptosis, NIL-16 proteolysis parallels caspase-3 activation. Cerebellar granule neurons express the IL-16 receptor CD4. Exposure of these cells to IL-16 induces expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, via a signaling pathway that involves tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that IL-16 provides an autocrine function in the brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that NIL-16 is a dual function protein in the nervous system that serves as a secreted signaling molecule as well as a scaffolding protein.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA21765

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;18;7770-80

  • Suppression of Kir2.3 activity by protein kinase C phosphorylation of the channel protein at threonine 53.

    Zhu G, Qu Z, Cui N and Jiang C

    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303-4010, USA.

    Kir2.3 plays an important part in the maintenance of membrane potential in neurons and myocardium. Identification of intracellular signaling molecules controlling this channel thus may lead to an understanding of the regulation of membrane excitability. To determine whether Kir2.3 is modulated by direct phosphorylation of its channel protein and identify the phosphorylation site of protein kinase C (PKC), we performed experiments using several recombinant and mutant Kir2.3 channels. Whole-cell Kir2.3 currents were inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in Xenopus oocytes. When the N-terminal region of Kir2.3 was replaced with that of Kir2.1, another member in the Kir2 family that is insensitive to PMA, the chimerical channel lost its PMA sensitivity. However, substitution of the C terminus was ineffective. Four potential PKC phosphorylation sites in the N terminus were studied by comparing mutations of serine or threonine with their counterpart residues in Kir2.1. Whereas substitutions of serine residues at positions 5, 36, and 39 had no effect on the channel sensitivity to PMA, mutation of threonine 53 completely eliminated the channel response to PMA. Interestingly, creation of this threonine residue at the corresponding position (I79T) in Kir2.1 lent the mutant channel a PMA sensitivity almost identical to the wild-type Kir2.3. These results therefore indicate that Kir2.3 is directly modulated by PKC phosphorylation of its channel protein and threonine 53 is the PKC phosphorylation site in Kir2.3.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58410-01, R01 HL058410

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;17;11643-6

  • Inhibition of an inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.3) by G-protein betagamma subunits.

    Cohen NA, Sha Q, Makhina EN, Lopatin AN, Linder ME, Snyder SH and Nichols CG

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. cnichols@cellbio.wustl.edu

    The molecular basis of G-protein inhibition of inward rectifier K+ currents was examined by co-expression of G-proteins and cloned Kir2 channel subunits in Xenopus oocytes. Channels encoded by Kir2.3 (HRK1/HIR/BIRK2/BIR11) were completely suppressed by co-expression with G-protein betagamma subunits, whereas channels encoded by Kir2. 1 (IRK1), which shares 60% amino acid identity with Kir2.3, were unaffected. Co-expression of Galphai1 and Galphaq subunits also partially suppressed Kir2.3 currents, but Galphat, Galphas, and a constitutively active mutant of Galphail (Q204L) were ineffective. Gbetagamma and Kir2.3 subunits were co-immunoprecipitated using an anti-Kir2.3 antibody. Direct binding of G-protein betagamma subunits to fusion proteins containing Kir2.3 N terminus, but not to fusion proteins containing Kir2.1 N terminus, was also demonstrated. The results are consistent with suppression of Kir2.3 currents resulting from a direct protein-protein interaction between the channel and G-protein betagamma subunits. When Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 subunits were coexpressed, the G-protein inhibitory phenotype of Kir2.3 was dominant, suggesting that co-expression of Kir2.3 with other Kir subunits might give rise to novel G-protein-inhibitable inward rectifier currents.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45742, HL54171; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM50556; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;50;32301-5

  • Binding of the inward rectifier K+ channel Kir 2.3 to PSD-95 is regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation.

    Cohen NA, Brenman JE, Snyder SH and Bredt DS

    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Dynamic regulation of ion channel interactions with the cytoskeleton mediates aspects of synaptic plasticity, yet mechanisms for this process are largely unknown. Here, we report that two inwardly rectifying K+ channels, Kir 2.1 and 2.3, bind to PSD-95, a cytoskeletal protein of postsynaptic densities that clusters NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent K+ channels. Kir 2.3 colocalizes with PSD-95 in neuronal populations in forebrain, and a PSD-95/Kir 2.3 complex occurs in hippocampus. Within the C-terminal tail of Kir 2.3, a serine residue critical for interaction with PSD-95, is also a substrate for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). Stimulation of PKA in intact cells causes rapid dissociation of the channel from PSD-95. This work identifies a physiological mechanism for regulating ion channel interactions with the postsynaptic density.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00266; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-18501; NINDS NIH HHS: R01NS34822; ...

    Neuron 1996;17;4;759-67

  • Assignment of the human hippocampal inward rectifier potassium channel (HIR) gene to 22q13.1.

    Budarf ML, Périer F, Barnoski BL, Bell CJ and Vandenberg CA

    Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA39926; NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00425; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL41656; ...

    Genomics 1995;26;3;625-9

  • Cloning and expression of a novel human brain inward rectifier potassium channel.

    Makhina EN, Kelly AJ, Lopatin AN, Mercer RW and Nichols CG

    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    A complementary DNA encoding an inward rectifier K+ channel (HRK1) was isolated from human hippocampus using a 392-base pair cDNA (HHCMD37) as a probe. HRK1 shows sequence similarity to three recently cloned inwardly rectifying potassium channels (IRK1, GIRK1, and ROMK1, 60, 42, and 37%, respectively) and has a similar proposed topology of two membrane spanning domains that correspond to the inner core structure of voltage gated K+ channels. When HRK1 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, large inward K+ currents were observed below the K+ reversal potential but very little outward K+ current was observed. In on-cell membrane patches, single channel conductance (g) was estimated to be 10 picosiemens by both direct measurement and noise analysis, in 102 mM external [K+]. HRK1 currents were blocked by external Ba2+ and Cs+ (K(0) = 183 microM, and K(-130) = 30 microM, respectively), and internal tetraethylammonium ion (K(0) = 62 microM), but were insensitive to external tetraethylammonium ion. The functional properties of HRK1 are very similar to those of glial cell inward rectifier K+ channels and HRK1 may represent a glial cell inward rectifier.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39746

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;32;20468-74

  • Cloning a novel human brain inward rectifier potassium channel and its functional expression in Xenopus oocytes.

    Tang W and Yang XC

    Department of CNS Research, Lederle Laboratories, American Cyanamid Co., Pearl River, NY 10965.

    We have cloned a novel inward rectifier K+ channel (hIRK2) from a human frontal cortex cDNA library. The amino acid sequence of hIRK2 shares 60% and 40% identity with the mouse IRK1 and the rat ROMK1 channels, respectively. Xenopus oocytes injected with hIRK2 cRNA showed an inwardly rectifying K+ current that had a prominent 'N-shape' I-V curve and was blocked by extracellular Ba2+. The hIRK2 channel has two unique features: (a) an 18 amino acid insertion between the first transmembrane region and the pore, and (b) restricted mRNA distribution found only in human brain and heart.

    FEBS letters 1994;348;3;239-43

  • Primary structure and characterization of a small-conductance inwardly rectifying potassium channel from human hippocampus.

    Périer F, Radeke CM and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106.

    We have isolated a human hippocampus cDNA that encodes an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, termed HIR (hippocampal inward rectifier), with strong rectification characteristics. Single-channel recordings indicate that the HIR channel has an unusually small conductance (13 pS), distinguishing HIR from other cloned inward rectifiers. RNA blot analyses show that HIR transcripts are present in heart, skeletal muscle, and several different brain regions, including the hippocampus.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL41656

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;13;6240-4

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.