G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2
G00000084 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000007402 (Ensembl human gene)
9254 (Entrez Gene)
420 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CACNA2D2 (GeneCards)
607082 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1400 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9NY47 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA0558

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • The ducky(2J) mutation in Cacna2d2 results in reduced spontaneous Purkinje cell activity and altered gene expression.

    Donato R, Page KM, Koch D, Nieto-Rostro M, Foucault I, Davies A, Wilkinson T, Rees M, Edwards FA and Dolphin AC

    Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    The mouse mutant ducky and its allele ducky(2J) represent a model for absence epilepsy characterized by spike-wave seizures and cerebellar ataxia. These mice have mutations in Cacna2d2, which encodes the alpha2delta-2 calcium channel subunit. Of relevance to the ataxic phenotype, alpha2delta-2 mRNA is strongly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The Cacna2d2(du2J) mutation results in a 2 bp deletion in the coding region and a complete loss of alpha2delta-2 protein. Here we show that du(2J)/du(2J) mice have a 30% reduction in somatic calcium current and a marked fall in the spontaneous PC firing rate at 22 degrees C, accompanied by a decrease in firing regularity, which is not affected by blocking synaptic input to PCs. At 34 degrees C, du(2J)/du(2J) PCs show no spontaneous intrinsic activity. Du(2J)/du(2J) mice also have alterations in the cerebellar expression of several genes related to PC function. At postnatal day 21, there is an elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and a reduction in tenascin-C gene expression. Although du(2J)/+ mice have a marked reduction in alpha2delta-2 protein, they show no fall in PC somatic calcium currents or increase in cerebellar tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, du(2J)/+ PCs do exhibit a significant reduction in firing rate, correlating with the reduction in alpha2delta-2. A hypothesis for future study is that effects on gene expression occur as a result of a reduction in somatic calcium currents, whereas effects on PC firing occur as a long-term result of loss of alpha2delta-2 and/or a reduction in calcium currents and calcium-dependent processes in regions other than the soma.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0100503; Wellcome Trust: 061497

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2006;26;48;12576-86

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Cerebellar ataxia, seizures, premature death, and cardiac abnormalities in mice with targeted disruption of the Cacna2d2 gene.

    Ivanov SV, Ward JM, Tessarollo L, McAreavey D, Sachdev V, Fananapazir L, Banks MK, Morris N, Djurickovic D, Devor-Henneman DE, Wei MH, Alvord GW, Gao B, Richardson JA, Minna JD, Rogawski MA and Lerman MI

    Basic Research Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA. ivanov@mail.ncifcrf.gov.

    CACNA2D2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region that shows frequent allelic imbalances in lung, breast, and other cancers. The alpha2delta-2 protein encoded by the gene is a regulatory subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels and is expressed in brain, heart, and other tissues. Here we report that mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the Cacna2d2 gene exhibit growth retardation, reduced life span, ataxic gait with apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells followed by Purkinje cell depletion, enhanced susceptibility to seizures, and cardiac abnormalities. The Cacna2d2(tm1NCIF) null phenotype has much in common with that of Cacna1a mutants, such as cerebellar neuro-degeneration associated with ataxia, seizures, and premature death. A tendency to bradycardia and limited response of null mutants to isoflurane implicate alpha2delta-2 in sympathetic regulation of cardiac function. In summary, our findings provide genetic evidence that the alpha2delta-2 subunit serves in vivo as a component of P/Q-type calcium channels, is indispensable for the central nervous system function, and may be involved in hereditary cerebellar ataxias and epileptic disorders in humans.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-12400, N01CO12400

    The American journal of pathology 2004;165;3;1007-18

  • CACNA2D2-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells is associated with alterations of the intracellular calcium signaling and disruption of mitochondria membrane integrity.

    Carboni GL, Gao B, Nishizaki M, Xu K, Minna JD, Roth JA and Ji L

    Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

    The CACNA2D2 gene, a new subunit of the Ca(2+)-channel complex, was identified in the homozygous deletion region of chromosome 3p21.3 in human lung and breast cancers. Expression deficiency of the CACNA2D2 in cancer cells suggests a possible link of it to Ca(2+) signaling in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and other cancers. We investigated the effects of overexpression of CACNA2D2 on intracellular Ca(2+) contents, mitochondria homeostasis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis by adenoviral vector-mediated wild-type CACNA2D2 gene transfer in 3p21.3-deficient nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines. Exogenous expression of CACNA2D2 significantly inhibited tumor cell growth compared with the controls. Overexpression of CACNA2D2 induced apoptosis in H1299 (12.5%), H358 (13.7%), H460 (22.3%), and A549 (50.1%) cell lines. Levels of intracellular free Ca(2+) were elevated in AdCACNA2D2-transduced cells compared with the controls. Mitochondria membrane depolarization was observed prior to apoptosis in Ad-CACNA2D2 and Adp53-transduced H460 and A549 cells. Release of cyt c into the cytosol, caspase 3 activation, and PARP cleavage were also detected in these cells. Together, these results suggest that one of the pathways in CACNA2D2-induced apoptosis is mediated through disruption of mitochondria membrane integrity, the release of cyt c, and the activation of caspases, a process that is associated with regulation of cytosolic free Ca(2+) contents.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P50-CA70907-04, CA16672, CA71618, P01 CA078778, P01 CA78778-01A1, P30 CA016672, P50 CA070907, R01 CA071618

    Oncogene 2003;22;4;615-26

  • Identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human alpha 2 delta 2 calcium channel subunit gene.

    Honorio S, Gordon K, MacCartney D, Agathanggelou A and Latif F

    Division of Reproductive and Child Health, Section of Medical and Molecular Genetics, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK.

    Molecular and cellular probes 2001;15;6;391-3

  • A G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 2 of the human CACNA2D2 gene that maps at 3p21.3.

    Angeloni D, Duh FM, Wei MF, Johnson BE and Lerman MI

    Laboratory of Immunobiology, National Cancer Institute - Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA. andreazzolid@mail.ncifcrf.gov

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-56000

    Molecular and cellular probes 2001;15;2;125-7

  • The 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and evaluation of the resident candidate tumor suppressor genes. The International Lung Cancer Chromosome 3p21.3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Consortium.

    Lerman MI and Minna JD

    Laboratory of Immanobiology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702, USA. lerman@ncifcrf.gov

    We used overlapping and nested homozygous deletions, contig building, genomic sequencing, and physical and transcript mapping to further define a approximately 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region harboring one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on chromosome 3p21.3. This location was identified through somatic genetic mapping in tumors, cancer cell lines, and premalignant lesions of the lung and breast, including the discovery of several homozygous deletions. The combination of molecular manual methods and computational predictions permitted us to detect, isolate, characterize, and annotate a set of 25 genes that likely constitute the complete set of protein-coding genes residing in this approximately 630-kb sequence. A subset of 19 of these genes was found within the deleted overlap region of approximately 370-kb. This region was further subdivided by a nesting 200-kb breast cancer homozygous deletion into two gene sets: 8 genes lying in the proximal approximately 120-kb segment and 11 genes lying in the distal approximately 250-kb segment. These 19 genes were analyzed extensively by computational methods and were tested by manual methods for loss of expression and mutations in lung cancers to identify candidate TSGs from within this group. Four genes showed loss-of-expression or reduced mRNA levels in non-small cell lung cancer (CACNA2D2/alpha2delta-2, SEMA3B [formerly SEMA(V), BLU, and HYAL1] or small cell lung cancer (SEMA3B, BLU, and HYAL1) cell lines. We found six of the genes to have two or more amino acid sequence-altering mutations including BLU, NPRL2/Gene21, FUS1, HYAL1, FUS2, and SEMA3B. However, none of the 19 genes tested for mutation showed a frequent (>10%) mutation rate in lung cancer samples. This led us to exclude several of the genes in the region as classical tumor suppressors for sporadic lung cancer. On the other hand, the putative lung cancer TSG in this location may either be inactivated by tumor-acquired promoter hypermethylation or belong to the novel class of haploinsufficient genes that predispose to cancer in a hemizygous (+/-) state but do not show a second mutation in the remaining wild-type allele in the tumor. We discuss the data in the context of novel and classic cancer gene models as applied to lung carcinogenesis. Further functional testing of the critical genes by gene transfer and gene disruption strategies should permit the identification of the putative lung cancer TSG(s), LUCA, Analysis of the approximately 630-kb sequence also provides an opportunity to probe and understand the genomic structure, evolution, and functional organization of this relatively gene-rich region.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71618, N01-CO-56000, P50 CA70907

    Cancer research 2000;60;21;6116-33

  • Functional properties of a new voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha(2)delta auxiliary subunit gene (CACNA2D2).

    Gao B, Sekido Y, Maximov A, Saad M, Forgacs E, Latif F, Wei MH, Lerman M, Lee JH, Perez-Reyes E, Bezprozvanny I and Minna JD

    Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, Departments of Internal Medicine, Pharmacology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    We have positionally cloned and characterized a new calcium channel auxiliary subunit, alpha(2)delta-2 (CACNA2D2), which shares 56% amino acid identity with the known alpha(2)delta-1 subunit. The gene maps to the critical human tumor suppressor gene region in chromosome 3p21.3, showing very frequent allele loss and occasional homozygous deletions in lung, breast, and other cancers. The tissue distribution of alpha(2)delta-2 expression is different from alpha(2)delta-1, and alpha(2)delta-2 mRNA is most abundantly expressed in lung and testis and well expressed in brain, heart, and pancreas. In contrast, alpha(2)delta-1 is expressed predominantly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. When co-expressed (via cRNA injections) with alpha(1B) and beta(3) subunits in Xenopus oocytes, alpha(2)delta-2 increased peak size of the N-type Ca(2+) currents 9-fold, and when co-expressed with alpha(1C) or alpha(1G) subunits in Xenopus oocytes increased peak size of L-type channels 2-fold and T-type channels 1.8-fold, respectively. Anti-peptide antibodies detect the expression of a 129-kDa alpha(2)delta-2 polypeptide in some but not all lung tumor cells. We conclude that the alpha(2)delta-2 gene encodes a functional auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Because of its chromosomal location and expression patterns, CACNA2D2 needs to be explored as a potential tumor suppressor gene linking Ca(2+) signaling and lung, breast, and other cancer pathogenesis. The homologous location on mouse chromosome 9 is also the site of the mouse neurologic mutant ducky (du), and thus, CACNA2D2 is also a candidate gene for this inherited idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71618, P50 CA070907, P50-CA70907, R01 CA071618; NINDS NIH HHS: NS38691, R01 NS038691

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;16;12237-42

  • Neuronal distribution and functional characterization of the calcium channel alpha2delta-2 subunit.

    Hobom M, Dai S, Marais E, Lacinova L, Hofmann F and Klugbauer N

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Technischen Universität München, Germany.

    The auxiliary calcium channel alpha2delta subunit comprises a family of three genes, alpha2delta-1 to 3, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. alpha2delta-2 mRNA is found in the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, liver and pancreas. We report here for the first time the identification and functional characterization of alpha2delta-2 splice variants and their mRNA distribution in the mouse brain. The splice variants differ in the alpha2 and delta protein by eight and three amino acid residues, respectively, and are differentially expressed in cardiac tissue and human medullary thyroid carcinoma (hMTC) cells. In situ hybridization of mouse brain sections revealed the highest expression of alpha2delta-2 mRNA in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, habenulae and septal nuclei, and a lower expression in the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, as well as the inferior and superior colliculus. As the in situ data did not suggest a specific colocalization with any alpha1 subunit, coexpression studies of alpha2delta-2 were carried out either with the high-voltage-gated calcium channels, alpha1C, alpha1E or alpha1A, or with the low-voltage-gated calcium channel, alpha1G. Coexpression of alpha2delta-2 increased the current density, shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation and inactivation of alpha1C, alpha1E and alpha1A subunits in a hyperpolarizing direction, and accelerated the decay and shifted the steady-state inactivation of the alpha1G current.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2000;12;4;1217-26

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of a series of projects for sequencing human cDNA clones derived from relatively long transcripts, we herein report the entire sequences of 100 newly determined cDNA clones with the potential of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries with insert sizes between 4.5 and 8.3 kb. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and of their open reading frames was 5.3 kb and 2.8 kb (930 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology search against public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 86 clones exhibited significant similarities to known genes; 51 of them (59%) were related to those for cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. All the clones characterized in this study are accompanied by their expression profiles in 14 human tissues examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal mapping data.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;1;31-9

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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