G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit
G00000079 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000167535 (Ensembl human gene)
784 (Entrez Gene)
423 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CACNB3 (GeneCards)
601958 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1403 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P54284 (UniProt)

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • The beta subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels interacts with and regulates the activity of a novel isoform of Pax6.

    Zhang Y, Yamada Y, Fan M, Bangaru SD, Lin B and Yang J

    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

    Ca(2+) channel beta subunits (Ca(v)betas) are essential for regulating the surface expression and gating of high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels through their interaction with Ca(2+) channel alpha(1) subunits. In efforts to uncover new interacting partners and new functions for Ca(v)beta, we identified a new splicing isoform of Pax6, a transcription factor crucial for the development of the eye, nose, brain, and pancreas. Pax6 contains two DNA binding domains (paired domain and homeodomain), a glycine-rich linker connecting these two domains and a C-terminal proline-, serine-, and threonine-rich transactivation domain. The protein sequence and function of Pax6 are highly conserved from invertebrate to human. The newly isolated isoform, named Pax6(S), retains the paired domain, linker, and homeodomain of Pax6, but its C terminus is composed of a truncated classic proline, serine, and threonine domain and a unique S tail. Pax6(S) shows a similar level of transcriptional activity in vitro as does Pax6, but only in primates is the protein sequence highly conserved. Its spatial-temporal expression profiles are also different from those of Pax6. These divergences suggest a noncanonical role of Pax6(S) during development. The interaction between Pax6(S) and Ca(v)beta is mainly endowed by the S tail. Co-expression of Pax6(S) with a Ca(2+) channel complex containing the beta(3) subunit in Xenopus oocytes does not affect channel properties. Conversely, however, beta(3) is able to suppress the transcriptional activity of Pax6(S). Furthermore, in the presence of Pax6(S), beta(3) is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These results suggest that full-length Ca(v)beta may act directly as a transcription regulator independent of its role in regulating Ca(2+) channel activity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS045819, NS053494, R01 NS045819, R01 NS053494

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;4;2527-36

  • Identification of SH3 domain interaction partners of human FasL (CD178) by phage display screening.

    Voss M, Lettau M and Janssen O

    Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. matthias.voss@med.uni-muenchen.de

    Background: Fas ligand is a cytotoxic effector molecule of T and NK cells which is characterized by an intracellular N-terminal polyproline region that serves as a docking site for SH3 and WW domain proteins. Several previously described Fas ligand-interacting SH3 domain proteins turned out to be crucial for the regulation of storage, expression and function of the death factor. Recent observations, however, indicate that Fas ligand is also subject to posttranslational modifications including shedding and intramembrane proteolysis. This results in the generation of short intracellular fragments that might either be degraded or translocate to the nucleus to influence transcription. So far, protein-protein interactions that specifically regulate the fate of the intracellular fragments have not been identified.

    Results: In order to further define the SH3 domain interactome of the intracellular region of Fas ligand, we now screened a human SH3 domain phage display library. In addition to known SH3 domains mediating binding to the Fas ligand proline-rich domain, we were able to identify a number of additional SH3 domains that might also associate with FasL. Potential functional implications of the new binding proteins for the death factor's biology are discussed. For Tec kinases and sorting nexins, the observed interactions were verified in cellular systems by pulldown experiments.

    Conclusion: We provide an extended list of putative Fas ligand interaction partners, confirming previously identified interactions, but also introducing several novel SH3 domain proteins that might be important regulators of Fas ligand function.

    BMC immunology 2009;10;53

  • Alternative splicing of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel beta4 subunit creates a uniquely folded N-terminal protein binding domain with cell-specific expression in the cerebellar cortex.

    Vendel AC, Terry MD, Striegel AR, Iverson NM, Leuranguer V, Rithner CD, Lyons BA, Pickard GE, Tobet SA and Horne WA

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, USA.

    Ca2+ channel beta subunits regulate cell-surface expression and gating of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunits. Based on primary sequence comparisons, beta subunits are predicted to be modular structures composed of five domains (A-E) that are related to the large family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins. The crystal structure of the beta subunit core B-D domains has been reported recently; however, little is known about the structures of the A and E domains. The N-terminal A domain differs among the four subtypes of Ca2+ channel beta subunits (beta1-beta4) primarily as the result of two duplications of an ancestral gene containing multiple alternatively spliced exons. At least nine A domain sequences can be generated by alternative splicing. In this report, we focus on one A domain sequence, the highly conserved beta4a A domain. We solved its three-dimensional structure and show that it is expressed in punctate structures throughout the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. We also demonstrate that it does not participate directly in Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel gating but serves as a binding site in protein-protein interactions with synaptotagmin I and the LC2 domain of microtubule-associated protein 1A. With respect to beta4 subunits, the interactions are specific for the beta4a splice variant, because they do not occur with the beta4b A domain. These results have strong bearing on our current understanding of the structure of alternatively spliced Ca2+ channel beta subunits and the cell-specific roles they play in the CNS.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD33441; NIMH NIH HHS: MH62296; NINDS NIH HHS: NS24444, NS42600

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2006;26;10;2635-44

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Structural basis of the alpha1-beta subunit interaction of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    Chen YH, Li MH, Zhang Y, He LL, Yamada Y, Fitzmaurice A, Shen Y, Zhang H, Tong L and Yang J

    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

    High-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels are essential for diverse biological processes. They are composed of four or five subunits, including alpha1, alpha2-delta, beta and gamma (ref. 1). Their expression and function are critically dependent on the beta-subunit, which transports alpha1 to the surface membrane and regulates diverse channel properties. It is believed that the beta-subunit interacts with alpha1 primarily through the beta-interaction domain (BID), which binds directly to the alpha-interaction domain (AID) of alpha1; however, the molecular mechanism of the alpha1-beta interaction is largely unclear. Here we report the crystal structures of the conserved core region of beta3, alone and in complex with AID, and of beta4 alone. The structures show that the beta-subunit core contains two interacting domains: a Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and a guanylate kinase (GK) domain. The AID binds to a hydrophobic groove in the GK domain through extensive interactions, conferring extremely high affinity between alpha1 and beta-subunits. The BID is essential both for the structural integrity of and for bridging the SH3 and GK domains, but it does not participate directly in binding alpha1. The presence of multiple protein-interacting modules in the beta-subunit opens a new dimension to its function as a multi-functional protein.

    Nature 2004;429;6992;675-80

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Pain perception in mice lacking the beta3 subunit of voltage-activated calcium channels.

    Murakami M, Fleischmann B, De Felipe C, Freichel M, Trost C, Ludwig A, Wissenbach U, Schwegler H, Hofmann F, Hescheler J, Flockerzi V and Cavalié A

    Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg, Germany.

    The importance of voltage-activated calcium channels in pain processing has been suggested by the spinal antinociceptive action of blockers of N- and P/Q-type calcium channels as well as by gene targeting of the alpha1B subunit (N-type). The accessory beta3 subunits of calcium channels are preferentially associated with the alpha1B subunit in neurones. Here we show that deletion of the beta3 subunit by gene targeting affects strongly the pain processing of mutant mice. We pinpoint this defect in the pain-related behavior and ascending pain pathways of the spinal cord in vivo and at the level of calcium channel currents and proteins in single dorsal root ganglion neurones in vitro. The pain induced by chemical inflammation is preferentially damped by deletion of beta3 subunits, whereas responses to acute thermal and mechanical harmful stimuli are reduced moderately or not at all, respectively. The defect results in a weak wind-up of spinal cord activity during intense afferent nerve stimulation. The molecular mechanism responsible for the phenotype was traced to low expression of N-type calcium channels (alpha1B) and functional alterations of calcium channel currents in neurones projecting to the spinal cord.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40342-51

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of the human voltage-gated calcium channel alpha(2)delta-4 subunit.

    Qin N, Yagel S, Momplaisir ML, Codd EE and D'Andrea MR

    Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477-0776, USA. nqin@prius.jnj.com

    The voltage-gated calcium channel is composed of a pore-forming alpha(1) subunit and several regulatory subunits: alpha(2)delta, beta, and gamma. We report here the identification of a novel alpha(2)delta subunit, alpha(2)delta-4, from the expressed sequence tag database followed by its cloning and characterization. The novel alpha(2)delta-4 subunit gene contains 39 exons spanning about 130 kilobases and is co-localized with the CHCNA1C gene (alpha(1C) subunit) on human chromosome 12p13.3. Alternative splicing of the alpha(2)delta-4 gene gives rise to four potential variants, a through d. The open reading frame of human alpha(2)delta-4a is composed of 3363 base pairs encoding a protein with 1120 residues and a calculated molecular mass of 126 kDa. The alpha(2)delta-4a subunit shares 30, 32, and 61% identity with the human calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1, alpha(2)delta-2, and alpha(2)delta-3 subunits, respectively. Primary sequence comparison suggests that alpha(2)delta-4 lacks the gabapentin binding motifs characterized for alpha(2)delta-1 and alpha(2)delta-2; this was confirmed by a [(3)H]gabapentin-binding assay. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit associated with Ca(V)1.2 and beta(3) subunits and significantly increased Ca(V)1.2/beta(3)-mediated Ca(2+) influx. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit has limited distribution in special cell types of the pituitary, adrenal gland, colon, and fetal liver. Whether the alpha(2)delta-4 subunit plays a distinct physiological role in select endocrine tissues remains to be demonstrated.

    Molecular pharmacology 2002;62;3;485-96

  • Novel functional properties of Ca(2+) channel beta subunits revealed by their expression in adult rat heart cells.

    Colecraft HM, Alseikhan B, Takahashi SX, Chaudhuri D, Mittman S, Yegnasubramanian V, Alvania RS, Johns DC, Marbán E and Yue DT

    Program in Molecular and Cellular Systems Physiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Traylor Building, Room 710A, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. hcolecra@bme.jhu.edu

    Recombinant adenoviruses were used to overexpress green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused auxiliary Ca(2+) channel beta subunits (beta(1)-beta(4)) in cultured adult rat heart cells, to explore new dimensions of beta subunit functions in vivo. Distinct beta-GFP subunits distributed differentially between the surface sarcolemma, transverse elements, and nucleus in single heart cells. All beta-GFP subunits increased the native cardiac whole-cell L-type Ca(2+) channel current density, but produced distinctive effects on channel inactivation kinetics. The degree of enhancement of whole-cell current density was non-uniform between beta subunits, with a rank order of potency beta(2a) approximately equal to beta(4) > beta(1b) > beta(3). For each beta subunit, the increase in L-type current density was accompanied by a correlative increase in the maximal gating charge (Q(max)) moved with depolarization. However, beta subunits produced characteristic effects on single L-type channel gating, resulting in divergent effects on channel open probability (P(o)). Quantitative analysis and modelling of single-channel data provided a kinetic signature for each channel type. Spurred on by ambiguities regarding the molecular identity of the actual endogenous cardiac L-type channel beta subunit, we cloned a new rat beta(2) splice variant, beta(2b), from heart using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. By contrast with beta(2a), expression of beta(2b) in heart cells yielded channels with a microscopic gating signature virtually identical to that of native unmodified channels. Our results provide novel insights into beta subunit functions that are unattainable in traditional heterologous expression studies, and also provide new perspectives on the molecular identity of the beta subunit component of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels. Overall, the work establishes a powerful experimental paradigm to explore novel functions of ion channel subunits in their native environments.

    The Journal of physiology 2002;541;Pt 2;435-52

  • Biophysical properties, pharmacology, and modulation of human, neuronal L-type (alpha(1D), Ca(V)1.3) voltage-dependent calcium currents.

    Bell DC, Butcher AJ, Berrow NS, Page KM, Brust PF, Nesterova A, Stauderman KA, Seabrook GR, Nürnberg B and Dolphin AC

    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are multimeric complexes composed of a pore-forming alpha(1) subunit together with several accessory subunits, including alpha(2)delta, beta, and, in some cases, gamma subunits. A family of VDCCs known as the L-type channels are formed specifically from alpha(1S) (skeletal muscle), alpha(1C) (in heart and brain), alpha(1D) (mainly in brain, heart, and endocrine tissue), and alpha(1F) (retina). Neuroendocrine L-type currents have a significant role in the control of neurosecretion and can be inhibited by GTP-binding (G-) proteins. However, the subunit composition of the VDCCs underlying these G-protein-regulated neuroendocrine L-type currents is unknown. To investigate the biophysical and pharmacological properties and role of G-protein modulation of alpha(1D) calcium channels, we have examined calcium channel currents formed by the human neuronal L-type alpha(1D) subunit, co-expressed with alpha(2)delta-1 and beta(3a), stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell line, using whole cell and perforated patch-clamp techniques. The alpha(1D)-expressing cell line exhibited L-type currents with typical characteristics. The currents were high-voltage activated (peak at +20 mV in 20 mM Ba2+) and showed little inactivation in external Ba2+, while displaying rapid inactivation kinetics in external Ca2+. The L-type currents were inhibited by the 1,4 dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonists nifedipine and nicardipine and were enhanced by the DHP agonist BayK S-(-)8644. However, alpha(1D) L-type currents were not modulated by activation of a number of G-protein pathways. Activation of endogenous somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) by somatostatin-14 or activation of transiently transfected rat D2 dopamine receptors (rD2(long)) by quinpirole had no effect. Direct activation of G-proteins by the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue, guanosine 5'-0-(3-thiotriphospate) also had no effect on the alpha(1D) currents. In contrast, in the same system, N-type currents, formed from transiently transfected alpha(1B)/alpha(2)delta-1/beta(3), showed strong G-protein-mediated inhibition. Furthermore, the I-II loop from the alpha(1D) clone, expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein, did not bind Gbetagamma, unlike the alpha(1B) I-II loop fusion protein. These data show that the biophysical and pharmacological properties of recombinant human alpha(1D) L-type currents are similar to alpha(1C) currents, and these currents are also resistant to modulation by G(i/o)-linked G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Journal of neurophysiology 2001;85;2;816-27

  • Gene structure of the murine calcium channel beta3 subunit, cDNA and characterization of alternative splicing and transcription products.

    Murakami M, Wissenbach U and Flockerzi V

    Pharmakologisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, Germany.

    The beta3 subunit of high-voltage-gated calcium channels is a peripheral membrane protein that copurifies with neural N-type calcium channels. Murine genomic clones containing the full coding sequence of beta3 were isolated and the exons were mapped and sequenced. The murine calcium channel beta3 subunit is encoded by a unique gene composed of 13 translated exons that spread over approximately 8 kb of genomic sequence. Alternatively spliced transcripts of the beta3 gene were identified and characterized. The primary structure of beta3 is highly conserved between the murine, human, rabbit and rat proteins (98% identity). The intron placement within that primary structure correlates with the previously postulated exon positions in transcripts encoding the members of the calcium channel beta subunit family and confirm a close evolutionary relationship of the beta3, beta1, beta2 and beta4 subunit genes.

    European journal of biochemistry 1996;236;1;138-43

  • Beta subunit heterogeneity in N-type Ca2+ channels.

    Scott VE, De Waard M, Liu H, Gurnett CA, Venzke DP, Lennon VA and Campbell KP

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Program in Neuroscience, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

    The beta subunit of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel is a cytoplasmic protein that interacts directly with an alpha1 subunit, thereby modulating the biophysical properties of the channel. Herein, we demonstrate that the alpha1B subunit of the N-type Ca2+ channel associates with several different beta subunits. Polyclonal antibodies specific for three different beta subunits immunoprecipitated 125I-omega-conotoxin GVIA binding from solubilized rabbit brain membranes. Enrichment of the N-type Ca2+ channels with an alpha1B subunit-specific monoclonal antibody showed the association of beta1b, beta3, and beta4 subunits. Protein sequencing of tryptic peptides of the 57-kDa component of the purified N-type Ca2+ channel confirmed the presence of the beta3 and beta4 subunits. Each of the beta subunits bound to the alpha1B subunit interaction domain with similar high affinity. Thus, our data demonstrate important heterogeneity in the beta subunit composition of the N-type Ca2+ channels, which may be responsible for some of the diverse kinetic properties recorded from neurons.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 37343

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;6;3207-12

  • Chromosomal localization of the human genes for alpha 1A, alpha 1B, and alpha 1E voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel subunits.

    Diriong S, Lory P, Williams ME, Ellis SB, Harpold MM and Taviaux S

    CRBM-CNRS and U249 INSERM, Montpellier, France.

    The alpha 1 subunit genes encoding voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are members of a gene family. We have used human brain cDNA probes to localize the neuronal isoform genes CACNL1A4 (alpha 1A), CACNL1A5 (alpha 1B), and CACNL1A6 (alpha 1E) to 19p13, 9q34, and 1q25-q31, respectively, using fluorescence in situ hybridization on human chromosomes. These genes are particularly interesting gene candidates in the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. Although genetic disorders have been linked to loci 9q34 and 19p13, no genetic disease related to Ca2+ signaling defects has yet been linked to these loci.

    Genomics 1995;30;3;605-9

  • The structures of the human calcium channel alpha 1 subunit (CACNL1A2) and beta subunit (CACNLB3) genes.

    Yamada Y, Masuda K, Li Q, Ihara Y, Kubota A, Miura T, Nakamura K, Fujii Y, Seino S and Seino Y

    Department of Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.

    Calcium influx in pancreatic beta-cells is regulated mainly by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and triggers insulin secretion. The alpha 1 subunit (CACN4) and the beta subunit (beta 3) of VDCCs, both of which are expressed in pancreatic islets, are major components for the VDCC activity, and so they may play a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion. We have determined the structures of the human CACN4 (CACNL1A2) and the human beta 3 (CACNLB3) genes. The CACNL1A2 gene spans more than 155 kb and has 49 exons. Most of the positions interrupted by introns are well conserved between the CACNL1A2 gene and the previously reported L-type VDCC alpha 1 subunit, CACNL1A1, gene. On the other hand, the CACNLB3 gene distributes in approximately 8 kb and comprises 13 exons, most of which are located together within approximately 5 kb. Comparisons of the genomic sequences of CACNL1A2 with the previously reported cDNA sequences indicate that there are a number of polymorphisms in the human CACNL1A2 gene. In addition, the PCR-SSCP procedure of exon 1 of CACNL1A2 revealed a change from 7 to 8 ATG trinucleotide repeats in a patient with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in an addition of methionine at the amino-terminus of CACN4. The determination of the structures of the human CACNL1A2 and CACNLB3 genes should facilitate study of the role of these genes in the development of NIDDM and also other genetic diseases such as long QT syndrome.

    Genomics 1995;27;2;312-9

  • Cloning, chromosomal location and functional expression of the human voltage-dependent calcium-channel beta 3 subunit.

    Collin T, Lory P, Taviaux S, Courtieu C, Guilbault P, Berta P and Nargeot J

    Centre de Recherches de Biochimie Macromoléculaire, CNRS UPR9008, INSERM U249, Montpellier, France.

    A novel human-voltage-dependent-calcium-channel (VDCC) beta subunit was isolated from a 9-week-old human total-embryo cDNA library. Of the four genes encoding beta-subunit isoforms that have been identified in animal species, this isoform shares strong similarity with the rat and rabbit beta 3-related gene product and is referred to here as H beta 3 subunit. The H beta 3 isoform is the second beta subunit identified in human. Its open reading frame encodes a 482-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 54.571 kDa. The H beta 3 mRNA is expressed mostly in brain, smooth muscle and ovary. The gene for the human H beta 3 was specifically localized on chromosome 12q13. The cloned H beta 3 subunit was further expressed in Xenopus oocytes to demonstrate its ability to modulate VDCC activity.

    European journal of biochemistry 1994;220;1;257-62

  • Cloning and characterization of a Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome antigen.

    Rosenfeld MR, Wong E, Dalmau J, Manley G, Posner JB, Sher E and Furneaux HM

    Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is a paraneoplastic neuromuscular disorder in which an immune response directed against a small-cell lung tumor crossreacts with antigens in the neuromuscular junction. To isolate and characterize the antigens, we screened a human fetal brain expression library with a high-titer serum from a patient with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. This screening resulted in the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding an antigen we call myasthenic syndrome antigen B (MysB). Approximately 43% (3 of 7) of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome sera specifically recognized MysB fusion protein, whereas none of 34 control sera did. The predicted amino acid sequence of this clone shows a high degree of homology to the beta subunit of calcium channel complexes. The MysB pre-messenger RNA is alternatively spliced to yield 3 forms of the protein differing in the domain between two highly conserved alpha-helical segments.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09512; NINDS NIH HHS: NS26064

    Annals of neurology 1993;33;1;113-20

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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