G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001322
Gene symbol
ATP2B4 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4
Orthologue
G00000073 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000035906 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000058668 (Ensembl human gene)
493 (Entrez Gene)
39 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATP2B4 (GeneCards)
Literature
108732 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:817 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P23634 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • PMCA4

Literature (51)

Pubmed - other

  • Follow-up of a major linkage peak on chromosome 1 reveals suggestive QTLs associated with essential hypertension: GenNet study.

    Ehret GB, O'Connor AA, Weder A, Cooper RS and Chakravarti A

    Center for Complex Diseases Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Essential hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor and a large proportion of this risk is genetic. Identification of genomic regions consistently associated with hypertension has been difficult in association studies to date as this requires large sample sizes.We previously published a large genome-wide linkage scan in Americans of African (AA) and European (EA) descent in the GenNet Network of the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). A highly significant linkage peak was identified on chr1q spanning a region of 100 cM. In this study, we genotyped 1569 SNPs under this linkage peak in 2379 individuals to identify whether common genetic variants were associated with blood pressure (BP) at this locus.Our analysis, using two different family-based association tests, provides suggestive evidence (P< or =2 x 10(-5)) for a collection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BP. In EAs, using diastolic BP as a quantitative phenotype, three variants located in or near the GPA33, CD247, and F5 genes, emerge as our top hits; for systolic BP, variants in GPA33, CD247, and REN are our best findings. No variant in AAs came close to suggestive evidence after multiple-test corrections (P> or =8 x 10(-5)). In summary, we show that systematic follow-up of a linkage signal can help discover candidate variants for essential hypertension that require a follow-up in yet larger samples. The failure to identify common variants is either because of low statistical power or the existence of rare coding variants in specific families or both, which require additional studies to clarify.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL054512-11

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;12;1650-7

  • Plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 and the remodeling of calcium homeostasis in human colon cancer cells.

    Aung CS, Ye W, Plowman G, Peters AA, Monteith GR and Roberts-Thomson SJ

    School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.

    A remodeling of calcium homeostasis has been identified as a characterizing feature of some cancers. Possible consequences of this include alterations in many pivotal physiological responses including apoptosis, proliferation and gene transcription. An alteration in calcium homeostasis can occur via changes in the expression of proteins that transport calcium and examples of cancers where this is seen includes the prostate and breast. A specific isoform of the calcium efflux pump, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) 4, is significantly upregulated during differentiation of the HT-29 colon cancer cell line suggesting that it may also be altered in colon cancer. We now report that differentiated HT-29 colon cancer cells have pronounced plasma membrane PMCA4 localization, consistent with augmented calcium efflux. Assessment of PMCA4 transcription in human colon cancer samples suggests that PMCA4 is significantly (P < 0.000001) downregulated early in the progression of some colon cancers as these cells become less differentiated. Inhibition of PMCA4 using small interfering RNA did not induce cell death or augment sensitivity to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Reversing the colon cancer remodeling of PMCA4 by overexpression reduced cellular proliferation (P < 0.01) and downregulated transcription of the calcium sensitive early response gene FOS. Our studies suggest that the remodeling of the calcium signal in colon cancer is associated with compromised calcium efflux at a level that promotes proliferative pathways while avoiding increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli.

    Carcinogenesis 2009;30;11;1962-9

  • PSD-95 mediates membrane clustering of the human plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4b.

    Padányi R, Pászty K, Strehler EE and Enyedi A

    National Blood Center, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Diószegi u. 64, H-1113 Budapest, Hungary.

    Besides the control of global calcium changes, specific plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) isoforms are involved in the regulation of local calcium signals. Although local calcium signaling requires the confinement of signaling molecules into microdomains, little is known about the specific organization of PMCA molecules within the plasma membrane. Here we show that co-expression with the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) scaffolding protein increased the plasma membrane expression of PMCA4b and redistributed the pump into clusters. The clustering of PMCA4b was fully dependent on the presence of its PDZ-binding sequence. Using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, we show that the lateral membrane mobility of the clustered PMCA4b is significantly lower than that of the non-clustered molecules. Disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D resulted in increased cluster size. Our results suggest that PSD-95 promotes the formation of high-density PMCA4b microdomains in the plasma membrane and that the membrane cytoskeleton plays an important role in the regulation of this process.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS51769, R01 NS051769, R01 NS051769-01A1, R01 NS051769-02

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1793;6;1023-32

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 4 antagonizes cardiac hypertrophy in association with calcineurin inhibition in rodents.

    Wu X, Chang B, Blair NS, Sargent M, York AJ, Robbins J, Shull GE and Molkentin JD

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.

    How Ca2+-dependent signaling effectors are regulated in cardiomyocytes, given the extreme cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration changes that underlie contraction, remains unknown. Cardiomyocyte plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) extrudes Ca2+ but has little effect on excitation-contraction coupling, suggesting its potential role in controlling Ca2+-dependent signaling effectors such as calcineurin. We generated cardiac-specific inducible PMCA4b transgenic mice that displayed normal global Ca2+ transient and cellular contraction levels and reduced cardiac hypertrophy following transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or phenylephrine/Ang II infusion, but showed no reduction in exercise-induced hypertrophy. Transgenic mice were protected from decompensation and fibrosis following long-term TAC. The PMCA4b transgene reduced the hypertrophic augmentation associated with transient receptor potential canonical 3 channel overexpression, but not that associated with activated calcineurin. Furthermore, Pmca4 gene-targeted mice showed increased cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure events after TAC. Physical associations between PMCA4b and calcineurin were enhanced by TAC and by agonist stimulation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. PMCA4b reduced calcineurin nuclear factor of activated T cell-luciferase activity after TAC and in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes after agonist stimulation. PMCA4b overexpression inhibited cultured cardiomyocyte hypertrophy following agonist stimulation, but much less so in a Ca2+ pumping-deficient PMCA4b mutant. Thus, Pmca4b likely reduces the local Ca2+ signals involved in reactive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via calcineurin regulation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL062927, R01 HL062927-10A1

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2009;119;4;976-85

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Functional and structural demonstration of the presence of Ca-ATPase (PMCA) in both microvillous and basal plasma membranes from syncytiotrophoblast of human term placenta.

    Marín R, Riquelme G, Godoy V, Díaz P, Abad C, Caires R, Proverbio T, Piñero S and Proverbio F

    Laboratorio de Bioenergética Celular, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), A.P. 21827, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela. rmarin@ivic.ve

    It is known that human syncytiotrophoblast (hSCT) actively transports more than 80% of the Ca2+ that goes from maternal to fetal circulation. Transepithelial transport of Ca2+ is carried out through channels, transporters and exchangers located in both microvillous (MVM) and basal (BM) plasma membranes. The plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA) is the most important mechanism of Ca2+ homeostasis control in the human placenta. In this work, we reexamined the distribution of PMCA in isolated hSCT of term placenta. The PMCA activity was determined in isolated hSCT plasma membranes. A partial characterization of the PMCA activity was performed, including an evaluation of the sensitivity of this enzyme to an in vitro induced lipid peroxidation. Expression of the PMCA in hSCT plasma membranes and tissue sections was investigated using Western blots and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, a correlation between the activity and structural distribution of PMCA in both MVM and BM of hSCT. It also demonstrates a higher PMCA activity and expression in MVM as compared to BM. Finally, PMCA4 seems to be preferentially distributed in both hSCT plasma membranes, while PMCA1 is shown to be present in the hSCT homogenate. However, the membrane fractions did not show any PMCA1 labeling. Our results must be taken into account in order to propose a new model for the transport of calcium across the hSCT.

    Placenta 2008;29;8;671-9

  • Increased expression of plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase 4b in platelets from hypertensives: a new sign of abnormal thrombopoiesis?

    Dally S, Chaabane C, Corvazier E, Bredoux R, Bobe R, Ftouhi B, Slimane H, Raies A and Enouf J

    U689 Inserm, CRCIL, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.

    Platelet Ca(2+) homeostasis is controlled by a multi-Ca(2+)ATPase system including two PMCA (plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase) and seven SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase) isoforms. Previous studies have shown similar platelet Ca(2+) abnormalities in diabetic and hypertensive patients, including an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)](I), a possible modulation of PMCA activity and increased PMCA tyrosine phosphorylation. Very recently, we found that platelets from diabetic patients also exhibited increased PMCA4b expression. In the present study we looked for further similarities between diabetic and hypertensive patients. We first confirmed a decrease in Ca(2+)ATPase activity (mean 55 + 7%) in mixed platelet membranes isolated from 10 patients with hypertension compared with those from 10 healthy controls. In addition, the decreased Ca(2+)ATPase activity correlated with the DBP of the different patients, as expected for PMCA activity. Second, we performed a pilot study of six hypertensives to examine their expressions of PMCA and SERCA mRNA and proteins. Like the diabetic patients, 100% of hypertensives were found to present a major increase in PMCA4b expression (mean value of 218 +/- 21%). We thus determined that platelets from diabetic and hypertensive patients showed similar increased PMCA4b isoform. Since increased PMCA4b expression was recently found to be associated with a perturbation of megakaryocytopoiesis, these findings may also point to an abnormality in platelet maturation in hypertension.

    Platelets 2007;18;7;543-9

  • Platelet PMCA- and SERCA-type Ca2+ -ATPase expression in diabetes: a novel signature of abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Chaabane C, Dally S, Corvazier E, Bredoux R, Bobe R, Ftouhi B, Raies A and Enouf J

    U689 INSERM, CRCIL, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris Cedex 10, France.

    Background: Previous studies have shown platelet Ca(2+) abnormalities in diabetes mellitus and some reports suggest abnormal platelet production. Platelet Ca(2+) homeostasis is controlled by a multi-Ca(2+)-ATPase system that includes two plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) and seven sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) isoforms. In addition, we recently found that the expression of PMCA4b and SERCA3 isoforms may serve as new markers of abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis [Nurden P et al. Impaired megakaryocytopoiesis in type 2B von Willebrand disease with severe thrombocytopenia. Blood 2006; 108: 2587-95].

    Aim: To analyze the expression of major platelet Ca(2+)-ATPases in 27 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D or T2D) compared with normal donors.

    Methods: Investigation of protein and mRNA expressions of PMCA1b and PMCA4b, and SERCA2b, SERCA3a and SERCA3b, using specific Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively.

    Results: Remarkably, all patients with T1D were found to present a higher expression of PMCA4b protein (212% +/- 28%; n = 10) and PMCA4b mRNA (155% +/- 16%; n = 17), coupled with a higher expression of SERCA3b mRNA (165% +/- 9%) in some cases. Patients with T2D (n = 10) were also studied for protein expression and were found to present similar major upregulation of the expression of PMCA4b protein (180% +/- 28%; n = 10). Lastly, five of 10 patients with T1D were studied for PMCA4b expression after insulin treatment, with four of five recovering normal expression (96% +/- 15%; n = 5).

    Conclusions: Compared with the expression of PMCA4b upon platelet maturation, platelets from diabetic patients exhibit similarities with immature megakaryocytes. Thus, this study reinforces the idea that abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis can provide additional insights into diabetes and could represent a novel therapeutic target for antithrombotic drugs.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2007;5;10;2127-35

  • Plasma membrane Ca(2+) -ATPase associates with CLP36, alpha-actinin and actin in human platelets.

    Bozulic LD, Malik MT, Powell DW, Nanez A, Link AJ, Ramos KS and Dean WL

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) plays an essential role in maintaining low cytosolic Ca(2+) in resting platelets. Earlier studies demonstrated that the 4b isoform of PMCA interacts via its C-terminal end with the PDZ domains of membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins. Activation of saponin-permeabilized platelets in the presence of a peptide composed of the last ten residues of the PMCA4b C-terminus leads to a significant decrease of PMCA associated with the cytoskeleton, suggesting that PDZ domain interactions play a role in tethering the pump to the cytoskeleton. Here we present experiments conducted to evaluate the mechanism of this association. Co-immunoprecipitation assays coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting were used to identify proteins that interact with PMCA in the resting platelet. Our results indicate that the only PDZ domain-containing protein associated with PMCA is the LIM family protein, CLP36. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down from a platelet extract using a fusion protein containing the C-terminal PDZ domain binding motif of PMCA confirmed binding of CLP36 to PMCA. Gel filtration chromatography of detergent-solubilized platelets demonstrated the existence of a 1,000-kDa complex containing PMCA and CLP36, and in addition, alpha-actinin and actin. Immunoflourescence microscopy confirmed the co-localization of PMCA with CLP36 in resting and activated platelets. Taken together these results suggest that PMCA is localized in non-filamentous actin complexes in resting platelets by means of PDZ domain interactions and then associates with the actin cytoskeleton during cytoskeletal rearrangement upon platelet activation. Thus, in addition to the reversible serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation events previously described in human platelets, PMCA function may be regulated by interactions with anchoring and cytoskeletal proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA098131; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL68744; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES11993; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM64779

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2007;97;4;587-97

  • Neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling in the heart is regulated by the sarcolemmal calcium pump 4b.

    Oceandy D, Cartwright EJ, Emerson M, Prehar S, Baudoin FM, Zi M, Alatwi N, Venetucci L, Schuh K, Williams JC, Armesilla AL and Neyses L

    Division of Cardiovascular and Endocrine Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.

    Background: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been shown to be a major regulator of cardiac contractility. In a cellular system, we have previously shown that nNOS is regulated by the isoform 4b of plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA4b) through direct interaction mediated by a PDZ domain (PSD 95, Drosophilia Discs large protein and Zona occludens-1) on nNOS and a cognate ligand on PMCA4b. It remains unknown, however, whether this interaction has physiological relevance in the heart in vivo.

    We generated 2 strains of transgenic mice overexpressing either human PMCA4b or PMCA ct120 in the heart. PMCA ct120 is a highly active mutant form of the pump that does not interact with or modulate nNOS function. Calcium was extruded normally from PMCA4b-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, but in vivo, overexpression of PMCA4b reduced the beta-adrenergic contractile response. This attenuated response was not observed in ct120 transgenic mice. Treatment with a specific nNOS inhibitor (N omega-propyl-L-arginine) reduced the beta-adrenergic response in wild-type and ct120 transgenic mice to levels comparable to those of PMCA4b transgenic animals. No differences in lusitropic response were observed in either transgenic strain compared with wild-type littermates.

    Conclusions: These data demonstrate the physiological relevance of the interaction between PMCA4b and nNOS and suggests its signaling role in the heart.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0500025

    Circulation 2007;115;4;483-92

  • Plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA4): a housekeeper for RT-PCR relative quantification of polytopic membrane proteins.

    Calcagno AM, Chewning KJ, Wu CP and Ambudkar SV

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892-42546, USA. calcagnoa@mail.nih.gov

    Background: Although relative quantification of real-time RT-PCR data can provide valuable information, one limitation remains the selection of an appropriate reference gene. No one gene has emerged as a universal reference gene and much debate surrounds some of the more commonly used reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). At this time, no gene encoding for a plasma membrane protein serves as a reference gene, and relative quantification of plasma membrane proteins is performed with genes encoding soluble proteins, which differ greatly in quantity and in targeting and trafficking from plasma membrane proteins. In this work, our aim was to identify a housekeeping gene, ideally one that codes for a plasma membrane protein, whose expression remains the same regardless of drug treatment and across a wide range of tissues to be used for relative quantification of real-time RT-PCR data for ATP binding cassette (ABC) plasma membrane transporters.

    Results: In studies evaluating the expression levels of two commonly used reference genes coding for soluble proteins and two genes coding for membrane proteins, one plasma membrane protein, plasma membrane calcium-ATPase 4 (PMCA4), was comparable to the two reference genes already in use. In addition, PMCA4 expression shows little variation across eight drug-treated cell lines and was found to be superior to GAPDH and HPRT1, commonly used reference genes. Finally, we show PMCA4 used as a reference gene for normalizing ABC transporter expression in a drug-resistant lung carcinoma cell line.

    Conclusion: We have found that PMCA4 is a good housekeeping gene for normalization of gene expression for polytopic membrane proteins including transporters and receptors.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    BMC molecular biology 2006;7;29

  • Human platelet Ca2+-ATPases: new markers of cell differentiation as illustrated in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Bredoux R, Corvazier E, Dally S, Chaabane C, Bobe R, Raies A, Moreau A and Enouf J

    Inserm U 689, IFR 139, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.

    The aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common form of scoliosis, is unclear. Previous studies showed controversial platelet abnormalities including intracellular calcium. Platelet Ca2+ homeostasis is controlled by a multi-Ca2+-ATPase system including SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) and PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) isoforms. Here, we first investigated the expression of PMCA4b, SERCA3a and SERCA2b isoforms in platelets of 17 patients with AIS. Patients presenting thoracic curves were found to present a higher PMCA4b expression coupled to a lower SERCA3a one in agreement with an abnormality in platelet maturation. Indeed, using PMA-treated MEG 01 cells, an in vitro model of megakaryocytopoiesis, we found an increase in SERCA3a expression, associated to a caspase-3 mediated C terminal proteolysis of PMCA4b. To look whether platelets reflect a basic defect in cell differentiation, we next identified osteoblast Ca2+-ATPases and studied their expressions in AIS. Major expressions of PMCA4b and SERCA2b were found in normal osteoblasts. Comparing platelets and osteoblasts in two additional patients with AIS, we found opposite and concerted regulations of the expressions of PMCA4b and caspase-3 substrate, PARP in both cell types. A systemic defect in cell differentiation involving caspase-3 can be proposed as a novel mechanism in the etiopathogenesis of the most frequent type of AIS. *R. Bredoux and E. Corvazier contributed equally to this work.

    Platelets 2006;17;6;421-33

  • The influence of membrane lipid structure on plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase activity.

    Tang D, Dean WL, Borchman D and Paterson CA

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY 40202, USA.

    Lipid composition and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity both change with age and disease in many tissues. We explored relationships between lipid composition/structure and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity. PMCA was purified from human erythrocytes and was reconstituted into liposomes prepared from human ocular lens membrane lipids and synthetic lipids. Lens lipids were used in this study as a model for naturally ordered lipids, but the influence of lens lipids on PMCA function is especially relevant to the lens since calcium homeostasis is vital to lens clarity. Compared to fiber cell lipids, epithelial lipids exhibited an ordered to disordered phase transition temperature that was 12 degrees C lower. Reconstitution of PMCA into lipids was essential for maximal activity. PMCA activity was two to three times higher when the surrounding phosphatidylcholine molecules contained acyl chains that were ordered (stiff) compared to disordered (fluid) acyl chains. In a completely ordered lipid hydrocarbon chain environment, PMCA associates more strongly with the acidic lipid phosphatidylserine in comparison to phosphatidylcholine. PMCA associates much more strongly with phosphatidylcholine containing disordered hydrocarbon chains than ordered hydrocarbon chains. PMCA activity is influenced by membrane lipid composition and structure. The naturally high degree of lipid order in plasma membranes such as those found in the human lens may serve to support PMCA activity. The absence of PMCA activity in the cortical region of human lenses is apparently not due to a different lipid environment. Changes in lipid composition such as those observed with age or disease could potentially influence PMCA function.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: EYO6916

    Cell calcium 2006;39;3;209-16

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Plasma membrane calcium-ATPase 2 and 4 in human breast cancer cell lines.

    Lee WJ, Roberts-Thomson SJ and Monteith GR

    The School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.

    There is evidence to suggest that plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms are important mediators of mammary gland physiology. PMCA2 in particular is upregulated extensively during lactation. Expression of other isoforms such as PMCA4 may influence mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation and aberrant regulation of PMCA isoform expression may lead or contribute to mammary gland pathophysiology in the form of breast cancers. To explore whether PMCA2 and PMCA4 expression may be deregulated in breast cancer, we compared mRNA expression of these PMCA isoforms in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell lines using real time RT-PCR. PMCA2 mRNA has a higher level of expression in some breast cancer cell lines and is overexpressed more than 100-fold in ZR-75-1 cells, compared to non-tumorigenic 184B5 cells. Although differences in PMCA4 mRNA levels were observed between breast cell lines, they were not of the magnitude observed for PMCA2. We conclude that PMCA2 mRNA can be highly overexpressed in some breast cancer cells. The significance of PMCA2 overexpression on tumorigenicity and its possible correlation with other properties such as invasiveness requires further study.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;3;779-83

  • The caspase-3 cleavage product of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4b is activated and appropriately targeted.

    Pászty K, Antalffy G, Penheiter AR, Homolya L, Padányi R, Iliás A, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT and Enyedi A

    Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Nádor u.7., H-1051, Budapest, Hungary.

    The calmodulin-activated transporter hPMCA4 (human plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 4) is a target for cleavage by caspase-3 during apoptosis. We have demonstrated that caspase-3 generates a 120 kDa fragment of this pump which lacks the complete autoinhibitory sequence [Paszty, Verma, Padanyi, Filoteo, Penniston and Enyedi (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6822-6829]. In the present study we analysed further the characteristics of the fragment of hPMCA4b produced by caspase-3. We did this by overexpressing the caspase-3 cleavage product of hPMCA4b in COS-7 and MDCKII (Madin-Darby canine kidney II) cells. This technique made it possible to clearly define the properties of this fragment, and we showed that it is constitutively active, as it forms a phosphoenzyme intermediate and has high Ca2+ transport activity in the absence of calmodulin. When this fragment of hPMCA4b was stably expressed in MDCKII cell clones, it was targeted without degradation to the basolateral plasma membrane. In summary, our studies emphasize that the caspase-3 cleavage product of hPMCA4b is constitutively active, and that the C-terminus is not required for proper targeting of hPMCA4b to the plasma membrane. Also, for the first time, we have generated cell clones that stably express a constitutively active PMCA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28835, R01 GM028835

    The Biochemical journal 2005;391;Pt 3;687-92

  • The sarcolemmal calcium pump inhibits the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cell pathway via interaction with the calcineurin A catalytic subunit.

    Buch MH, Pickard A, Rodriguez A, Gillies S, Maass AH, Emerson M, Cartwright EJ, Williams JC, Oceandy D, Redondo JM, Neyses L and Armesilla AL

    Division of Cardiology, The University of Manchester, Stopford Bldg., Manchester, UK.

    The calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway represents a crucial transducer of cellular function. There is increasing evidence placing the sarcolemmal calcium pump, or plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin ATPase pump (PMCA), as a potential modulator of signal transduction pathways. We demonstrate a novel interaction between PMCA and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, in mammalian cells. The interaction domains were located to the catalytic domain of PMCA4b and the catalytic domain of the calcineurin A subunit. Endogenous calcineurin activity, assessed by measuring the transcriptional activity of its best characterized substrate, NFAT, was significantly inhibited by 60% in the presence of ectopic PMCA4b. This inhibition was notably reversed by the co-expression of the PMCA4b interaction domain, demonstrating the functional significance of this interaction. PMCA4b was, however, unable to confer its inhibitory effect in the presence of a calcium/calmodulin-independent constitutively active mutant calcineurin A suggesting a calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. The modulatory function of PMCA4b is further supported by the observation that endogenous calcineurin moves from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane when PMCA4b is overexpressed. We suggest recruitment by PMCA4b of calcineurin to a low calcium environment as a possible explanation for these findings. In summary, our results offer strong evidence for a novel functional interaction between PMCA and calcineurin, suggesting a role for PMCA as a negative modulator of calcineurin-mediated signaling pathways in mammalian cells. This study reinforces the emerging role of PMCA as a molecular organizer and regulator of signaling transduction pathways.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0200020

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;33;29479-87

  • Loss of autoinhibition of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump by substitution of aspartic 170 by asparagin. A ctivation of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 without disruption of the interaction between the catalytic core and the C-terminal regulatory domain.

    Bredeston LM and Adamo HP

    Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB)-Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) actively transports Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the extra cellular space. The C-terminal segment of the PMCA functions as an inhibitory domain by interacting with the catalytic core. Ca(2+)-calmodulin binds to the C-terminal segment and stops inhibition. Here we showed that residue Asp(170), in the putative "A" domain of human PMCA isoform 4xb, plays a critical role in autoinhibition. In the absence of calmodulin a PMCA containing a site-specific mutation of D170N had 80% of the maximum activity of the calmodulin-activated PMCA and a similar high affinity for Ca(2+). The mutation did not change the activation of the PMCA by ATP. Deletion of the C-terminal segment further downstream of the calmodulin-binding site led to an additional increase in the maximal activity of the mutant, which suggests that the mutation did not affect the inhibition because of this portion of the C-terminal segment. The calmodulin-activated PMCA was more sensitive to vanadate inhibition than the autoinhibited enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the D170N mutant required higher concentrations of vanadate and was not affected by calmodulin. Despite its higher basal activity, the mutant had an apparent affinity for calmodulin similar to that of the wild type enzyme, and its rate of proteolysis at the C-terminal segment was still calmodulin-dependent. Altogether these results suggest that activation by mutation D170N does not involve the displacement of the calmodulin-binding autoinhibitory domain from the catalytic core and may arise directly from changes in the accessibility to the calcium-binding residues of the pump.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;40;41619-25

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Novel functional interaction between the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump 4b and the proapoptotic tumor suppressor Ras-associated factor 1 (RASSF1).

    Armesilla AL, Williams JC, Buch MH, Pickard A, Emerson M, Cartwright EJ, Oceandy D, Vos MD, Gillies S, Clark GJ and Neyses L

    Division of Cardiology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.

    Plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are enzymatic systems implicated in the extrusion of calcium from the cell. We and others have previously identified molecular interactions between the cytoplasmic COOH-terminal end of PMCA and PDZ domain-containing proteins. These interactions suggested a new role for PMCA as a modulator of signal transduction pathways. The existence of other intracellular regions in the PMCA molecule prompted us to investigate the possible participation of other domains in interactions with different partner proteins. A two-hybrid screen of a human fetal heart cDNA library, using the region 652-840 of human PMCA4b (located in the catalytic, second intracellular loop) as bait, revealed a novel interaction between PMCA4b and the tumor suppressor RASSF1, a Ras effector protein involved in H-Ras-mediated apoptosis. Immunofluorescence co-localization, immunoprecipitation, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments performed in mammalian cells provided further confirmation of the physical interaction between the two proteins. The interaction domain has been narrowed down to region 74-123 of RASSF1C (144-193 in RASSF1A) and 652-748 of human PMCA4b. The functionality of this interaction was demonstrated by the inhibition of the epidermal growth factor-dependent activation of the Erk pathway when PMCA4b and RASSF1 were co-expressed. This inhibition was abolished by blocking PMCA/RASSSF1 association with an excess of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the region 50-123 of RASSF1C. This work describes a novel protein-protein interaction involving a domain of PMCA other than the COOH terminus. It suggests a function for PMCA4b as an organizer of macromolecular protein complexes, where PMCA4b could recruit diverse proteins through interaction with different domains. Furthermore, the functional association with RASSF1 indicates a role for PMCA4b in the modulation of Ras-mediated signaling.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0200020

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;30;31318-28

  • CD22 attenuates calcium signaling by potentiating plasma membrane calcium-ATPase activity.

    Chen J, McLean PA, Neel BG, Okunade G, Shull GE and Wortis HH

    Department of Pathology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    Binding of antigen to the B cell receptor induces a calcium response, which is required for proliferation and antibody production. CD22, a B cell surface protein, inhibits this signal through mechanisms that have been obscure. We report here that CD22 augments calcium efflux after B cell receptor crosslinking. Inhibition of plasma membrane calcium-ATPase (PMCA) attenuated these effects, as did disruption by homologous recombination of the gene encoding PMCA4a and PMCA4b. PMCA coimmunoprecipitated with CD22 in an activation-dependent way. CD22 cytoplasmic tyrosine residues were required for association with PMCA and enhancement of calcium efflux. Moreover, CD22 regulation of efflux and the calcium response required the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, SHP-1 and PMCA provide a mechanism by which CD22, a tissue-specific negative regulator, can affect calcium responses.

    Nature immunology 2004;5;6;651-7

  • Calcium pumps of plasma membrane and cell interior.

    Strehler EE and Treiman M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

    Calcium entering the cell from the outside or from intracellular organelles eventually must be returned to the extracellular milieu or to intracellular storage organelles. The two major systems capable of pumping Ca2+ against its large concentration gradient out of the cell or into the sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum are the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCAs) and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs), respectively. In mammals, multigene families code for these Ca2+ pumps and additional isoform subtypes are generated via alternative splicing. PMCA and SERCA isoforms show developmental-, tissue- and cell type-specific patterns of expression. Different PMCA and SERCA isoforms are characterized by different regulatory and kinetic properties that likely are optimized for the distinct functional tasks fulfilled by each pump in setting resting cytosolic or intra-organellar Ca2+ levels, and in shaping intracellular Ca2+ signals with spatial and temporal resolution. The loss or malfunction of specific Ca2+ pump isoforms is associated with defects such as deafness, ataxia or heart failure. Understanding the involvement of different Ca2+ pump isoforms in the pathogenesis of disease allows their identification as therapeutic targets for the development of selective strategies to prevent or combat the progression of these disorders.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC-04200; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-58710

    Current molecular medicine 2004;4;3;323-35

  • Decreased PMCA4b expression has no effect on calcium homeostasis in Meg-01 cells.

    Wan TC and Dean WL

    Department of Pharmacy and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. twan@mcw.edu

    PMCA (plasma membrane calcium ATPase) is an energy-driven membrane transporter that pumps calcium out of the cell cytosol. Stable resting calcium and highly regulated cytosolic calcium fluxes must be maintained for proper cellular function. The primary function of PMCA in calcium homeostasis is to regulate the steady-state calcium concentration while cells are still at rest. We examined the effects of stable production of antisense RNAs targeted to the PMCA subtype 4b (PMCA4b) on cultured human megakaryoblastic (Meg-01) cells. The expression of PMCA-4b in these cells was diminished by approximately 50% as assessed by Western immunoblotting and in vitro ATPase assay. It was also determined that endogenous expression of PMCA1b in these cells was at a level such as that it can not be detected by Western immunoblotting. The rate of calcium efflux catalyzed by PMVA4b was inhibited in cells with decreased PMCA4b expression by approximately 60%. However, there was no difference in extrusion rate when sarco(endo)plasmic reticular ATPases (SERCA) were not functional. The resting levels of intracellular calcium concentrations in these cells were also not distinguishable from those of wild-type cells. These results suggest that a decrease in PMCA expression in Meg-01 cells is compensated to maintain normal intracellular calcium levels.

    Platelets 2003;14;5;295-303

  • Expression and role of calcium-ATPase pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in differentiated trophoblasts from human term placenta.

    Moreau R, Daoud G, Masse A, Simoneau L and Lafond J

    Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université du Québec á Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    Although placental transfer of maternal calcium (Ca(2+)) is a crucial process for fetal development, the biochemical mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Especially, mechanisms of syncytiotrophoblast Ca(2+) extrusion into fetal circulation remain to be established. In the current study we have investigated the characteristics of Ca(2+) efflux in syncytiotrophoblast-like structure originating from the differentiation of cultured trophoblasts isolated from human term placenta. Time-courses of Ca(2+) uptake by differentiated human trophoblasts displayed rapid initial entry (initial velocity (V(i)) of 8.82 +/- 0.86 nmol/mg protein/min) and subsequent establishment of a plateau. Ca(2+) efflux studies with (45)Ca(2+)-loaded cells also showed rapid decline of cell-associated (45)Ca(2+) with a V(i) of efflux (V(ie)) of 8.90 +/- 0.96 nmol/mg protein/min. Expression of membrane systems responsible for intracellular Ca(2+) extrusion from differentiated human trophoblast were investigated by RT-PCR. Messenger RNAs of four known isoforms of PMCA (PMCA 1-4) were detected. Messenger RNAs of two cloned human NCX isoforms (NCX1 and NCX3) were also revealed. More specifically, both splice variants NCX1.3 and NCX1.4 were amplified by PCR with total RNA of differentiated human trophoblast cells. Ca(2+) flux studies in Na-free incubation medium indicated that NCX played a minimal role in the cell Ca(2+) fluxes. However, erythrosine B (inhibitor of PMCA) time- and dose-dependently increased cell associated (45)Ca(2+) suggesting a principal role of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) in the intracellular Ca(2+) extrusion of syncytiotrophoblast-like structure originating from the differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells isolated from human term placenta.

    Molecular reproduction and development 2003;65;3;283-8

  • Characterization of PISP, a novel single-PDZ protein that binds to all plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase b-splice variants.

    Goellner GM, DeMarco SJ and Strehler EE

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCAs) maintain intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and participate in the local regulation of Ca(2+) signaling. Spatially separate demands for Ca(2+) regulation require proper membrane targeting of PMCAs, but the mechanism of PMCA targeting is unknown. Using the PMCA2b carboxyl-terminal tail as yeast two-hybrid bait, we isolated a novel PDZ domain-containing protein from a human brain cDNA library. This protein, named PISP for PMCA-interacting single-PDZ protein, consists of 140 amino acids and contains little else besides a single PDZ domain. Pulldown experiments showed that PISP interacts with all PMCA b-splice forms. PISP was found to be ubiquitously expressed and, in MDCK cells, was present in a punctate pattern throughout the cytosol and at the basolateral membrane. When added to microsomal membranes expressing PMCA4b, PISP was unable to stimulate the PMCA-dependent ATPase activity. Our data suggest that PISP is a transiently interacting partner of the PMCA b-splice forms that may play a role in their sorting to or from the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-58710

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2003;986;461-71

  • Interaction of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump 4b/CI with the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent membrane-associated kinase CASK.

    Schuh K, Uldrijan S, Gambaryan S, Roethlein N and Neyses L

    Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Spatial and temporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) is a key event in many signaling pathways. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCAs) are major regulators of Ca(2+) homeostasis and bind to PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains via their C termini. Various membrane-associated guanylate kinase family members have been identified as interaction partners of PMCAs. In particular, SAP90/PSD95, PSD93/chapsyn-110, SAP97, and SAP102 all bind to the C-terminal tails of PMCA "b" splice variants. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that PMCA4b interacts with neuronal nitric-oxide synthase and that isoform 2b interacts with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 2, both via a PDZ domain. CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) contains a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like domain followed by PDZ, SH3, and guanylate kinase-like domains. In adult brain CASK is located at neuronal synapses and interacts with various proteins, e.g. neurexin and Veli/LIN-7. In kidney it is localized to renal epithelia. Surprisingly, interaction with the Tbr-1 transcription factor, nuclear transport, binding to DNA T-elements (in a complex with Tbr-1), and transcriptional competence has been shown. Here we show that the C terminus of PMCA4b binds to CASK and that both proteins co-precipitate from brain and kidney tissue lysates. Immunofluorescence staining revealed co-expression of PMCA, CASK, and calbindin-d-28K in distal tubuli of rat kidney sections. To test if physical interaction of both proteins results in functional consequences we constructed a T-element-dependent reporter vector and investigated luciferase activity in HEK293 lysates, previously co-transfected with PMCA4b expression and control vectors. Expression of wild-type PMCA resulted in an 80% decrease in T-element-dependent transcriptional activity, whereas co-expression of a point-mutated PMCA, with nearly eliminated Ca(2+) pumping activity, had only a small influence on regulation of transcriptional activity. These results provide evidence of a new direct Ca(2+)-dependent link from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;11;9778-83

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 4b is phosphorylated on tyrosine 1176 in activated human platelets.

    Wan TC, Zabe M and Dean WL

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) -ATPase isoform 4b (PMCA4b) is phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue during platelet activation resulting in inhibition of its ATPase activity. We now report that tyrosine 1176 (Y(1176)) in the carboxyl (C-) terminal domain of PMCA4b is the phosphorylated residue. Two tyrosine residues located in the C-terminus of PMCA4b, Y(1122) and Y(1176) can be removed by calpain-dependent cleavage. This truncation removes all of the tyrosine phosphates added to PMCA during platelet activation. Sequence analysis indicates that Y(1176) is a likely substrate for focal adhesion kinase (FAK), while Y(1122) is not located in a tyrosine phosphorylation motif. This is the same residue we reported earlier to be phosphorylated by Src kinase in vitro. Thus we conclude that Y(1176) is the only tyrosine phosphorylated during platelet activation. Results of co-immunoprecipitation, treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and integrin inhibition experiments suggest that FAK is responsible for PMCA4b tyrosine phosphorylation during platelet activation.

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2003;89;1;122-31

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase isoform 4b is cleaved and activated by caspase-3 during the early phase of apoptosis.

    Pászty K, Verma AK, Padányi R, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT and Enyedi A

    National Institute of Haematology and Immunology, Daroczi ut 24, Budapest 1113, Hungary.

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump (PMCA) is an essential element in the complex of mechanisms that maintain low intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the living cell. This pump is tightly regulated by calmodulin through binding to a high affinity calmodulin-binding domain at the C terminus that also serves as an autoinhibitor of the enzyme. Inspection of the C terminus of hPMCA4b, the most widely distributed form of PMCA, revealed a caspase-3 consensus sequence ((1077)DEID(1080)) just a few residues upstream of the calmodulin-binding domain. We demonstrate here that, in the early phase of apoptosis, hPMCA4b is cleaved at aspartic acid Asp(1080) in hPMCA4b-transfected COS-7 cells or in HeLa cells that naturally express this protein. This cleavage of hPMCA4b produces a single 120-kDa fragment that is fully active in the absence of calmodulin, because the whole inhibitory region downstream of the (1077)DEID(1080) sequence is removed. Our experiments show that caspase-3 or a caspase-3-like protease is responsible for the formation of the constitutively active 120-kDa PMCA4b fragment: 1) Pretreatment of the cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK (benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone) was able to block the production of the 120-kDa fragment. 2) In vitro treatment of hPMCA4b with recombinant caspase-3 also generated a 120-kDa cleavage product, consistent with that seen in cells undergoing apoptosis. 3) Mutants in which the caspase-3 consensus sequence was altered ((1077)AEID(1080), (1077)DEIA(1080), and (1077)AEIA(1080) mutants) were resistant to proteolysis. Based on these data, we conclude that hPMCA4b is a newly identified, natural caspase-3 substrate. We suggest that a constitutively active form of this protein, responding much faster to an increase in Ca(2+) concentration than the autoinhibited form, may have an important role in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the apoptotic cell.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 28835

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;9;6822-9

  • The plasmamembrane calmodulin-dependent calcium pump: a major regulator of nitric oxide synthase I.

    Schuh K, Uldrijan S, Telkamp M, Rothlein N and Neyses L

    Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, D-97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    The plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) (Shull, G.E., and J. Greeb. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:8646-8657; Verma, A.K., A.G. Filoteo, D.R. Stanford, E.D. Wieben, J.T. Penniston, E.E. Strehler, R. Fischer, R. Heim, G. Vogel, S. Mathews, et al. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:14152-14159; Carafoli, E. 1997. Basic Res. Cardiol. 92:59-61) has been proposed to be a regulator of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction networks of the cell. However, little is known about its precise mechanisms of action. Knock-out of (mainly neuronal) isoform 2 of the enzyme resulted in hearing loss and balance deficits due to severe inner ear defects, affecting formation and maintenance of otoconia (Kozel, P.J., R.A. Friedman, L.C. Erway, E.N. Yamoah, L.H. Liu, T. Riddle, J.J. Duffy, T. Doetschman, M.L. Miller, E.L. Cardell, and G.E. Shull. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273:18693-18696). Here we demonstrate that PMCA 4b is a negative regulator of nitric oxide synthase I (NOS-I, nNOS) in HEK293 embryonic kidney and neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell models. Binding of PMCA 4b to NOS-I was mediated by interaction of the COOH-terminal amino acids of PMCA 4b and the PDZ domain of NOS-I (PDZ: PSD 95/Dlg/ZO-1 protein domain). Increasing expression of wild-type PMCA 4b (but not PMCA mutants unable to bind PDZ domains or devoid of Ca2+-transporting activity) dramatically downregulated NO synthesis from wild-type NOS-I. A NOS-I mutant lacking the PDZ domain was not regulated by PMCA, demonstrating the specific nature of the PMCA-NOS-I interaction. Elucidation of PMCA as an interaction partner and major regulator of NOS-I provides evidence for a new dimension of integration between calcium and NO signaling pathways.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;155;2;201-5

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+-atpase isoforms 2b and 4b interact promiscuously and selectively with members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family of PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain-containing proteins.

    DeMarco SJ and Strehler EE

    Program in Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Biochemistry, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Spatial and temporal regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling depends on localized Ca(2+) microdomains containing the requisite molecular components for Ca(2+) influx, efflux, and signal transmission. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms of the "b" splice type contain predicted PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) interaction domains. The COOH-terminal tail of PMCA2b isolated the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein SAP97/hDlg as a binding partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The related MAGUKs SAP90/PSD95, PSD93/chapsyn-110, SAP97, and SAP102 all bound to the COOH-terminal tail of PMCA4b, whereas only the first three bound to the tail of PMCA2b. Coimmunoprecipitations confirmed the interaction selectivity between PMCA4b and SAP102 as opposed to the promiscuity of PMCA2b and 4b in interacting with other SAPs. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the exclusive presence and colocalization of PMCA4b and SAP97 in the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. In hippocampal neurons, PMCA2b was abundant throughout the somatodendritic compartment and often extended into the neck and head of individual spines where it colocalized with SAP90/PSD95. These data show that PMCA "b" splice forms interact promiscuously but also with specificity with different members of the PSD95 family of SAPs. PMCA-SAP interactions may play a role in the recruitment and maintenance of the PMCA at specific membrane domains involved in local Ca(2+) regulation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-58710

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;24;21594-600

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Role of alternative splicing in generating isoform diversity among plasma membrane calcium pumps.

    Strehler EE and Zacharias DA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. strehler.emanuel@mayo.edu

    Calcium pumps of the plasma membrane (also known as plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases or PMCAs) are responsible for the expulsion of Ca(2+) from the cytosol of all eukaryotic cells. Together with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, they are the major plasma membrane transport system responsible for the long-term regulation of the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Like the Ca(2+) pumps of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SERCAs), which pump Ca(2+) from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, the PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. Mammalian PMCAs are encoded by four separate genes, and additional isoform variants are generated via alternative RNA splicing of the primary gene transcripts. The expression of different PMCA isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. PMCAs 1 and 4 are found in virtually all tissues in the adult, whereas PMCAs 2 and 3 are primarily expressed in excitable cells of the nervous system and muscles. During mouse embryonic development, PMCA1 is ubiquitously detected from the earliest time points, and all isoforms show spatially overlapping but distinct expression patterns with dynamic temporal changes occurring during late fetal development. Alternative splicing affects two major locations in the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump protein: the first intracellular loop and the COOH-terminal tail. These two regions correspond to major regulatory domains of the pumps. In the first cytosolic loop, the affected region is embedded between a putative G protein binding sequence and the site of phospholipid sensitivity, and in the COOH-terminal tail, splicing affects pump regulation by calmodulin, phosphorylation, and differential interaction with PDZ domain-containing anchoring and signaling proteins. Recent evidence demonstrating differential distribution, dynamic regulation of expression, and major functional differences between alternative splice variants suggests that these transporters play a more dynamic role than hitherto assumed in the spatial and temporal control of Ca(2+) signaling. The identification of mice carrying PMCA mutations that lead to diseases such as hearing loss and ataxia, as well as the corresponding phenotypes of genetically engineered PMCA "knockout" mice further support the concept of specific, nonredundant roles for each Ca(2+) pump isoform in cellular Ca(2+) regulation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-58710

    Physiological reviews 2001;81;1;21-50

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Regulation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase by small GTPases and phosphoinositides in human platelets.

    Rosado JA and Sage SO

    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom.

    We have investigated the restoration of [Ca(2+)](i) in human platelets following the discharge of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We found that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase is the main mechanism involved in Ca(2+) extrusion in human platelets. Treatment of platelets with the farnesylcysteine analogs, farnesylthioacetic acid and N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-l-cysteine, inhibitors of activation of Ras proteins, accelerated the rate of decay of [Ca(2+)](i) to basal levels after activation with thapsigargin combined with a low concentration of ionomycin, indicating that Ras proteins are involved in the negative regulation of Ca(2+) extrusion. Rho A, which is involved in actin polymerization, was not responsible for this effect. Consistent with this, the actin polymerization inhibitors, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, did not alter the recovery of [Ca(2+)](i). Activation of human platelets with thapsigargin and ionomycin stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, a mechanism that was inhibited by farnesylcysteine analogs, suggesting that Ras proteins could regulate Ca(2+) extrusion by mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase. Treatment of platelets with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3- and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, resulted in a reduction in the rate of recovery of [Ca(2+)](i) to basal levels, suggesting that the products of these kinases are involved in stimulating Ca(2+) extrusion in human platelets.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;26;19529-35

  • The expression of plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoforms in cerebellar granule neurons is modulated by Ca2+.

    Guerini D, García-Martin E, Gerber A, Volbracht C, Leist M, Merino CG and Carafoli E

    Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Biochemie III, Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) pump isoforms 2, 3, and 1CII are expressed in large amounts in the cerebellum of adult rats but only minimally in neonatal cerebellum. These isoforms were almost undetectable in rat neonatal cerebellar granule cells 1-3 days after plating, but they became highly expressed after 7-9 days of culturing under membrane depolarizing conditions (25 mM KCl). The behavior of isoform 4 was different: it was clearly detectable in adult cerebellum but was down-regulated by the depolarizing conditions in cultured cells. 25 mM KCl-activated L-type Ca2+ channels, significantly increasing cytosolic Ca2+. Changes in the concentration of Ca2+ in the culturing medium affected the expression of the pumps. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers abolished both the up-regulation of the PMCA1CII, 2, and 3 isoforms and the down-regulation of PMCA4 isoform. When granule cells were cultured in high concentrations of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, a condition that increased cytosolic Ca2+ through the activation of glutamate-operated Ca2+ channels, up-regulation of PMCA1CII, 2, and 3 and down-regulation of PMCA4 was also observed. The activity of the isoforms was estimated by measuring the phosphoenzyme intermediate of their reaction cycle: the up-regulated isoforms, the activity of which was barely detectable at plating time, accounted for a large portion of the total PMCA activity of the cells. No up-regulation of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump was induced by the depolarizing conditions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;3;1667-76

  • Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 4b binds to membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins via their PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains.

    Kim E, DeMarco SJ, Marfatia SM, Chishti AH, Sheng M and Strehler EE

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases are P-type pumps important for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. The extreme C termini of alternatively spliced "b"-type Ca2+ pump isoforms resemble those of K+ channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits that interact with channel-clustering proteins of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family via PDZ domains. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated strong interaction of Ca2+ pump 4b with the PDZ1 + 2 domains of several mammalian MAGUKs. Pump 4b and PSD-95 could be co-immunoprecipitated from COS-7 cells overexpressing these proteins. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that a C-terminal pump 4b peptide interacted with the PDZ1 + 2 domains of hDlg with nanomolar affinity (KD = 1.6 nM), whereas binding to PDZ3 was in the micromolar range (KD = 1.2 microM). In contrast, the corresponding C-terminal peptide of Ca2+ pump 2b interacted weakly with PDZ1 + 2 and not at all with PDZ3 of hDlg. Ca2+ pump 4b bound strongly to PDZ1 + 2 + 3 of hDlg on filter assays, whereas isoform 2b bound weakly, and the splice variants 2a and 4a failed to bind. Together, these data demonstrate a direct physical binding of Ca2+ pump isoform 4b to MAGUKs via their PDZ domains and reveal a novel role of alternative splicing within the family of plasma membrane Ca2+ pumps. Alternative splicing may dictate their specific interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins, potentially influencing their localization and incorporation into functional multiprotein complexes at the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 66263

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;3;1591-5

  • Regulation of platelet plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase by cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Dean WL, Chen D, Brandt PC and Vanaman TC

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA.

    As a consequence of its central role in the regulation of calcium metabolism in the platelet, the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) was assessed for cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation. Addition of forskolin or prostaglandin E1, agents known to elevate platelet cAMP and calcium efflux, to platelets pre-labeled with [32P]PO4 resulted in the direct phosphorylation of platelet PMCA. Similarly, addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to platelet plasma membranes resulted in a 1.4-fold stimulation of activity. Thus, the previously reported inhibition of platelet activation by elevated intracellular cAMP may be accomplished in part by stimulation of PMCA, likely resulting in a decrease in intracellular calcium. Treatment with thrombin evoked tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet PMCA, while PMCA from resting platelets exhibited little tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of platelet plasma membranes by pp60(src) resulted in 75% inhibition of PMCA activity within 15 min. Similarly, membranes isolated from thrombin-treated platelets exhibited 40% lower PMCA activity than those from resting platelets. Phosphorylation of erythrocyte ghosts and purified PMCA by pp60(src) also resulted in up to 75% inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity, and inhibition was correlated with tyrosine phosphorylation. Sequencing of a peptide obtained after 32P labeling of purified erythrocyte PMCA in vitro showed that tyrosine 1176 of PMCA4b is phosphorylated by pp60(src). These results indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet PMCA may serve as positive feedback to inhibit PMCA and increase intracellular calcium during platelet activation.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS21868

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;24;15113-9

  • mRNA expression of the four isoforms of the human plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the human hippocampus.

    Zacharias DA, DeMarco SJ and Strehler EE

    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is a contributing factor to the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCAs) are responsible for setting intracellular Ca2+ levels and may be involved in the dynamic processing of Ca2+ loads in normal and pathological conditions. In situ hybridization was employed to determine the expression pattern of the four human PMCA isoforms in the human hippocampus. PMCA1 and 3 mRNAs were weakly expressed throughout the hippocampal formation, whereas PMCA2 and 4 mRNA expression showed distinct regional differences, with increased levels in CA2 and the dentate gyrus. Differential expression of PMCA isoforms may reflect cellular differences in Ca(2+)-handling properties and provide a partial explanation for the differential susceptibility of hippocampal neurons to Ca(2+)-mediated cell death.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1997;45;1;173-6

  • Structural organization, ion transport, and energy transduction of P-type ATPases.

    Møller JV, Juul B and le Maire M

    Department of Biophysics, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1996;1286;1;1-51

  • A unique combination of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoforms is expressed in islets of Langerhans and pancreatic beta-cell lines.

    Váradi A, Molnár E and Ashcroft SJ

    University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Biochemistry, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, U.K.

    Changes in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. The existence of steep Ca2+ gradients within the beta-cell requires the presence of specialized Ca2+ exclusion systems. In this study we have characterized the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs) which extrude Ca2+ from the cytoplasm. PMCA isoform- and subtype-specific mRNA expression was investigated in rodent pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell lines, and in human and rat islets of Langerhans using reverse-transcription PCR with primers flanking the calmodulin-binding region of rat PMCA. The expression pattern of PMCA 1 and 2 was conserved in different species and islet-cell types since both rat and human islets of Langerhans and all cell lines tested contained the 1b and 2b forms. PMCA 4 isoform subtypes, however, were expressed in a cell-type-specific manner since beta-cells expressed PMCA 4b only, whereas in islets of Langerhans, which contain alpha, beta, delta and polypeptide-secreting cells, PMCA 4a and 4b were simultaneously present. No evidence was obtained for the expression of PMCA 3. Characterization of the beta-cell Ca2+-pump protein showed that it shared several similarities with the erythrocyte PMCA. It is a P-type ATPase; its phosphorylated intermediate was stabilized by La3+; it reacted with a PMCA-specific antibody; and it was not N-glycosylate. However, the beta-cell PMCA had a higher molecular mass than that of the erythrocyte; this difference could be explained by either predominant translation of the PMCA2 form, which has a molecular mass 3-8 kDa higher than the erythrocyte PMCA 1 and 4 proteins, or by a possible sequence insertion. Thus a unique combination of functionally distinct PMCA isoforms (1b, 2b, 4b) participates in Ca2+ homoeostasis in the beta-cell.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1996;314 ( Pt 2);663-9

  • Analysis of mRNA expression and cloning of a novel plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase splice variant in human heart.

    Santiago-García J, Mas-Oliva J, Saavedra D and Zarain-Herzberg A

    Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

    Four different plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) genes and three sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) genes have been previously cloned and characterized. In this study we have investigated the expression of the mRNA encoding the various PMCA and SERCA proteins in fetal and adult human heart and placenta by the reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) and cDNA cloning. We have found that PMCA1 and PMCA4 genes were expressed in 8-, 12- and 20-week fetal heart and in adult heart. PMCA2 gene was expressed at low levels in adult heart but was not detected in fetal heart. PMCA3 mRNA was not detected in the heart nor placenta. In contrast, the mRNA encoding SERCA2a, SERCA2b and SERCA3 were expressed in all cardiac developmental stages. Multiple alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts which differ at splice site A and B/C of the PMCA1, PMCA2 and PMCA4 genes were detected in the human heart. Interestingly, a novel tissue specific variant of the PMCA4 gene was detected in both fetal and adult human heart but not in placenta that accounts for about 30% of the total PMCA4 mRNA variant expression. DNA sequence analysis of this novel variant revealed that it corresponds to the equivalent of the PMCA1d variant and accordingly we have named it PMCA4d. We cloned and sequenced eight cDNA inserts encoding for the PMCA1 and PMCA4 variants from a fetal human heart cDNA library confirming that these are the two main PMCA genes expressed in cardiac muscle.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1996;155;2;173-82

  • Quantitative analysis of alternative splicing options of human plasma membrane calcium pump genes.

    Stauffer TP, Hilfiker H, Carafoli E and Strehler EE

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;50;32022

  • Plasma-membrane calcium-pump isoforms in human and rat liver.

    Howard A, Barley NF, Legon S and Walters JR

    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, U.K.

    Plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-pumping ATPases (PMCAs) extrude Ca2+ from the cytoplasm of all cells. Some previous studies of ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport by liver membranes suggested there exist specific properties of the hepatic PMCA, including regulation by hormones which affect calcium signalling. Multiple PMCA isoforms are now known to result from expression of four different genes (known as PMCA 1-4) and alternative RNA splicing at three possible sites (A, B and C). We investigated which isoforms are expressed in adult human and rat liver RNA using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction with mixed primers designed to amplify parts of all the known PMCA transcripts. In human liver, products were identified by sequencing from PMCA1, PMCA2 and PMCA4, but not from PMCA3 or from any new gene. In rat liver, by contrast, only PMCA1 and PMCA2 were detectable, although we confirmed that the primers were able to amplify from rat lung a new sequence which is part of rat PMCA4. Of the alternatively spliced variants, at site A in the PMCA2 sequences, all the exons were included in both adult and fetal human liver. In human liver, the exon at site B was excluded in some products from PMCA1 and PMCA4, and at site C, only PMCA1b and one form of PMCA4 were found. Blots of human liver RNA showed PMCA1 and PMCA4 were abundantly expressed, unlike PMCA2. On blots of rat liver RNA, PMCA1 was more abundant than PMCA2, and purified rat parenchymal cell RNA gave similar findings. In summary, no new hepatic PMCA isoforms have been demonstrated, but differences between the predominant human and rat isoforms may have consequences for Ca2+ signalling or the response to liver cell injury.

    The Biochemical journal 1994;303 ( Pt 1);275-9

  • Quantitative analysis of alternative splicing options of human plasma membrane calcium pump genes.

    Stauffer TP, Hilfiker H, Carafoli E and Strehler EE

    Laboratory for Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich.

    The alternative splicing options and the quantitative tissue distribution of the transcripts of the four currently known human plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) genes have been analyzed in seven tissues (cerebral cortex, skeletal and heart muscle, stomach, liver, lung, and kidney) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction on reverse transcribed mRNA with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the internal standard. The mRNAs of genes 1 and 4 were found to be present in similar amounts in all tissues, whereas the transcripts of genes 2 and 3 were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, i.e. their amounts were highest in fetal skeletal muscle and brain. Alternative splicing was found to occur in the PMCA transcripts at two major regulatory sites (sites A and C), adjacent to the amino-terminal phospholipid-responsive region and within the carboxyl-terminal calmodulin binding domain, respectively. Novel splicing variants not described previously for human genes were detected for hPMCA3 and 4 at site A and for hPMCA1, 2, and 3 at site C. For all genes a common splice variant was found at both splice sites. The common splice variant at site A was characterized by the inclusion of a small exon (hPMCA1, 39 base pairs (bp); hPMCA2, 42 bp; hPMCA3, 42 bp; hPMCA4, 36 bp). In the common splice variant at site C, an exon (hPMCA1, 154 bp; hPMCA2, 227 bp; hPMCA3, 154 bp; hPMCA4, 178 bp) was excluded in the mRNA. All genes normally express these main splice variants in all tissues in which the corresponding isoform is present. The splicing complexity at site C was found to be augmented in the transcripts of PMCA2 and PMCA3 through the use of additional exons, and in PMCA1 and 3 through the use of additional internal splice sites in the single alternatively spliced 154-base pair exon.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;34;25993-6003

  • Microdiversity of human-plasma-membrane calcium-pump isoform 2 generated by alternative RNA splicing in the N-terminal coding region.

    Heim R, Hug M, Iwata T, Strehler EE and Carafoli E

    Laboratory for Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich.

    cDNA species covering the entire coding sequence of the human homologue of the rat plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) isoform 2 have been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 99% identity with that of the rat protein and can be aligned with the latter without gaps except for one 14-amino-acid-residue insert in the region immediately preceding the putative phospholipid-sensitive domain in the human pump. cDNA clones isolated by anchored polymerase-chain reaction revealed additional microheterogeneity in the same N-terminal PMCA2-coding region. Alternative RNA splicing involving a region of 135 nucleotides generates three types of cDNA. One does not contain any of the 135 bp, and the other two contain 42 bp or the entire 135 bp of the optional sequence. Analysis of genomic DNA indicates that this sequence is encoded by three separate exons of 33, 60 and 42 bp. Although each of these exons could be inserted into the mRNA without changing the reading frame, polymerase-chain amplifications using cDNA libraries from several human tissues show that the 33-bp and the 60-bp exons are never independently used during splicing. The unequal distribution of the splice variants suggests tissue-specific regulation of the alternative-splicing pathways and indicates a functional specialization of the encoded isoform subtypes.

    European journal of biochemistry 1992;205;1;333-40

  • Analysis of the tissue-specific distribution of mRNAs encoding the plasma membrane calcium-pumping ATPases and characterization of an alternately spliced form of PMCA4 at the cDNA and genomic levels.

    Brandt P, Neve RL, Kammesheidt A, Rhoads RE and Vanaman TC

    Department of Psychobiology, University of California, Irvine 92717.

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-pumping ATPase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) mRNAs are encoded on four different genes designated PMCA1-PMCA4. The primary transcripts from some of these genes are known to be alternately spliced in the region encoding the regulatory domains of the enzymes. The known alternately spliced forms of these Ca(2+)-ATPase mRNAs and a new spliced variant of PMCA4 (PMCA4b), presented here, represent at least nine different mRNAs encoding the Ca(2+)-ATPases. In this report, the examination of the tissue-specific distribution of these alternately spliced mRNAs using polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA coupled with Southern blotting revealed that each spliced variant had a unique tissue distribution. PMCA1b and PMCA4a were present in all tissues examined. PMCA1a, PMCA1b, and PMCA4b were expressed in excitable tissues, whereas PMCA1d was expressed only in muscle tissues. PMCA2 was found in liver, adrenal gland, spinal cord, and brain. PMCA3a was present in spinal cord, and PMCA3b in thymus, adrenal gland, spinal cord, and brain. The mRNA for a new spliced variant of PMCA4 (PMCA4b) was detected in this study. Complementary DNAs for this isoform were isolated and characterized from human and bovine brain. This alternately spliced form of the PMCA4 mRNA contained an exon inserted at the splice junction immediately following the sequence encoding the calmodulin-binding domain. As has also been shown for PMCA1a, this insertion produced a shift in the reading frame at the 3'-end of the PMCA4 mRNA that yielded a sequence encoding a Ca(2+)-ATPase lacking a large portion of the C-terminal regulatory domain. When the human PMCA4 gene spanning this region of variable exon splicing was sequenced, it confirmed the intron-exon boundaries where alternate splicing occurs to produce PMCA4a and PMCA4b.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20818; NINDS NIH HHS: NS21868, NS28406

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;7;4376-85

  • Localization of two genes encoding plasma membrane Ca2(+)-transporting ATPases to human chromosomes 1q25-32 and 12q21-23.

    Olson S, Wang MG, Carafoli E, Strehler EE and McBride OW

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    Human plasma membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. Cloned cDNAs for two of these isoforms have been used as probes to localize chromosomally the human PMCA1 (ATP2B1) gene to 12q21-q23 and PMCA4 (ATP2B2) to 1q25-q32. These results were obtained by three independent methods, including Southern analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, in situ hybridization of human metaphase spreads, and genetic linkage analysis in the CEPH pedigrees. High-frequency RFLPs detected at each locus were used in these linkage analyses. No evidence was obtained for multiple copies of the gene at either locus. A cross-hybridizing sequence was detected with PMCA4 probes on Xq13-qter at low stringency. Further studies are required to determine whether this X-chromosomal sequence represents a third member of the PMCA gene family.

    Genomics 1991;9;4;629-41

  • Peptide sequence analysis and molecular cloning reveal two calcium pump isoforms in the human erythrocyte membrane.

    Strehler EE, James P, Fischer R, Heim R, Vorherr T, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT and Carafoli E

    Laboratory for Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.

    The sequence of more than 1,000 amino acid residues, derived from two different isoforms, has been determined from peptides generated from purified human erythrocyte membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase (hPMCA). Several of these peptide sequences correspond to the previously reported, cDNA deduced sequence of the "teratoma" Ca2+ pump isoform hPMCA1 (Verma, A. K., Filoteo, A. G., Stanford, D. R., Wieben, E. D., Penniston, J. T., Strehler, E. E., Fischer, R., Heim, R., Vogel, G., Matthews, S., Strehler-Page, M.-A., James, P., Vorherr, T., Krebs, J., and Carafoli, E. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 14152-14159). The complete primary structure of a novel isoform (hPMCA3) has been determined by molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of its corresponding cDNA. This new member of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump family consists of 1,205 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 133,930, and it shows 88% similarity (75% identity) with the previously sequenced pump isoform. Specific probes detect major mRNA species of 5.6 kilobases for hPMCA1, and of 7.5 kilobases for hPMCA3, on Northern blots of human K562 erythroleukemic cell RNA. A large number of peptide sequences match perfectly with only one or the other of these isoforms and all peptides (with 6 exceptions corresponding to a contaminant protein or to a third minor Ca2+ pump isoform) are found in either only one or in both of the isoforms. The two erythrocyte Ca2+ pumps display high sequence divergence in a few localized regions that may determine isoform-specific functional specializations; for example, the putative extracellular loop separating transmembrane domains 1 and 2, the highly negatively charged region previously suggested to be involved in Ca2+ binding, and the site of cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 28835

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;5;2835-42

  • A C-terminal, calmodulin-like regulatory domain from the plasma membrane Ca2+-pumping ATPase.

    Brandt P, Zurini M, Neve RL, Rhoads RE and Vanaman TC

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington 40536-0084.

    A cDNA that encodes what appears to be the inhibitory domain of the plasma membrane calcium-pumping ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) has been isolated by screening a lambda gt11 bovine brain cDNA library with antibodies prepared against the human erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-ATPase. This screening resulted in isolation of a bacteriophage containing a 1.5-kilobase cDNA insert encoding a 71-residue polypeptide, the remainder being a large 3' terminal noncoding region. A portion of this deduced peptide sequence was identical to that of a peptide isolated from a V8 protease digest of the human erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase except for 1 residue. Antibodies purified by immunoabsorption to the fusion protein containing this cDNA-encoded polypeptide reacted only with those fragments of a limited trypsin digest of the human erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase that contain the inhibitory domain. Moreover, these antibodies were able to partially stimulate basal enzyme activity and block further activation by calmodulin. The encoded polypeptide bears homology to the glutamic acid-rich regions N-terminal to the Ca2+-binding loops of calmodulin and to a lesser extent with the loops themselves. This encoded polypeptide also represents the C terminus of the Ca2+-ATPase. Portions of the isolated cDNA were homologous to the 3' noncoding region of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cDNA, indicating a possible mechanism for the evolution of these distinct membrane Ca2+ pumps.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD18658; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20818; NINDS NIH HHS: NS21868

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988;85;9;2914-8

  • Identification and primary structure of a calmodulin binding domain of the Ca2+ pump of human erythrocytes.

    James P, Maeda M, Fischer R, Verma AK, Krebs J, Penniston JT and Carafoli E

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich.

    Exposure of the purified Ca2+ pump of human erythrocytes to chymotrypsin led to the rapid loss of calmodulin activation. A fragment of about 12 kDa was removed from the ATPase in 1-2 min. Blotting experiments with 125I-labeled calmodulin showed that this fragment contains the calmodulin binding region. The remainder of the ATPase molecule was degraded to a number of fragments ranging from 3 to 120 kDa; none of them bound calmodulin. To isolate the calmodulin binding domain, calmodulin which had been coupled to the Denny-Jaffe reagent (a cleavable radioactive photoaffinity cross-linker) was allowed to bind to the Ca2+ pump. After illumination to couple the cross-linker to the pump, the cleavable bond was split and the calmodulin removed, leaving the pump radioactively labeled. This pump was digested with chymotrypsin, and the products were separated by gel permeation chromatography. The only radioactive peak (migrating at about 12 kDa) was further purified on reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acid analysis showed the fragment to have a minimal molecular mass of 12.4 kDa and to contain a single methionine. After attempts to sequence the peptide directly failed. CNBr digestion was carried out on the labeled ATPase, producing both soluble and insoluble labeled material. After reverse-phase HPLC purification of the soluble material, a single radioactive peak was collected. Its sequence was (Formula: see text). A portion of this peak was passed through a microcalmodulin column; it bound in the presence of Ca2+ and was eluted by EDTA, and by a mixture of EDTA and urea. Staphylococcal V8 protease digestion of the eluted peak produced the same sequence as shown above, but starting at Leu-2 and ending at Glu-32. Structural analysis of this peptide showed that it shares features with the calmodulin binding domains of other enzymes which are regulated by calmodulin.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 28835

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;6;2905-10

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000032 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H1 Human orthologues of cluster 1 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 21
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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