G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
glutamate receptor, ionotrophic, AMPA 4
G00000060 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000152578 (Ensembl human gene)
2893 (Entrez Gene)
401 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GRIA4 (GeneCards)
138246 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4574 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P48058 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)


Literature (37)

Pubmed - other

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Association of the NPAS3 gene and five other loci with response to the antipsychotic iloperidone identified in a whole genome association study.

    Lavedan C, Licamele L, Volpi S, Hamilton J, Heaton C, Mack K, Lannan R, Thompson A, Wolfgang CD and Polymeropoulos MH

    Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Christian.Lavedan@vandapharma.com

    A whole genome association study was performed in a phase 3 clinical trial conducted to evaluate a novel antipsychotic, iloperidone, administered to treat patients with schizophrenia. Genotypes of 407 patients were analyzed for 334,563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs associated with iloperidone efficacy were identified within the neuronal PAS domain protein 3 gene (NPAS3), close to a translocation breakpoint site previously observed in a family with schizophrenia. Five other loci were identified that include the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 4 gene (XKR4), the tenascin-R gene (TNR), the glutamate receptor, inotropic, AMPA 4 gene (GRIA4), the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-alpha2 gene (GFRA2), and the NUDT9P1 pseudogene located in the chromosomal region of the serotonin receptor 7 gene (HTR7). The study of these polymorphisms and genes may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia and of its treatment. These results provide new insight into response to iloperidone, developed with the ultimate goal of directing therapy to patients with the highest benefit-to-risk ratio.

    Molecular psychiatry 2009;14;8;804-19

  • Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.

    Need AC, Keefe RS, Ge D, Grossman I, Dickson S, McEvoy JP and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics research, the very richness of the clinical data presents challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting association results for these trials one gene at a time, ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand, suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new hypotheses that can be tested through both replication efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate handling of these forms of data therefore requires dissemination of association statistics without undue emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769 polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21 pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is impossible to know which of these associations may be real, although in total they form a valuable resource that is immediately available to the scientific community.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: N01 MH90001

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;7;946-57

  • Applicability of a genetic signature for enhanced iloperidone efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Volpi S, Potkin SG, Malhotra AK, Licamele L and Lavedan C

    Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

    Objective: To demonstrate how several polymorphisms previously associated with the efficacy of the novel antipsychotic iloperidone could be used together to predict clinical response and provide practical information for individualized treatment.

    Method: This inpatient randomized, double-blind, placebo- and ziprasidone-controlled, 28-day study of the efficacy of iloperidone was conducted from November 2005 to September 2006. Likelihood ratios, predicted probabilities of response, and number needed to treat were calculated for patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) using 6 genetic markers of iloperidone response as measured by change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Total (PANSS-T) score. Data analysis was performed on 409 patients of various ethnic origins.

    Results: The 6-marker genotype combinations defined 4 groups of patients with distinct probabilities of response. More than 75% of iloperidone-treated patients in the group with the optimal genotype combinations showed a 20% or greater improvement, compared with 37% for patients with other genotypes. These patients had a significant response by the first week of treatment, which was earlier than for patients with other genotype combinations. The odds of responding to iloperidone treatment with at least 20% improvement ranged from 2.4 to 3.6 for patients with 1 of the 6 favorable single-marker genotypes. The odds increased to 9.5 or greater for patients with the most favorable 6-marker combinations. The difference in PANSS-T score improvement observed between the genotype groups was also seen for the positive, negative, and general psychopathology PANSS subscales. The relationship between treatment efficacy and genotype combinations was not observed for patients treated with ziprasidone.

    Conclusion: These results illustrate the combined use of genetic markers to predict enhanced response to iloperidone and support the application of pharmacogenetics to differentiate medication options and improve individualized treatments for schizophrenia.

    (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00254202.

    The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2009;70;6;801-9

  • Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior.

    Kessels HW and Malinow R

    Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0634, USA. hkessels@ucsd.edu

    The ability to change behavior likely depends on the selective strengthening and weakening of brain synapses. The cellular models of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, can be expressed by the synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), respectively. We here present an overview of studies that have used animal models to show that such AMPAR trafficking underlies several experience-driven phenomena-from neuronal circuit formation to the modification of behavior. We argue that monitoring and manipulating synaptic AMPAR trafficking represents an attractive means to study cognitive function and dysfunction in animal models.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG032132, R01 AG032132; NIMH NIH HHS: MH049159, R01 MH049159, R37 MH049159

    Neuron 2009;61;3;340-50

  • Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia.

    Arai S, Shibata H, Sakai M, Ninomiya H, Iwata N, Ozaki N and Fukumaki Y

    Division of Human Molecular Genetics, Research Center for Genetic Information, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Objective: As dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is one of the plausible hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. The aim of this study is to clarify the contribution of two genes encoding glutamate metabolic enzymes: the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene (GAD2) and the glutamine synthetase gene (GLUL), in schizophrenia.

    Methods: We genotyped 300 Japanese schizophrenia patients and 300 healthy controls for 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GAD2 (approximately 91 kb in size) and six SNPs in GLUL (approximately 14 kb in size). We examined 'single-point' association as well as pairwise haplotype association for all SNPs with schizophrenia.

    Results: We observed no significant 'single-point' associations with the disease in any of the 20 SNPs after correction for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. We also observed no significant haplotype associations with False Discovery Rate. Furthermore, we analyzed gene-gene interactions, including six glutamate receptor genes we have reported previously in the association studies of GRIA4, GRIN2D, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIK5, and GRM3, using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method. The best interaction model, however, did not show the statistical significance.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that GAD2 and GLUL do not play a major role in schizophrenia pathogenesis and there is no gene-gene interaction between the eight genes in the Japanese population.

    Psychiatric genetics 2009;19;1;6-13

  • Study on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 genes highlights a positive association between schizophrenia and GRIA3 in female patients.

    Magri C, Gardella R, Valsecchi P, Barlati SD, Guizzetti L, Imperadori L, Bonvicini C, Tura GB, Gennarelli M, Sacchetti E and Barlati S

    Division of Biology and Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, Brescia University School of Medicine, Viale Europa, Brescia, Italy.

    Impairment of glutamatergic neurotransmission is one of the major hypotheses proposed to explain the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Therefore, the genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system could be considered potential candidate genes for schizophrenia susceptibility. A systematic study on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor genes has been carried out and the results obtained from the analysis on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 are reported. No evidence of association with schizophrenia was found for the GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes; strong evidence of association with schizophrenia was found for GRIA3. This X-linked gene showed a different behavior in the two genders; a positive association with schizophrenia was observed among females but not in males. Female carriers of rs1034428 A allele were found to have a 2.19-fold higher risk of developing schizophrenia compared to non-carriers and 3.28-fold higher risk for developing a non-paranoid phenotype. The analysis at the haplotype level showed that susceptibility to schizophrenia was associated with the specific haplotype rs989638-rs1034428-rs2227098 CAC (P = 0.0008). We conclude that, of the three AMPA genes analyzed here, only GRIA3 seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but only in females.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008;147B;6;745-53

  • Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation.

    Correia SS, Bassani S, Brown TC, Lisé MF, Backos DS, El-Husseini A, Passafaro M and Esteban JA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0632, USA.

    The regulated trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is critical for synaptic function and plasticity. However, the molecular machinery that controls active transport of receptors into synapses is largely unknown. We found that, in rat hippocampus, the insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into spines during synaptic plasticity requires a specific motor protein, which we identified as myosin Va. We found that myosin Va associates with AMPARs through its cargo binding domain. This interaction was enhanced by active, GTP-bound Rab11, which is also transported by the motor protein. Myosin Va mediated the CaMKII-triggered translocation of GluR1 receptors from the dendritic shaft into spines, but it was not required for constitutive GluR2 trafficking. Accordingly, myosin Va was specifically required for long-term potentiation, but not for basal synaptic transmission. In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F31-MH070205, MH070417; Telethon: TCR07006

    Nature neuroscience 2008;11;4;457-66

  • Electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptors are differentially modulated depending on the associated member of the TARP family.

    Kott S, Werner M, Körber C and Hollmann M

    Department of Biochemistry I, Receptor Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    The family of AMPA receptors is encoded by four genes that are differentially spliced to result in the flip or flop versions of the four subunits GluR1 to GluR4. GluR2 is further modified at the so-called Q/R site by posttranscriptional RNA editing. Delivery of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane and synaptic trafficking are controlled by transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Additionally, TARPs influence essential electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptor channels such as desensitization and agonist efficacies. Here, we compare the influence of all known TARPs (gamma2, gamma3, gamma4, and gamma8) on agonist-induced currents of the four AMPA receptor subunits, including flip and flop splice variants and editing variants. We show that, although agonist-induced currents of all homomeric AMPA receptor subunits as well as all heteromeric combinations tested are significantly potentiated when coexpressed with members of the TARP family in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the extent of TARP-mediated increase in agonist-induced responses is highly dependent on both the AMPA receptor subunit and the coexpressed TARP. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splice variant of the AMPA receptor plays a key role in determining the modulation of electrophysiological properties by associated TARPs. We furthermore present evidence that individual TARP-AMPA receptor interactions control the degree of desensitization of AMPA receptors. Consequently, because of their subunit-specific impact on the electrophysiological properties, TARPs play a major role as modulatory subunits of AMPA receptors and thus contribute to the functional diversity of AMPA receptors encountered in the CNS.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;14;3780-9

  • PKC anchoring to GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit modulates PKC-driven receptor phosphorylation and surface expression.

    Gomes AR, Correia SS, Esteban JA, Duarte CB and Carvalho AL

    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3004-517, Portugal.

    Changes in the synaptic content of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors lead to synaptic efficacy modifications, involved in synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to underlie learning and memory formation. Early in development, GluR4 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors are inserted into synapses. During synapse maturation, the number of AMPA receptors at the synapse is dynamically regulated, and both addition and removal of receptors from postsynaptic sites occur through regulated mechanisms. GluR4 delivery to synapses in rat hippocampal slices was shown to require protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of GluR4 at serine 842 (Ser842). Protein kinase C (PKC) can also phosphorylate Ser842, and we have shown that PKCgamma can associate with GluR4. Here we show that activation of PKC in retina neurons, or in human embryonic kidney 293 cells cotransfected with GluR4 and PKCgamma, increases GluR4 surface expression and Ser842 phosphorylation. Moreover, mutation of amino acids R821A, K825A and R826A at the GluR4 C-terminal, within the interacting region of GluR4 with PKCgamma, abolishes the interaction between PKCgamma and GluR4 and prevents the stimulatory effect of PKCgamma on GluR4 Ser842 phosphorylation and surface expression. These data argue for a role of anchored PKCgamma in Ser842 phosphorylation and targeting to the plasma membrane. The triple GluR4 mutant is, however, phosphorylated by PKA, and it is targeted to the synapse in CA1 hippocampal neurons in organotypic rat hippocampal slices. The present findings show that the interaction between PKCgamma and GluR4 is specifically required to assure PKC-driven phosphorylation and surface membrane expression of GluR4.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH070417

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2007;8;3;259-69

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Phosphorylation-dependent interactions of alpha-Actinin-1/IQGAP1 with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4.

    Nuriya M, Oh S and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors play key roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the CNS. Although a variety of proteins has been characterized to interact with AMPA receptors and regulate their function, little is known about the regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. To understand the molecular mechanisms of GluR4 functional regulation, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify GluR4-interacting molecules. alpha-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 were identified to be GluR4-specific binding partners. Both proteins interact specifically with GluR4 and co-cluster with GluR4 individually in neurons. Mapping experiments revealed that alpha-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 bind to the same region within the C-terminus of GluR4 that contains a previously identified PKA phosphorylation site, Ser842, phosphorylation of which is regulated by synaptic activity. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of Ser842 differentially regulates interactions of GluR4 with alpha-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1; phosphorylation strongly inhibits interaction of GluR4 with alpha-Actinin-1 but has little effect on its interaction with IQGAP1. These results suggest that alpha-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 regulate GluR4 functions via their specific associations with GluR4. In addition, our data indicate that activity-dependent phosphorylation of GluR4 may regulate its synaptic targeting through phosphorylation-dependent interactions with alpha-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;95;2;544-52

  • PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Lu W and Ziff EB

    Program in Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH067229

    Neuron 2005;47;3;407-21

  • Kinetic mechanism of channel opening of the GluRDflip AMPA receptor.

    Li G, Sheng Z, Huang Z and Niu L

    Department of Chemistry, Center of Biochemistry and Biophysics, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12222, USA.

    AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system and are essential for brain functions, such as memory and learning. Dysfunction of these receptors has been implicated in a variety of neurological diseases. Using a laser-pulse photolysis technique, we investigated the channel opening mechanism for GluRD(flip) or GluR4(flip) (i.e., the flip isoform of GluRD), an AMPA receptor subunit. The minimal kinetic mechanism for channel opening is consistent with binding of two glutamate molecules per receptor complex. The GluRD(flip) channel opens with a rate constant of (6.83 +/- 0.74) x 10(4) s(-1) and closes with a rate constant of (3.35 +/- 0.17) x 10(3) s(-1). On the basis of these rate constants, the channel opening probability is calculated to be 0.95 +/- 0.12. Furthermore, the shortest rise time (20-80% of the receptor current response to glutamate) is predicted to be 20 micros, which is approximately 8 times shorter than the previous estimate. These findings suggest that the kinetic property of GluRD(flip) is similar to that of GluR2Q(flip), another fast-activating AMPA receptor subunit.

    Biochemistry 2005;44;15;5835-41

  • No genetic association between polymorphisms in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) and schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

    Guo S, Shi Y, Zhao X, Duan S, Zhou J, Meng J, Yang Y, Gu N, Feng G, Liu H, Zhu S and He L

    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, CAS, 294 Taiyuan Road, Shanghai 200031, PR China.

    The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests genes involved in glutamatergic transmission as candidates for schizophrenia-susceptibility genes. It has recently been reported that some haplotypes in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 Gene (GRIA4), which is located on chromosome 11q22, are positively associated with schizophrenia in the Japanese population. In order to assess the role of GRIA4 in schizophrenia, we examined three reported positive SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms): rs609239, rs641574 and rs659840 at the GRIA4 locus in schizophrenic cases (n = 372) and controls (n = 392) of the Chinese population. Although we had observed similar allele and genotype frequencies compared with that in the Japanese population, no evidence was found for association with the disease in the analysis of either single nucleotide polymorphisms (all P-values > 0.300) or haplotype relative risk (all P-values > 0.088). Our results suggest that the three SNPs of GRIA4 are unlikely to play a major role in the susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

    Neuroscience letters 2004;369;2;168-72

  • GluR4c, an alternative splicing isoform of GluR4, is abundantly expressed in the adult human brain.

    Kawahara Y, Ito K, Sun H, Ito M, Kanazawa I and Kwak S

    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

    We report the cloning of human GluR4c, an alternative splicing isoform of GluR4. Similar to rodent and chick GluR4c mRNA, human GluR4c had a 113-bp insert containing a stop codon, resulting in a short C terminus. The expression of human GluR4c was widespread in the brain, and was upregulated with development in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex where the level of it was about 30% of total GluR4 mRNA in adult stage. The GluR4 subunit may play a pivotal role in regulating channel properties as well as trafficking of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors in the adult human brain.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2004;127;1-2;150-5

  • Characterization of the functional role of the N-glycans in the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain.

    Pasternack A, Coleman SK, Féthière J, Madden DR, LeCaer JP, Rossier J, Pasternack M and Keinänen K

    Viikki Biocenter, Department of Biosciences (Division of Biochemistry), Viikinkaari 5D, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

    The ligand-binding domains of AMPA receptor subunits carry two conserved N-glycosylation sites. In order to gain insight into the functional role of the corresponding N-glycans, we examined how the elimination of glycosylation at these sites (N407 and N414) affects the ligand-binding characteristics, structural stability, cell-surface expression, and channel properties of homomeric GluR-D (GluR4) receptor and its soluble ligand-binding domain (S1S2). GluR-D S1S2 protein expressed as a secreted protein in insect cells was found to be glycosylated at N407 and N414. No major differences in the ligand-binding properties were observed between the 'wild-type' S1S2 and non-glycosylated N407D/N414Q double mutant, or between S1S2 proteins expressed in the presence or absence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. Purified glycosylated and non-glycosylated S1S2 proteins also showed similar thermostabilities as determined by CD spectroscopy. Full-length homomeric GluR-D receptor with N407D/N414Q mutation was expressed on the surface of HEK293 cells like the wild-type GluR-D. In outside-out patches, GluR-D and the N407D/N414Q mutant produced similar rapidly desensitizing current responses to glutamate and AMPA. We therefore report that the two conserved ligand-binding domain glycans do not play any major role in receptor-ligand interactions, do not impart a stabilizing effect on the ligand-binding domain, and are not critical for the formation and surface localization of homomeric GluR-D AMPA receptors in HEK293 cells.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;84;5;1184-92

  • Protein kinase C gamma associates directly with the GluR4 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit. Effect on receptor phosphorylation.

    Correia SS, Duarte CB, Faro CJ, Pires EV and Carvalho AL

    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal.

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain and are thought to be involved in learning and memory formation. The activity of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors can be regulated by direct phosphorylation of their subunits, which affects the electrophysiological properties of the receptor, and the receptor association with numerous proteins that modulate membrane traffic and synaptic targeting of the receptor. In the present study we investigated the association of protein kinase C (PKC) gamma isoform with the GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit. PKC gamma was co-immunoprecipitated with GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit in rat cerebellum and in cultured chick retina cell extracts, and immunocytochemistry experiments showed co-localization of GluR4 and PKC gamma in cultured chick retinal neurons. Pull-down assays showed that native PKC gamma binds the GluR4 C-terminal membrane-proximal region, and recombinant PKC gamma was retained by GST-GluR4 C-terminal fusion protein, suggesting that the kinase binds directly to GluR4. Furthermore, GST-GluR4 C-terminal protein was phosphorylated on GluR4 Ser-482 by bound kinases, retained by the fusion protein, including PKC gamma. The GluR4 C-terminal segment that interacts with PKC gamma, which lacks the PKC phosphorylation sites, inhibited histone H1 phosphorylation by PKC, to the same extent as the PKC pseudosubstrate peptide 19-31, indicating that PKC gamma bound to GluR4 preferentially phosphorylates GluR4 to the detriment of other substrates. Additionally, PKC gamma expression in GluR4 transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells increased the amount of plasma membrane-associated GluR4. Our results suggest that PKC gamma binds directly to GluR4, thereby modulating the function of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;8;6307-13

  • Surface expression of GluR-D AMPA receptor is dependent on an interaction between its C-terminal domain and a 4.1 protein.

    Coleman SK, Cai C, Mottershead DG, Haapalahti JP and Keinänen K

    Department of Biosciences, Division of Biochemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland FIN-00014.

    Dynamic regulation of the number and activity of AMPA receptors is believed to underlie many forms of synaptic plasticity and is presumably mediated by specific protein-protein interactions involving the C-terminal domain of the receptor. Several proteins interacting with the C-terminal tails of the glutamate receptor (GluR)-A and GluR-B subunits have been identified and implicated in the regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis, clustering, and anchoring of AMPA receptors to the cytoskeleton. In contrast, little is known of the molecular interactions of the GluR-D subunit, or of the mechanisms regulating the traffic of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors. We analyzed the subcellular localization of homomeric GluR-D receptors carrying C-terminal deletions in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and in primary neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy and ELISA. A minimal requirement for a 14-residue cytoplasmic segment for the surface expression of homomeric GluR-D receptors was identified. Previously, a similar region in the GluR-A subunit was implicated in an interaction with 4.1 family proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that GluR-D associated with 4.1 protein(s) in both HEK293 cells and rat brain. Moreover, glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments showed that the same 14-residue segment is critical for 4.1 binding to GluR-A and GluR-D. Point mutations within this segment dramatically decreased the surface expression of GluR-D in HEK293 cells, with a concomitant loss of the 4.1 interaction. Our findings demonstrate a novel molecular interaction for the GluR-D subunit and suggest that the association with the 4.1 family protein(s) plays an essential role in the transport to and stabilization of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors at the cell surface.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2003;23;3;798-806

  • Positive association of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) haplotype with schizophrenia: linkage disequilibrium mapping using SNPs evenly distributed across the gene region.

    Makino C, Fujii Y, Kikuta R, Hirata N, Tani A, Shibata A, Ninomiya H, Tashiro N, Shibata H and Fukumaki Y

    Division of Disease Genes, Research Center for Genetic Information, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis suggests that genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system are candidates for schizophrenia-susceptibility genes. We have been conducting systematic studies of the association between glutamate receptors and schizophrenia. We report on a positive association of some haplotypes of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) with schizophrenia. We genotyped 100 Japanese schizophrenics and 100 controls for six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed at intervals of about 50 kb in the GRIA4 region, and estimated the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNPs. We constructed haplotypes of the SNPs in LD using the EM algorithm to test their association with schizophrenia. Significant associations were detected for the combination of SNP4-5 (chi(2) = 12.54, df = 3, P = 0.0057, P = 0.029 with Bonferroni correction) and for the combination of SNP3-4-5 (chi(2) = 18.9, df = 7, P = 0.0085, P = 0.043 with Bonferroni correction). These results suggest that at least one susceptibility locus for schizophrenia is located within or very close to the GRIA4 region in Japanese.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2003;116B;1;17-22

  • Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain.

    Pasternack A, Coleman SK, Jouppila A, Mottershead DG, Lindfors M, Pasternack M and Keinänen K

    Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, P. O. Box 56, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5, Helsinki FIN-00014, Finland.

    Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits contain a approximately 400-residue extracellular N-terminal domain ("X domain"), which is sequence-related to bacterial amino acid-binding proteins and to class C G-protein-coupled receptors. The X domain has been implicated in the assembly, transport to the cell surface, allosteric ligand binding, and desensitization in various members of the iGluR family, but its actual role in these events is poorly characterized. We have studied the properties of homomeric alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-selective GluR-D glutamate receptors carrying N-terminal deletions. Our analysis indicates that, surprisingly, transport to the cell surface, ligand binding properties, agonist-triggered channel activation, rapid desensitization, and allosteric potentiation by cyclothiazide can occur normally in the complete absence of the X domain (residues 22-402). The relatively intact ligand-gated channel function of a homomeric AMPA receptor in the absence of the X domain indirectly suggests more subtle roles for this domain in AMPA receptors, e.g. in the assembly of heteromeric receptors and in synaptic protein interactions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;51;49662-7

  • Flip and flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Tomiyama M, Rodríguez-Puertas R, Cortés R, Pazos A, Palacios JM and Mengod G

    Department of Neurochemistry, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IIBB-CSIC, IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

    Excitotoxicity mediated by AMPA receptors has been suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To investigate the relevance of AMPA receptors to motor neuron degeneration in ALS, we evaluated the expression of mRNAs coding for flip and flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR-A to GluR-D) in the cervical segment of the spinal cord from control individuals and patients with ALS using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Transcript mRNAs coding for flop variants were significantly decreased in the ventral horn of the spinal cord from patients with ALS, whereas the mRNAs for flip variants were preserved. These findings suggest that the relative abundance of flip variants vs. flop variants is increased in spinal motor neurons of ALS patients when compared to that of control individuals. Flip variants promote assemblies of slowly desensitizing AMPA receptors. These results imply that spinal motor neurons of ALS patients possess more slowly desensitizing AMPA receptors than those of control individuals. This expression change of AMPA receptors in ALS may account for vulnerability of motor neurons in this disease.

    Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 2002;45;4;245-9

  • Blockage of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors suppresses migration and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells.

    Ishiuchi S, Tsuzuki K, Yoshida Y, Yamada N, Hagimura N, Okado H, Miwa A, Kurihara H, Nakazato Y, Tamura M, Sasaki T and Ozawa S

    Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan. ishogo@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most undifferentiated type of brain tumor, and its prognosis is extremely poor. Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly migratory and invasive behavior, which makes surgical intervention unsuccessful. Here, we showed that glioblastoma cells express Ca(2+)-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors assembled from the GluR1 and/or GluR4 subunits, and that their conversion to Ca(2+)-impermeable receptors by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the GluR2 cDNA inhibited cell locomotion and induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors facilitated migration and proliferation of the tumor cells. These findings indicate that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors have crucial roles in growth of glioblastoma. Blockage of these Ca(2+)-permeable receptors may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of glioblastoma invasion.

    Nature medicine 2002;8;9;971-8

  • The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor subtypes. Analysis of PDZ binding motifs.

    Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, Meyer G, Nakanishi S, Henley JM and Dev KK

    Department of Anatomy, Medical Research Council Centre of Synaptic Plasticity, Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

    Using sequence homology searches, yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull-down approaches we have identified a series of glutamate receptor subunits that interact differentially with the PDZ proteins GRIP, PICK1, and syntenin. GST-pull-down experiments identified more interactions than detected by yeast two-hybrid assays. We report several receptor-protein interactions, strong ones include: (i) GRIP and syntenin with mGluR7a, mGluR4a, and mGluR6; (ii) PICK1 and GRIP with mGluR3; and (iii) syntenin with all forms of GluR1-4 and mGluR7b. We further characterized the novel mGluR7a-GRIP interaction found both in yeast two-hybrid and GST-pull-down assays and observed that mGluR7a localization overlapped with GRIP with in hippocampal neurons. The wide range of targets for PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin suggests they may represent a molecular mechanism that can concentrate and/or regulate a number of different receptors at a common site on a synapse. These data also suggest that the structural determinants involved in PDZ interactions are more complex than originally envisaged.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9629038

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;18;15221-4

  • Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms.

    Chen L, Chetkovich DM, Petralia RS, Sweeney NT, Kawasaki Y, Wenthold RJ, Bredt DS and Nicoll RA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

    Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells. Stargazin, the mutated protein, interacts with both AMPA receptor subunits and synaptic PDZ proteins, such as PSD-95. The interaction of stargazin with AMPA receptor subunits is essential for delivering functional receptors to the surface membrane of granule cells, whereas its binding with PSD-95 and related PDZ proteins through a carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain is required for targeting the AMPA receptor to synapses. Expression of a mutant stargazin lacking the PDZ-binding domain in hippocampal pyramidal cells disrupts synaptic AMPA receptors, indicating that stargazin-like mechanisms for targeting AMPA receptors may be widespread in the central nervous system.

    Nature 2000;408;6815;936-43

  • A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing.

    Aruscavage PJ and Bass BL

    Department of Biochemistry/Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosines to inosines within cellular and viral RNAs. Certain glutamate receptor (gluR) pre-mRNAs are substrates for the enzymes in vivo. For example, at the R/G editing site of gluR-B, -C, and -D RNAs, ADARs change an arginine codon (AGA) to a glycine codon (IGA) so that two protein isoforms can be synthesized from a single encoded mRNA; the highly related gluR-A sequence is not edited at this site. To gain insight into what features of an RNA substrate are important for accurate and efficient editing by an ADAR, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of sequences required for editing at the R/G site. We observed highly conserved sequences that were shared by gluR-B, -C, and -D, but absent from gluR-A. Surprisingly, in contrast to results obtained in phylogenetic analyses of tRNA and rRNA, it was the bases in paired, helical regions whose identity was conserved, whereas bases in nonhelical regions varied, but maintained their nonhelical state. We speculate this pattern in part reflects constraints imposed by ADAR's unique specificity and gained support for our hypotheses with mutagenesis studies. Unexpectedly, we observed that some of the gluR introns were conserved beyond the sequences required for editing. The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5P30CA42014; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM44073, R01 GM044073, R01 GM044073-11

    RNA (New York, N.Y.) 2000;6;2;257-69

  • Characterization of phosphorylation sites on the glutamate receptor 4 subunit of the AMPA receptors.

    Carvalho AL, Kameyama K and Huganir RL

    Center for Neuroscience of Coimbra, Department of Biochemistry, University of Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal.

    Recent studies have suggested that protein phosphorylation of glutamate receptors may play an important role in synaptic transmission. Specifically, the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors has been implicated in cellular models of synaptic plasticity. The phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit of AMPA receptors by protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been characterized extensively. Phosphorylation of this subunit occurs exclusively on the intracellular C-terminal domain. However, the GluR1 subunit C terminus shows low homology to the other AMPA receptor subunits. In this paper we characterized the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluR4, using site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical techniques. We found that GluR4 is phosphorylated on serine 842 within the C-terminal domain in vitro and in vivo. Serine 842 is phosphorylated by PKA, PKC, and CaMKII in vitro and is phosphorylated in transfected cells by PKA. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide analysis indicates that serine 842 is the major phosphorylation site on GluR4. In addition, we identified threonine 830 as a potential PKC phosphorylation site. These results suggest that GluR4, which is the most rapidly desensitizing AMPA receptor subunit, may be modulated by phosphorylation.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;12;4748-54

  • Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1.

    Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Synaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors is crucial for efficient signal transduction and integration in neurons. PDZ domain-containing proteins such as PSD-95/SAP90 interact with the intracellular C termini of a variety of receptors and are thought to be important in the targeting and anchoring of receptors to specific synapses. Here, we show that PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase), a PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with the C termini of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in vitro and in vivo. In neurons, PICK1 specifically colocalizes with AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Furthermore, PICK1 induces clustering of AMPA receptors in heterologous expression systems. These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors.

    Neuron 1999;22;1;179-87

  • AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in human NT2-N neurons results from loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis following marked elevation of intracellular Na+.

    Itoh T, Itoh A, Horiuchi K and Pleasure D

    Division of Neurology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Human NT2-N neurons express Ca2+-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid glutamate receptors (AMPA-GluRs) and become vulnerable to excitotoxicity when AMPA-GluR desensitization is blocked with cyclothiazide. Although the initial increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) was 1.9-fold greater in the presence than in the absence of cyclothiazide, Ca2+ entry via AMPA-GluRs in an early phase of the exposure was not necessary to elicit excitotoxicity in these neurons. Rather, subsequent necrosis was caused by a >40-fold rise in [Na+]i, which induced a delayed [Ca2+]i rise. Transfer of the neurons to a 5 mM Na+ medium after AMPA-GluR activation accelerated the delayed [Ca2+]i rise and intensified excitotoxicity. Low-Na+ medium-enhanced excitotoxicity was partially blocked by amiloride or dizocilpine (MK-801), and completely blocked by removal of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that Ca2+ entry by reverse operation of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and via NMDA glutamate receptors was responsible for the neuronal death after excessive Na+ loading. Our results serve to emphasize the central role of neuronal Na+ loading in AMPA-GluR-mediated excitotoxicity in human neurons.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS08075, NS25044

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;71;1;112-24

  • Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+.

    Wollmuth LP, Kuner T and Sakmann B

    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany. wollmuth@sunny.mpimf-Heidelberg.mpg.de

    1. The voltage-dependent block of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels by extracellular Mg2+ is a critical determinant of its contribution to CNS synaptic physiology. The function of the narrow constriction of the channel in determining the block was investigated by analysing the effects of a set different amino acid substitutions at exposed residues positioned at or near this region. NMDA receptor channels, composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits, were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. 2. In wild-type channels, the voltage dependence (delta) of the block Mg2+ was concentration dependent with values of delta of integral of 0.82 in 0.07 mM and higher concentrations. Under bionic conditions with high extracellular Mg2+ and K+ as the reference ion, Mg2+ weakly permeated the channel. Over intermediate potentials (approximately -60 to -10 mV), this weak permeability had no apparent effect on the block but at potentials negative to approximately -60mV, it attenuated the extent and voltage dependence of the block. 3. Substitutions of glycine, serine, glutamine or aspartate for the N-site asparagine in the NR1-subunit enhanced the extent of block over intermediate potentials but left the voltage dependence of the block unchanged indicating that structural determinants of the block remained. These same substitutions either attenuated or left unchanged the apparent Mg2+ permeability. 4. In channels containing substitutions of glycine, serine or glutamine for the N-site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit, the block Mg2+ was reduced at negative potentials. Over intermediate potentials, the block was not strongly attenuated except for the glutamine substitution which reduced the voltage dependence of the block to integral of 0.57 in 0.7 mM Mg2+. 5. Equivalent substitutions for the N + 1 site asparagine in the NR2A-subunit strongly attenuated the block over the entire voltage range. In 0.7 mM Mg2+, the voltage dependence of the block was reduced to 0.50 (glycine), 0.53 (serine) and 0.46 (glutamine). 6. Channels containing substitutions of the N-site or N + 1 site asparagines in the NR2A-subunit showed an increased Mg2+ permeability suggesting that these adjacent asparagines form a barrier for inward Mg2+ flux. Changes in this barrier contribute, at least in part, to the mechanism underlying disruption of the block following substitution of these residues. 7. The adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines are positioned at or near the narrow constriction of the channel. Pore size, however, did not determine how effectively Mg2+ blocks mutant channels. 8. It is concluded that, at the narrow constriction in the NMDA receptor channel, the adjacent NR2A-subunit asparagines, the N-site and N + 1 site, but not the N-site asparagine of the NR1-subunit, form a critical blocking site for extracellular Mg2+. The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues.

    The Journal of physiology 1998;506 ( Pt 1);13-32

  • Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subunits in the developing and adult cerebellum.

    Ripellino JA, Neve RL and Howe JR

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8066, USA.

    The localization and expression of ionotropic non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (GluR) were investigated in the developing and adult rat cerebellum using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies for immunocytochemical, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation studies. In P7 animals, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor immunoreactivity was detected in all layers of the cerebellar cortex with the exception of the external granule cell layer. Antibodies against the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR4 gave strong immunoreactive staining of Bergmann glia in both young and adult animals, and both antibodies showed prominent staining of the molecular layer in the adult cerebellum. Dense immunoreactive staining of Purkinje cell somata and dendrites was obtained with anti-GluR2/3/4c in both the developing and adult cerebellum. Whereas each of the three alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor antibodies stained the internal, but not the external, granule cell layer, immunostaining for the kainate-type subunits GluR6/7 and KA2 was detected in both the external and internal granule cell layers. as well as in the molecular layer in both P7 and adult cerebellum. Immunoblot analysis of total cerebellar protein indicated that the level of GluR4 expression increased 15-fold from P1 to P18, whereas the expression of the KA2 subunit protein was nine-fold lower in adult cerebellum than it was at P1. The expression of GluR1 increased moderately (two-fold) from P1 to adult. Subunit interactions between GluR1 and GluR4, as well as between GluR6/7 and KA2, were demonstrated in immunoprecipitation experiments; and the GluR4 and KA2 subunits appear to be present exclusively in heteromeric assemblies with GluR1 and GluR6/7, respectively. The results show that the various alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate- and kainate-type subunits are differentially expressed during cerebellar development and further define the possible subunit composition of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the major cerebellar cell types.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24236; NINDS NIH HHS: NS12327, NS30996

    Neuroscience 1998;82;2;485-97

  • Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterization of a human glutamate receptor: hGluR4.

    Fletcher EJ, Nutt SL, Hoo KH, Elliott CE, Korczak B, McWhinnie EA and Kamboj RK

    Allelix Biopharmaceuticals Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada.

    A member of the ionotropic family of glutamate receptors, hGluR4, was isolated from a human cDNA library and characterized following expression in mammalian cell lines. Human GluR4 possessed a 99% amino acid and 92% nucleotide homology to that of its rat counterpart with sequence differences restricted to the carboxy and amino terminal regions of the molecule. Transfection of simian kidney cells (COS-1) with an hGluR4 expression plasmid resulted in the transient formation of a membrane protein that possessed high specific binding for [3H](RS)-alpha-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid ([3H]AMPA) but not [3H]kainate. Competition studies yielded a displacement profile of AMPA = quisqualate > glutamate > domoate > kainate > N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or dihydrokainate. Whole-cell, voltage-clamp recordings from a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) stably expressing hGluR4 confirmed the presence of constitutively active, ligand-gated ion channels activated by AMPA, glutamate and kainate but not N-methyl-D-aspartate. Kainate-evoked currents were reversibly attenuated by 6-cyano-7-nitro- quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) but not DL-2-amino-5- phosphonovalerate (DL-AP5). Agonist-evoked currents exhibited inward rectification and ion substitution experiments indicated that hGluR4 receptor-linked ion channels in their homomeric state are permeable to both CA2+ and Na+ ions. In the same cell line antibody to rat GluR4 immunoprecipitated a major protein band at approximately 108 kDa and a minor one at approximately 340 kDa. The immunoblot analysis of membranes chemically crosslinked with dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate) showed a broad band at 550-600 kDa suggesting that the GluR4 receptor forms a pentamer in situ. This is the first report of the cloning of hGluR4 receptor and its stable expression in a human cell line.

    Receptors & channels 1995;3;1;21-31

  • Control of kinetic properties of AMPA receptor channels by nuclear RNA editing.

    Lomeli H, Mosbacher J, Melcher T, Höger T, Geiger JR, Kuner T, Monyer H, Higuchi M, Bach A and Seeburg PH

    Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor channels mediate the fast component of excitatory postsynaptic currents in the central nervous system. Site-selective nuclear RNA editing controls the calcium permeability of these channels, and RNA editing at a second site is shown here to affect the kinetic aspects of these channels in rat brain. In three of the four AMPA receptor subunits (GluR-B, -C, and -D), intronic elements determine a codon switch (AGA, arginine, to GGA, glycine) in the primary transcripts in a position termed the R/G site, which immediately precedes the alternatively spliced modules "flip" and "flop." The extent of editing at this site progresses with brain development in a manner specific for subunit and splice form, and edited channels possess faster recovery rates from desensitization.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1994;266;5191;1709-13

  • Expression of non-NMDA glutamate receptor channel genes by clonal human neurons.

    Hardy M, Younkin D, Tang CM, Pleasure J, Shi QY, Williams M and Pleasure D

    Division of Neurology Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104.

    Treatment of the human teratocarcinoma line NTera2/c1.D1 (NT2) with retinoic acid induces terminal neuronal differentiation. In a previous study, we found that the neurons obtained in this way express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor channels. We now show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting that these neurons transcribe each of the nine known non-NMDA glutamate receptor genes (GluR1-7, Ka-1, and Ka-2) and that four of these genes (GluR2, GluR6, GluR7, and Ka-1) are also transcribed by undifferentiated NT2 cells. Patch clamp studies demonstrate that individual non-NMDA glutamate receptor channels are readily isolated from NT2-derived neurons and that these channels are potently modulated by the desensitization blocker cyclothiazide. NT2-derived neurons are susceptible to kainate excitotoxicity but are not injured by prolonged exposure to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate. We expect that the NT2-derived human neuronal culture system will facilitate studies of human neuronal non-NMDA glutamate receptor channels and of the pathophysiology of neuronal excitotoxicity.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS08075, NS25044, NS28158; ...

    Journal of neurochemistry 1994;63;2;482-9

  • Transmembrane topology of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR6.

    Roche KW, Raymond LA, Blackstone C and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most rapid excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are divided into alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors based on pharmacological and electrophysiological characteristics. Ionotropic receptor subunits are integral membrane proteins that have been proposed to have a large extracellular ligand-binding N-terminal domain, four hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and an extracellular C-terminal domain. In this study we have shown that both AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1-4) and kainate receptor subunits (GluR6/7) are glycosylated in adult rat brain; however, the kainate receptor subunits are glycosylated to a greater extent. Examination of the sequences of AMPA and kainate receptors revealed that kainate receptors have several additional consensus sites for N-linked glycosylation; interestingly, one of these is located in the proposed major intracellular loop of the receptor subunits. To test the proposed transmembrane topology model for these receptors, we have used site-specific mutagenesis of the GluR6 subunit to remove the consensus glycosylation site located within the proposed intracellular loop. Mutagenesis of this site demonstrates that it is glycosylated in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney cells, which express functional kainate receptors. Since N-linked glycosylation has only been found to occur on extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins, these results suggest that the proposed transmembrane topology model for the glutamate receptor subunits is incorrect. Combining these results with other recent data, we have proposed an alternative transmembrane topology model.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07309

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;16;11679-82

  • Chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes.

    McNamara JO, Eubanks JH, McPherson JD, Wasmuth JJ, Evans GA and Heinemann SF

    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC.

    The chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes (GluR1-4) has been established using PCR with DNA isolated from mapping panels of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines and high-resolution fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization. This was accomplished with genomic clones containing putative human homologs of rat GluR 1-4 isolated by high-stringency screening of a cosmid library with the rat cDNAs encoding GluR1-4. The locations of GluR1-4, respectively, are 5q32-33, 4q32-33, Xq25-26, and 11q22-23. Evidence implicating glutamatergic synapses in a diversity of physiologic and pathologic processes together with concordance of the chromosomal locales and results of linkage analyses establishes GluR3 and GluR4 as candidate genes for a number of nervous system disorders including the oculocerebral-renal syndrome of Lowe and a form of manic-depressive illness.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00320; NINDS NIH HHS: NS17771, NS24448; ...

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1992;12;7;2555-62

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000014 G2C Homo sapiens Human ARC Human orthologues of mouse AMPA receptor complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 9
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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