G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
Dmx-like 2
G00000057 (Mus musculus)

Databases (5)

ENSG00000104093 (Ensembl human gene)
23312 (Entrez Gene)
DMXL2 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2938 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8TDJ6 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • KIAA0856
  • RC3

Literature (10)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association study of asthma identifies RAD50-IL13 and HLA-DR/DQ regions.

    Li X, Howard TD, Zheng SL, Haselkorn T, Peters SP, Meyers DA and Bleecker ER

    Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

    Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic susceptibility with environmental influences. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) represent a powerful approach to investigate the association of DNA variants with disease susceptibility. To date, few GWASs for asthma have been reported.

    Objectives: A GWAS was performed on a population of patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma to identify genes that are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.

    Methods: A total of 292,443 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with asthma in 473 The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) cases and 1892 Illumina general population controls. Asthma-related quantitative traits (total serum IgE, FEV(1), forced vital capacity, and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity) were also tested in identified candidate regions in 473 TENOR cases and 363 phenotyped controls without a history of asthma to analyze GWAS results further. Imputation was performed in identified candidate regions for analysis with denser SNP coverage.

    Results: Multiple SNPs in the RAD50-IL13 region on chromosome 5q31.1 were associated with asthma: rs2244012 in intron 2 of RAD50 (P = 3.04E-07). The HLA-DR/DQ region on chromosome 6p21.3 was also associated with asthma: rs1063355 in the 3' untranslated region of HLA-DQB1 (P = 9.55E-06). Imputation identified several significant SNPs in the T(H)2 locus control region 3' of RAD50. Imputation also identified a more significant SNP, rs3998159 (P = 1.45E-06), between HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2.

    Conclusion: This GWAS confirmed the important role of T(H)2 cytokine and antigen presentation genes in asthma at a genome-wide level and the importance of additional investigation of these 2 regions to delineate their structural complexity and biologic function in the development of asthma.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL76285, HL87665, R01 HL076285, R01 HL076285-04, R01 HL087665, R01 HL087665-03

    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2010;125;2;328-335.e11

  • Gene variants associated with ischemic stroke: the cardiovascular health study.

    Luke MM, O'Meara ES, Rowland CM, Shiffman D, Bare LA, Arellano AR, Longstreth WT, Lumley T, Rice K, Tracy RP, Devlin JJ and Psaty BM

    Celera, Alameda, California 94502, USA. may.luke@celera.com

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which had been associated with coronary heart disease, are associated with incident ischemic stroke.

    Methods: Based on antecedent studies of coronary heart disease, we prespecified the risk allele for each of the 74 SNPs. We used Cox proportional hazards models that adjusted for traditional risk factors to estimate the associations of these SNPs with incident ischemic stroke during 14 years of follow-up in a population-based study of older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    Results: In white CHS participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 7 of the 74 SNPs (in HPS1, ITGAE, ABCG2, MYH15, FSTL4, CALM1, and BAT2) were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.42). In black participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 5 SNPs (in KRT4, LY6G5B, EDG1, DMXL2, and ABCG2) were nominally associated with stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.55). The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 was associated with stroke in both white (hazard ratio, 1.46; 90% CI, 1.05 to 2.03) and black (hazard ratio, 3.59; 90% CI, 1.11 to 11.6) participants of CHS. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the 10-year cumulative incidence of stroke were greater among Val allele homozygotes than among Met allele carriers in both white (10% versus 6%) and black (12% versus 3%) participants of CHS.

    Conclusions: The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 (encoding a transporter of sterols and xenobiotics) was associated with incident ischemic stroke in white and black participants of CHS.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01 HC-55222, N01 HC015103, N01 HC035129, N01 HC045133, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-85079, N01-HC-85086, N01HC55222, N01HC75150, N01HC85079, N01HC85086, U01 HL080295, U01 HL080295-01

    Stroke 2009;40;2;363-8

  • Association of gene variants with incident myocardial infarction in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Shiffman D, O'Meara ES, Bare LA, Rowland CM, Louie JZ, Arellano AR, Lumley T, Rice K, Iakoubova O, Luke MM, Young BA, Malloy MJ, Kane JP, Ellis SG, Tracy RP, Devlin JJ and Psaty BM

    Celera, 1401 Harbor Bay Parkway, Alameda, CA 94502, USA. dov.shiffman@celera.com

    Objective: We asked whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had been nominally associated with cardiovascular disease in antecedent studies were also associated with cardiovascular disease in a population-based prospective study of 4522 individuals aged 65 or older.

    Based on antecedent studies, we prespecified a risk allele and an inheritance model for each of 74 SNPs. We then tested the association of these SNPs with myocardial infarction (MI) in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The prespecified risk alleles of 8 SNPs were nominally associated (1-sided P<0.05) with increased risk of MI in White CHS participants. The false discovery rate for these 8 was 0.43, suggesting that about 4 of these 8 are likely to be true positives. The 4 of these 8 SNPs that had the strongest evidence for association with cardiovascular disease before testing in CHS (association in 3 antecedent studies) were in KIF6 (CHS HR=1.29; 90%CI 1.1 to 1.52), VAMP8 (HR=1.2; 90%CI 1.02 to 1.41), TAS2R50 (HR=1.13; 90%CI 1 to 1.27), and LPA (HR=1.62; 90%CI 1.09 to 2.42).

    Conclusions: Although most of the SNPs investigated were not associated with MI in CHS, evidence from this investigation combined with previous studies suggests that 4 of these SNPs are likely associated with MI.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: K08 HL077499, N01 HC015103, N01 HC035129, N01 HC045133, N01-HC-55222, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-85079, N01-HC-85080, N01-HC-85081, N01-HC-85082, N01-HC-85083, N01-HC-85084, N01-HC-85085, N01-HC-85086, N01HC55222, N01HC75150, N01HC85079, N01HC85086, R01 HL077499, U01 HL080295, U01 HL080295-01, U01 HL080295-02, U01 HL080295-03, U01 HL080295-04

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2008;28;1;173-9

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • A novel rabconnectin-3-binding protein that directly binds a GDP/GTP exchange protein for Rab3A small G protein implicated in Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter.

    Kawabe H, Sakisaka T, Yasumi M, Shingai T, Izumi G, Nagano F, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Takeuchi M, Nakanishi H and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

    Background: Rab3A, a member of the Rab3 small G protein family, regulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. The cyclical activation and inactivation of Rab3A are essential for the Rab3A action in exocytosis. GDP-Rab3A is activated to GTP-Rab3A by Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein (Rab3 GEP) and GTP-Rab3A is inactivated to GDP-Rab3A by Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (Rab3 GAP). We have recently found a novel protein, named rabconnectin-3, which is co-immunoprecipitated with Rab3 GEP or GAP from the extract of the crude synaptic vesicle (CSV) fraction of rat brain. Rabconnectin-3 is abundantly expressed in the brain where it is associated with synaptic vesicles. We have found that two more proteins are co-immunoprecipitated with Rab3 GEP from the CSV fraction of rat brain. We attempted here to isolate and characterize one of them.

    Results: We determined its partial amino acid sequence, cloned its cDNA from a human cDNA library, and determined its primary structure. The protein consisted of 1490 amino acids (aa) and showed a calculated molecular weight of 163808. The protein had 7 WD domains. The protein was abundantly expressed in the brain where it co-localized with rabconnectin-3 on synaptic vesicles. The protein formed a stable complex with rabconnectin-3. We named this protein rabconnectin-3beta and renamed rabconnectin-3 rabconnectin-3alpha. Rabconnectin-3beta, but not rabconnectin-3alpha, directly bound Rab3 GEP. Neither rabconnectin-3alpha nor -3beta directly bound Rab3 GAP.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that rabconnectin-3 consists of the alpha and beta subunits and binds directly Rab3 GEP through the beta subunit and indirectly Rab3 GAP through an unidentified molecule(s).

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2003;8;6;537-46

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Rabconnectin-3, a novel protein that binds both GDP/GTP exchange protein and GTPase-activating protein for Rab3 small G protein family.

    Nagano F, Kawabe H, Nakanishi H, Shinohara M, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Takeuchi M, Sasaki T and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Japan.

    Rab3A, a member of the Rab3 small G protein family, regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. The cyclical activation and inactivation of Rab3A are essential for the Rab3A action in exocytosis. GDP-Rab3A is activated to GTP-Rab3A by Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein (Rab3 GEP), and GTP-Rab3A is inactivated to GDP-Rab3A by Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (Rab3 GAP). It remains unknown how or in which step of the multiple exocytosis steps these regulators are activated and inactivated. We isolated here a novel protein that was co-immunoprecipitated with Rab3 GEP and GAP by their respective antibodies from the crude synaptic vesicle fraction of rat brain. The protein, named rabconnectin-3, bound both Rab3 GEP and GAP. The cDNA of rabconnectin-3 was cloned from a human cDNA library and its primary structure was determined. Human rabconnectin-3 consisted of 3,036 amino acids and showed a calculated M(r) of 339,753. It had 12 WD domains. Tissue and subcellular distribution analyses in rat indicated that rabconnectin-3 was abundantly expressed in the brain where it was enriched in the synaptic vesicle fraction. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that rabconnectin-3 was concentrated on synaptic vesicles at synapses. These results indicate that rabconnectin-3 serves as a scaffold molecule for both Rab3 GEP and GAP on synaptic vesicles.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;9629-32

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    In this paper, we report the sequences of 100 cDNA clones newly determined from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries and predict the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0819 to KIAA0918. These cDNA clones were selected on the basis of their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) by using in vitro transcription/translation assays. The sequence data showed that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames are 4.4 kb and 2.5 kb (831 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology and motif/domain searches against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 83 genes were similar to those of known genes, 59% of which (49 genes) were categorized as coding for proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The chromosomal locations and the expression profiles of all the genes were also examined. For 54 clones including brain-specific ones, the mRNA levels were further examined among 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, and fetal brain.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;6;355-64

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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