G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
DAB2 interacting protein
G00000024 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000020595 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000136848 (Ensembl human gene)
153090 (Entrez Gene)
567 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DAB2IP (GeneCards)
609205 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17294 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q5VWQ8 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • AF9Q34
  • AIP1
  • DIP1/2
  • KIAA1743

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Association of 17 prostate cancer susceptibility loci with prostate cancer risk in Chinese men.

    Zheng SL, Hsing AW, Sun J, Chu LW, Yu K, Li G, Gao Z, Kim ST, Isaacs WB, Shen MC, Gao YT, Hoover RN and Xu J

    Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

    Background: Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent have identified more than a dozen common genetic variants that are associated with prostate cancer risk.

    Methods: To determine whether these variants are also associated with prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population, we evaluated 17 prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a population-based case-control study from Shanghai, including 288 prostate cancer cases and 155 population controls.

    Results: After adjustment for age, two of the 17 loci were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, while the other 15 loci were suggestively associated with prostate cancer risk in this population. The strongest associations were found for chromosome 8q24 Region 2 (rs1016343: OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.35-3.20, P = 9.4 x 10(-4)) and 8q24 Region 1 (rs10090154: OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.31-3.28, P = 0.002); additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessed in these two 8q24 regions were also significant (OR(Region2) = 1.92-2.05, P = 9.4 x 10(-4) to 0.003, and OR(Region1) = 1.77-1.81, P = 0.01 for all SNPs).

    Conclusions: Our study shows that multiple prostate cancer risk loci identified in European populations by GWAS are also associated with prostate cancer risk in Chinese men, a low-risk population with mostly clinically relevant cancers. Larger studies in Chinese and Asian populations are needed to confirm these findings and the role of these risk loci in prostate cancer etiology in Asian men.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA105055, CA106523, CA95052, R01 CA095052, R01 CA095052-05, R01 CA105055, R01 CA105055-05, R01 CA106523, R01 CA106523-05

    The Prostate 2010;70;4;425-32

  • DAB2IP coordinates both PI3K-Akt and ASK1 pathways for cell survival and apoptosis.

    Xie D, Gore C, Zhou J, Pong RC, Zhang H, Yu L, Vessella RL, Min W and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    In metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cells, imbalance between cell survival and death signals such as constitutive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and inactivation of apoptosis-stimulated kinase (ASK1)-JNK pathways is often detected. Here, we show that DAB2IP protein, often down-regulated in PCa, is a potent growth inhibitor by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and is proapoptotic in response to stress. Gain of function study showed that DAB2IP can suppress the PI3K-Akt pathway and enhance ASK1 activation leading to cell apoptosis, whereas loss of DAB2IP expression resulted in PI3K-Akt activation and ASK1-JNK inactivation leading to accelerated PCa growth in vivo. Moreover, glandular epithelia from DAB2IP(-/-) animal exhibited hyperplasia and apoptotic defect. Structural functional analyses of DAB2IP protein indicate that both proline-rich (PR) and PERIOD-like (PER) domains, in addition to the critical role of C2 domain in ASK1 activity, are important for modulating PI3K-Akt activity. Thus, DAB2IP is a scaffold protein capable of bridging both survival and death signal molecules, which implies its role in maintaining cell homeostasis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;47;19878-83

  • Prognostic significance of prostate cancer susceptibility variants on prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Huang SP, Huang LC, Ting WC, Chen LM, Chang TY, Lu TL, Lan YH, Liu CC, Yang WH, Lee HZ, Hsieh CJ and Bao BY

    Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Recent genomewide association studies have identified several prostate cancer susceptibility variants. However, the association between these variants and biochemical failure in prostate cancer patients receiving radical prostatectomy has not been determined. We systematically evaluated 20 prostate cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a cohort of 320 localized prostate cancer patients receiving radical prostatectomy. Each single-nucleotide polymorphism found to be associated with the recurrence of prostate-specific antigen was further analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. Three prostate cancer susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1447295 at 8q24, rs7920517 and rs10993994 at 10q11) were associated with prostate-specific antigen recurrence (P < 0.02). Of these, rs7920517 and rs10993994, which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.91), also showed significant associations with poor prostate-specific antigen-free survival following radical prostatectomy (log-rank test; P < 0.01). The associations remained significant in our multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis after adjusting for other clinicopathologic risk covariates (P < 0.01). In conclusion, loci associated with risk for prostate cancer, such as rs7920517 and rs10993994, might also be used to predict the recurrence of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer patients receiving radical prostatectomy.

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2009;18;11;3068-74

  • Prostate cancer risk associated loci in African Americans.

    Xu J, Kibel AS, Hu JJ, Turner AR, Pruett K, Zheng SL, Sun J, Isaacs SD, Wiley KE, Kim ST, Hsu FC, Wu W, Torti FM, Walsh PC, Chang BL and Isaacs WB

    Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. jxu@wfubmc.edu

    Four genome-wide association studies, all in populations of European descent, have identified 20 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 20 regions that are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated these 20 SNPs in a combined African American (AA) study, with 868 prostate cancer patients and 878 control subjects. For 17 of these 20 SNPs, implicated risk-associated alleles were found to be more common in these AA cases than controls, significantly more than expected under the null hypothesis (P = 0.03). Two of these 17 SNPs, located at 3p12, and region 2 at 8q24, were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (P < 0.05), and only SNP rs16901979 at region 2 of 8q24 remained significant after accounting for 20 tests. A multivariate analysis of additional SNPs across the broader 8q24 region revealed three independent prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs, including rs16901979, rs13254738, and rs10086908. The first two SNPs were approximately 20 kb apart and the last SNP, a novel finding from this study, was approximately 100 kb centromeric to the first two SNPs. These results suggest that a systematic evaluation of regions harboring known prostate cancer risk SNPs implicated in other races is an efficient approach to identify risk alleles for AA. However, studies with larger numbers of AA subjects are needed, and this will likely require a major collaborative effort to combine multiple AA study populations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA105055, CA106523, CA112028, CA112517, CA129684, CA58236, CA86323, CA95052, P50 CA058236, P50 CA058236-09A10002, R01 CA095052, R01 CA095052-05, R01 CA105055, R01 CA105055-05, R01 CA106523, R01 CA106523-05, R01 CA112028, R01 CA112028-05, R01 CA112517, R01 CA112517-04, R01 CA129684, R01 CA129684-02, U01 CA086323, U01 CA086323-10

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2009;18;7;2145-9

  • Established prostate cancer susceptibility variants are not associated with disease outcome.

    Wiklund FE, Adami HO, Zheng SL, Stattin P, Isaacs WB, Grönberg H and Xu J

    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Fredrik.wiklund@ki.se

    Recent genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common sequence variants associated with prostate cancer risk; however, their importance in prostate cancer prognosis remains unknown. To assess confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility variants with prostate cancer prognosis, we genotyped 16 established susceptibility variants in a Swedish cohort of 2,875 prostate cancer cases, ascertained between 2001 and 2003, with complete follow-up regarding vital status through January 2008. Cox regression models, adjusted for age, clinical stage, pathologic grade, nodal or distant metastases, and diagnostic serum levels of prostate-specific antigen level, were used to assess association between risk variants and prostate cancer-specific survival. During follow-up, 626 men died, and of those, 440 had prostate cancer classified as their underlying cause of death. We found no association between any of the explored sequence variants and prostate cancer-specific mortality, either in exploring individual variants or in assessing the cumulative effect of all variants. We conclude that hitherto established prostate cancer susceptibility variants are not associated with the lethal potential of prostate cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA105055, R01CA105055

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2009;18;5;1659-62

  • Association of prostate cancer risk variants with clinicopathologic characteristics of the disease.

    Xu J, Isaacs SD, Sun J, Li G, Wiley KE, Zhu Y, Hsu FC, Wiklund F, Turner AR, Adams TS, Liu W, Trock BJ, Partin AW, Chang B, Walsh PC, Grönberg H, Isaacs W and Zheng S

    Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

    Purpose: Fifteen independent genetic variants have been implicated in prostate cancer risk by recent genome-wide association studies. However, their association with clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer is uncertain.

    We systematically evaluated these 15 variants in 1,563 prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, taking advantage of the uniform tumor stage and grade information available for each of these cases. Associations of these variants with aggressiveness, pathologic Gleason scores, pathologic stage, age at diagnosis, or serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were tested.

    Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, none of the single nucleotide polymorphisms was individually or cumulatively associated with aggressiveness or individual clinicopathologic variables of prostate cancer such as Gleason scores, pathologic stage, or age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. The reported risk allele (G) for single nucleotide polymorphism rs2735839 in the KLK3 gene at 19q13 was more frequent in less aggressive prostate cancer patients (0.89) than in more aggressive prostate cancer patients (0.86; nominal P = 0.03) or in controls (0.86; nominal P = 0.04). Considering that this allele was also significantly associated with higher serum PSA levels among controls (nominal P = 0.003), the observed trend of higher frequency of this risk allele between less and more aggressive prostate cancer, or between less aggressive and controls may be due to detection bias of PSA screening.

    Conclusions: Prostate cancer risk variants recently discovered from genome-wide case-control association studies are not associated with clinicopathologic variables in this population. Case-case studies are urgently needed to discover genetic variants that predict tumor aggressiveness.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA106523, CA112517, CA58236, CA86323, CA95052, P50 CA058236, P50 CA058236-08S50002, R01 CA095052, R01 CA095052-04, R01 CA106523, R01 CA106523-04, R01 CA112517, R01 CA112517-04, U01 CA086323, U01 CA086323-09

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2008;14;18;5819-24

  • Two genome-wide association studies of aggressive prostate cancer implicate putative prostate tumor suppressor gene DAB2IP.

    Duggan D, Zheng SL, Knowlton M, Benitez D, Dimitrov L, Wiklund F, Robbins C, Isaacs SD, Cheng Y, Li G, Sun J, Chang BL, Marovich L, Wiley KE, Bälter K, Stattin P, Adami HO, Gielzak M, Yan G, Sauvageot J, Liu W, Kim JW, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Trock BJ, Partin AW, Walsh PC, Isaacs WB, Grönberg H, Xu J and Carpten JD

    Division of Genetic Basis of Human Disease, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

    Background: The consistent finding of a genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer suggests that there are germline sequence variants predisposing individuals to this disease. These variants could be useful in screening and treatment.

    Methods: We performed an exploratory genome-wide association scan in 498 men with aggressive prostate cancer and 494 control subjects selected from a population-based case-control study in Sweden. We combined the results of this scan with those for aggressive prostate cancer from the publicly available Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed statistically significant associations with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer based on two-sided allele tests were tested for their association with aggressive prostate cancer in two independent study populations composed of individuals of European or African American descent using one-sided tests and the genetic model (dominant or additive) associated with the lowest value in the exploratory study.

    Results: Among the approximately 60,000 SNPs that were common to our study and CGEMS, we identified seven that had a similar (positive or negative) and statistically significant (P<.01) association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in both studies. Analysis of the distribution of these SNPs among 1032 prostate cancer patients and 571 control subjects of European descent indicated that one, rs1571801, located in the DAB2IP gene, which encodes a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein and putative prostate tumor suppressor, was associated with aggressive prostate cancer (one-sided P value = .004). The association was also statistically significant in an African American study population that included 210 prostate cancer patients and 346 control subjects (one-sided P value = .02).

    Conclusion: A genetic variant in DAB2IP may be associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and should be evaluated further.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA105055, CA106523, CA112517, CA58236, CA86323, CA95052

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007;99;24;1836-44

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Transitional cell carcinomas and nonurothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder differ in the promoter methylation status of the caveolin-1, hDAB2IP and p53 genes, but not in the global methylation of Alu elements.

    Kunze E, Von Bonin F, Werner C, Wendt M and Schlott T

    Center of Pathology, University of Göttingen, D-37099 Göttingen, Germany. ekunze@med.uni-goettingen.de

    Tumor suppressor genes play a prominent role in the modification and progression of urinary bladder carcinogenesis as a result of classic genetic alterations. Little is known about the potential significance of epigenetic events, mediated by DNA hypermethylation. This prompted our investigation to explore the global Alu methylation and the promoter methylation of the novel putative tumor suppressor genes caveolin-1 and hDAB2IP, and of p53 in transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), squamous cell carcinomas and undifferentiated small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. Quantitative GeneScan analysis revealed that the various histopathological tumor entities showed considerable interindividual variations in the global methylation, but the overall rate did not significantly differ between the various cancer subtypes. With methylation-specific PCR, a high frequency of methylation of the promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene was detected in undifferentiated small cell carcinomas (50%) and in squamous cell carcinomas (25.9%), while TCC were found not to be methylated. By immunohistochemistry, all squamous cell carcinomas showed a strong diffuse overexpression of caveolin-1, whereas undifferentiated small cell cancers lacked any expression. High-grade, high-stage TCC disclosed a higher incidence (60%) and a substantially stronger expression than low-grade, low-stage TCC (42.9%). Our findings suggest that hypermethylation of the caveolin-1 gene and an abnormal protein expression play a crucial role in cell differentiation, and in the phenotypical conversion of TCC into nonurothelial carcinomas. Promoter methylation of the hDAB2IP gene occurred more frequently in advanced muscle invasive (72.7%) than in superficial noninvasive (50%) TCC. DNA hypermethylation of p53 was detected in a quarter of the low-grade, low-stage TCC and undifferentiated small cell carcinomas, but only sporadically in squamous cell carcinomas, and was absent in high-grade, high-stage TCC. In conclusion, aberrant methylation and abnormal protein expression of the caveolin-1-gene is involved in the formation of nonurothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder and promoter methylation of the hDAB2IP gene in the progression of TCC from a low to a high malignant potential.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2006;17;1;3-13

  • Down-regulation of human DAB2IP gene expression mediated by polycomb Ezh2 complex and histone deacetylase in prostate cancer.

    Chen H, Tu SW and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9110, USA.

    Human DAB2IP (hDAB2IP), a novel GTPase-activating protein modulating the Ras-mediated signaling and tumor necrosis factor-mediated apoptosis, is a potent growth inhibitor in human prostate cancer (PCa). Loss of hDAB2IP expression in PCa is due to altered epigenetic regulation (i.e. DNA methylation and histone modification) of its promoter region. The elevated polycomb Ezh2, a histone methyltransferase, has been associated with PCa progression. In this study, we have demonstrated that an increased Ezh2 expression in normal prostatic epithelial cells can suppress hDAB2IP gene expression. In contrast, knocking down the endogenous Ezh2 levels in PCa by a specific small interfering RNA can increase hDAB2IP expression. The association of Ezh2 complex (including Eed and Suz12) with hDAB2IP gene promoter is also detected in PCa cells but not in normal prostatic epithelial cells. Increased Ezh2 expression in normal prostatic epithelial cells by cDNA transfection facilitates the recruitment of other components of Ezh2 complex to the hDAB2IP promoter region accompanied with the increased levels of methyl histone H3 (H3) and histone deacetylase (HDAC1). Consistently, data from PCa cells transfected with Ezh2 small interfering RNA demonstrated that reduced Ezh2 levels resulted in the dissociation of Ezh2 complex accompanied with decreased levels of both methyl H3 and HDAC1 from hDAB2IP gene promoter. We further unveiled that the methylation status of Lys-27 but not Lys-9 of H3 in hDAB2IP promoter region is consistent with the hDAB2IP levels in both normal prostatic epithelial cells and PCa cells. Together, we conclude that hDAB2IP gene is a target gene of Ezh2 in prostatic epithelium, which provides an underlying mechanism of the down-regulation of hDAB2IP gene in PCa.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;23;22437-44

  • Aberrant promoter methylation of human DAB2 interactive protein (hDAB2IP) gene in lung cancers.

    Yano M, Toyooka S, Tsukuda K, Dote H, Ouchida M, Hanabata T, Aoe M, Date H, Gazdar AF and Shimizu N

    Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

    The human DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein gene (hDAB2IP) is a novel member of the Ras GTPase-activating gene family that is known to act as a tumor suppressor gene and is inactivated by methylation in prostate and breast cancers. We established previously a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) for the promoter region (m2a and m2b regions) of hDAB2IP and examined hDAB2IP methylation status in breast cancers. We analyzed the methylation and expression status of hDAB2IP in lung cancers. The methylation status of hDAB2IP was examined in lung cancer cell lines using bisulfite sequencing and MSP. Expression was examined using conventional and real-time RT-PCR, and methylation was found to be inversely correlated with expression, confirming that the MSP can also be used to examine hDAB2IP methylation status in lung cancers. Aberrant methylation was detected at the m2a region in 19 of 47 lung cancer cell lines (40%) and 26 of 70 primary tumors (37%) and at the m2b in 16 lines (34%) and 25 of 70 tumors (36%). Gene expression was restored in methylated cell lines supplemented with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, confirming that methylation was responsible for downregulation. We also examined the relationship between hDAB2IP methylation and clinico-pathological features of the lung cancers and found that hDAB2IP methylation was associated with advanced disease stage. Our results demonstrate that hDAB2IP methylation is frequently present in lung cancers and plays a key role in hDAB2IP silencing. hDAB2IP methylation could be used as a biomarker for disease stage, reflecting the degree of clinico-pathological malignancy of lung cancer.

    International journal of cancer 2005;113;1;59-66

  • AIP1/DAB2IP, a novel member of the Ras-GAP family, transduces TRAF2-induced ASK1-JNK activation.

    Zhang H, Zhang R, Luo Y, D'Alessio A, Pober JS and Min W

    Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Transplantation, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    Previously we have shown that ASK-interacting protein 1 (AIP1, also known as DAB2IP), a novel member of the Ras-GAP protein family, mediates TNF-induced activation of ASK1-JNK signaling pathway. However, the mechanism by which TNF signaling is coupled to AIP1 is not known. Here we show that AIP1 is localized on the plasma membrane in resting endothelial cells (EC) in a complex with TNFR1. TNF binding induces release of AIP1 from TNFR1, resulting in cytoplasmic translocation and concomitant formation of an intracellular signaling complex comprised of TRADD, RIP1, TRAF2, and AIPl. A proline-rich region (amino acids 796-807) is critical for maintaining AIP1 in a closed form, which associates with a region of TNFR1 distinct from the death domain, the site of TNFR1 association with TRADD. An AIP1 mutant with deletion of this proline-rich region constitutively binds to TRAF2 and ASK1. A PERIOD-like domain (amino acids 591-719) of AIP1 binds to the intact RING finger of TRAF2, and specifically enhances TRAF2-induced ASK1 activation. At the same time, the binding of AIP1 to TRAF2 inhibits TNF-induced IKK-NF-kappaB signaling. Taken together, our data suggest that AIP1 is a novel transducer in TNF-induced TRAF2-dependent activation of ASK1 that mediates a balance between JNK versus NF-kappaB signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-36003, HL-65978, HV28286

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;43;44955-65

  • DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.

    Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, Plumb RW, Loveland JE, Howe KL, Andrews TD, Searle S, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Jones MC, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Babbage S, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford D, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Chen Y, Clarke G, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Collier RE, Corby N, Crosier M, Cummings AT, Davies J, Dhami P, Dunn M, Dutta I, Dyer LW, Earthrowl ME, Faulkner L, Fleming CJ, Frankish A, Frankland JA, French L, Fricker DG, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori J, Gilbert JG, Glison C, Grafham DV, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Guy J, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Harrison ES, Hart EA, Heath PD, Henderson CD, Hopkins BL, Howard PJ, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan S, Kershaw JK, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nisbett J, Nordsiek G, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Porter KM, Pandian R, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Povey S, Ramsey Y, Rand V, Scharfe M, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims SK, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Swarbreck D, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Thomas DW, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Ashurst JL, Coulson A, Blöcker H, Durbin R, Sulston JE, Hubbard T, Jackson MJ, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J and Dunham I

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. sjh@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 9 is highly structurally polymorphic. It contains the largest autosomal block of heterochromatin, which is heteromorphic in 6-8% of humans, whereas pericentric inversions occur in more than 1% of the population. The finished euchromatic sequence of chromosome 9 comprises 109,044,351 base pairs and represents >99.6% of the region. Analysis of the sequence reveals many intra- and interchromosomal duplications, including segmental duplications adjacent to both the centromere and the large heterochromatic block. We have annotated 1,149 genes, including genes implicated in male-to-female sex reversal, cancer and neurodegenerative disease, and 426 pseudogenes. The chromosome contains the largest interferon gene cluster in the human genome. There is also a region of exceptionally high gene and G + C content including genes paralogous to those in the major histocompatibility complex. We have also detected recently duplicated genes that exhibit different rates of sequence divergence, presumably reflecting natural selection.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;369-74

  • Identification of a novel RAS GTPase-activating protein (RASGAP) gene at 9q34 as an MLL fusion partner in a patient with de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    von Bergh AR, Wijers PM, Groot AJ, van Zelderen-Bhola S, Falkenburg JH, Kluin PM and Schuuring E

    Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    The t(9;11) has been described in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and two genes [AF9 (at 9p21) and FBP17 (at 9q34)] have been cloned as fusion partners of the MLL gene. From an AML-M5 with a t(9;11)(q34;q23), we identified a novel MLL fusion partner, AF9Q34. The AF9Q34 protein shows high homology with nGAP, a RAS GTPase-activating protein (RASGAP), and contains the highly conserved GRD and FLR motifs characteristic of RASGAPs. Recently, the rat homologue (DAB2IP) also was identified and reported to act as a RASGAP both in vivo and in vitro. RASGAPs negatively regulate the activity of RAS proteins that modulate diverse cellular processes by cycling between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound state. In addition, the NH(2) terminus harbors an amino acid stretch with homology to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain implicated in regulating the interaction between RAS and the catalytic domain of RASGAP. As a result of the breakpoint in the AF9Q34-MLL fusion protein, this PH domain is disrupted. This suggests that because of the translocation, the normal function of the AF9Q34 gene is aborted. Thus, AF9Q34 encodes a novel RASGAP gene that appears to be deregulated as a result of the translocation. The identification of this RASGAP protein in a novel MLL fusion implies that an indirect RAS-deregulating mechanism could be involved in leukemic transformation.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2004;39;4;324-34

  • Aberrant promoter methylation in human DAB2 interactive protein (hDAB2IP) gene in breast cancer.

    Dote H, Toyooka S, Tsukuda K, Yano M, Ouchida M, Doihara H, Suzuki M, Chen H, Hsieh JT, Gazdar AF and Shimizu N

    Department of Cancer, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

    Purpose: Human DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (hDAB2IP) gene is a novel member of the Ras GTPase-activating family and has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor gene inactivated by methylation in prostate cancer. We analyzed methylation and expression status of hDAB2IP in breast cancer.

    The promoter region of hDAB2IP was divided into two regions (m2a and m2b) following our previous report on prostate cancer, and methylation status was determined in breast cancer cell lines with bisulfited DNA sequencing. Expression was semiquantified with real-time reverse transcription-PCR to find that aberrant methylation showed the inverse relationship with expression. On the basis of sequence data, we developed methylation-specific PCR for m2a and m2b regions and applied to samples.

    Results: Aberrant methylation was detected in 11 of 25 breast cancer cell lines (44%) and 15 of 39 primary tumors (38%) at the m2a region and in 12 of 25 cell lines (48%) and 13 of 39 tumors (33%) at the m2b region. In addition, gene expression was restored in methylated cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, confirming that methylation caused gene down-regulation. We also examined the relationship between hDAB2IP methylation and clinicopathologic features in primary tumors and found that methylation in the m2b region was associated with progressive nodal status of tumors.

    Conclusions: We developed methylation-specific PCR for hDAB2IP and examined its methylation status in breast cancer. Our results demonstrate that hDAB2IP methylation frequently is present in breast cancer and plays a key role in hDAB2IP inactivation, suggesting the relationship between hDAB2IP methylation and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2004;10;6;2082-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • AIP1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced ASK1 activation by facilitating dissociation of ASK1 from its inhibitor 14-3-3.

    Zhang R, He X, Liu W, Lu M, Hsieh JT and Min W

    Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    TNF-alpha activates ASK1 in part by dissociating 14-3-3 from apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). In the present study, we identified a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) as an ASK1-interacting protein (AIP1). AIP1 binds to the C-terminal domain of ASK1 via a lysine-rich cluster within the N-terminal C2 domain. AIP1 exists in a closed form through an intramolecular interaction between the N-terminus and the C-terminus, and TNF-alpha induces unfolding of AIP1 leading to association of AIP1 with ASK1. Thus, the N-terminus of AIP1 containing the C2 and GAP domains constitutively binds to ASK1 and facilitates the release of 14-3-3 from ASK1. In contrast to 14-3-3, AIP1 binds preferentially to dephosphorylated ASK1. Recruited AIP1 enhances ASK1-induced JNK activation, and the ASK1 binding and the GAP activity of AIP1 are critical for AIP1-enhanced ASK1 activation. Furthermore, TNF-induced ASK1/JNK activation is significantly blunted in cells where AIP1 is knocked down by RNA interference. These data suggest that AIP1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced ASK1 activation by facilitating dissociation of inhibitor 14-3-3 from ASK1, a novel mechanism by which TNF-alpha activates ASK1.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1R01 HL-65978-01, R01 HL065978

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2003;111;12;1933-43

  • Epigenetic regulation of a novel tumor suppressor gene (hDAB2IP) in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Chen H, Toyooka S, Gazdar AF and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9110, USA.

    hDAB2IP (human DAB2 (also known as DOC-2) interactive protein) is a novel GTPase-activating protein for modulating the Ras-mediated signal pathway. We demonstrate that the down-regulation of hDAB2IP mRNA in prostate cancer (PCa) cells is regulated by transcriptional levels. Analysis of the hDAB2IP promoter revealed that it is a typical TATA-less promoter containing many GC-rich sequences. In this study, we delineated the potential impact of the epigenetic control of the hDAB2IP promoter on its gene regulation in PCa. Acetylhistone H3 was associated with the hDAB2IP promoter, and CpG islands remained almost unmethylated in normal prostatic epithelia, but not in PCa cell lines. Our data further indicated that trichostatin A (histone deacetylase inhibitor) and 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DNA hypomethylation agent) acted cooperatively in modulating hDAB2IP gene expression in PCa, whereas histone acetylation played a more significant role in this event. Moreover, a core promoter sequence from the hDAB2IP gene responsible for these treatments was identified. We therefore conclude that epigenetic regulation plays a potential role in regulating hDAB2IP expression in PCa and that these results also provide a new therapeutic strategy for PCa patients.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-47657

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;5;3121-30

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • The mechanism of growth-inhibitory effect of DOC-2/DAB2 in prostate cancer. Characterization of a novel GTPase-activating protein associated with N-terminal domain of DOC-2/DAB2.

    Wang Z, Tseng CP, Pong RC, Chen H, McConnell JD, Navone N and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9110, USA.

    DOC-2/DAB2 is a member of the disable gene family with tumor-inhibitory activity. Its down-regulation is associated with several neoplasms, and serine phosphorylation of its N terminus modulates DOC-2/DAB2's inhibitory effect on AP-1 transcriptional activity. We describe the cloning of DIP1/2, a novel gene that interacts with the N-terminal domain of DOC-2/DAB2. DIP1/2 is a novel GTPase-activating protein containing a Ras GTPase-activating protein homology domain (N terminus) and two other unique domains (i.e. 10 proline repeats and leucine zipper). Interaction between DOC-2/DAB2 and DIP1/2 is detected in normal tissues such as the brain and prostate. Altered expression of these two proteins is often detected in prostate cancer cells. Indeed, the presence of DIP1/2 effectively blocks mitogen-induced gene expression and inhibits the growth of prostate cancer. Thus, DOC-2/DAB2 and DIP1/2 appear to represent a unique negative regulatory complex that maintains cell homeostasis.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-47657

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;15;12622-31

  • Differential regulation of the human gene DAB2IP in normal and malignant prostatic epithelia: cloning and characterization.

    Chen H, Pong RC, Wang Z and Hsieh JT

    Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9110, USA.

    Human DAB2IP (for DAB2 interaction protein) is a novel member of the RasGTPase-activating protein family. It interacts directly with DAB2, which suppresses growth of many cancer types. We demonstrated that DAB2IP is often downregulated in human prostate cancer cell lines. The predicted DAB2IP protein (967 amino acids) shares 94.2% homology with the rat DIP1/2 protein. We mapped the promoter of DAB2IP and studied its regulation in normal and malignant prostate cancer cells. This gene is located at 9q33.1-q33.3 and spans approximately 96 kb with 15 exons and 14 introns. The DAB2IP promoter does not contain any typical TATA box-evidenced by the presence of various RNAs with differential transcription starting sites. We further demonstrated that normal prostatic epithelial cells have elevated DAB2IP mRNA compared with cancer cells, which correlates with increased DAB2IP promoter activity. These data indicate that transcriptional regulation of DAB2IP is responsible for the downregulation of DAB2IP expression in prostate cancer cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 47657

    Genomics 2002;79;4;573-81

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Kikuno R, Hattori A, Kondo Y, Okumura K and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of our human cDNA project for accumulating sequence information on the coding sequences of unidentified genes, we here present the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones of unidentified genes, named KIAA1673-KIAA1772, from three sets of size-fractionated cDNA libraries derived from human adult whole brain, hippocampus, and fetal whole brain. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of cDNA clones analyzed here were 4.9 kb and 2.7 kb (corresponding to 895 amino acid residues), respectively. By computer-assisted analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences, 44 predicted gene products were classified into five functional categories of proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, cell structure/motility, protein management, and metabolism. Furthermore, the expression profiles of the genes were also studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse-transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, the products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2000;7;6;347-55

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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