G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2
G00000014 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000169398 (Ensembl human gene)
5747 (Entrez Gene)
238 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PTK2 (GeneCards)
600758 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9611 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
4036 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q05397 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • FADK
  • FAK
  • FAK1

Literature (365)

Pubmed - other

  • No authors listed

  • JNK pathway-associated phosphatase dephosphorylates focal adhesion kinase and suppresses cell migration.

    Li JP, Fu YN, Chen YR and Tan TH

    Immunology Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan.

    JNK pathway-associated phosphatase (JKAP, also named DUSP22) is expressed in various tissues, indicating that JKAP may have an important biological function. We showed that JKAP localized in the actin filament-enriched region. Expression of JKAP reduced cell migration, whereas a JKAP mutant lacking catalytic activity promoted cell motility. JKAP efficiently removed tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins. We have identified focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a substrate of JKAP. Overexpression of JKAP, but not JKAP mutant lacking catalytic activity, decreased FAK phosphorylation at tyrosines 397, 576, and 577 in H1299 cells. Consistent with these results, decreasing JKAP expression by RNA interference promoted cell migration and Src-induced FAK phosphorylation. Taken together, this study identified a new role for JKAP in the modulation of FAK phosphorylation and cell motility.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1R01-AI066895, R01 AI066895

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;8;5472-8

  • Preliminary crystallographic characterization of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a FAK-derived phosphotyrosyl peptide.

    Chen HH, Chen CW, Chang YY, Shen TL and Hsu CH

    Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is an adaptor protein with a single SH2 domain that specifically binds to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) when residue Tyr925 of FAK is phosphorylated. The Grb2-FAK interaction is associated with cellular integrin-activated signal transduction events leading to the activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Crystals of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a phosphopeptide corresponding to residues 921-930 of FAK have been obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.7, c = 127.6 A, alpha = beta = 90.0, gamma = 120.0 degrees . A diffraction data set was collected from a flash-cooled crystal at 100 K to 2.49 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. Structure determination by molecular replacement and analysis of the detailed structure of the complex are currently in progress.

    Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications 2010;66;Pt 2;195-7

  • Oscillatory flow-induced proliferation of osteoblast-like cells is mediated by alphavbeta3 and beta1 integrins through synergistic interactions of focal adhesion kinase and Shc with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway.

    Lee DY, Li YS, Chang SF, Zhou J, Ho HM, Chiu JJ and Chien S

    Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan.

    Interstitial flow in and around bone tissue is oscillatory in nature and affects the mechanical microenvironment for bone cell growth and formation. We investigated the role of oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in modulating the proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and its underlying mechanisms. Application of OSS (0.5 +/- 4 dynes/cm(2)) to MG63 cells induced sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K (p70S6 kinase) signaling cascades and hence cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased expression of cyclins A and D1, cyclin-dependent protein kinases-2, -4, and -6, and bone formation-related genes (c-fos, Egr-1, and Cox-2) and decreased expression of p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). OSS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K and cell proliferation were inhibited by specific antibodies or small interference RNAs of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins and by dominant-negative mutants of Shc (Shc-SH2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (FAK(F397Y)). Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that OSS induces sustained increases in association of Shc and FAK with alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins and PI3K subunit p85, which were abolished by transfecting the cells with FAK(F397Y) or Shc-SH2. OSS also induced sustained activation of ERK, which was inhibited by the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and was required for OSS-induced activation of mTOR/p70S6K and proliferation in MG63 cells. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which OSS induces osteoblast-like cell proliferation through activation of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins and synergistic interactions of FAK and Shc with PI3K, leading to the modulation of downstream ERK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathways.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL080518, R01 HL085159

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;1;30-42

  • Matrix density-induced mechanoregulation of breast cell phenotype, signaling and gene expression through a FAK-ERK linkage.

    Provenzano PP, Inman DR, Eliceiri KW and Keely PJ

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. ppproven@fhcrc.org

    Mammographically dense breast tissue is one of the greatest risk factors for developing breast carcinoma, yet the associated molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Importantly, regions of high breast density are associated with increased stromal collagen and epithelial cell content. We set out to determine whether increased collagen-matrix density, in the absence of stromal cells, was sufficient to promote proliferation and invasion characteristic of a malignant phenotype in non-transformed mammary epithelial cells. We demonstrate that increased collagen-matrix density increases matrix stiffness to promote an invasive phenotype. High matrix stiffness resulted in increased formation of activated three-dimensional (3D)-matrix adhesions and a chronically elevated outside-in/inside-out focal adhesion (FA) kinase (FAK)-Rho signaling loop, which was necessary to generate and maintain the invasive phenotype. Moreover, this signaling network resulted in hyperactivation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which promoted growth of mammary epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo and activated a clinically relevant proliferation signature that predicts patient outcome. Hence, the current data provide compelling evidence for the importance of the mechanical features of the microenvironment, and suggest that mechanotransduction in these cells occurs through a FAK-Rho-ERK signaling network with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as a bottleneck through which much of the response to mechanical stimuli is regulated. As such, we propose that increased matrix stiffness explains part of the mechanism behind increased epithelial proliferation and cancer risk in human patients with high breast tissue density.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA076537, R01 CA076537, R01 CA076537-07, R01 CA114462, R01 CA142833, R29 CA076537, T32 CA009681, T32 CA009681-11, T32CA009681; NIBIB NIH HHS: R01 EB000184, R01 EB000184-01

    Oncogene 2009;28;49;4326-43

  • The G protein betagamma subunit mediates reannealing of adherens junctions to reverse endothelial permeability increase by thrombin.

    Knezevic N, Tauseef M, Thennes T and Mehta D

    Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

    The inflammatory mediator thrombin proteolytically activates protease-activated receptor (PAR1) eliciting a transient, but reversible increase in vascular permeability. PAR1-induced dissociation of Galpha subunit from heterotrimeric Gq and G12/G13 proteins is known to signal the increase in endothelial permeability. However, the role of released Gbetagamma is unknown. We now show that impairment of Gbetagamma function does not affect the permeability increase induced by PAR1, but prevents reannealing of adherens junctions (AJ), thereby persistently elevating endothelial permeability. We observed that in the naive endothelium Gbeta1, the predominant Gbeta isoform is sequestered by receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). Thrombin induced dissociation of Gbeta1 from RACK1, resulting in Gbeta1 interaction with Fyn and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) required for FAK activation. RACK1 depletion triggered Gbeta1 activation of FAK and endothelial barrier recovery, whereas Fyn knockdown interrupted with Gbeta1-induced barrier recovery indicating RACK1 negatively regulates Gbeta1-Fyn signaling. Activated FAK associated with AJ and stimulated AJ reassembly in a Fyn-dependent manner. Fyn deletion prevented FAK activation and augmented lung vascular permeability increase induced by PAR1 agonist. Rescuing FAK activation in fyn(-/-) mice attenuated the rise in lung vascular permeability. Our results demonstrate that Gbeta1-mediated Fyn activation integrates FAK with AJ, preventing persistent endothelial barrier leakiness.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL71794, HL84153, R01 HL071794, R01 HL084153

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2009;206;12;2761-77

  • Role of p53/FAK association and p53Ser46 phosphorylation in staurosporine-mediated apoptosis: wild type versus mutant p53-R175H.

    Fanucchi S and Veale RB

    School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.

    A novel survival role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that involves its nuclear translocation and direct association with p53 has been demonstrated. Here we examined the relationship between the p53/FAK interaction and Ser46 phosphorylation of p53 (p-p53(Ser46)) in the apoptotic regulation of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) cell lines, expressing either wild type (wt) p53 or mutant (mt) p53-R175H. In contrast to the wt p53 cell lines, the mt p53-R175H cell line was resistant to staurosporine (STS)-mediated detachment and caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, despite the resistance of mt p53-R175H to Ser46 phosphorylation, both wt and mt HOSCC cells translocate FAK into the nucleus and maintain the p53/FAK interaction post STS treatment. These findings provide unique insight into how tumor cells harboring the R175H mutant may resist chemotherapeutic intervention.

    FEBS letters 2009;583;22;3557-62

  • Clostridium difficile toxin A binds colonocyte Src causing dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin.

    Kim H, Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C and LaMont JT

    Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pochen, Kyungkido, Republic of Korea.

    Clostridium difficile toxin A impairs tight junction function of colonocytes by glucosylation of Rho family proteins causing actin filament disaggregation and cell rounding. We investigated the effect of toxin A on focal contact formation by assessing its action on focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the adapter protein paxillin. Exposure of NCM460 human colonocytes to toxin A for 1 h resulted in complete dephosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, while protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was reduced. Blockage of toxin A-associated glucosyltransferase activity by co-incubation with UDP-2'3' dialdehyde did not reduce toxin A-induced FAK and paxillin dephosphorylation. GST-pull down and in vitro kinase activity experiments demonstrated toxin A binding directly to the catalytic domain of Src with suppression of its kinase activity. Direct binding of toxin A to Src, independent of any effect on protein tyrosine phosphatase or Rho glucosylation, inhibits Src kinase activity followed by FAK/paxillin inactivation. These mechanisms may contribute to toxin A inhibition of colonocyte focal adhesion that occurs in human colonic epithelium exposed to toxin A.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK R37-03458, P0-1 DK 33506, P01 DK033506, R37 DK034583-24

    Experimental cell research 2009;315;19;3336-44

  • Involvement of focal adhesion kinase in the progression and prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Kamo N, Naomoto Y, Shirakawa Y, Yamatsuji T, Hirota S, Fujiwara Y, Noma K, Sakurama K, Takaoka M, Nagatsuka H, Gunduz M, Matsuoka J and Tanaka N

    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Transplant, and Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors often express gene mutations to c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, both of which result in constitutive activations of their signaling pathways that are quite essential for the proliferation and survival of tumor cells in most clinical gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Targeting these molecules provides a dramatic improvement to therapeutic strategy. To identify a new therapeutic target for gastrointestinal stromal tumor treatment, we focused on focal adhesion kinase, which is reported to be an up-regulated gene in clinical gastrointestinal stromal tumors, because so far no one has examined its expression status at the protein level. In this study, Western blot analysis revealed that all 10 of the examined gastrointestinal stromal tumor tissues strongly expressed focal adhesion kinase protein and that phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase was detected in 9 of them. Next, we assessed the expression status of focal adhesion kinase and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase in 51 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by immunohistochemistry. Positive stainings for focal adhesion kinase and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase were confirmed in 44 (86.3%) and in 40 cases (78.4%) of the 51 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, respectively. We further found that the focal adhesion kinase-positive staining rate became higher along with the increased status of malignant behavior. Moreover, when the 51 gastrointestinal stromal tumors were divided into 2 groups based upon their focal adhesion kinase expression status, the 5-year overall survival of patients in the focal adhesion kinase-positive group (66.5%) was significantly poorer than that in the focal adhesion kinase-negative group (100%). These results indicate that the up-regulation of focal adhesion kinase protein may also contribute to the tumor progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and that focal adhesion kinase is a potential target for gastrointestinal stromal tumor treatment.

    Human pathology 2009;40;11;1643-9

  • STEAP4 regulates focal adhesion kinase activation and CpG motifs within STEAP4 promoter region are frequently methylated in DU145, human androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    Tamura T and Chiba J

    Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Chiba 278-8510, Japan. tktamura@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

    The possible roles of STEAP4 in cancer progression have not been reported. In this study, we report that STEAP4 expression is able to inhibit anchorage-independent cell growth. We also demonstrate that STEAP4 associates with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and regulate the activity of FAK through Y397 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that CpG sequences in STEAP4 promoter region were frequently methylated in DU145, androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Demethylation treatment induced STEAP4 expression in DU145, suggesting the possibility that STEAP4 expression in cancer cells is in part epigenetically regulated. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel function of STEAP4 and that STEAP4 may play an important role in tumor malignancy.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2009;24;5;599-604

  • Targeting of the protein interaction site between FAK and IGF-1R.

    Zheng D, Kurenova E, Ucar D, Golubovskaya V, Magis A, Ostrov D, Cance WG and Hochwald SN

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

    The interaction of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Targeting this interaction with small molecule drugs could be a novel strategy in cancer therapy. By a series of pull-down assays using GST-tagged FAK fragments and His-tagged IGF-1R intracellular fragments, we showed that the FAK-NT2 (a.a. 127-243) domain directly interacts with the N-terminal part of the IGF-1R intracellular domain. Overexpressed FAK-NT2 domain was also shown to co-localize with IGF-1R in pancreatic cells. Computational modeling was used to predict the binding configuration of these two domains and to screen for small molecules binding to the interaction site. This strategy successfully identified a lead compound that disrupts FAK/IGF-1R interaction.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA113766, K08 CA113766, K08 CA113766-01A2, K08 CA113766-02, K08 CA113766-03, K08 CA113766-04, R01 CA065910

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;388;2;301-5

  • Expression of focal adhesion kinase in patients with endometrial cancer: a clinicopathologic study.

    Gabriel B, Hasenburg A, Waizenegger M, Orlowska-Volk M, Stickeler E and zur Hausen A

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Freiburg University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany. boris.gabriel@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    Introduction: The pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in tumor cell signaling. Focal adhesion kinase expression has been linked to tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, but data on endometrial cancer are inconclusive.

    Methods: We assess FAK expression by immunohistochemistry in endometrial cancer for its value to predict patient prognosis.

    Results: Of 134 endometrial cancer cases, 120 (89%) revealed moderate and strong expressions of FAK, whereas weak expression was found in 14 (11%) tumors. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a clear trend toward improved survival rates for patients with endometrial carcinomas weakly expressing FAK, and notably, there was neither lymph node metastasis nor tumor-related death in this patient subgroup. Increased expression of FAK correlated with higher histological tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymphatic vascular space invasion (P = 0.003), and vascular space invasion (P = 0.02). Significant prognostic survival variables were tumor stage (P < 0.01), histological type (P < 0.01), tumor grade (P = 0.028), and pelvic lymph node status (P = 0.035). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified histological tumor grade as a significant independent predictor of patient survival (hazards ratio, 2.71; P = 0.03).

    Conclusions: Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether FAK expression analysis is a suitable tool in stratifying patients at different risks of disease progress, and wether FAK might become a new molecular target for endometrial anticancer therapy.

    International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society 2009;19;7;1221-5

  • Morphological changes and molecular expressions of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in three-dimensional culture model.

    Wu YM, Tang J, Zhao P, Chen ZN and Jiang JL

    Cell Engineering Research Centre and Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 17 West Changle Road, Xi'an 710032, People's Republic of China.

    Metastatic processes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are highly associated with the breakdown of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the regular two-dimensional (2D) culture system, in which only little ECM is involved, fails to provide a well-defined microenvironment for HCC functional research. HAb18G/CD147, a HCC-associated antigen, plays important roles in HCC progression, migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated whether HAb18G/CD147 enhanced the HCC migration and invasion in three-dimensional (3D) culture model through affecting the key molecules and enzymes involved in the metastatic processes, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytoskeleton proteins. We found that, compared with those in 2D cell culture model, the expression of HAb18G/CD147 was significantly increased in 3D cell culture model, together with a high production of MMPs (P<0.01), an enhanced expression and activation of FAK (P<0.01) and a changed distribution of F-actin. In addition, the expressions of paxillin and E-cadherin, which enhance the adhesion and migration potentials, were also significantly increased in 3D cell culture model (P<0.01). All the results suggest that the enhanced expressions of HAb18G/CD147, MMPs, paxillin and FAK changed the distributions of cytoskeleton in the 3D reconstituted basement membrane (BM) and increased the adhesion and invasion potentials of HCC cells.

    Experimental and molecular pathology 2009;87;2;133-40

  • Osteopontin increases migration and MMP-9 up-regulation via alphavbeta3 integrin, FAK, ERK, and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Chen YJ, Wei YY, Chen HT, Fong YC, Hsu CJ, Tsai CH, Hsu HC, Liu SH and Tang CH

    School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Tumor malignancy is associated with several features such as proliferation ability and frequency of metastasis. Osteopontin (OPN), which abundantly expressed in bone matrix, is involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation via interaction with its receptor, that is, alphavbeta3 integrin. However, the effect of OPN on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here we found that OPN increased the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012 cells). RGD peptide, alphavbeta3 monoclonal antibody and MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) but not RAD peptide inhibited the OPN-induced increase of the migration and MMP-9 up-regulation of chondrosarcoma cells. OPN stimulation increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, treatment of JJ012 cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) or IkappaB protease inhibitor (TPCK) inhibited OPN-induced cell migration and MMP-9 up-regulation. Stimulation of JJ012 cells with OPN also induced IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta) phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity. The OPN-mediated increases in MMP-9 and kappaB-luciferase activities were inhibited by RGD peptide, PD98059 or FAK and ERK2 mutant. Taken together, our results indicated that OPN enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-9 expression through the alphavbeta3 integrin, FAK, MEK, ERK and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;221;1;98-108

  • Overexpressed focal adhesion kinase predicts a higher incidence of extrahepatic metastasis and worse survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Jan YJ, Ko BS, Hsu C, Chang TC, Chen SC, Wang J and Liou JY

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan; College of Medicine and Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan.

    Focal adhesion kinase plays a critical role in cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. Although focal adhesion kinase overexpression indicates poor prognoses for hepatocellular carcinoma, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis has not been well investigated. In this study, 55 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were enrolled, and their primary liver tumors as well as 18 matched metastases were subjected to semiquantitative immunohistochemistry analysis of focal adhesion kinase expression. Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase was observed in 34 (61.8%) of 55 primary tumors and significantly predicted subsequent extrahepatic metastases (P = .04). Metastatic tumors expressed higher focal adhesion kinase than their matched primaries (P = .010). Focal adhesion kinase overexpression indicated both worse overall 5-year survival rate (51.5% +/- 8.7% versus 90.2% +/- 6.6%; P = .004) and 5-year progression-free survival rate (51.5% +/- 8.7% versus 90.2% +/- 6.6%; P = .041). Taken together, we demonstrated here that focal adhesion kinase expression is significantly related to subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase is thus considered as a reasonable target for novel therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma progression and metastasis.

    Human pathology 2009;40;10;1384-90

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activates and stabilizes IGF-1 receptor.

    Andersson S, D'Arcy P, Larsson O and Sehat B

    Karolinska Institute, Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Recent studies have shown a direct association between IGF-1R and FAK, two important mediators of cell growth, survival and migration. However, the mechanism by which FAK affects IGF-1R function remains unknown. This study investigates the potential role of FAK in mediating activation and stability of IGF-1R. Autophosphorylation and phosphorylation capacities of wild type and mutant IGF-1R were studied. Surprisingly, we found that the mutant IGF-1R lacking the three core tyrosine residues in the activation-loop can be phosphorylated although it is unable to undergo autophosphorylation, suggesting that another kinase possesses the ability to phosphorylate IGF-1R. By using wild type MEFs and FAK-/- MEFs we could demonstrate that FAK mediates activation-loop independent phosphorylation, as well as Akt and ERK activation. Furthermore, the stability of IGF-1R was decreased upon FAK siRNA or inactivation. Taken together, our data suggest a role for FAK in phosphorylation, signaling and stability of the IGF-1R.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;387;1;36-41

  • [Effects of FAK expression level on proliferation and motility of colorectal carcinoma cells].

    Pan N, Zhang AR, Mu MS and Hou YC

    Lab of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China. pnpanpan07@126.com

    Aim: To investigate the effect of siRNA targeting FAK gene on proliferation and motility of colorectal cancer.

    Methods: Recombinant plasmids that produced siRNAs targeting FAK were designed and cloned, then transfected into Caco-2 cells. The changes of FAK expression levels were examined by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The effects of FAK gene knockdown on apoptotic morphological changes, proliferation, and motility were investigated.

    Results: Recombinant plasmids targeting FAK were successfully constructed, FAK mRNA and protein level was silenced in Caco-2 cells significantly. The inhibition of mRNA level was achieved maximal at 48 h post transfection with time dependent. The ability of proliferation and motility of Caco-2 cells were significantly decreased.

    Conclusion: Plasmid-mediated FAK siRNA could inhibit FAK gene expression. The proliferation, motility and apoptosis were inhibited effectively, which suggested that FAK expression is closely associated with the proliferation, motility and apoptosis, etc. The results may be used as the reference for gene therapy of colorectal cancer.

    Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology 2009;25;9;783-6

  • Knockdown of focal adhesion kinase reverses colon carcinoma multicellular resistance.

    Chen YY, Wang ZX, Chang PA, Li JJ, Pan F, Yang L, Bian ZH, Zou L, He JM and Liang HJ

    Department of Oncology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

    Chemotherapy resistance in solid tumors is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs. Three-dimensional multicellular spheroids (MCSs) are a good model for studying in vitro drug resistance. In the current study, we investigated the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemoresistance in colon carcinoma MCS culture cells. The expression of FAK was inhibited significantly by specific small hairpin RNA targeting FAK. The suppression of FAK expression did not affect the growth of spheroid cells. However, silencing of FAK combined with 5-FU treatment significantly decreased the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 5-FU and markedly increased the population of apoptosis cells, which was associated with the reduction of the levels of Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Moreover, knockdown of FAK could inhibit tumor growth and increase the sensitivity of the tumor to 5-FU in the nude mouse xenograft. These results indicate that while not affecting cellular proliferation in the absence of 5-FU, RNA interference targeting FAK potentiated 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and partially reversed multicellular resistance, which may contribute to its chemosensitizing effect through efficiently suppressing Akt/NF-kappaB activity.

    Cancer science 2009;100;9;1708-13

  • Mechanical stretch decreases FAK phosphorylation and reduces cell migration through loss of JIP3-induced JNK phosphorylation in airway epithelial cells.

    Desai LP, White SR and Waters CM

    Dept. of Physiology, The Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, 894 Union Ave, Rm. 426, Memphis, TN 38163-0001, USA.

    JNK is a nonreceptor kinase involved in the early events that signal cell migration after injury. However, the linkage to early signals required to initiate the migration response to JNK has not been defined in airway epithelial cells, which exist in an environment subjected to cyclic mechanical strain (MS). The present studies demonstrate that the JNK/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1; also termed JNK-interacting protein 3, JIP3), a scaffold factor for MAPK cascades that links JNK activation to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), are both associated and activated following mechanical injury in 16HBE14o- human airway epithelial cells and that both FAK and JIP3 phosphorylation seen after injury are decreased in cells subjected to cyclic MS. Overexpression of either wild-type (WT)-FAK or WT-JIP3 enhanced phosphorylation and kinase activation of JNK and reduced the inhibitory effect of cyclic MS. These results suggest that cyclic MS impairs signaling of cell migration after injury via a pathway that involves FAK-JIP3-JNK.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-064981, HL-080417, R01 HL064981, R01 HL080417, R01 HL094366

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2009;297;3;L520-9

  • Recurrent rearrangements in synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes and shared biologic pathways in schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation.

    Guilmatre A, Dubourg C, Mosca AL, Legallic S, Goldenberg A, Drouin-Garraud V, Layet V, Rosier A, Briault S, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Laumonnier F, Odent S, Le Vacon G, Joly-Helas G, David V, Bendavid C, Pinoit JM, Henry C, Impallomeni C, Germano E, Tortorella G, Di Rosa G, Barthelemy C, Andres C, Faivre L, Frébourg T, Saugier Veber P and Campion D

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 614, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire de Recherche Biomédicale, 76000 Rouen, France.

    Context: Results of comparative genomic hybridization studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the cause of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

    Objectives: To provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent or overlapping CNVs in 3 different groups of cases compared with healthy control subjects and to assess whether each CNV is present in more than 1 clinical category.

    Design: Case-control study.

    Setting: Academic research.

    Participants: We investigated 28 candidate loci previously identified by comparative genomic hybridization studies for gene dosage alteration in 247 cases with mental retardation, in 260 cases with autism spectrum disorders, in 236 cases with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and in 236 controls.

    Collective and individual frequencies of the analyzed CNVs in cases compared with controls.

    Results: Recurrent or overlapping CNVs were found in cases at 39.3% of the selected loci. The collective frequency of CNVs at these loci is significantly increased in cases with autism, in cases with schizophrenia, and in cases with mental retardation compared with controls (P < .001, P = .01, and P = .001, respectively, Fisher exact test). Individual significance (P = .02 without correction for multiple testing) was reached for the association between autism and a 350-kilobase deletion located at 22q11 and spanning the PRODH and DGCR6 genes.

    Conclusions: Weakly to moderately recurrent CNVs (transmitted or occurring de novo) seem to be causative or contributory factors for these diseases. Most of these CNVs (which contain genes involved in neurotransmission or in synapse formation and maintenance) are present in the 3 pathologic conditions (schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation), supporting the existence of shared biologic pathways in these neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Archives of general psychiatry 2009;66;9;947-56

  • B cell receptor-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase involves integrins and the Rap GTPases and is required for B cell spreading.

    Tse KW, Dang-Lawson M, Lee RL, Vong D, Bulic A, Buckbinder L and Gold MR

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

    Signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR) promotes integrin-mediated adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. This results in B cell spreading, which enhances the ability of B cells to bind antigens and become activated. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell migration. In this report we show that BCR signaling and integrin signaling collaborate to induce the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK on key tyrosine residues, a modification that increases the kinase activity of Pyk2 and FAK. Activation of the Rap GTPases is critical for BCR-induced integrin activation as well as for BCR- and integrin-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We now show that Rap activation is essential for BCR-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and for integrin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Moreover Rap-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as actin dynamics, suggesting that Rap regulates Pyk2 and FAK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly B cell spreading induced by BCR/integrin co-stimulation or by integrin engagement was inhibited by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Pyk2 or FAK expression and by treatment with PF-431396, a chemical inhibitor that blocks the kinase activities of both Pyk2 and FAK. Thus Pyk2 and FAK are downstream targets of the Rap GTPases that play a key role in regulating B cell morphology.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;34;22865-77

  • Peptidoglycan enhances IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts via TLR2 receptor, focal adhesion kinase, Akt, and AP-1- dependent pathway.

    Chiu YC, Lin CY, Chen CP, Huang KC, Tong KM, Tzeng CY, Lee TS, Hsu HC and Tang CH

    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Peptidoglycan (PGN), the major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, activates the innate immune system of the host and induces the release of cytokines and chemokines. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in IL-6 production stimulated by PGN in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. PGN caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-6 production. PGN-mediated IL-6 production was attenuated by TLR2 small interfering RNA and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 small interfering RNA. Pretreatment with PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002 and wortmannin), Akt inhibitor, and AP-1 inhibitor (tanshinone IIA) also inhibited the potentiating action of PGN. PGN increased the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation. Stimulation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cells with PGN increased the accumulation of phosphorylated c-Jun in the nucleus, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element on the IL-6 promoter. PGN mediated an increase in the accumulation of phosphorylated c-Jun in the nucleus, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to AP-1 element was inhibited by Ly294002, Akt inhibitor, and FAK mutant. Our results suggest that PGN increased IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts via the TLR2 receptor/FAK/PI3K/Akt and AP-1 signaling pathway.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2009;183;4;2785-92

  • The direct effect of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), dominant-negative FAK, FAK-CD and FAK siRNA on gene expression and human MCF-7 breast cancer cell tumorigenesis.

    Golubovskaya VM, Zheng M, Zhang L, Li JL and Cance WG

    Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Vita.Golubovskaya@Roswellpark.org

    Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in survival signaling. FAK has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer tumors at early stages of tumorigenesis.

    Methods: To study the direct effect of FAK on breast tumorigenesis, we developed Tet-ON (tetracycline-inducible) system of MCF-7 breast cancer cells stably transfected with FAK or dominant-negative, C-terminal domain of FAK (FAK-CD), and also FAKsiRNA with silenced FAK MCF-7 stable cell line. Increased expression of FAK in isogenic Tet-inducible MCF-7 cells caused increased cell growth, adhesion and soft agar colony formation in vitro, while expression of dominant-negative FAK inhibitor caused inhibition of these cellular processes. To study the role of induced FAK and FAK-CD in vivo, we inoculated these Tet-inducible cells in nude mice to generate tumors in the presence or absence of doxycycline in the drinking water. FAKsiRNA-MCF-7 cells were also injected into nude mice to generate xenograft tumors.

    Results: Induction of FAK resulted in significant increased tumorigenesis, while induced FAK-CD resulted in decreased tumorigenesis. Taq Man Low Density Array assay demonstrated specific induction of FAKmRNA in MCF-7-Tet-ON-FAK cells. DMP1, encoding cyclin D binding myb-like protein 1 was one of the genes specifically affected by Tet-inducible FAK or FAK-CD in breast xenograft tumors. In addition, silencing of FAK in MCF-7 cells with FAK siRNA caused increased cell rounding, decreased cell viability in vitro and inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Importantly, Affymetrix microarray gene profiling analysis using Human Genome U133A GeneChips revealed >4300 genes, known to be involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and adhesion that were significantly down- or up-regulated (p < 0.05) by FAKsiRNA.

    Conclusion: Thus, these data for the first time demonstrate the direct effect of FAK expression and function on MCF-7 breast cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and reveal specific expression of genes affected by silencing of FAK.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA065910

    BMC cancer 2009;9;280

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I and GnRH-II induce cell growth inhibition in human endometrial cancer cells: involvement of integrin beta3 and focal adhesion kinase.

    Park DW, Choi KC, MacCalman CD and Leung PC

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6H 3V5, Canada. gypsyroad@empal.com

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the female genital tract, accounting for nearly one half of all gynecologic cancers in the Western world. Although intensive research on pathological phenomena of endometrial cancer is currently going on, but exact cause and biological aspects of this disease are not well described yet. In addition to well-documented roles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in hypopituitary ovarian (HPO) axis, the agonistic or antagonistic analogs (or both) of GnRH have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of human gynecologic cancers. Thus, in the present study, we further examined the possibility that GnRH induces integrin beta3 and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2 and p38, to inhibit the growth of HEC1A endometrial cancer cell line. As a result, both GnRH-I and GnRH-II resulted in a significant increase in integrin beta3 expression and evoked the activation of FAK in a time-dependent manner in these cells. In addition, these analogs induced an activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in a time-dependent manner as downstream pathways of FAK. It appears that GnRH-II has much greater effect on the activation of FAK, ERK1/2 and p38 compared to GnRH-I in these cells. Further, we demonstrated that the growth inhibition of HEC1A cells by GnRH-I or GnRH-II is involved in the activation of integrin-FAK and ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that GnRH may be involved in the inhibition of endometrial cancer cell growth via activation of integrin beta3 and FAK as a direct effect. This knowledge could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in the therapeutic action of GnRH and its biomedical application for the treatment against endometrial cancer.

    Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 2009;7;81

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) immunocytochemical expression in breast ductal invasive carcinoma (DIC): correlation with clinicopathological parameters and tumor proliferative capacity.

    Theocharis SE, Klijanienko JT, Padoy E, Athanassiou S and Sastre-Garau XX

    Department of Tumor Biology, Section of Cytopathology, Institut Curie, Paris, France. theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr

    Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an enzyme of the tyrosine kinase group linked to signaling pathways between cells and the extracellular matrix. In tumor cells in vitro, FAK expression correlated with their ability for invasion and metastasis. Additionally, in vivo FAK has been implicated in malignant transformation and disease progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of FAK expression in breast ductal invasive carcinoma (DIC).

    Immunocytochemical techniques were used to assess FAK expression on cytological material obtained from 73 patients with breast DIC. FAK expression status (positivity, overexpression, and intensity of immunostaining) was compared with clinicopathological parameters and the tumor cells' proliferative capacity.

    Results: Sixty-four of the 73 DIC cases (88%) were FAK positive and FAK protein overexpression was noted in 15 of the 73 (21%). In the DIC cases examined, FAK positivity correlated with tumor size (p=0.016) and FAK protein overexpression with tumor histological grade (p=0.034) and the tumor cells' proliferative capacity (p=0.003). The intensity of FAK protein staining did not significantly correlate with any of the examined clinicopathological parameters.

    Conclusions: In breast DIC it becomes evident that FAK protein positivity and overexpression correlate with important clinicopathological parameters. Further molecular and clinical studies are required to delineate the significance of FAK as a factor for better prognosis and management of breast cancer patients.

    Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 2009;15;8;BR221-6

  • Phosphorylation of RACK1 on tyrosine 52 by c-Abl is required for insulin-like growth factor I-mediated regulation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Kiely PA, Baillie GS, Barrett R, Buckley DA, Adams DR, Houslay MD and O'Connor R

    From the Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, BioSciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) activity is controlled by growth factors and adhesion signals in tumor cells. The scaffolding protein RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinases) integrates insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and integrin signaling, but whether RACK1 is required for FAK function is unknown. Here we show that association of FAK with RACK1 is required for both FAK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to IGF-I. Suppression of RACK1 by small interfering RNA ablates FAK phosphorylation and reduces cell adhesion, cell spreading, and clonogenic growth. Peptide array and mutagenesis studies localize the FAK binding interface to blades I-III of the RACK1 beta-propeller and specifically identify a set of basic and hydrophobic amino acids (Arg-47, Tyr-52, Arg-57, Arg-60, Phe-65, Lys-127, and Lys-130) as key determinants for association with FAK. Mutation of tyrosine 52 alone is sufficient to disrupt interaction of RACK1 with FAK in cells where endogenous RACK1 is suppressed by small interfering RNA. Cells expressing a Y52F mutant RACK1 are impaired in adhesion, growth, and foci formation. Comparative analyses of homology models and crystal structures for RACK1 orthologues suggest a role for Tyr-52 as a site for phosphorylation that induces conformational change in RACK1, switching the protein into a FAK binding state. Tyrosine 52 is further shown to be phosphorylated by c-Abl kinase, and the c-Abl inhibitor STI571 disrupts FAK interaction with RACK1. We conclude that FAK association with RACK1 is regulated by phosphorylation of Tyr-52. Our data reveal a novel mechanism whereby IGF-I and c-Abl control RACK1 association with FAK to facilitate adhesion signaling.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0400053, G0600765

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;30;20263-74

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptor-bound protein-7 by focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cell migration, proliferation, and tumorigenesis.

    Chu PY, Huang LY, Hsu CH, Liang CC, Guan JL, Hung TH and Shen TL

    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    We have previously reported that growth factor receptor-bound protein-7 (Grb7), an Src-homology 2 (SH2)-containing adaptor protein, enables interaction with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to regulate cell migration in response to integrin activation. To further elucidate the signaling events mediated by FAK*Grb7 complexes in promoting cell migration and other cellular functions, we firstly examined the phosphorylated tyrosine site(s) of Grb7 by FAK using an in vivo mutagenesis. We found that FAK was capable of phosphorylating at least 2 of 12 tyrosine residues within Grb7, Tyr-188 and Tyr-338. Moreover, mutations converting the identified Tyr to Phe inhibited integrin-dependent cell migration as well as impaired cell proliferation but not survival compared with the wild-type control. Interestingly, the above inhibitory effects caused by the tyrosine phosphorylation-deficient mutants are probably attributed to their down-regulation of phospho-Tyr-397 of FAK, thereby implying a mechanism by competing with wild-type Grb7 for binding to FAK. Consequently, these tyrosine phosphorylation-deficient mutants evidently altered the phospho-Tyr-118 of paxillin and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but less on phospho-Ser-473 of AKT, implying their involvement in the FAK*Grb7-mediated cellular functions. Additionally, we also illustrated that the formation of FAK*Grb7 complexes and Grb7 phosphorylation by FAK in an integrin-dependent manner were essential for cell migration, proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in A431 epidermal carcinoma cells, indicating the importance of FAK*Grb7 complexes in tumorigenesis. Our data provide a better understanding on the signal transduction event for FAK*Grb7-mediated cellular functions as well as to shed light on a potential therapeutic in cancers.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;30;20215-26

  • Intestinal epithelial cancer cell anoikis resistance: EGFR-mediated sustained activation of Src overrides Fak-dependent signaling to MEK/Erk and/or PI3-K/Akt-1.

    Demers MJ, Thibodeau S, Noël D, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Gauthier R, Arguin M and Vachon PH

    Département d'Anatomie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

    Herein, we investigated the survival roles of Fak, Src, MEK/Erk, and PI3-K/Akt-1 in intestinal epithelial cancer cells (HCT116, HT29, and T84), in comparison to undifferentiated and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We report that: (1) cancer cells display striking anoikis resistance, as opposed to undifferentiated/differentiated IECs; (2) under anoikis conditions and consequent Fak down-activation, cancer cells nevertheless exhibit sustained Fak-Src interactions and Src/MEK/Erk activation, unlike undifferentiated/differentiated IECs; however, HCT116 and HT29 cells exhibit a PI3-K/Akt-1 down-activation, as undifferentiated/differentiated IECs, whereas T84 cells do not; (3) cancer cells require MEK/Erk for survival, as differentiated (but not undifferentiated) IECs; however, T84 cells do not require Fak and HCT116 cells do not require PI3-K/Akt-1, in contrast to the other cells studied; (4) Src acts as a cornerstone in Fak-mediated signaling to MEK/Erk and PI3-K/Akt-1 in T84 cells, as in undifferentiated IECs, whereas PI3-K/Akt-1 is Src-independent in HCT116, HT29 cells, as in differentiated IECs; and (5) EGFR activity inhibition abrogates anoikis resistance in cancer cells through a loss of Fak-Src interactions and down-activation of Src/MEK/Erk (T84, HCT116, HT29 cells) and PI3-K/Akt-1 (T84 cells). Hence, despite distinctions in signaling behavior not necessarily related to undifferentiated or differentiated IECs, intestinal epithelial cancer cells commonly display an EGFR-mediated sustained activation of Src under anoikis conditions. Furthermore, such sustained Src activation confers anoikis resistance at least in part through a consequent sustenance of Fak-Src interactions and MEK/Erk activation, thus not only overriding Fak-mediated signaling to MEK/Erk and/or PI3-K/Akt-1, but also the requirement of Fak and/or PI3-K/Akt-1 for survival.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;107;4;639-54

  • A FAK-p120RasGAP-p190RhoGAP complex regulates polarity in migrating cells.

    Tomar A, Lim ST, Lim Y and Schlaepfer DD

    University of California San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, Department of Reproductive Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Directional motility is a complex process requiring the spatiotemporal integration of signals that regulate cytoskeletal changes, and the establishment of an anteroposterior or polarized cell axis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) promotes cell migration, but a molecular role for FAK in promoting cell polarity remains undefined. Here, using wound healing and Golgi-reorientation analyses, we show that fibroblast, endothelial and carcinoma polarity during cell migration requires FAK and is associated with a complex between FAK, p120RasGAP and p190RhoGAP (p190A), leading to p190A tyrosine phosphorylation. Fibronectin-integrin-mediated FAK activation and phosphorylation promote SH2-mediated binding of p120RasGAP to FAK and FAK-mediated p190A tyrosine phosphorylation. The association of p120RasGAP with FAK facilitates the formation of a FAK-p120RasGAP-p190A complex targeted to leading-edge focal adhesions by FAK. Knockdown of p120RasGAP, mutation of FAK Y397 or inhibition of FAK activity prevent the association of FAK with p190A and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of p190A, and result in the loss of cell polarity. Because reconstitution of FAK-null fibroblasts with FAK or a Pyk2-FAK chimera restore the normal decrease in RhoA GTP binding upon cell spreading on fibronectin, our studies support a model whereby FAK activity facilitates the recruitment and stabilization of a p120RasGAP-p190A complex at leading-edge focal adhesions connected to the transient inhibition of RhoA activity and the regulation of cell polarity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL093156; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM087400, R01 GM087400

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 11;1852-62

  • Expression and clinical significance of focal adhesion kinase in the two distinct histological types, intestinal and diffuse, of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Giaginis CT, Vgenopoulou S, Tsourouflis GS, Politi EN, Kouraklis GP and Theocharis SE

    Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias street, Goudi, Athens GR11527, Greece.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein, acts as an early modulator of integrin signaling cascade, regulating basic cellular functions. In transformed cells, unopposed FAK signaling has been considered to promote tumor growth, progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of FAK expression in the two distinct histological types of human gastric neoplasia. FAK expression was assessed immunohistochemically in tumoral samples of 66 gastric adenocarcinoma cases, 30 intestinal and 36 diffuse type, and was statistically analyzed in relation to various clinicopathological characteristics, tumor proliferative capacity and patients' survival. In intestinal type carcinomas, enhanced FAK expression was significantly associated with increased tumor proliferative capacity (P = 0.012). In diffuse type carcinomas, FAK staining intensity was significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.026) and disease stage (P = 0.024), presenting also a borderline association with nodal status (P = 0.053). In diffuse type carcinomas, enhanced FAK expression was significantly associated with longer overall survival times (log-rank test, P = 0.014), being also identified as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (Cox regression, P = 0.016). In contrast, patients with intestinal type tumors and enhanced FAK expression were characterized by shorter overall survival times, without though reaching statistical significance (log-rank test, P = 0.092). The current data support evidence that FAK protein may be considered as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in gastric neoplasia. Further studies conducted on larger clinical samples and highlighting on the distinct impact of the two histological types are warranted to delineate the clinical significance of FAK protein in gastric neoplasia.

    Pathology oncology research : POR 2009;15;2;173-81

  • Prognostic value of CXCR4 and FAK expression in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Tavernier-Tardy E, Cornillon J, Campos L, Flandrin P, Duval A, Nadal N and Guyotat D

    Département d'Hématologie, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire, Saint Etienne, France. emmanuelle.tavernier@mageos.com

    We analysed, by flow cytometry, the "adhesive" phenotype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells from 36 patients treated in our institution. In univariate analysis, the main prognostic factor for CR achievement was lower CXCR4 expression (p=0.03). Overall survival (OS) was negatively influenced by higher CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) (p=0.01), very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) (p=0.01), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression (p=0.04). Combination of these markers allowed to distinguish two prognostic groups: patients overexpressing 2 or 3 factors had a significantly shorter OS (p=0.015). CXCR4, VLA-4 and FAK are new phenotypic markers which could be helpful to establish risk-stratified therapeutic strategies.

    Leukemia research 2009;33;6;764-8

  • Arf GTPase-activating protein AGAP2 regulates focal adhesion kinase activity and focal adhesion remodeling.

    Zhu Y, Wu Y, Kim JI, Wang Z, Daaka Y and Nie Z

    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

    Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell attachment to the extracellular matrix where integrin receptors link extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton, and they are constantly remodeled during cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important regulator of focal adhesion remodeling. AGAP2 is an Arf GTPase-activating protein that regulates endosomal trafficking and is overexpressed in different human cancers. Here we examined the regulation of the FAK activity and the focal adhesion remodeling by AGAP2. Our results show that FAK binds the pleckstrin homology domain of AGAP2, and the binding is independent of FAK activation following epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation. Overexpression of AGAP2 augments the activity of FAK, and concordantly, the knockdown of AGAP2 expression with RNA interference attenuates the FAK activity stimulated by epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors. AGAP2 is localized to the focal adhesions, and its overexpression results in dissolution of the focal adhesions, whereas knockdown of its expression stabilizes them. The AGAP2-induced dissolution of the focal adhesions is independent of its GTPase-activating protein activity but may involve its N-terminal G protein-like domain. Our results indicate that AGAP2 regulates the FAK activity and the focal adhesion disassembly during cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA129155, CA131988

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;20;13489-96

  • CTGF enhances migration and MMP-13 up-regulation via alphavbeta3 integrin, FAK, ERK, and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Tan TW, Lai CH, Huang CY, Yang WH, Chen HT, Hsu HC, Fong YC and Tang CH

    Department of Pharmacology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    Tumor malignancy is associated with several features such as proliferation ability and frequency of metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a secreted protein that binds to integrins, modulates the invasive behavior of certain human cancer cells. However, the effect of CTGF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here we found that CTGF increased the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012 cells). RGD peptide, alphavbeta3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) but not RAD peptide inhibited the CTGF-induced increase of the migration and MMP-13 up-regulation of chondrosarcoma cells. CTGF stimulation increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, treatment of JJ012 cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) or IkappaB protease inhibitor (TPCK) inhibited CTGF-induced cell migration and MMP-13 up-regulation. Stimulation of JJ012 cells with CTGF also induced IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta) phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity. The CTGF-mediated increases in kappaB-luciferase activities were inhibited by RGD, PD98059, U0126 or FAK, and ERK2 mutant. Taken together, our results indicated that CTGF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-13 expression through the alphavbeta3 integrin, FAK, ERK, and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;107;2;345-56

  • Nudel and FAK as antagonizing strength modulators of nascent adhesions through paxillin.

    Shan Y, Yu L, Li Y, Pan Y, Zhang Q, Wang F, Chen J and Zhu X

    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

    Adhesion and detachment are coordinated critical steps during cell migration. Conceptually, efficient migration requires both effective stabilization of membrane protrusions at the leading edge via nascent adhesions and their successful persistence during retraction of the trailing side via disruption of focal adhesions. As nascent adhesions are much smaller in size than focal adhesions, they are expected to exhibit a stronger adhesivity in order to achieve the coordination between cell front and back. Here, we show that Nudel knockdown by interference RNA (RNAi) resulted in cell edge shrinkage due to poor adhesions of membrane protrusions. Nudel bound to paxillin, a scaffold protein of focal contacts, and colocalized with it in areas of active membrane protrusions, presumably at nascent adhesions. The Nudel-paxillin interaction was disrupted by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a paxillin-binding-dependent manner. Forced localization of Nudel in all focal contacts by fusing it to paxillin markedly strengthened their adhesivity, whereas overexpression of structurally activated FAK or any paxillin-binding FAK mutant lacking the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain caused cell edge shrinkage. These results suggest a novel mechanism for selective reinforcement of nascent adhesions via interplays of Nudel and FAK with paxillin to facilitate cell migration.

    PLoS biology 2009;7;5;e1000116

  • FAK mediates the inhibition of glioma cell migration by truncated 24 kDa FGF-2.

    Lin AH, Eliceiri BP and Levin EG

    Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

    A truncated form of 24kDa FGF-2 consisting of 86 NH(2)-terminal amino acids (ATE+31) inhibits cell migration in vitro and tumor development and angiogenesis in vivo. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine sites after cell stimulation by growth factors. This study examined the effect of ATE+31 on FAK phosphorylation in human glioma cells. FAK and Pyk phosphorylation were evaluated at serines known to be involved with cell migration. We demonstrated that ATE+31 at 3 x 10(-11)M decreases phosphorylation levels of Tyr(407)-FAK and Ser(732)-FAK in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), that ATE+31 in the presence of PDGF alters the distribution of FAK and other phosphotyrosine proteins in the adhesion contacts, and that ATE+31 in the presence of PDGF has no effect on the activation of Pyk2. These data suggest that the inhibition of cell migration by ATE+31 occurs via Tyr(407)-FAK and Ser(732)-FAK.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL073396, R01 HL073396-08; NIGMS NIH HHS: P20 GM078421, P20 GM078421-05; PHS HHS: R01-081209

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;382;3;503-7

  • ARHGAP21 modulates FAK activity and impairs glioblastoma cell migration.

    Bigarella CL, Borges L, Costa FF and Saad ST

    Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Science, Hematology and Hemotherapy Center-Hemocentro, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil. carolbiga@yahoo.com.br

    Glioblastoma multiforme is highly aggressive and is the most common glial tumor type. Although there have been advances in treatment, the average survival expectancy is 12-15 months. Several genes have been shown to influence glioblastoma progression. In the present work, we demonstrate that the RhoGTPase Activating Protein 21 (ARHGAP21) is expressed in the nuclear and perinuclear regions of several cell lines. In T98G and U138MG, glioblastoma derived cell lines, ARHGAP21 interacts with the C-terminal region of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK). ARHGAP21 depletion by shRNAi in T98G cells alters cellular morphology and increases: FAK phosphorylation states and activation of downstream signaling; the activity state of Cdc42; the production of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and cell migration rates. These modifications were found to be mainly due to the loss of ARHGAP21 action on FAK and, consequently, the activation of downstream effectors. These results suggest not only that ARHGAP21 might act as a tumor suppressor gene, but also indicate that ARHGAP21 might be a master regulator of migration having a crucial role in controlling the progression of different tumor types.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1793;5;806-16

  • Focal adhesion kinase modulates cell adhesion strengthening via integrin activation.

    Michael KE, Dumbauld DW, Burns KL, Hanks SK and García AJ

    Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell-ECM forces.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM049882, R01 GM065918, R01-GM049882, R01-GM065918

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;9;2508-19

  • Specific tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase mediated by Fer tyrosine kinase in suspended hepatocytes.

    Oh MA, Choi S, Lee MJ, Choi MC, Lee SA, Ko W, Cance WG, Oh ES, Buday L, Kim SH and Lee JW

    Cancer Research Institute, Cell Dynamics Research Center, Department of Tumor Biology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 101, Daehangro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799, Republic of Korea.

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) can activate signaling via focal adhesion kinase (FAK) leading to dynamic regulation of cellular morphology. Mechanistic basis for the lack of effective intracellular signaling by non-attached epithelial cells is poorly understood. To examine whether signaling in suspended cells is regulated by Fer cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, we investigated the effect of ectopic Fer expression on signaling in suspended or adherent hepatocytes. We found that ectopic Fer expression in Huh7 hepatocytes in suspension or on non-permissive poly-lysine caused significant phosphorylation of FAK Tyr577, Tyr861, or Tyr925, but not Tyr397 or Tyr576. Fer-mediated FAK phosphorylation in suspended cells was independent of c-Src activity or growth factor stimulation, but dependent of cortactin expression. Consistent with these results, complex formation between FAK, Fer, and cortactin was observed in suspended cells. The Fer-mediated effect correlated with multiple membrane protrusions, even on poly-lysine. Together, these observations suggest that Fer may allow a bypass of anchorage-dependency for intracellular signal transduction in hepatocytes.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1793;5;781-91

  • FAK alters invadopodia and focal adhesion composition and dynamics to regulate breast cancer invasion.

    Chan KT, Cortesio CL and Huttenlocher A

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for breast cancer progression and invasion and is necessary for the dynamic turnover of focal adhesions. However, it has not been determined whether FAK also regulates the dynamics of invasive adhesions formed in cancer cells known as invadopodia. In this study, we report that endogenous FAK functions upstream of cellular Src (c-Src) as a negative regulator of invadopodia formation and dynamics in breast cancer cells. We show that depletion of FAK induces the formation of active invadopodia but impairs invasive cell migration. FAK-deficient MTLn3 breast cancer cells display enhanced assembly and dynamics of invadopodia that are rescued by expression of wild-type FAK but not by FAK that cannot be phosphorylated at tyrosine 397. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that FAK depletion switches phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from focal adhesions to invadopodia through the temporal and spatial regulation of c-Src activity. Collectively, our findings provide novel insight into the interplay between FAK and Src to promote invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA085862, R01 CA085862-08

    The Journal of cell biology 2009;185;2;357-70

  • A novel role of ERK5 in integrin-mediated cell adhesion and motility in cancer cells via Fak signaling.

    Sawhney RS, Liu W and Brattain MG

    Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA. rsawhney@buffalo.edu

    In metastatic cancer, high expression levels of vitronectin (VN) receptors (integrins), FAK, and ERK5 are reported. We hypothesized that integrin-mediated ERK5 activation via FAK may play a pivotal role in cell adhesion, motility, and metastasis. ERK5 and FAK phosphorylation when metastatic MDA-MB-231 and PC-3 cells were plated on VN was enhanced. Further experiments showed co-immunoprecipitation of integrins beta1, alpha V beta 3, or alpha V beta 5 with ERK5 and FAK. To gain better insight into the mechanism of ERK5, FAK, and VN receptors in cell adhesion and motility, we performed loss-of-function experiments using integrin blocking antibodies, and specific mutants of FAK and ERK5. Ectopic expression of dominant negative ERK5/AEF decreased ERK5 and FAK (Y397) phosphorylation, cell adhesion, and haptotactic motility (micromotion) on VN. Additionally, DN FAK expression attenuated ERK5 phosphorylation, cell adhesion, and motility. This study documents the novel finding that in breast and prostate cancer cells, ERK5 is a critical target of FAK in cell adhesion signaling. Using different cancer cells, our experiments unveil a novel mechanism by which VN receptors and FAK could promote cancer metastasis via ERK5 activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 16056, CA 34432, CA 50457, CA 54807, P30 CA016056, R01 CA034432, R01 CA050457

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;219;1;152-61

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) involvement in human endometrial remodeling during the menstrual cycle.

    Orazizadeh M, Rashidi I, Saremi J and Latifi M

    Cell and Molecular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ahwaz Jondishapoor University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran. M_ orazizadeh@yahoo.com

    Background: Endometrial remodeling occurs during each menstrual cycle in women. Reports have shown that, in a variety of cell types, processes such as proliferation, signaling complex formation and extra cellular matrix remodeling require a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The present study has focused on the expression pattern of FAK in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the probable function of FAK in menstrual cycle changes and the role of FAK in tissue repair and tissue remodeling in vivo.

    Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrial samples were obtained from 400 pre-menopausal, non-pregnant women, who underwent hysterectomy and biopsy for benign diseases. Forty six samples with no tissue abnormalities were studied and ABC staining method of immuno-histochemistry methods was applied. Positive staining of FAK by different cell types of human endometrium was scaled and compared with each other by using histologic score method.

    Results: All different cell types of endometrium showed various patterns of FAK expression in different stages of menstruation. FAK in glandular and luminal epithelial cells is up-regulated during the early proliferative (EP) to mid-secretory (MS) phases. FAK in stromal cells is up-regulated during the EP, early and MS phases in comparison to the late secretory (LS) phase. FAK expression in endothelial cells is up-regulated during the EP and MS phases in comparison to LS phase. This study showed that endometrial FAK expression is a phase-dependent manner during the menstrual cycle.

    Conclusion: It appears that up-regulation of FAK during the proliferative phases is responsible for endometrial regeneration and high expression of FAK in the EP and MS phases may associate with the implantation. Down-regulation of FAK during the LS phase may facilitate apoptosis in human endometrium. It seems that FAK as a key kinase plays a critical role in endometrial remodeling that it may regulate by steroid hormones.

    Iranian biomedical journal 2009;13;2;95-101

  • FXR promotes endothelial cell motility through coordinated regulation of FAK and MMP-9.

    Das A, Yaqoob U, Mehta D and Shah VH

    Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. das.amitava@mayo.edu

    Objective: Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) mediates important signaling functions of bile acids in diverse cell types including those residing in the vascular wall. Indeed, recent work has identified FXR as a potential regulator of vascular structure and function in part through transcriptional activation of MMP-9. However, the signal transduction pathways linking bile acids to changes in actin cytoskeleton that are responsible for bile acid-induced vascular cell migration remain unexplored.

    The FXR agonist and prototypical bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), significantly increased endothelial cell (EC) motility, as analyzed by time lapse video microscopy, and tube formation, an in vitro correlate for angiogenesis. Increased cell motility was associated with prominent increases in focal adhesion (FA) plaques and was inhibited by FXR or MMP-9 siRNA, indicating a FXR-MMP-9-dependency of this signaling pathway. Mechanistically, incubation of cells with CDCA was associated with phosphorylation of a key FA protein, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) at Y397 but not at Y576/577, or Y925. Studies using a site-specific phosphorylation mutant (phosphodeficient) of FAK revealed that FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine residue -397 was required for CDCA induced activation of the downstream FA assembly protein, paxillin. Lastly, siRNA-based silencing of FAK as well as phosphodeficient FAK mutant inhibited CDCA induced upregulation of MMP-9, cell motility, and vascular tube formation.

    Conclusions: Thus, this study demonstrates a pivotal role for FAK in the process of FXR-induced and MMP-9-dependent EC motility and vascular tube formation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL086990, R01 HL086990-01A2, R01-HL086990; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK059615, R01 DK059615-06A1, R01-DK059615

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2009;29;4;562-70

  • Genetic variants in the candidate genes of the apoptosis pathway and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Kim DH, Xu W, Ma C, Liu X, Siminovitch K, Messner HA and Lipton JH

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Group, Department of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. drkiim@medimail.co.kr

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder, characterized by the presence of BCR/ABL fusion gene. It is unclear which cellular events drive BCR/ABL gene translocation or initiate leukemogenesis in CML. Bcl-2 promotes survival of hematopoietic stem cells. Accordingly, apoptosis-related pathway may involve in the leukemogenesis of CML. In the current study, we evaluated 80 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers involved in the pathways of apoptosis (n = 30), angiogenesis (n = 7), myeloid cell growth (n = 14), xenobiotic metabolism (n = 13), WT1 signaling (n = 7), interferon signaling (n = 4), and others (n = 5) in 170 CML patients and 182 healthy controls. In a single-marker analysis, the following SNPs were identified including VEGFA, BCL2, CASP7, JAK3, CSF3, and HOCT1. In the multivariate logistic model with these SNPs and covariates, only BCL2 (rs1801018) was significantly associated with the susceptibility to CML (P = .05; odds ratio [OR] 2.16 [1.00-4.68]). In haplotype analyses, haplotype block of BCL2 consistently showed significant association with the susceptibility to CML. Risk allele analysis showed that a greater number of risk alleles from BCL2 SNP correlated to increasing risk of CML (overall P = .1, OR 1.84 [1.06-3.22] for 3-4 risk alleles vs 0-1 risk alleles). The current study indicated that BCL2 SNP seemed to be associated with increasing susceptibility to CML.

    Blood 2009;113;11;2517-25

  • Expression of FAK and PTEN in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    Wang C, Yang R, Yue D and Zhang Z

    Department of Lung Cancer, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Tian Jin Medical University, Huan Hu Xi Road, He Xi, Tian Jin, People's Republic of China.

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is classified as a subset of lung adenocarcinoma but has a distinct clinical presentation, tumor biology, response to therapy, and prognosis compared with other subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. This study was designed to investigate the clinicopathological differences between BAC and adenocarcinoma and the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and their clinical significance in BAC and adenocarcinoma. A retrospective analysis was performed on 77 patients with BAC and 172 patients with pure adenocarcinoma seen during the period from January 1998 to December 2000. All patients underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy and systematic lymph node dissection. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from these patients were obtained and expressions of PTEN and FAK were evaluated by using immunohistochemical staining. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcome were reviewed and compared between patients with BAC and adenocarcinoma. Lymph node status, clinical symptoms, CT appearance and expression of FAK were different between BAC and adenocarcinoma. The overall survival of BAC was better than that of adenocarcinoma. In patients with FAK(-), the overall survival was not different between BAC and adenocarcinoma. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the overall survival was better for FAK(-) compared with FAK(+). Expression of PTEN had a prognostic significance in patients with BAC and adenocarcinoma. BAC and adenocarcinoma have different clinicopathological presentations. Expression of FAK has some effect on such differences and affects survival of lung adenocarcinoma. Expression of PTEN can predict outcome of resected lung adenocarcinoma and BAC.

    Lung 2009;187;2;104-9

  • Induction of apoptosis of detached oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by safingol. Possible role of Bim, focal adhesion kinase and endonuclease G.

    Noda T, Iwai S, Hamada M, Fujita Y and Yura Y

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor safingol increased rounding and detachment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells in monolayer cultures. When dissociated cells were incubated in the presence of safingol, cell adhesion was prevented and cell viability was lost gradually, while most cells survived in the absence of safingol even if their attachment was blocked by coating the culture plates with polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate. Flow cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA revealed an increase in the proportion of sub-G(1) cells and DNA fragmentation, indicating that safingol induced apoptosis of dissociated cells. During the induction of apoptosis in cell suspensions by safingol, there was an increase of the pro-apoptotic BH-3 only protein Bim and decrease of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-xL and mitochondrial pro-apoptogenic factor endonuclease G translocated to the nucleus. The level of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) required for cell survival also rapidly decreased, followed by a decrease in the protein level. The introduction of siRNA against PKCalpha into SAS cells resulted in an increase of Bim, a decrease of Bcl-xL, the translocation of endonuclease G, and a decrease in the phosphorylation of FAK. These results suggest that Bim, Bcl-xL, FAK and endonuclease G are involved in safingol-induced apoptosis of detached oral SCC cells. Safingol can be used to induce apoptosis with cell detachment, anoikis, of oral SCC cells.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2009;14;3;287-97

  • Quantification of focal adhesion kinase activation loop phosphorylation as a biomarker of Src activity.

    Ciccimaro E, Hanks SK and Blair IA

    Department of Pharmacology, Centers for Cancer Pharmacology and Excellence in Environmental Toxicology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6160, USA.

    A recently developed stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-multiple reaction/mass spectrometry method to quantify focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation loop phosphorylation was used to study endogenous Src kinase activity. This revealed that bis-phosphorylated pTyr(576)/Tyr(577)-FAK was a biomarker of Src activity and inactivation in vitro and in cell culture. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing endogenous Src family kinases contained 65% unmodified Tyr(576)/Tyr(577), 33% mono-phosphorylated-pTyr(576)-FAK, and 6% bis-phosphorylated-pTyr(576)/pTyr(577)-FAK. In contrast, MEFs expressing oncogenic Y(529)FSrc contained 38% unmodified Tyr(576)/Tyr(577)-FAK, 29% mono-phosphorylated-pTyr(576)-FAK, and 19% bis-phosphorylated-pTyr(576)/pTyr(577)-FAK. This new method has made it possible to accurately determine the absolute amounts of FAK phosphorylation that occur after Src inhibition in cell culture and in vitro with increasing concentrations of the Src inhibitor N-(5-chloro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]-5-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yloxy)quinazolin-4-amine (AZD0530). Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr(576)/Tyr(577) was inhibited by AZD0530 in a dose-dependent manner both in cell culture and in vitro. However, there was a substantial difference in the ability of AZD0530 to inhibit Src that was constitutively activated in a cellular context (IC(50) = 2.12 muM) compared with the isolated enzyme (IC(50) = 0.14 muM). When normal MEFs and Y(529)FSrc-expressing MEFs were treated with pervanadate (a global phosphatase inhibitor), pTyr(576)/pTyr(577)-FAK accounted for almost 60% of the total FAK present in the cells. This suggests that activation loop phosphorylation is regulated by tyrosine phosphatases. These results confirm that FAK phosphorylation is a useful biomarker of Src inhibition in vivo. The accuracy and specificity of stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology offers significant advantages over current immunochemical approaches for monitoring Src activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA95586; NHLBI NIH HHS: T32-HL007954; NIEHS NIH HHS: P30-ES013508; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882

    Molecular pharmacology 2009;75;3;658-66

  • Targeting of focal adhesion kinase by small interfering RNAs reduces chondrocyte redifferentiation capacity in alginate beads culture with type II collagen.

    Kim YH and Lee JW

    Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

    Type II collagen is a major protein that maintains biological and mechanical characteristics in articular cartilage. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is known to play a central role in integrin signaling of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and chondrocyte-type II collagen interactions are very important for cartilage homeostasis. In this study, we focused on phosphorylation of FAK and MAP kinase in chondrocyte-type II collagen interaction and dedifferentiation, and the effects of FAK knockdown on chondrocyte-specific gene expression and cell proliferation were determined. The addition of exogenous type II collagen to chondrocytes increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, p-FAK(Y397), and p-ERK1/2. In contrast, expression levels of p-FAK(Y397) and p-ERK1/2, but not p-Smad2/3, were decreased in dedifferentiated chondrocytes with loss of type II collagen expression. Type II collagen expression was significantly increased when dedifferentiated chondrocytes were transferred to alginate beads with TGF-beta1 or type II collagen, but transfected cells with small interfering RNA for FAK (FAK-siRNA) inhibited mRNA expression of type II collagen and SOX-6 compared to the control. These FAK-siRNA-transfected cells could not recover type II collagen even in the presence of TGF-beta1 or type II collagen in alginate beads culture. We also found that FAK-siRNA-transfected cells decreased cell proliferation rate, but there was no effect on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secretion. We suggest that FAK is essentially required in chondrocyte communication with type II collagen by regulating type II collagen expression and cell proliferation.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2009;218;3;623-30

  • Ras- and PI3K-dependent breast tumorigenesis in mice and humans requires focal adhesion kinase signaling.

    Pylayeva Y, Gillen KM, Gerald W, Beggs HE, Reichardt LF and Giancotti FG

    Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, New York, USA. pylayy01@nyumc.org

    Cancer cells require sustained oncogenic signaling in order to maintain their malignant properties. It is, however, unclear whether they possess other dependencies that can be exploited therapeutically. We report here that in a large fraction of human breast cancers, the gene encoding focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a core component of integrin signaling, was amplified and FAK mRNA was overexpressed. A mammary gland-specific deletion of Fak in mice did not seem to affect normal mammary epithelial cells, and these mice were protected from tumors initiated by the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT), which activates Ras and PI3K. FAK-deficient PyMT-transformed cells displayed both growth arrest and apoptosis, as well as diminished invasive and metastatic capacity. Upon silencing of Fak, mouse mammary tumor cells transformed by activated Ras became senescent and lost their invasive ability. Further, Neu-transformed cells also underwent growth arrest and apoptosis if integrin beta4-dependent signaling was simultaneously inactivated. Human breast cancer cells carrying oncogenic mutations that activate Ras or PI3K signaling displayed similar responses upon silencing of FAK. Mechanistic studies indicated that FAK sustains tumorigenesis by promoting Src-mediated phosphorylation of p130Cas. These results suggest that FAK supports Ras- and PI3K-dependent mammary tumor initiation, maintenance, and progression to metastasis by orchestrating multiple core cellular functions, including proliferation, survival, and avoidance of senescence.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA008748, P30 CA08748, R37 CA058976, R37 CA58976; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS199090

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2009;119;2;252-66

  • The lysyl oxidase pro-peptide attenuates fibronectin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase and p130Cas in breast cancer cells.

    Zhao Y, Min C, Vora SR, Trackman PC, Sonenshein GE and Kirsch KH

    Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    The lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene encodes an enzyme (LOX) critical for extracellular matrix maturation. The LOX gene has also been shown to inhibit the transforming activity of Ras oncogene signaling. In particular, the pro-peptide domain (LOX-PP) released from the secreted precursor protein (Pro-LOX) was found to inhibit the transformed phenotype of breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of action of LOX-PP remained to be determined. Here, the ability of LOX-PP to attenuate the integrin signaling pathway, which leads to phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the activation of its downstream target p130Cas, was determined. In NF639 breast cancer cells driven by Her-2/neu, which signals via Ras, ectopic Pro-LOX and LOX-PP expression inhibited fibronectin-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Importantly, phosphorylation of FAK on Tyr-397 and Tyr-576, and p130Cas were substantially reduced. The amount of endogenous p130Cas in the Triton X-100-insoluble protein fraction, and fibronectin-activated haptotaxis were decreased. Interestingly, expression of mature LOX enzyme enhanced fibronectin-stimulated integrin signaling. Of note, treatment with recombinant LOX-PP selectively reduced fibronectin-mediated haptotaxis of NF639, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T breast cancer cells. Thus, evidence is provided that one mechanism of action of LOX-PP tumor suppression is to block fibronectin-stimulated signaling and cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA106468, CA82742, R01 CA082742

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;3;1385-93

  • Focal adhesion kinase: important to prostaglandin E2-mediated adhesion, migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Bai XM, Zhang W, Liu NB, Jiang H, Lou KX, Peng T, Ma J, Zhang L, Zhang H and Leng J

    Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China.

    Prostaglandin E2 has been implicated in cell growth and metastasis in many types of cancers. However, the effects of PGE2 and its mechanism on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion have not been clarified yet. In this study, we found PGE2 treatment significantly increased the cell adhesion, migration, and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In addition, the effects of PGE2 were found to be associated with focal adhesion kinase (FAK). PGE2 treatment increased the phosphorylation and synthesis of FAK in a dose-dependent manner. RNA interference targeting FAK suppressed PGE2-mediated cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, the downstream proteins of FAK, paxillin and Erk2, were also activated by PGE2. PGE2 treatment increased the phosphorylation and synthesis of paxillin in a dose-dependent manner. PGE2 treatment also induced the phosphorylation of Erk2. PD98059, the specific inhibitor of MEK, suppressed PGE2-mediated cell adhesion and migration. However, it had no effect on PGE2-induced activation and synthesis of FAK. These results demonstrated that PGE2 greatly induced HCC cell adhesion, migration, and invasion by activating FAK/paxillin/Erk pathway.

    Oncology reports 2009;21;1;129-36

  • Integrin-linked kinase: a multi-functional regulator modulating extracellular pressure-stimulated cancer cell adhesion through focal adhesion kinase and AKT.

    Wang S and Basson MD

    Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48912, USA.

    Cell adhesion is important in cancer metastasis. Malignant cells in cancer patients may be exposed to physical forces such as extracellular pressure and shear, that stimulate their adhesion to matrix proteins, endothelium and surgical wounds. Pressure induces phosphorylation of AKT and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are required for pressure-stimulated cancer cell adhesion, but what mediates this effect is unknown. ILK may influence cell adhesion and FAK and AKT phosphorylation in other settings. We therefore hypothesized that ILK might also regulate pressure-stimulated cancer cell adhesion through AKT and FAK phosphorylation. Silencing ILK by siRNA reduced basal cancer cell adhesion and prevented the stimulation of adhesion by pressure. ILK mediated pressure-stimulated adhesion through specifically regulating phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 and FAK at Tyr397 and 576 as well as ILK association with FAK and AKT. The siRNA-mediated loss of function of ILK in regulating increase in adhesion by pressure was not rescued by overexpression of alpha-parvin, an important ILK binding partner, although pressure promoted ILK-alpha-parvin association and translocated both ILK and alpha-parvin from cytosol to membrane/cytoskeleton. ILK may be a key mediator of mechanotransduced signals in cancer cells and an important therapeutic target to inhibit metastatic cancer cell adhesion.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2R01DK060771

    Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology 2009;31;4;273-89

  • MR-1 modulates proliferation and migration of human hepatoma HepG2 cells through myosin light chains-2 (MLC2)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt signaling pathway.

    Ren K, Jin H, Bian C, He H, Liu X, Zhang S, Wang Y and Shao RG

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

    The key of cell migration process on solid substrates is phosphorylation of myosin light chain-2 (MLC2), which is implicated in a variety of intracellular functions. The previous data show that MLC2 interacts with a novel human gene, myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR-1). Here, we reported that MR-1 was specially overexpressed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Transient treatment of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MR-1 or stable transfection of cells with plasmid expressing MR-1-siRNA led to inhibitions of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. Following down-regulation of MR-1, the phosphorylations of MLC2, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Akt were dramatically decreased, and the formation of stress fiber was destroyed by MR-1-siRNAs in hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition, exogenous MR-1-induced as well as inherent phosphorylations of FAK and Akt were decreased by MLC kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, and F-actin polymerization inhibitor also decreased phosphorylations of FAK and Akt. Correspondingly, MR-1-enhanced migration of cells was also inhibited by these two inhibitors. These indicated that MLC2 activation and intact actin cytoskeleton were pivotal for MR-1 function. In vivo data showed that MR-1-siRNA markedly inhibited growth of human HepG2. This study suggested that overexpression of MR-1 was associated with cancer cell proliferation and migration through MLC2 and that MR-1 might be a potential cancer therapeutic target.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;51;35598-605

  • TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR, has inhibitory effects on mTOR signaling in esophageal cancer cells.

    Wang ZG, Fukazawa T, Nishikawa T, Watanabe N, Sakurama K, Motoki T, Takaoka M, Hatakeyama S, Omori O, Ohara T, Tanabe S, Fujiwara Y, Shirakawa Y, Yamatsuji T, Tanaka N and Naomoto Y

    College of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University, The Key Laboratory of Mammal Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Huhhot 010021, P.R. China.

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers in the world. Novel preventive and therapeutic strategies tend to target the key molecules involved in the signaling transduction pathways for cell growth. It is known that FAK and mTOR are important controllers of cell growth. TAE226, a novel small molecule compound, is a potent ATP competitive inhibitor of FAK and IGF-IR. TAE226 can block FAK and IGF-IR signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects on mTOR signaling and the mechanism of cell growth suppression by TAE226. We examined the expression of mTOR and S6 in esophageal cancer cells (SEG-1) and normal esophageal epithelial cells (KOB-13) and the efficacy of TAE226 against SEG-1 cells. mTOR and S6 were overexpressed in SEG-1 cells compared with KOB-13 cells. TAE226 inhibited the expression of mTOR, Akt, p70S6K and S6 as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448), Akt (Ser473), p70S6K (Thr389) and S6 (Ser240/244). As a result, TAE226 induced a dose-dependent decrease in cell growth (number) and damage in the cell shape. Together, these data show that TAE226 has potent inhibitory effects on mTOR signaling and esophageal cancer cell growth indicating that TAE226 has potential application in esophageal cancer treatment.

    Oncology reports 2008;20;6;1473-7

  • Focal adhesion kinase-related proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and focal adhesion kinase are co-overexpressed in early-stage and invasive ErbB-2-positive breast cancer and cooperate for breast cancer cell tumorigenesis and invasiveness.

    Behmoaram E, Bijian K, Jie S, Xu Y, Darnel A, Bismar TA and Alaoui-Jamali MA

    Department of Pathology, Lady Davis Institute of the Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Early cancer cell migration and invasion of neighboring tissues are mediated by multiple events, including activation of focal adhesion signaling. Key regulators include the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and FAK-related proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), whose distinct functions in cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we compared Pyk2 and FAK expression in breast cancer and their effects on ErbB-2-induced tumorigenesis and the potential therapeutic utility of targeting Pyk2 compared with FAK in preclinical models of breast cancer. Pyk2 is overexpressed in tissues from early and advanced breast cancers and overexpressed with both FAK and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB-2) in a subset of breast cancer cases. Down-regulation of Pyk2 in ErbB-2-positive, FAK-proficient, and FAK-deficient cells reduced cell proliferation, which correlated with reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. In contrast, Pyk2 silencing had little impact on cell migration and invasion. In vivo, Pyk2 down-regulation reduced primary tumor growth induced by a metastatic variant of ErbB-2-positive MDA 231 breast cancer cells but had little effect on lung metastases in contrast to FAK down-regulation. Dual reduction of Pyk2 and FAK expression resulted in strong inhibition of both primary tumor growth and lung metastases. Together, these data support the cooperative function of Pyk2 and FAK in breast cancer progression and suggest that dual inhibition of FAK and Pyk2 is an efficient therapeutic approach for targeting invasive breast cancer.

    The American journal of pathology 2008;173;5;1540-50

  • Ephrin-B2-induced cleavage of EphB2 receptor is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases to trigger cell repulsion.

    Lin KT, Sloniowski S, Ethell DW and Ethell IM

    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-0121, USA.

    EphB receptors provide crucial adhesive and repulsive signals during cell migration and axon guidance, but it is unclear how they switch between these opposing responses. Here we provide evidence of an important role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in repulsive EphB2 signaling. We found that EphB2 is cleaved by MMPs both in vitro and in vivo, and that this cleavage is induced by interaction with its ligand ephrin-B2. Our findings demonstrate that MMP-2/MMP-9-specific inhibition or cleavage-resistant mutations in the ectodomain of EphB2 can prevent EphB2-mediated cell-cell repulsion in HEK293 cells, and block ephrin-B1-induced growth cone withdrawal in cultured hippocampal neurons. Transient expression of wtEphB2, but not noncleavable EphB2-4/5 mutant, restored ephrin-B1-induced growth cone collapse and withdrawal in EphB-deficient neurons. The inhibition of EphB2 cleavage also had potent regulatory effects on EphB2 activity. This study provides the first evidence that MMP-mediated cleavage of EphB2 is induced by receptor-ligand interactions at the cell surface and that this event triggers cell-repulsive responses.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH67121, R01 MH067121, R01 MH067121-05

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;43;28969-79

  • Biphasic function of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial tube formation induced by fibril-forming collagens.

    Nakamura J, Shigematsu S, Yamauchi K, Takeda T, Yamazaki M, Kakizawa T and Hashizume K

    Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.

    Migration and tube formation of endothelial cells are important in angiogenesis and require a coordinated response to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor. Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from both ECM and growth factor, we investigated its role in angiogenesis. Type I and II collagens are fibril-forming collagens and stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form tube structure. Although knockdown of FAK restrained cell motility and resulted in inhibition of tube formation, FAK degradation and tube formation occurred simultaneously after incubation with fibril-forming collagens. The compensation for the FAK degradation by a calpain inhibitor or transient over-expression of FAK resulted in disturbance of tube formation. These phenomena are specific to fibril-forming collagens and mediated via alpha2beta1 integrin. In conclusion, our data indicate that FAK is functioning in cell migration, but fibril-forming collagen-induced FAK degradation is necessary for endothelial tube formation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;374;4;699-703

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-related non-kinase inhibits myofibroblast differentiation through differential MAPK activation in a FAK-dependent manner.

    Ding Q, Gladson CL, Wu H, Hayasaka H and Olman MA

    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. qding@uab.edu

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 induces fibroblast transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts, a process that requires the involvement of integrin-mediated signaling and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK) is known for its role in inhibiting integrin-mediated cell migration; however, its role in myofibroblast differentiation has not been defined. Here, we report that FRNK abrogates TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. TGF-beta1 can induce alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression in the presence or absence of FAK; however, TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression is reduced (approximately 73%) in FAK-deficient fibroblasts. Although both ERK and p38 MAPK activation is required for maximal TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression, ERK is the major signaling intermediate in cells that express FAK. In contrast, p38 MAPK is the dominant mediator of TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression in FAK-deficient cells. FRNK overexpression blocks TGF-beta1-induced ERK or p38 MAPK activation in the presence, and surprisingly, in the absence of FAK. The loss of FRNK was tested in vivo during experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. FRNK knock-out mice have a greater increase in alpha-SMA-expressing cells in response to a pulmonary fibrotic stimulus in vivo, as compared with congenic wild type mice. This is the first time that FRNK loss has been shown to modify the pathobiology in any animal disease model. Together, the data demonstrate that FRNK negatively regulates myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. These data further suggest that modulation FRNK expression may be a novel avenue for therapeutic intervention in tissue fibrosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL085324, HL58655, R01 HL085324

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;40;26839-49

  • Focal adhesion kinase controls aggressive phenotype of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    Johnson TR, Khandrika L, Kumar B, Venezia S, Koul S, Chandhoke R, Maroni P, Donohue R, Meacham RB and Koul HK

    Program in Urosciences, Division of Urology-Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado, USA.

    Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been well correlated with tumor development and/or the maintenance of tumor phenotype. In addition, inappropriate activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is common to many human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the interplay between FAK and ERK in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145 cells). We observed that suppression of FAK expression using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown decreased the clonogenic activity, whereas overexpression of FAK increased it. We also observed that detachment of PC3 and DU145 cells from their substrate induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK. ERK knockdown diminished FAK protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK as well as FAK promoter-reporter activity. We also tested the effect of MEK inhibitors and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1 and/or ERK2 on cell proliferation, invasiveness, and growth in soft agar of PC3 and DU145 cells. Inhibition of ERK signaling grossly impaired clonogenicity as well as invasion through Matrigel. However, inhibition of ERK signaling resulted in only a modest inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation and no effect on overall viability of the cells or increased sensitivity to anoikis. Taken together, these data show, for the first time, a requirement for FAK in aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer cells; reveal interdependence of FAK and ERK1/2 for clonogenic and invasive activity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells; suggest a role for ERK regulation of FAK in substrate-dependent survival; and show for the first time, in any cell type, the regulation of FAK expression by ERK signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P20 CA103680; PHS HHS: R01-54084

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2008;6;10;1639-48

  • Focal adhesion kinase is not required for Src-induced formation of invadopodia in KM12C colon cancer cells and can interfere with their assembly.

    Vitale S, Avizienyte E, Brunton VG and Frame MC

    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow, UK.

    Overexpression of active Src induces invadopodia formation and associated matrix degradation in KM12C colon cancer cells. FAK is present with active Src at sites of matrix-degrading activity (invadopodia), specifically residing in rings surrounding the cortactin-containing invadopodia cores. Since FAK is a key effector protein in many aspects of Src function, we addressed whether FAK is necessary for Src-induced invadopodia formation and matrix degradation in KM12C colon cancer cells. We found that efficient knockdown of FAK expression by siRNA had no effect on invadopodia formation or matrix degradation. However, overexpression of FAK could actually suppress invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. FAK phosphorylation on the putative auto-phosphorylation tyrosine 397 and the Src-specific sites are all required for overexpressed FAK to inhibit invadopodia formation, while the kinase activity of exogenous FAK is apparently not required. These data imply that kinase activities other than FAK auto-phosphorylation may contribute to the phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397 in some contexts to promote an activity of FAK that can counteract invadopodia formation. Further work is required to determine how the strength of signalling through FAK suppresses invadopodia, but we propose that FAK controls the balance of adhesion types in cells, and that this is one of the determinants of whether a cancer cell can make stable matrix-degrading invadopodia.

    European journal of cell biology 2008;87;8-9;569-79

  • Focal adhesion kinase mediates the interferon-gamma-inducible GTPase-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway and further initiates a positive feedback loop of NF-kappaB activation.

    Liu Z, Zhang HM, Yuan J, Lim T, Sall A, Taylor GA and Yang D

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, The James Hogg iCAPTURE Center - St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.

    Interferon-gamma-inducible GTPase (IGTP) expression is upregulated in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected murine heart and inhibits CVB3-induced apoptosis through activation of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. However, the mechanism of this pathway activation is unknown. In this study, using doxcycycline-inducible Tet-On HeLa cells that overexpress IGTP, we have demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is phosphorylated in response to IGTP expression and that transfection of the Tet-On HeLa cells with a dominant negative FAK (FRNK) blocks Akt activation. Furthermore, induction of IGTP also promoted the NF-kappaB activation as evidenced by its enhanced nuclear translocation, binding to transcriptional promoters and increased transcriptional activity. However, FRNK transfection and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 both blocked the IGTP-induced translocation and NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, silencing NF-kappaB with siRNAs significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK and Akt, but not their total expression levels, indicating that NF-kappaB activation is required for the IGTP-induced activation of FAK and PI3K/Akt. Finally, blocking this survival pathway by transfection of FRNK or silencing of NF-kappaB reduced CVB3 replication and enhanced cell death during CVB3 infection. Taken together, these results suggest that FAK is a mediator upstream of PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB functions as a downstream effector and also positively regulates the activity of upstream kinases.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI057831, R01 AI057831-04, R01 AI057831-05

    Cellular microbiology 2008;10;9;1787-800

  • Genetic upregulation of matriptase-2 reduces the aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and affects FAK and paxillin localisation.

    Sanders AJ, Parr C, Martin TA, Lane J, Mason MD and Jiang WG

    Metastasis and Angiogenesis Research Group, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK. sandersaj1@cardiff.ac.uk

    The cellular function and the role of matriptase-2 in cancer progression are poorly understood. This study assesses the importance of this protease in prostate cancer cell lines. Two prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, previously displaying minimal expression of matriptase-2, were forced to over-express matriptase-2 using a human mammalian expression construct. Over-expression of matriptase-2 significantly reduced the invasive capacity and significantly slowed the migration rates of PC-3 and DU-145 cells in vitro. Similarly, PC-3 cells containing the matriptase-2 expression plasmid were dramatically less able to survive, grow and develop into noticeable tumours, compared to control PC-3 cells containing an empty plasmid alone, following subcutaneous inoculation into CD1 nude mice. This trend was observed throughout the experiment, becoming apparent after the initial reading on day 7 (P = 0.0002) and continuing to the experimental end point at day 27 (P = 0.0002). Enhanced matriptase-2 levels were also seen to correlate with increased fluorescent staining of the paxillin and FAK adhesion molecules, where a greater extent of these molecules were localised to the focal adhesion complexes. This data suggests a suppressive role for matriptase-2 in the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro and also in their development and growth in vivo, highlighting the potential of this molecule to interfere with key stages of metastasis. Furthermore, the data presented implies a possible connection between matriptase-2 and the paxillin and FAK adhesion molecules which may ultimately contribute to the reduced migration rates seen in this study.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2008;216;3;780-9

  • Overexpression of HAb18G/CD147 promotes invasion and metastasis via alpha3beta1 integrin mediated FAK-paxillin and FAK-PI3K-Ca2+ pathways.

    Tang J, Wu YM, Zhao P, Yang XM, Jiang JL and Chen ZN

    Cell Engineering Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, State Key Discipline of Cell University, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, PR China.

    Mechanism of HAb18G/CD147 underlying the metastasis process of human hepatoma cells has not been determined. In the present study, we found that integrin alpha3beta1 colocalizes with HAb18G/CD147 in human 7721 hepatoma cells. The enhancing effect of HAb18G/CD147 on adhesion, invasion capacities and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secretion was decreased by integrin alpha3beta1 antibodies (p<0.01). The expressions of integrin downstream molecules including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phospho-FAK (p-FAK), paxillin, and phospho-paxillin (p-paxillin) were increased in human hepatoma cells overexpressing HAb18G/CD147. Deletion of HAb18G/CD147 reduces the quantity of focal adhesions and rearranges cytoskeleton. Wortmannin and LY294002, specific phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, reversed the effect of HAb18G/CD147 on the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, significantly reducing cell adhesion, invasion and MMPs secretion potential (p<0.01). Together, these results suggest that HAb18G/CD147 enhances the invasion and metastatic potentials of human hepatoma cells via integrin alpha3beta1-mediated FAK-paxillin and FAKPI3K-Ca(2+) signal pathways.

    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2008;65;18;2933-42

  • Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor and pleiotropic effects on tyrosine phospho-EGFR/Src/FAK/paxillin in ovarian cancer.

    Aponte M, Jiang W, Lakkis M, Li MJ, Edwards D, Albitar L, Vitonis A, Mok SC, Cramer DW and Ye B

    Laboratory of Gynecologic Oncology and Epidemiology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Among the proinflammatory mediators, platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine) is a major primary and secondary messenger involved in intracellular and extracellular communication. Evidence suggests that PAF plays a significant role in oncogenic transformation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, PAF, with its receptor (PAFR) and their downstream signaling targets, has not been thoroughly studied in cancer. Here, we characterized the PAFR expression pattern in 4 normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines, 13 ovarian cancer cell lines, paraffin blocks (n = 84), and tissue microarrays (n = 230) from patients with ovarian cancer. Overexpression of PAFR was found in most nonmucinous types of ovarian cancer but not in HOSE and mucinous cancer cells. Correspondingly, PAF significantly induced cell proliferation and invasion only in PAFR-positive cells (i.e., OVCA429 and OVCA432), but not in PAFR-negative ovarian cells (HOSE and mucinous RMUG-L). The dependency of cell proliferation and invasion on PAFR was further confirmed using PAFR-specific small interfering RNA gene silencing probes, antibodies against PAFR and PAFR antagonist, ginkgolide B. Using quantitative multiplex phospho-antibody array technology, we found that tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR/Src/FAK/paxillin was coordinately activated by PAF treatment, which was correlated with the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cyclin D1 as markers for cell proliferation, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 for invasion. Specific tyrosine Src inhibitor (PP2) reversibly blocked PAF-activated cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We suggest that PAFR is an essential upstream target of Src and other signal pathways to control the PAF-mediated cancer progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1P50-CA105009-01, P50 CA105009, P50 CA105009-01, R01 CA054419, R01 CA054419-13, R01 CA54419-13, R21 CA111949, R21 CA111949-01, R21 CA111949-01A1, R21 CA111949-02

    Cancer research 2008;68;14;5839-48

  • FAK nuclear export signal sequences.

    Ossovskaya V, Lim ST, Ota N, Schlaepfer DD and Ilic D

    Department of Anatomy, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Ubiquitously expressed focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a critical component in transducing signals from sites of cell contacts with extracellular matrix, was named after its typical localization in focal adhesions. A nuclear localization of FAK has been also reported and its scaffolding role in nucleus and requirement for p53 ubiquitination were only recently described. Whereas FAK nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in F2 lobe of FERM domain, nuclear export signal (NES) sequences have not been yet determined. Here we demonstrate that FAK has two NES sequences, NES1 in F1 lobe of FERM domain and NES2 in kinase domain. Although, both NES1 and NES2 are evolutionary conserved, and present as well in FAK-related protein kinase Pyk2, only NES2 demonstrates full biological nuclear export activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA087652, CA102310, K01 CA087652, R01 CA102310, R01 CA102310-06

    FEBS letters 2008;582;16;2402-6

  • Steroid receptor coactivator-3/AIB1 promotes cell migration and invasiveness through focal adhesion turnover and matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    Yan J, Erdem H, Li R, Cai Y, Ayala G, Ittmann M, Yu-Lee LY, Tsai SY and Tsai MJ

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3)/AIB1 is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family involved in development and cell cycle progression. We previously showed that SRC-3/AIB1 is required for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we reported that the elevated SRC-3/AIB1 expression is significantly correlated with human prostate cancer seminal vesicle invasion and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, SRC-3/AIB1 is associated with increased prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. SRC-3/AIB1 is required for focal adhesion turnover and focal adhesion kinase activation. In addition, SRC-3/AIB1 directly regulates transcription of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-13 through its coactivation of AP-1 and PEA3. Taken together, these data suggest that SRC-3/AIB1 plays an essential role in prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA058204, P50 CA058204-050012, P50 CA058204-060012, P50 CA058204-070012, P50 CA058204-07S10012, P50 CA058204-080012, P50 CA058204-090018, U01 CA105352, U01CA105352; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 62821, P01 DK059820, P01 DK059820-010001, P01 DK059820-020001, P01 DK059820-030001, P01 DK059820-040001, P01 DK059820-050001, R01 DK062821, R01 DK062821-01, R01 DK062821-02, R01 DK062821-03, R01 DK062821-03S1, R01 DK062821-04

    Cancer research 2008;68;13;5460-8

  • Elk-1 associates with FAK, regulates the expression of FAK and MAP kinases as well as apoptosis in HK-2 cells.

    Mamali I, Kotsantis P, Lampropoulou M and Marmaras VJ

    Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MAP kinases and the nuclear transcription factor Elk-1 have been reported to be implicated in the same cellular processes, however, their direct or indirect interaction and potential function(s) has not been documented. Here, we explored the association of FAK with Elk-1, the implication of Elk-1 in the regulation of FAK and MAP kinases expression as well as apoptosis, in HK-2 cells. Biochemical and immunofluorescence approaches strongly support the association of low molecular weight protein bands, recognized by FAK antibodies, with Elk-1 or p(ser383)Elk-1. The FAK/Elk-1 complex is found, mainly, in the cytoplasm, near the nuclear membrane periphery, raising the possibility that Elk-1 may have alternative extranuclear function(s) in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Elk-1 siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, increased apoptosis. By contrast, Elk-1 siRNA decreased significantly the expression of FAK and MAP kinases, supporting the hypothesis that Elk-1 may act as a potential physiological substrate and regulator of FAK and MAP kinases expression. These results strongly support that Elk-1 protein is a novel binding-protein partner for FAK, a finding that significantly broadens the potential functioning of FAK and Elk-1.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2008;216;1;198-206

  • The LIM protein leupaxin is enriched in smooth muscle and functions as an serum response factor cofactor to induce smooth muscle cell gene transcription.

    Sundberg-Smith LJ, DiMichele LA, Sayers RL, Mack CP and Taylor JM

    Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7525, USA.

    Leupaxin is a LIM domain-containing adapter protein belonging to the paxillin family that has been previously reported to be preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells. Herein, we identified leupaxin in a screen for focal adhesion kinase binding partners in aortic smooth muscle, and we show that leupaxin is enriched in human and mouse vascular smooth muscle and that leupaxin expression is dynamically regulated during development. In addition, our studies reveal that leupaxin can undergo cytoplasmic/nuclear shuttling and functions as an serum response factor cofactor in the nucleus. We found that leupaxin forms a complex with serum response factor and associates with CArG-containing regions of smooth muscle promoters and that ectopic expression of leupaxin induces smooth muscle marker gene expression in both 10T1/2 cells and rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Subsequent studies indicated that enhanced focal adhesion kinase activity (induced by fibronectin or expression of constitutively active focal adhesion kinase) attenuates the nuclear accumulation of leupaxin and limits the ability of leupaxin to enhance serum response factor-dependent gene transcription. Thus, these studies indicate that modulation of the subcellular localization of serum response factor cofactors is 1 mechanism by which extracellular matrix-dependent signals may regulate phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-071054, HL-081844, HL070953, R01 HL070953, R01 HL070953-01, R01 HL071054, R01 HL071054-01A1, R01 HL081844, R01 HL081844-01

    Circulation research 2008;102;12;1502-11

  • Focal adhesion kinase expression in human neuroblastoma: immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analyses.

    Beierle EA, Massoll NA, Hartwich J, Kurenova EV, Golubovskaya VM, Cance WG, McGrady P and London WB

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, College of Medicine, PO Box 100286, J. Hillis Miller Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32610-0286, USA. beierea@surgery.ufl.edu

    Purpose: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase important in signaling between cells and their extracellular matrix. Studies have shown that FAK expression is up-regulated in several human tumors and is related to tumor progression. We recently found an increase in p125(FAK) expression in human neuroblastoma cells lines and wished to determine its expression in human neuroblastoma specimens and evaluate for a possible correlation between p125(FAK) expression and known prognostic factors for neuroblastoma. We hypothesized that p125(FAK) expression would be up-regulated in advanced human neuroblastomas.

    Using immunohistochemical techniques with monoclonal antibody 4.47 specific for p125(FAK) expression, we analyzed 70 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human neuroblastoma specimens for p125(FAK) staining. In addition, real-time PCR was used to determine the abundance of FAK mRNA in 17 matched human neuroblastoma mRNA specimens.

    Results: FAK staining was present in 51 of the 70 tumor specimens (73%). Immunohistochemical staining of p125(FAK) in the ganglion-type tumor cells correlated with advanced International Neuroblastoma Staging System tumor stages and FAK mRNA abundance. In addition, p125(FAK) staining was significantly increased in stage IV tumors with amplification of the N-MYC oncogene.

    Conclusions: These novel findings provide evidence that FAK is expressed by advanced-stage neuroblastoma and provide a rationale for targeting FAK in the treatment of this tumor.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K08CA118178

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2008;14;11;3299-305

  • FAK and IGF-IR interact to provide survival signals in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Liu W, Bloom DA, Cance WG, Kurenova EV, Golubovskaya VM and Hochwald SN

    Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. weinberg@wi.mit.edu

    Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease accounting for the fourth leading cause of cancer death in USA. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) are tyrosine kinases that activate common pathways, leading to increased proliferation and cell survival. Sparse information is available regarding their contribution to the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the relationship between FAK and IGF-1R in human pancreatic cancer cells, determined which downstream signaling pathways are altered following kinase inhibition or downregulation and studied whether dual kinase inhibition represents a potential novel treatment strategy in this deadly disease. Using immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, we show for the first time that FAK and IGF-1R physically interact in pancreatic cancer cells and that inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of either kinase disrupts their interaction. Decreasing phosphorylation of either FAK or IGF-1R alone resulted in little inhibition of cell viability or increased apoptosis. However, dual inhibition of FAK, using either a dominant-negative construct (FAK-CD) or small interfering RNA, and IGF-1R, using a specific small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AEW-541) or stable expression of a truncated, mutated IGF-1R, led to a synergistic decrease in cell proliferation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and increase in cell detachment and apoptosis compared with inhibition of either pathway alone. Dual kinase inhibition with FAK-CD and AEW-541 resulted in a marked increase in apoptosis when FAK was displaced from the focal adhesions. Inhibition of both tyrosine kinase activities via a novel single small molecular inhibitor (TAE 226), at low doses specific for FAK and IGF-1R, resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability, decrease in phosphorylation of ERK and Akt and increase in apoptosis accompanied by cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and activation of caspase-3 in pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, simultaneous inhibition of both tyrosine kinases represents a potential novel therapeutic approach in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA113766-02, K08 CA113766, K08 CA113766-01A2

    Carcinogenesis 2008;29;6;1096-107

  • Focal adhesion kinase versus p53: apoptosis or survival?

    Cance WG and Golubovskaya VM

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, School of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. cance@surgery.ufl.edu

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a tyrosine kinase that interacts with a multitude of signaling partners and helps cells to survive in the face of various proapoptotic signals. One of the most important interactions for FAK is with the tumor suppressor protein p53. p53 binds not only to the amino-terminal domain of FAK but also to the FAK promoter to inhibit its transcription. A study now reports the biological implications of the kinase-independent interaction of FAK with p53, which opens up future perspectives in cell signaling and cancer research. We focus on FAK and p53 signaling, which link signal transduction pathways from the extracellular matrix and cytoplasm to the nucleus, in human and mouse cells. FAK is proposed to be a critical scaffold protein that sequesters proapoptotic proteins, such as p53, to mediate cell survival.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA065910

    Science signaling 2008;1;20;pe22

  • Activation of KLF8 transcription by focal adhesion kinase in human ovarian epithelial and cancer cells.

    Wang X, Urvalek AM, Liu J and Zhao J

    Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA.

    KLF8 (Krüppel-like factor 8) is a transcription factor downstream of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) important in the regulation of the cell cycle and also plays a critical role in oncogenic transformation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Here we report the mechanisms by which FAK regulates KLF8 expression in human ovarian epithelial and cancer cells. We show that the overexpression of both KLF8 and FAK in the human ovarian cancer cells as compared with the normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells is critical for cell growth. Using promoter luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrate that exogenous FAK strongly promotes the activity of the KLF8 promoter, and knockdown of FAK inhibits it. KLF8 promoter activity and mRNA levels are induced by expression of constitutively active (CA) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or CA-Akt but are repressed by dominant negative Akt or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Disruption of an Sp1 binding site in the KLF8 promoter abolishes the FAK- or Sp1-mediated promoter activation. Sp1 knockdown prevents the KLF8 promoter from being activated by Sp1 or CA-Akt, and expression of CA-Akt enhances Sp1 expression in SKOV3ip1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and oligonucleotide precipitation results show that Sp1 binds to the KLF8 promoter. Taken together, our data suggest that FAK induces KLF8 expression in human ovarian cancer cells by activating the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, leading to the activation of KLF8 promoter by Sp1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA083639, R01 CA131183

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;20;13934-42

  • Caveolin-1 up-regulation during epithelial to mesenchymal transition is mediated by focal adhesion kinase.

    Bailey KM and Liu J

    Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

    Emerging evidence has shown that caveolin-1 is up-regulated in a number of metastatic cancers and can influence various aspects of cell migration. However, in general, the role of caveolin-1 in cancer progression is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined alterations in caveolin-1 expression during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the ability of caveolin-1 to alter cancer cell adhesion, an aspect of cell motility. We employed two EMT cell models, the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1, and TGF-beta1-treated NMuMG cells, which are derived from normal mouse mammary epithelia. Caveolin-1 expression was substantially up-regulated in both cell lines following the induction of EMT and was preceded by increased activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src, two known tyrosine kinases involved in EMT. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 expression could be influenced by increased FAK phosphorylation, to which Src is a known contributor. Examination of FAK+/+ and FAK-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed that in cells devoid of FAK, caveolin-1 expression is strikingly diminished. Using FAK and superFAK constructs and the novel FAK inhibitor PF-228, we were able to demonstrate that indeed, FAK can regulate caveolin-1 expression. We also found that Src can contribute to increases in caveolin-1 expression, however, only in the presence of FAK. From the culmination of this data and our functional analyses, we conclude that caveolin-1 expression can be up-regulated during EMT, and further, once expressed, caveolin-1 can greatly influence cancer cell adhesion.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR016440

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;20;13714-24

  • NG2, a novel proapoptotic receptor, opposes integrin alpha4 to mediate anoikis through PKCalpha-dependent suppression of FAK phosphorylation.

    Joo NE, Watanabe T, Chen C, Chekenya M, Stallcup WB and Kapila YL

    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA.

    Disruption of cell-matrix interactions can lead to anoikis - apoptosis due to loss of matrix contacts. Altered fibronectin (FN) induces anoikis of primary human fibroblasts by a novel signaling pathway characterized by reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). However, the receptors involved are unknown. FAK phosphorylation is regulated by nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) receptor signaling through PKCalpha a point at which signals from integrins and proteoglycans may converge. We found that an altered FN matrix induced anoikis in fibroblasts by upregulating NG2 and downregulating integrin alpha4. Suppressing NG2 expression or overexpressing alpha4 rescued cells from anoikis. NG2 overexpression alone induced apoptosis and, by reducing FAK phosphorylation, increased anoikis induced by an altered matrix. NG2 overexpression or an altered matrix also suppressed PKCalpha expression, but overexpressing integrin alpha4 enhanced FAK phosphorylation independently of PKCalpha. Cotransfection with NG2 cDNA and integrin alpha4 siRNA did not lower PKCalpha and pFAK levels more than transfection with either alone. PKCalpha was upstream of FAK phosphorylation, as silencing PKCalpha decreased FAK phosphorylation. PKCalpha overexpression reversed this behavior and rescued cells from anoikis. Thus, NG2 is a novel proapoptotic receptor, and NG2 and integrin alpha4 oppositely regulate anoikis in fibroblasts. NG2 and integrin alpha4 regulate FAK phosphorylation by PKCalpha-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA095287, R01-CA95287; NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE013725, R01-DE13725

    Cell death and differentiation 2008;15;5;899-907

  • p53 regulates FAK expression in human tumor cells.

    Golubovskaya VM, Finch R, Kweh F, Massoll NA, Campbell-Thompson M, Wallace MR and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

    Attenuation of the p53 protein is one of the most common abnormalities in human tumors. Another important marker of tumorigenesis is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a 125-kDa tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in a variety of human tumors. FAK is a critical regulator of adhesion, motility, metastasis, and survival signaling. We have characterized the FAK promoter and demonstrated that p53 can inhibit the FAK promoter activity in vitro. In the present study, we showed that p53 can bind the FAK promoter-chromatin region in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Furthermore, we demonstrated down-regulation of FAK mRNA and protein levels by adenoviral overexpression of p53. We introduced plasmids with different mutations in the DNA-binding domain of p53 (R175H, p53 R248W and R273H) into HCTp53(-/-) cells and showed that these mutations of p53 did not bind FAK promoter and did not inhibit FAK promoter activity, unlike wild type p53. We analyzed primary breast and colon cancers for p53 mutations and FAK expression, and showed that FAK expression was increased in tumors containing mutations of p53 compared to tumors with wild type p53. In addition, tumor-derived missense mutations in the DNA-binding domain (R282, R249, and V173) also led to increased FAK promoter activity. Thus, the present data show that p53 can regulate FAK expression during tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910, R01 CA065910

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2008;47;5;373-82

  • C-FLIP promotes the motility of cancer cells by activating FAK and ERK, and increasing MMP-9 expression.

    Park D, Shim E, Kim Y, Kim YM, Lee H, Choe J, Kang D, Lee YS and Jeoung D

    School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Korea.

    We examined the role of c-FLIP in the motility of HeLa cells. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against c-FLIP inhibited the adhesion and motility of the cells without affecting their growth rate. The long form of c-FLIP (c-FLIPL), but not the short form (c-FLIPS), enhanced adhesion and motility. Downregulation of c-FLIPL with siRNA decreased phosphorylation of FAK and ERK, while overexpression of c-FLIPL increased their phosphorylation. Overexpression of FAK activated ERK, and enhanced the motility of HeLa cells. FRNK, an inhibitory fragment of FAK, inhibited ERK and decreased motility. Inhibition of ERK also significantly suppressed c-FLIPL-promoted motility. Inhibition of ROCK by Y27632 suppressed the c-FLIPL-promoted motility by reducing phosphorylation of FAK and ERK. Overexpression of c-FLIPL increased the expression and secretion of MMP-9, and inhibition of MMP-9 by Ilomastat reduced c-FLIPL- promoted cell motility. A caspase-like domain (amino acids 222-376) was found to be necessary for the c-FLIPL-promoted cell motility. We conclude that c-FLIPL promotes the motility of HeLa cells by activating FAK and ERK, and increasing MMP-9 expression.

    Molecules and cells 2008;25;2;184-95

  • Protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPD1 regulates focal adhesion kinase autophosphorylation and cell migration.

    Carlucci A, Gedressi C, Lignitto L, Nezi L, Villa-Moruzzi E, Avvedimento EV, Gottesman M, Garbi C and Feliciello A

    Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Molecolare e Cellulare, Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale, CNR, Facoltà di Medicina, Università Federico II, via s. Pansini, 5 80131 Napoli, Italy.

    PTPD1 is a cytosolic nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase and a positive regulator of the Src-epidermal growth factor transduction pathway. We show that PTPD1 localizes along actin filaments and at adhesion plaques. PTPD1 forms a stable complex via distinct molecular modules with actin, Src tyrosine kinase, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a scaffold protein kinase enriched at adhesion plaques. Overexpression of PTPD1 promoted cell scattering and migration, short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous PTPD1, or expression of PTPD1 mutants lacking either catalytic activity (PTPD1(C1108S)) or the FERM domain (PTPD1(Delta1-325)) significantly reduced cell motility. PTPD1 and Src catalytic activities were both required for epidermal growth factor-induced FAK autophosphorylation at its active site and for downstream propagation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our findings demonstrate that PTPD1 is a component of a multivalent scaffold complex nucleated by FAK at specific intracellular sites. By modulating Src-FAK signaling at adhesion sites, PTPD1 promotes the cytoskeleton events that induce cell adhesion and migration.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;16;10919-29

  • Involvement of focal adhesion kinase in cellular invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas via regulation of MMP-2 expression.

    Canel M, Secades P, Garzón-Arango M, Allonca E, Suarez C, Serrels A, Frame M, Brunton V and Chiara MD

    Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Asturias, Spain.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is considered intimately involved in cancer progression. Our previous research has demonstrated that overexpression of FAK is an early and frequent event in squamous cell carcinomas of the supraglottic larynx, and it is associated with the presence of metastases in cervical lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional role of FAK in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To this end, expression of FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against FAK was used to disrupt the FAK-induced signal transduction pathways in the HNSCC-derived SCC40 and SCC38 cell lines. Similar phenotypic effects were observed with the two methodological approaches in both cell lines. Decreased cell attachment, motility and invasion were induced by FRNK and FAK siRNA, whereas cell proliferation was not impaired. In addition, increased cell invasion was observed upon FAK overexpression in SCC cells. FRNK expression resulted in a downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Interestingly, MMP-2 overexpression in FRNK-expressing cells rescued FRNK inhibition of cell invasion. This is the first demonstration of a direct rescue of impaired cell invasion by the re-expression of MMP-2 in a tumour cell type with decreased expression of functional FAK. Collectively, these data reported here support the conclusion that FAK enhances invasion of HNSCC by promoting both increased cell motility and MMP-2 production, thus providing new insights into possible therapeutic intervention strategies.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK

    British journal of cancer 2008;98;7;1274-84

  • The 7-amino-acid site in the proline-rich region of the N-terminal domain of p53 is involved in the interaction with FAK and is critical for p53 functioning.

    Golubovskaya VM, Finch R, Zheng M, Kurenova EV and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. golubvi@surgery.ufl.edu

    It is known that p53 alterations are commonly found in tumour cells. Another marker of tumorigenesis is FAK (focal adhesion kinase), a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumours. Previously we determined that the N-terminal domain of FAK physically interacted with the N-terminal domain of p53. In the present study, using phage display, sitedirected mutagenesis, pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays we localized the site of FAK binding to a 7-amino-acid region(amino acids 65-71) in the N-terminal proline-rich domain of human p53. Mutation of the binding site in p53 reversed the suppressive effect of FAK on p53-mediated transactivation ofp21, BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein) and Mdm2 (murine double minute 2) promoters. In addition, to functionally test this p53 site, we conjugated p53 peptides [wild-type (containing the wild-type binding site) and mutant (with a mutated 7-aminoacid binding site)] to a TAT peptide sequence to penetrate the cells, and demonstrated that the wild-type p53 peptide disrupted binding of FAK and p53 proteins and significantly inhibited cell viability of HCT116 p53+/+ cells compared with the control mutant peptide and HCT116 p53-/- cells. Furthermore, the TAT-p53 peptide decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells, whereas the mutant peptide did not cause this effect. Normal fibroblast p53+/+ and p53-/- MEF (murine embryonic fibroblast) cells and breast MCF10A cells were not sensitive to p53 peptide. Thus, for the first time, we have identified the binding site of the p53 andFAK interaction and have demonstrated that mutating this site and targeting the site with peptides affects p53 functioning and viability in the cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 65910

    The Biochemical journal 2008;411;1;151-60

  • A novel Cas family member, HEPL, regulates FAK and cell spreading.

    Singh MK, Dadke D, Nicolas E, Serebriiskii IG, Apostolou S, Canutescu A, Egleston BL and Golemis EA

    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.

    For over a decade, p130Cas/BCAR1, HEF1/NEDD9/Cas-L, and Efs/Sin have defined the Cas (Crk-associated substrate) scaffolding protein family. Cas proteins mediate integrin-dependent signals at focal adhesions, regulating cell invasion and survival; at least one family member, HEF1, regulates mitosis. We here report a previously undescribed novel branch of the Cas protein family, designated HEPL (for HEF1-Efs-p130Cas-like). The HEPL branch is evolutionarily conserved through jawed vertebrates, and HEPL is found in some species lacking other members of the Cas family. The human HEPL mRNA and protein are selectively expressed in specific primary tissues and cancer cell lines, and HEPL maintains Cas family function in localization to focal adhesions, as well as regulation of FAK activity, focal adhesion integrity, and cell spreading. It has recently been demonstrated that upregulation of HEF1 expression marks and induces metastasis, whereas high endogenous levels of p130Cas are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, emphasizing the clinical relevance of Cas proteins. Better understanding of the complete protein family should help inform prediction of cancer incidence and prognosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-06927, CA113342, P30 CA006927, R01 CA063366, R01 CA113342, R01S CA63366

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;4;1627-36

  • B1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling in intestinal epithelial crypt cell survival: integration of complex regulatory mechanisms.

    Bouchard V, Harnois C, Demers MJ, Thibodeau S, Laquerre V, Gauthier R, Vézina A, Noël D, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Arguin M and Vachon PH

    Département d'Anatomie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

    The molecular determinants which dictate survival and apoptosis/anoikis in human intestinal crypt cells remain to be fully understood. To this effect, the roles of beta1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling to the PI3-K/Akt-1, MEK/Erk, and p38 pathways, were investigated. The regulation of six Bcl-2 homologs (Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-X(L), Bax, Bak, Bad) was likewise analyzed. We report that: (1) Anoikis causes a down-activation of Fak, Src, Akt-1 and Erk1/2, a loss of Fak-Src association, and a sustained/enhanced activation of p38beta, which is required as apoptosis/anoikis driver; (2) PI3-K/Akt-1 up-regulates the expression of Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1, down-regulates Bax and Bak, drives Bad phosphorylation (both serine112/136 residues) and antagonizes p38beta activation; (3) MEK/Erk up-regulates Bcl-2, drives Bad phosphorylation (serine112 residue), but does not antagonize p38bactivation; (4) PI3-K/Akt-1 is required for survival, whereas MEK/Erk is not; (5) Src acts as a cornerstone in the engagement of both pathways by beta1 integrins/Fak, and is crucial for survival; and (6) beta1 integrins/Fak and/or Src regulate Bcl-2 homologs as both PI3-K/Atk-1 and MEK/Erk combined. Hence, beta1 integrin/Fak/Src signaling translates into integrated mediating functions of p38beta activation and regulation of Bcl-2 homologs by PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk, consequently determining their requirement (or not) for survival.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2008;13;4;531-42

  • Concordant overexpression of p-FAK and p-ERK1/2 in extramammary Paget's disease.

    Chen SY, Moroi Y, Urabe K, Takeuchi S, Kido M, Hayashida S, Uchi H, Uenotsuchi T, Tu YT and Furue M

    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashiku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a tyrosine kinase which is at the crossroad of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), PI3K/Akt, MAPK and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. We have previously reported that p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p38MAPK and p-STAT3 are overexpressed in extramammary Paget's diseases (EMPD), this study aimed to examine the expression of phosphorylated (p)-FAK and p-ERK1/2 proteins in EMPD and to evaluate the relationships among them. Paraffin-embedded EMPD specimens (35 tissue samples from 33 patients with primary EMPD, including two samples of metastatic lymph nodes from two of the 33 patients) were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for p-FAK and p-ERK1/2. All of the 35 EMPD specimens, including all of six invasive EMPD and two metastatic lymph node specimens, showed cytoplasmic overexpression of p-FAK and nuclear overexpression of p-ERK1/2. The expression levels (% positive cells) of p-FAK and p-ERK1/2 (88.34 +/- 14.66 and 91.26 +/- 11.21%) in EMPD were significantly higher than those in normal skin (22.38 +/- 2.13 and 29.00 +/- 4.44%), respectively. The expression levels of p-FAK (95.38 +/- 4.57%) and p-ERK1/2 (96.25 +/- 5.01%) in the advanced EMPD showed slightly higher than that in the non-invasive EMPD (86.26 +/- 15.99 and 89.78 +/- 12.15%), respectively. There exhibited a significantly high positive correlation between expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-FAK in EMPD. The present study shows that the concordant overexpression of p-FAK and p-ERK1/2 in EMPD which is associated with the grade of malignancy of EMPD, indicating that p-FAK and p-ERK1/2 may play pivotal roles in the tumorigenesis and further malignant transduction of EMPD.

    Archives of dermatological research 2008;300;4;195-201

  • Src kinase regulates metalloproteinase-9 secretion induced by type IV collagen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Cortes-Reynosa P, Robledo T, Macias-Silva M, Wu SV and Salazar EP

    Departamento de Biologia Celular. Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, DF. 07360, Mexico.

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that collectively are capable to degrading all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and they have been implicated in several aspects of tumor progression, such as invasion through basement membrane (BM) and insterstitial matrices, angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been associated with the ability of tumor cells to metastasize due to their capacity to degrade type IV collagen (Col-IV), the main component of BM, and to their elevated expression in malignant tumors. However, nothing is known about the regulation of MMP-9 secretion and expression in breast cancer cells stimulated with Col-IV. Our results demonstrate that stimulation of MCF-7 cells with Col-IV promoted the secretion of MMP-9, as revealed by gelatin zymography and Western blotting using specific antibodies that recognized MMP-9. In addition, inhibition of Src and FAK kinase activity prevented MMP-9 secretion. In contrast, MMP-9 expression was not up-regulated by treatment with Col-IV. These results demonstrate that Col-IV regulates the secretion of MMP-9 via a Src and FAK dependent pathway in MCF-7 cells.

    Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 2008;27;3;220-31

  • Tac-beta1 inhibits FAK activation and Src signaling.

    Berrier AL, Jones CW and LaFlamme SE

    Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical Center, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    The binding of integrins to extracellular matrix triggers signals that promote cell spreading. We previously demonstrated that expression of the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain in the context of a chimeric transmembrane receptor with the Tac subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (Tac-beta1) inhibits cell spreading. To study the mechanism whereby Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, we examined the effect of Tac-beta1 on early signaling events following integrin engagement namely FAK and Src signaling. We infected primary fibroblasts with adenoviruses expressing Tac or Tac-beta1 and found that Tac-beta1 prevented FAK activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397. In contrast, Src activation was maintained, as phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-419 and Tyr-530 were not responsive to expression of Tac-beta1. Importantly, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src substrates p130Cas and paxillin was inhibited, indicating that Src signaling was blocked by Tac-beta1. These Src-dependent signaling events were found to require FAK signaling. Our results suggest that Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, at least in part, by preventing the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 and the assembly of signaling complexes necessary for phosphorylation of p130Cas and other downstream effectors.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: NIH0012988006; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51540, R01 GM051540, R01 GM051540-12; PHS HHS: NIH0012988006

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;368;1;62-7

  • Etk/BMX, a Btk family tyrosine kinase, and Mal contribute to the cross-talk between MyD88 and FAK pathways.

    Semaan N, Alsaleh G, Gottenberg JE, Wachsmann D and Sibilia J

    Laboratoire Physiopathologie des Arthrites, Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Unité de Formation et de Recherche Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Illkirch, France.

    MyD88 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are key adaptors involved in signaling downstream of TLR2, TLR4, and integrin alpha5beta1, linking pathogen-associated molecule detection to the initiation of proinflammatory response. The MyD88 and integrin pathways are interlinked, but the mechanism of this cross-talk is not yet understood. In this study we addressed the involvement of Etk, which belongs to the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, in the cross-talk between the integrin/FAK and the MyD88 pathways in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and in IL-6 synthesis. Using small interfering RNA blockade, we report that Etk plays a major role in LPS- and protein I/II (a model activator of FAK)-dependent IL-6 release by activated FLS. Etk is associated with MyD88, FAK, and Mal as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Interestingly, knockdown of Mal appreciably inhibited IL-6 synthesis in response to LPS and protein I/II. Our results also indicate that LPS and protein I/II induced phosphorylation of Etk and Mal in rheumatoid arthritis FLS via a FAK-dependent pathway. In conclusion, our data provide support that, in FLS, Etk and Mal are implicated in the cross-talk between FAK and MyD88 and that their being brought into play is clearly dependent on FAK.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;180;5;3485-91

  • The atypical Rho GTPase Wrch1 collaborates with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Ruusala A and Aspenström P

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

    The Cdc42-like GTPase Wnt responsive Cdc42 homolog 1 (Wrch1) has several atypical features; it has an N-terminal proline-rich extension that confers binding to SH3 domains, and it harbors an extremely high intrinsic nucleotide exchange activity, which overrides the normal GTPase activity. As a result, Wrch1 resides mainly in the active, GTP-loaded conformation under normal cellular conditions. We have previously shown that ectopic expression of Wrch1 in fibroblasts resulted in an altered cell morphology visible as a formation of filopodia, a loss of stress fibers, and a reduction in focal adhesions. Here, we show that Wrch1 binds to the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2. The interaction required Wrch1 to be in a GTP conformation and also required an intact N-terminal proline-rich extension as well as an intact effector loop. Wrch1 requires Pyk2 in imposing the cytoskeletal effects, seen as the formation of filopodia, since treatment of cells with a Pyk2-specific small interfering RNA abrogated this response. Interestingly, we found that the presence and activity of Src were needed for the formation of a Wrch1-Pyk2 complex as well as for the Wrch1-induced formation of filopodia. We propose a model in which Pyk2 and Src function to coordinate the Wrch1-dependent effects on cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;5;1802-14

  • FAK-mediated activation of ERK for eosinophil migration: a novel mechanism for infection-induced allergic inflammation.

    Cheung PF, Wong CK, Ip WK and Lam CW

    Department of Chemical Pathology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.

    Bacterial and viral infections often induce the exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, we investigated the activation of human eosinophils by different microbial products via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The underlying intracellular mechanism involving activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an integrin-associated focal adhesion molecule, was also examined. Seven TLR ligands were studied for their abilities in promoting survival, modulating the expression of adhesion molecules and facilitating chemotactic migration of eosinophils. While peptidoglycan (PGN) (TLR2 ligand) showed the most prominent effects, flagellin (TLR5 ligand) and imiquimod R837 (TLR7 ligand) were also effective in activating eosinophils. However, little or no effect was observed for double-stranded polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3 ligand), ultra-purified LPS (TLR4 ligand), single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) (TLR8 ligand) and CpG-DNA (TLR9 ligand). Further investigation confirmed that PGN, flagellin and R837 commonly transmitted signals through ERK activation that required prior phosphorylation of tyrosine 925, but not tyrosine 577, on FAK. Moreover, the inhibition of ERK activation by selective inhibitor PD98059 and FAK expression by FAK-specific RNA interference could significantly abolish the stimulatory effects induced by PGN, flagellin and R837. Taken together, our findings indicate the involvement of FAK-dependent activation of ERK1 in TLR-mediated eosinophil stimulation. A potential role of eosinophils was also suggested in exacerbating allergic inflammation in response to microbial infections.

    International immunology 2008;20;3;353-63

  • Focal adhesion kinase as well as p130Cas and paxillin is crucially involved in the enhanced malignant properties under expression of ganglioside GD3 in melanoma cells.

    Hamamura K, Tsuji M, Ohkawa Y, Nakashima H, Miyazaki S, Urano T, Yamamoto N, Ueda M, Furukawa K and Furukawa K

    Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065, Japan.

    Mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitates from serum-treated GD3-expressing melanoma cells with PY20 (anti-phosphotyrosine antibody) revealed that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is more strongly activated in GD3-expressing cells than in GD3-negative cells. Involvement of FAK in the increased proliferation and invasion in GD3-expressing melanomas was demonstrated by siRNA-mediated knockdown. Also, it was shown that FAK is located up-stream of p130Cas and paxillin in the enhanced signaling pathway. GD3 expression enhanced the association of 1f40 FAK with p130Cas after treatment with fetal calf serum. Thus, focal adhesion kinase as well as p130Cas and paxillin should be a crucial molecule undergoing stronger tyrosine phosphorylation in GD3-expressing melanoma cells. Molecules linking GD3 and FAK such as integrins in the enhanced signaling pathway remain to be investigated.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2008;1780;3;513-9

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Distinct FAK-Src activation events promote alpha5beta1 and alpha4beta1 integrin-stimulated neuroblastoma cell motility.

    Wu L, Bernard-Trifilo JA, Lim Y, Lim ST, Mitra SK, Uryu S, Chen M, Pallen CJ, Cheung NK, Mikolon D, Mielgo A, Stupack DG and Schlaepfer DD

    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

    Signals from fibronectin-binding integrins promote neural crest cell motility during development in part through protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. Neuroblastoma (NB) is a neural crest malignancy with high metastatic potential. We find that alpha4 and alpha5 integrins are present in late-stage NB tumors and cell lines derived thereof. To determine the signaling connections promoting either alpha4beta1- or alpha5beta1-initiated NB cell motility, pharmacological, dominant negative and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibitory approaches were undertaken. shRNA knockdown revealed that alpha5beta1-stimulated NB motility is dependent upon focal adhesion kinase (FAK) PTK, Src PTK and p130Cas adapter protein expression. Cell reconstitution showed that FAK catalytic activity is required for alpha5beta1-stimulated Src activation in part through direct FAK phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-418. Alternatively, alpha4beta1-stimulated NB cell motility is dependent upon Src and p130Cas but FAK is not essential. Catalytically inactive receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha overexpression inhibited alpha4beta1-stimulated NB motility and Src activation consistent with alpha4-regulated Src activity occurring through Src Tyr-529 dephosphorylation. In alpha4 shRNA-expressing NB cells, alpha4beta1-stimulated Src activation and NB cell motility were rescued by wild type but not cytoplasmic domain-truncated alpha4 re-expression. These studies, supported by results using reconstituted fibroblasts, reveal that alpha4beta1-mediated Src activation is mechanistically distinct from FAK-mediated Src activation during alpha5beta1-mediated NB migration and support the evaluation of inhibitors to alpha4, Src and FAK in the control of NB tumor progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA102310, CA106450, CA107263, CA75240, CA87038, P01 CA106450, R01 CA075240, R01 CA075240-11, R01 CA087038, R01 CA087038-05, R01 CA102310, R01 CA102310-06, R01 CA107263, R29 CA075240

    Oncogene 2008;27;10;1439-48

  • Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase promotes extravasation of breast cancer cells.

    Earley S and Plopper GE

    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) delays transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells. Here we investigate whether phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues of FAK (397, 861, and 925) known to control aspects of cell migration on extracellular matrix (ECM), are also involved in transendothelial migration. AU-565 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing Phe397 FAK show delayed or decreased transendothelial migration, demonstrating the involvement of the FAK autophosphorylation site. Only MDA-MB-231 cells expressing Phe861 FAK exhibit delayed transendothelial migration. Neither MDA-MB-231 nor AU-565 cells expressing Phe925 FAK show a change in transendothelial migration compared to untreated cancer cells. These findings suggest that modified signaling mechanisms regulate cancer cell migration through an endothelial monolayer versus those involved in cell migration on or through ECM.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;366;2;476-82

  • Structural basis for the interaction between focal adhesion kinase and CD4.

    Garron ML, Arthos J, Guichou JF, McNally J, Cicala C and Arold ST

    INSERM, UMR554, 34090 Montpellier, France.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and CD4 fulfil vital functions in cellular signal transduction: FAK is a central component in integrin signalling, whereas CD4 plays essential roles in the immune defence. In T lymphocytes, FAK and CD4 localise to the same signalling complexes after stimulation by either the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 glycoprotein or an antigen, suggesting the concerted action of FAK and CD4 in these cells. Using crystallography and microcalorimetry, we here show that the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain of FAK binds specifically to the CD4 endocytosis motif in vitro. This FAT-CD4 complex is structurally and thermodynamically similar to the one FAT forms with paxillin LD motifs. The CD4 binding site on FAT presents the same features as the established CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 Nef protein. The binding of FAT to CD4 is incompatible with the binding of Lck to CD4. We further show that HIV-1 gp120 triggers the association of CD4 with FAK in T cells, under conditions that are known to dissociate Lck from CD4. Our results suggest that the FAK-CD4 complex represents an alternative route for eliciting T-cell-specific signals and that it links gp120 engagement to distinctive T-cell signalling during HIV infection. In infected cells, HIV-1 Nef may displace FAK from CD4 to protect the cells from apoptosis.

    Journal of molecular biology 2008;375;5;1320-8

  • Nuclear FAK promotes cell proliferation and survival through FERM-enhanced p53 degradation.

    Lim ST, Chen XL, Lim Y, Hanson DA, Vo TT, Howerton K, Larocque N, Fisher SJ, Schlaepfer DD and Ilic D

    Department of Reproductive Medicine, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, MC0803, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    FAK is known as an integrin- and growth factor-associated tyrosine kinase promoting cell motility. Here we show that, during mouse development, FAK inactivation results in p53- and p21-dependent mesodermal cell growth arrest. Reconstitution of primary FAK-/-p21-/- fibroblasts revealed that FAK, in a kinase-independent manner, facilitates p53 turnover via enhanced Mdm2-dependent p53 ubiquitination. p53 inactivation by FAK required FAK FERM F1 lobe binding to p53, FERM F2 lobe-mediated nuclear localization, and FERM F3 lobe for connections to Mdm2 and proteasomal degradation. Staurosporine or loss of cell adhesion enhanced FERM-dependent FAK nuclear accumulation. In primary human cells, FAK knockdown raised p53-p21 levels and slowed cell proliferation but did not cause apoptosis. Notably, FAK knockdown plus cisplatin triggered p53-dependent cell apoptosis, which was rescued by either full-length FAK or FAK FERM re-expression. These studies define a scaffolding role for nuclear FAK in facilitating cell survival through enhanced p53 degradation under conditions of cellular stress.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA102310, CA75240, CA87038, CA87652, K01 CA087652, R01 CA075240, R01 CA075240-11, R01 CA087038, R01 CA087038-05, R01 CA102310, R01 CA102310-05, R29 CA075240; NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR016490, C06RR16490

    Molecular cell 2008;29;1;9-22

  • Cleavage of focal adhesion kinase is an early marker and modulator of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    Mian MF, Kang C, Lee S, Choi JH, Bae SS, Kim SH, Kim YH, Ryu SH, Suh PG, Kim JS and Kim E

    Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, South Korea.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a signaling molecule associated with cell survival. Previously, we showed that thimerosal, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator, can acutely induce FAK tyrosine phosphorylation (within minutes) and chronically induce apoptosis (within days) by redox modulation in HeLa S cells. In the present study, we report that a prolonged oxidative stress by thimerosal induces a remarkable cleavage of FAK, which is accompanied with apoptosis. In fact, the kinetics of FAK cleavage has a good correlation with and actually preceding the apoptosis that was independent of anoikis. The effects were almost completely blocked by the pretreatment with either N-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) or Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor), suggesting ROS-induced caspase activation as a key mechanism. They could be also reproduced by hydrogen peroxide alone, which appeared to be responsible for thimerosal-mediated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the down regulation of FAK with antisense oligonucleotide dramatically augmented thimerosal-induced apoptosis. We could observe similar results using human corneal epithelial cells. Taken together, our results show that FAK is a critical cellular target of caspases during oxidative stress (particularly by hydrogen peroxide), resulting in the acceleration of subsequent apoptosis regardless of the anchorage status of cells. From the present results, it is more likely that not cell detachment but the proteolytic cleavage (or inhibition) of FAK is a key modulator as well as a promising indicator of apoptosis in epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    Chemico-biological interactions 2008;171;1;57-66

  • Focal adhesion kinase mediates defects in the force-dependent reinforcement of initial integrin-cytoskeleton linkages in metastatic colon cancer cell lines.

    von Wichert G, Krndija D, Schmid H, von Wichert G, Haerter G, Adler G, Seufferlein T and Sheetz MP

    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Ulm, Robert Koch Strasse 8, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. goetz.wichert@uniklinik-ulm.de

    Micro-environmental clues, including the biophysical interpretation of the extracellular matrix, are critical to proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Here, we show that metastatic human colon cancer cell lines display altered matrix interaction. Interaction of colon cancer cells with collagen I depends on integrins (mainly alpha(1)/beta(1)) but metastatic cells display delayed spreading and reduced extension of lamellipodia. In addition, cells show defective strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages upon mechanical stimulation, as determined by laser trapping experiments and binding of large beads to the cell surface. However, adhesion to pliable surfaces is ameliorated in metastatic variants. These changes are caused by constitutive activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and can be modulated by changing expression and/or activity of FAK via RNA-interference or expression of inhibitory constructs, respectively. In addition, consistent with defective strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages, metastatic cell lines show reduced random motility. Taken together these data suggest that constitutive activation of FAK causes defects in spreading, reinforcement of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages and migration and at the same time could ameliorate the adhesion of metastatic cells to suboptimal surfaces.

    European journal of cell biology 2008;87;1;1-16

  • Spatial and temporal regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity in living cells.

    Cai X, Lietha D, Ceccarelli DF, Karginov AV, Rajfur Z, Jacobson K, Hahn KM, Eck MJ and Schaller MD

    Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, 534 Taylor Hall, CB 7090, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential kinase that regulates developmental processes and functions in the pathology of human disease. An intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction between the FERM and catalytic domains is a major mechanism of regulation. Based upon structural studies, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based FAK biosensor that discriminates between autoinhibited and active conformations of the kinase was developed. This biosensor was used to probe FAK conformational change in live cells and the mechanism of regulation. The biosensor demonstrates directly that FAK undergoes conformational change in vivo in response to activating stimuli. A conserved FERM domain basic patch is required for this conformational change and for interaction with a novel ligand for FAK, acidic phospholipids. Binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-containing phospholipid vesicles activated and induced conformational change in FAK in vitro, and alteration of PIP2 levels in vivo changed the level of activation of the conformational biosensor. These findings provide direct evidence of conformational regulation of FAK in living cells and novel insight into the mechanism regulating FAK conformation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45100, P01 HL045100; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM0064346, U54 GM064346

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;1;201-14

  • FAK expression regulation and therapeutic potential.

    Li S and Hua ZC

    State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that localizes to cellular focal adhesions or cell contacts within the extracellular matrix. FAK is activated by a variety of cell surface receptors and transmits signals to a range of targets. FAK participates in growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathways and plays essential roles in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion. In the present chapter, the mechanisms of FAK activation, the modulation of FAK function by phosphorylation, and the mechanisms regulating FAK expression are reviewed. Overexpression of FAK is widely observed in numerous tumor types, and is used as a marker for invasion and metastasis. FAK could be therapeutically targeted at various levels, such as at the level of FAK gene transcription by regulating its transcription factor(s) with siRNA, at the FAK mRNA level with FAK siRNA, or at the protein level. At the protein level, FAK's localization to focal adhesions could be disrupted by expression of dominant-negative FAK-Related Non-Kinase or its focal adhesion targeting domain, and its kinase activity could be inhibited by FIP200, the FAK kinase domain-interacting protein and kinase-activity inhibitor. In recent years, small molecule inhibitors against FAK transcription and activation have been discovered, and these will provide additional approaches for potential tumor therapies.

    Advances in cancer research 2008;101;45-61

  • MAP-kinase activity necessary for TGFbeta1-stimulated mesangial cell type I collagen expression requires adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397.

    Hayashida T, Wu MH, Pierce A, Poncelet AC, Varga J and Schnaper HW

    Division of Kidney Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, The Freinberg School Of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. hayashida@northwestern.edu

    The signals mediating transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated kidney fibrogenesis are poorly understood. We previously reported TGFbeta-stimulated, Smad-mediated collagen production by human kidney mesangial cells, and that ERK MAP kinase activity optimizes collagen expression and enhances phosphorylation of the Smad3 linker region. Furthermore, we showed that disrupting cytoskeletal integrity decreases type I collagen production. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, PTK2) activity could integrate these findings. Adhesion-dependent FAK Y397 phosphorylation was detected basally, whereas FAK Y925 phosphorylation was TGFbeta1-dependent. By immunocytochemistry, TGFbeta1 stimulated the merging of phosphorylated FAK with the ends of thickening stress fibers. Cells cultured on poly-L-lysine (pLL) to promote integrin-independent attachment spread less than those on control substrate and failed to demonstrate focal adhesion (FA) engagement with F-actin. FAK Y397 phosphorylation and ERK activity were also decreased under these conditions. In cells with decreased FAK Y397 phosphorylation from either plating on pLL or overexpressing a FAK Y397F point mutant, serine phosphorylation of the Smad linker region, but not of the C-terminus, was reduced. Y397F and Y925F FAK point mutants inhibited TGFbeta-induced Elk-Gal activity, but only the Y397F mutant inhibited TGFbeta-stimulated collagen-promoter activity. The inhibition by the Y397F mutant or by culture on pLL was prevented by co-transfection of constitutively active ERK MAP kinase kinase (MEK), suggesting that FAK Y397 phosphorylation promotes collagen expression via ERK MAP kinase activity. Finally, Y397 FAK phosphorylation, and both C-terminal and linker-region Smad3 phosphorylation were detected in murine TGFbeta-dependent kidney fibrosis. Together, these data demonstrate adhesion-dependent FAK phosphorylation promoting TGFbeta-induced responses to regulate collagen production.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR42309; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK64074, R01 DK049362, R01 DK49362, R21 DK68637, R56 DK049362

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 23;4230-40

  • An altered fibronectin matrix induces anoikis of human squamous cell carcinoma cells by suppressing integrin alpha v levels and phosphorylation of FAK and ERK.

    Kamarajan P and Kapila YL

    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, 1011 N. University Ave, Room 5223, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA.

    Fibronectin regulates many cellular processes, including migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Previously, we showed that squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell aggregates escape suspension-induced, p53-mediated anoikis by engaging in fibronectin-mediated survival signals through focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we report that an altered matrix, consisting of a mutated, nonfunctional high-affinity heparin-binding domain and the V region of fibronectin (V+H-), induced anoikis in human SCC cells; this response was blocked by inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Anoikis was mediated by downregulation of integrin alpha v in a panel of SCC cells and was shown to be proteasome-dependent. Overexpression of integrin alpha v or FAK inhibited the increase in caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, whereas suppression of alpha v or FAK triggered a further significant increase in apoptosis, indicating that the apoptosis was mediated by suppression of integrin alpha v levels and dephosphorylation of FAK. Treatment with V+H- decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, and direct activation of ERK by constitutively active MEK1, an ERK kinase, increased ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation and inhibited the increase in apoptosis induced by V+H-. ERK acted downstream from alpha v and FAK signals, since alpha v and FAK overexpression inhibited both the decrease in ERK phosphorylation and the increase in anoikis triggered by V+H-. These findings provide evidence that mutations in the high-affinity heparin-binding domain in association with the V region of fibronectin, or altered fibronectin matrices, induce anoikis in human SCC cells by modulating integrin alpha v-mediated phosphorylation of FAK and ERK.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE014429

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2007;12;12;2221-31

  • Role of c-Abl in directing metabolic versus mitogenic effects in insulin receptor signaling.

    Frasca F, Pandini G, Malaguarnera R, Mandarino A, Messina RL, Sciacca L, Belfiore A and Vigneri R

    Endocrinologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e di Medicina Specialistica, Università di Catania, Ospedale Garibaldi, Nesima, 95122 Catania, Italy. f.frasca@unict.it

    c-Abl is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase involved in several signal transduction pathways. Here we report that c-Abl is involved also in insulin receptor signaling. Indeed, c-Abl tyrosine kinase is activated upon insulin stimulation. Inhibition of c-Abl tyrosine kinase by STI571 attenuates the effect of insulin on Akt/GSK-3beta phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis, and at the same time, it enhances the effect of insulin on ERK activation, cell proliferation, and migration. This effect of STI571 is specific to c-Abl inhibition, because it does not occur in Abl-null cells and is restored in c-Abl-reconstituted cells. Numerous evidences suggest that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in mediating this c-Abl effect. First, anti-phosphotyrosine blots indicate that c-Abl tyrosine kinase activation is concomitant with FAK dephosphorylation in response to insulin, whereas c-Abl inhibition is accompanied by FAK phosphorylation in response to insulin, a response similar to that observed with IGF-I. Second, the c-Abl effects on insulin signaling are not observed in cells devoid of FAK (FAK(-/-) cells). Taken together these results suggest that c-Abl activation by insulin, via a modification of FAK response, may play an important role in directing mitogenic versus metabolic insulin receptor signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;36;26077-88

  • Fak/Src signaling in human intestinal epithelial cell survival and anoikis: differentiation state-specific uncoupling with the PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk pathways.

    Bouchard V, Demers MJ, Thibodeau S, Laquerre V, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Beaulieu JF, Gauthier R, Vézina A, Villeneuve L and Vachon PH

    Département d'Anatomie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

    Human intestinal epithelial cell survival and anoikis are distinctively regulated according to the state of differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of focal adhesion kinase (Fak)/Src signaling to the PI3-K/Akt-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular regulated kinases (Erk) pathways, within the context of such differentiation-state distinctions. Anoikis was induced by inhibition of beta1 integrins (antibody blocking), inhibition of Fak (pharmacologic inhibition or overexpression of dominant negative mutants), or by maintaining cells in suspension. Activation parameters of Fak, Src, Akt-1, and Erk1/2 were analyzed. Activities of Src, Akt-1, or Erk1/2 were also blocked by pharmacological inhibition or by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants. We report that: (1) the loss or inhibition of beta1 integrin binding activity causes anoikis and results in a down-activation of Fak, Src, Akt-1, and Erk1/2 in both undifferentiated, and differentiated cells; (2) the inhibition of Fak likewise causes anoikis and a down-activation of Src, Akt-1, and Erk1/2, regardless of the differentiation state; (3) Src, PI3-K/Akt-1, and MEK/Erk contribute to the survival of differentiated cells, whereas MEK/Erk does not play a role in the survival of undifferentiated ones; (4) the inhibition/loss of beta1 integrin binding and/or Fak activity results in a loss of Src engagement with Fak, regardless of the state of differentiation; and (5) Src contributes to the activation of both the PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk pathways in undifferentiated cells, but does not influence PI3-K/Akt-1 in differentiated ones. Hence, Fak/Src signaling to the PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk pathways undergoes a differentiation state-specific uncoupling which ultimately reflects upon the selective engagement of these same pathways in the mediation of intestinal epithelial cell survival.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2007;212;3;717-28

  • Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion through protein degradation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Sekine Y, Tsuji S, Ikeda O, Sugiyma K, Oritani K, Shimoda K, Muromoto R, Ohbayashi N, Yoshimura A and Matsuda T

    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

    Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP-2) is a recently identified adaptor protein that contains pleckstrin homology- and Src homology 2-like domains as well as a YXXQ motif in its C-terminal region. Our previous studies demonstrated that STAP-2 binds to STAT3 and STAT5, and regulates their signaling pathways. In the present study, we find that STAP-2-deficient splenocytes or T cells exhibit enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin after PMA treatment, and that STAP-2-deficient T cells contain the increased protein contents of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Furthermore, overexpression of STAP-2 induces a dramatic decrease in the protein contents of FAK and integrin-mediated T cell adhesion to fibronectin in Jurkat T cells via the degradation of FAK. Regarding the mechanism for this effect, we found that STAP-2 associates with FAK and enhances its degradation, proteasome inhibitors block FAK degradation, and STAP-2 recruits an endogenous E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, to FAK. These results reveal a novel regulation mechanism for integrin-mediated signaling in T cells via STAP-2, which directly interacts with and degrades FAK.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2007;179;4;2397-407

  • Inhibition of a specific N-glycosylation activity results in attenuation of breast carcinoma cell invasiveness-related phenotypes: inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Guo HB, Randolph M and Pierce M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

    Changes in the expression of glycosyltransferases that branch N-linked glycans can alter the function of several types of cell surface receptors and a glucose transporter. To study in detail the mechanisms by which aberrant N-glycosylation caused by altered N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V(GnT-V, GnT-Va, and Mgat5a) expression can regulate the invasiveness-related phenotypes found in some carcinomas, we utilized specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to selectively knock down GnT-V expression in the highly metastatic and invasive human breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB231. Knockdown of GnT-V by siRNA expression had no effect on epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels but lowered expression of N-linked beta(1,6)-branching on epidermal growth factor receptor, as expected. Compared with control cells, knockdown of GnT-V caused significant inhibition of the morphological changes and cell detachment from matrix that is normally seen after stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Decreased expression of GnT-V caused a marked inhibition of EGF-induced dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), consistent with the lack of cell morphology changes in the cells expressing GnT-V siRNA. The attenuation of EGF-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 was dramatically observed in GnT-V knockdown cells, and these effects could be rescued by reintroduction of GnT-V into these cells, indicating that reduced EGF-mediated activation of SHP-2 was GnT-V related. Concomitantly, knockdown of GnT-V caused reduced EGF-mediated ERK signaling and tumor cell invasiveness-related phenotypes, including effects on actin rearrangement and cell motility. No changes in EGF binding were observed, however, after knockdown of GnT-V. Our results demonstrate that decreased GnT-V activity due to siRNA expression in human breast carcinoma cells resulted in an inhibition of EGF-stimulated SHP-2 activation and, consequently, caused attenuation of the dephosphorylation of FAK induced by EGF. These effects suppressed EGF-mediated downstream signaling and invasiveness-related phenotypes and suggest GnT-V as a potential therapeutic target.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;30;22150-62

  • Targeting SPARC expression decreases glioma cellular survival and invasion associated with reduced activities of FAK and ILK kinases.

    Shi Q, Bao S, Song L, Wu Q, Bigner DD, Hjelmeland AB and Rich JN

    Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is an extracellular glycoprotein expressed in several solid cancers, including malignant gliomas, upon adoption of metastatic or invasive behaviors. SPARC expression in glioma cells promotes invasion and survival under stress, the latter process dependent on SPARC activation of AKT. Here we demonstrate that downregulation of SPARC expression with short interfering RNA (siRNA) in glioma cells decreased tumor cell survival and invasion. SPARC siRNA reduced the activating phosphorylation of AKT and two cytoplasmic kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK). We determined the contributions of FAK and ILK to SPARC effects using SPARC protein and cell lines engineered to overexpress SPARC. SPARC activated FAK and ILK in glioma cells previously characterized as responsive to SPARC. Downregulation of either FAK or ILK expression inhibited SPARC-mediated AKT phosphorylation, and targeting both FAK and ILK attenuated AKT activation more potently than targeting either FAK or ILK alone. Decreased SPARC-mediated AKT activation correlated with a reduction in SPARC-dependent invasion and survival upon the downregulation of FAK and/or ILK expression. These data further demonstrate the role of SPARC in glioma tumor progression through the activation of intracellular kinases that may provide novel therapeutic targets for advanced cancers.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 108786, CA 116659; NINDS NIH HHS: NS047409, NS054276

    Oncogene 2007;26;28;4084-94

  • FAK association with multiple signal proteins mediates pressure-induced colon cancer cell adhesion via a Src-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Thamilselvan V, Craig DH and Basson MD

    Department of Surgery, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, 4646 John R. St., Detroit, Michigan 48201-1932, USA.

    Cancer cell adhesion is traditionally viewed as random, occurring if the cell's receptors match the substrate. Cancer cells are subjected to pressure and shear during growth against a constraining stroma, surgical manipulation, and passage through the venous and lymphatic system. Cells shed into a cavity such as the abdomen postoperatively also experience increased pressure from postoperative edema. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates integrin-mediated cancer cell adhesion via FAK and Src. PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin), Akt inhibitors, or Akt1 siRNA blocked adhesion stimulated by 15 mmHg pressure in SW620 or primary human malignant colonocytes. Pressure activated PI3K, tyrosine-phosphorylated and membrane-translocated the p85 subunit, and phosphorylated Akt. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) prevented pressure-stimulated Akt Ser473 and FAK Tyr397, but not FAK576 or Src416 phosphorylation. PP2 inhibited PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation. FAK siRNA did not affect pressure-induced PI3K activation but blocked Akt phosphorylation. Pressure also stimulated FAK or FAKY397F mutant translocation to the membrane. Akt inhibitor IV blocked pressure-induced Akt and FAK translocation. Pressure activated Src- and PI3K-dependently induced p85 interaction with FAK, and FAK with beta1 integrin. These results delineate a novel force-activated inside-out Src/PI3K/FAK/Akt pathway by which cancer cells regulate their own adhesion. These signals may be potential targets for inhibition of metastatic adhesion.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK60771

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2007;21;8;1730-41

  • Activation signal transduction by beta1 integrin in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Nakayamada S, Saito K, Nakano K and Tanaka Y

    University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Objective: Beta 1 integrin is a representative adhesion molecule for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and it provides costimulatory signals to T cells. However, the relevance of beta1 integrin to T cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear. We undertook this study to perform a quantitative and functional analysis of beta1 integrin-mediated signaling to T cells in patients with SLE.

    Methods: Expression of cell surface molecules was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Engagement of beta1 integrins was performed by crosslinking using a specific monoclonal antibody. To assess tyrosine kinases in beta1 integrin-mediated signaling, the cells were transfected with a wild-type (WT) focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a dominant-negative truncation of the FAK, or a WT PTEN expression plasmid via nucleofection.

    Results: Beta 1 integrin expression was significantly up-regulated on peripheral blood T cells from patients with active SLE, particularly those with the complication of World Health Organization class IV nephritis, whereas CD28 was significantly decreased in patients with active SLE compared with normal individuals. Beta 1 integrin expression closely correlated with serum hypocomplementemia. Engagement of beta1 integrin on T cells from patients with active SLE, but not on those from normal individuals, induced cell proliferation as well as CD40L expression on T cells. Up-regulation of CD40L expression and T cell proliferation, induced by beta1 integrin stimulation, were completely inhibited by transfection of the dominant-negative truncations of FAK or WT PTEN.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that engagement of beta1 integrins on SLE T cells could induce FAK-mediated signaling and subsequent CD40L expression and proliferation. Thus, the beta1 integrin signaling cascade might serve to enhance autoreactive T cell activation.

    Arthritis and rheumatism 2007;56;5;1559-68

  • Differential FAK phosphorylation at Ser-910, Ser-843 and Tyr-397 induced by angiotensin II, LPA and EGF in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Jiang X, Sinnett-Smith J and Rozengurt E

    Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-178622, USA.

    A rapid increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase FAK is a prominent early event in fibroblasts stimulated by a variety of signaling molecules. However, a variety of epithelial cells, including intestinal epithelial cells, show a high basal level of tyrosine phosphorylated FAK that is only slightly further increased by addition of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists or growth factors. In this study, we determined whether these stimuli could elicit FAK phosphorylation at serine residues, including Ser-910 and Ser-843. Our results show that multiple agonists including angiotensin II (ANGII), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), phorbol esters and EGF induced a striking stimulation of FAK phosphorylation at Ser-910 in rat intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells via an ERK-dependent pathway. In striking contrast, none of these stimuli promoted a significant further increase in FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-397 in these cells. These results were extended using cultures of polarized human colonic epithelial T84 cells. We found that either carbachol or EGF promoted a striking ERK-dependent phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-910, but these agonists caused only slight stimulation of FAK at Tyr-397 in T84 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that GPCR agonists also induced a dramatic increase of FAK phosphorylation at Ser-843 in either IEC-18 or T84 cells. Our results indicate that Ser-910 and Ser-843, rather than Tyr-397, are prominent sites differentially phosphorylated in response to neurotransmitters, bioactive lipids, tumor promoters and growth factors in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA090388, P50 CA90388, T32 CA009056; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 55003, DK 56930, P30 DK041301, P30 DK41301, R01 DK055003, R01 DK056930

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;5;1000-10

  • Epidermal growth factor stimulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and invasion in human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells through Focal adhesion kinase.

    Rothhut B, Ghoneim C, Antonicelli F and Soula-Rothhut M

    Unité Matrice Extracellulaire et Régulations Cellulaires, Laboratory of Biochemistry, URCA, CNRS, Moulin de la Housse, 51687 Reims, France. bernard.rothhut@univ-reims.fr

    In order to further advance our knowledge of the role epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays in thyroid carcinoma, we investigated its effect on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a key enzyme that plays an important role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The expression of MMP-9 in EGF-treated and untreated human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (FTC-133) was evaluated using reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and gelatin zymography. Transient transfection and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were also performed to measure MMP-9 promoter activity, to identify multiple signaling pathways and to determine a proximal AP-1-binding site located between -79 to -73 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site that is involved in activation of MMP-9 by EGF. In the present study, we demonstrate that EGF treatment up-regulated MMP-9 expression in human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. Expression of FAK-related non kinase (FRNK), a potent dominant-negative inhibitor of FAK, reduced FAK auto-phosphorylation and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 transcription and secretion leading to decreased cell invasion through Matrigel in in vitro Transwell assays. Our studies highlight the role FAK plays in promoting cell invasion through the activation of distinct signaling pathways induced by EGF with protein MMP-9 transcription and secretion in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Biochimie 2007;89;5;613-24

  • Src and focal adhesion kinase mediate mechanical strain-induced proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human H441 pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Chaturvedi LS, Marsh HM and Basson MD

    John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4646 John R. St., Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

    Pulmonary epithelial cells are exposed to repetitive deformation during physiological breathing and mechanical ventilation. Such deformation may influence pulmonary growth, development, and barotrauma. Although deformation stimulates proliferation and activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in human pulmonary epithelial H441 cells, the upstream mechanosensors that induce ERK activation are poorly understood. We investigated whether c-Src or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates cyclic mechanical strain-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation in human pulmonary epithelial (NCI-H441) cells. The H441 and A549 cells were grown on collagen I-precoated membranes and were subjected to an average 10% cyclic mechanical strain at 20 cycles/min. Cyclic strain activated Src within 2 min by increasing phosphorylation at Tyr(418), followed by rapid phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr(397) and Tyr(576) and ERK1/2 at Thr(202)/Tyr(204) (n = 5, P < 0.05). Twenty-four (A549 cells) and 24-72 h (H441 cells) of cyclic mechanical strain increased cell numbers compared with static culture. Twenty-four hours of cyclic strain also increased H441 FAK, Src, and ERK phosphorylation without affecting total FAK, Src, or ERK protein. The mitogenic effect was blocked by Src (10 micromol/l PP2 or short interfering RNA targeted to Src) or MEK (50 micromol/l PD-98059) inhibition. PP2 also blocked strain-induced phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr(576) and ERK-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) but not FAK-Tyr(397). Reducing FAK by FAK-targeted short interfering RNA blocked mechanical strain-induced mitogenicity and significantly attenuated strain-induced ERK activation but not strain-induced Src phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that repetitive mechanical deformation induced by ventilation supports pulmonary epithelial proliferation by a pathway involving Src, FAK, and then ERK signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK067257

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2007;292;5;C1701-13

  • N-MYC regulates focal adhesion kinase expression in human neuroblastoma.

    Beierle EA, Trujillo A, Nagaram A, Kurenova EV, Finch R, Ma X, Vella J, Cance WG and Golubovskaya VM

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. beierea@surgery.ufl.edu

    N-MYC is a transcription factor that plays an important role in cellular survival in neuroblastoma, and amplification of the N-MYC oncogene is the primary adverse prognostic indicator for neuroblastoma. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a survival factor that has been shown to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of N-MYC regulation of FAK expression in neuroblastoma. We first found a correlation between N-MYC and FAK expression in neuroblastoma. Real time quantitative PCR demonstrated an increase in FAK mRNA abundance in the N-MYC-amplified IMR-32 compared with the nonamplified SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cell lines. FAK protein expression also correlated positively with N-MYC expression in the N-MYC-amplified IMR-32 versus nonamplified SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cell lines. The same results were seen with the isogenic N-MYC(+) (Tet(-)) and N-MYC(-) (Tet(+)) neuroblastoma cell lines. Promoter-reporter assays showed that activity of the FAK promoter was increased in the N-MYC-amplified IMR-32 cell line, in the N-MYC-transfected SK-N-AS nonamplified cell line, and in the isogenic N-MYC(+) (Tet(-)) neuroblastoma cell lines compared with the nonamplified and N-MYC-nonexpressing cell lines. We also identified two N-MYC binding sites in the FAK promoter sequence and showed binding of N-MYC transcription factor to the FAK promoter through electrophoretic mobility shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and dual luciferase assays. Finally down-regulation of FAK expression in N-MYC-inducible neuroblastoma cell lines with FAK small interfering RNA or a dominant-negative FAK inhibitor (AdFAK-CD) significantly decreased viability and increased apoptosis in the N-MYC(+) (Tet(-)) cells compared with the isogenic N-MYC(-) (Tet(+)) cells, demonstrating the biological significance of FAK overexpression in the N-MYC-expressing cell lines. This is the first report linking N-MYC and FAK in neuroblastoma, and it clearly demonstrates that N-MYC induces FAK expression. The results indicate that N-MYC regulation of FAK expression can control cellular functions in isogenic N-MYC(-/+) (Tet(+/-)) neuroblastoma cell lines.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;17;12503-16

  • Combinatorial activation of FAK and AKT by transforming growth factor-beta1 confers an anoikis-resistant phenotype to myofibroblasts.

    Horowitz JC, Rogers DS, Sharma V, Vittal R, White ES, Cui Z and Thannickal VJ

    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, 6301 MSRB III, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a prototypical tumour-suppressor cytokine with cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects on most target cells; however, mechanisms of its pro-survival/anti-apoptotic signalling in certain cell types and contexts remain unclear. In human lung fibroblasts, TGF-beta1 is known to induce myofibroblast differentiation in association with the delayed activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). Here, we demonstrate that FAK and AKT are independently regulated by early activation of SMAD3 and p38 MAPK, respectively. Pharmacologic or genetic approaches that disrupt SMAD3 signalling block TGF-beta1-induced activation of FAK, but not AKT; in contrast, disruption of early p38 MAPK signalling abrogates AKT activation, but does not alter FAK activation. TGF-beta1 is able to activate AKT in cells expressing mutant FAK or in cells treated with an RGD-containing peptide that interferes with integrin signalling, inhibits FAK activation and induces anoikis (apoptosis induced by loss of adhesion signalling). TGF-beta1 protects myofibroblasts from anoikis, in part, by activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Thus, TGF-beta1 co-ordinately and independently activates the FAK and AKT protein kinase pathways to confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype to myofibroblasts. Activation of these pro-survival/anti-anoikis pathways in myofibroblasts likely contributes to essential roles of TGF-beta1 in tissue fibrosis and tumour-promotion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: K08 HL070990, K08 HL081059, P50 HL074024, R01 HL067967

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;4;761-71

  • Ephrin-A1 is a negative regulator in glioma through down-regulation of EphA2 and FAK.

    Liu DP, Wang Y, Koeffler HP and Xie D

    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P.R. China.

    Eph receptors, the largest receptor tyrosine kinases, and their ephrin ligands play important roles in axon guidance and cell migration during development of the nervous system. Recently, these molecules are also found involved in tumorigenesis of different kinds of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of ephrin-A1 was dramatically down-regulated in glioma cell lines and in primary gliomas compared to the matched normal tissues. Forced expression of ephrin-A1 attenuated cell migration, cell proliferation, and adhesion-independent growth in human glioma U251 cells. EphA2, a receptor for ephrin-A1 and an oncoprotein, was greatly decreased in ephrin-A1-transfected glioma cells. Overexpression of ephrin-A1 stimulated activation of EphA2 by phosphorylation and led to its degradation. Furthermore, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a known downstream molecule of EphA2, was also down-regulated in the ephrin-A1 transfected cells. These results suggested that ephrin-A1 serves as a critical negative regulator in the tumorigenesis of gliomas by down-regulating EphA2 and FAK, which may provide potential valuable targets for therapeutic intervention.

    International journal of oncology 2007;30;4;865-71

  • A role for enhanced integrin and FAK expression in uremia-induced parathyroid hyperplasia.

    Arcidiacono MV, Cozzolino M, Brancaccio D, Gallieni M, Lesma E, Carelli S, Gorio A and Di Giulio AM

    Pharmacological Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Surgery, and Dentistry, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

    Parathyroid (PT) hyperplasia is a major feature of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) in uremia. The transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) / epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)Ethgrowth loop is the main contributor to uremia-induced PT hyperplasia. Since integrin beta1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are known to directly activate cell growth and enhance EGFR-driven growth, these studies examined their contribution to PT hyperplasia in uremia. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression of EGFR, integrin beta1, and the non-receptor integrin-sensitive FAK, in PT glands from 8 hemodialysis patients with various degrees of SH at the time of the surgery, and in a normal human PT gland. In all patients, PT EGFR expression was higher than in the normal control. Integrin beta1, a direct activator of EGFR-driven growth, was increased in 5 of the 8 hyperplastic glands, whereas 7 out of 8 PT glands showed a marked enhancement in FAK expression, an elevation unrelated to increases in integrin beta1, but directly associated to time in hemodialysis. Similar increases in PT FAK content were observed after 1 month after the onset of uremia by 5/6 nephrectomy in rats. These findings suggest that in kidney disease, the increased PT cell growth driven by enhanced EGFR could be further aggravated through elevations in integrin beta1 and FAK expression.

    Journal of nephrology 2007;20;2;228-33

  • Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wissing J, Jänsch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Kéri G, Wehland J and Daub H

    Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. However, due to their relatively low abundance compared with the vast majority of cellular proteins, currently available proteomics techniques do not permit the comprehensive biochemical characterization of protein kinases. To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;3;537-47

  • FAK phosphorylation at Ser-843 inhibits Tyr-397 phosphorylation, cell spreading and migration.

    Jacamo R, Jiang X, Lunn JA and Rozengurt E

    Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    Multiple stimuli promote the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which ultimately facilitates migration. Little is known about the effect of adhesion-dependent signals and cytoskeleton organization on the regulation of FAK phosphorylation at serine sites, or about the role of FAK serine phosphorylation in cell migration. Here, we show that FAK phosphorylation at Ser-843 is strikingly increased when adherent cells are removed from the substratum and held in suspension or by treatment of adherent cells with cytochalasin D, conditions that disrupt the F-actin cytoskeleton and promote focal adhesion disassembly. Notably, the increase in Ser-843 phosphorylation was accompanied by a concomitant sharp decrease in Tyr-397 phosphorylation. To further examine the cause-effect relationship between these two phosphorylation sites we generated Ser-843 phosphorylation-deficient and phosphorylation-mimicking FAK mutants. We found that mutation of Ser-843 to aspartic acid (FAK[S843D]) markedly decreased FAK Tyr-397 phosphorylation in integrin-stimulated cells. While the migratory defect of FAK-deficient fibroblasts was rescued by stable re-expression of WT FAK or FAK[S843A], stable re-expression of FAK[S843D] failed to restore the ability of the cells to migrate into the denuded area of a wound. Our results indicate that increased FAK phosphorylation at Ser-843 represses FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-397, thus suggesting a mechanism of cross-talk between these phosphorylation sites that could regulate FAK-mediated cell shape and migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09056, P50 CA90388; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK074225, DK55003, DK56930, P30 DK41301

    Journal of cellular physiology 2007;210;2;436-44

  • Repetitive deformation activates focal adhesion kinase and ERK mitogenic signals in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells through Src and Rac1.

    Chaturvedi LS, Marsh HM, Shang X, Zheng Y and Basson MD

    Surgical Service, John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    Intestinal epithelial cells are subject to repetitive deformation during peristalsis and villous motility, whereas the mucosa atrophies during sepsis or ileus when such stimuli are abnormal. Such repetitive deformation stimulates intestinal epithelial proliferation via focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). However, the upstream mediators of these effects are unknown. We investigated whether Src and Rac1 mediate deformation-induced FAK and ERK phosphorylation and proliferation in human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells. Cells cultured on collagen-I were subjected to an average 10% cyclic strain at 10 cycles/min. Cyclic strain activated Rac1 and induced Rac1 translocation to cell membranes. Mechanical strain also induced rapid sustained phosphorylation of c-Src at Tyr(418), Rac1 at Ser(71), FAK at Tyr(397) and Tyr(576), and ERK1/2 at Thr(202)/Tyr(204). The mitogenic effect of cyclic strain was blocked by inhibition of Src (PP2 or short interfering RNA) or Rac1 (NSC23766). Src or Rac1 inhibition also prevented strain-induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr(576) and ERK phosphorylation but not FAK phosphorylation at Tyr(397). Reducing FAK using short interfering RNA blocked strain-induced mitogenicity and attenuated ERK phosphorylation but not Src or Rac1 phosphorylation. Src inhibition blocked strain-induced Rac1 phosphorylation, but Rac inhibition did not alter Src phosphorylation. Transfection of a two-tyrosine phosphorylation-deficient FAK mutant Y576F/Y577F prevented activation of cotransfected myc-ERK2 by cyclic strain. Repetitive deformation induced by peristalsis or villus motility may support the gut mucosa by a pathway involving Src, Rac1, FAK, and ERK. This pathway may present important targets for interventions to prevent mucosal atrophy during prolonged ileus or fasting.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK067257

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;1;14-28

  • Focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways regulate the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Salasznyk RM, Klees RF, Williams WA, Boskey A and Plopper GE

    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110th 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3596, USA.

    The intracellular signaling events controlling human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) differentiation into osteoblasts are not entirely understood. We recently demonstrated that contact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSC through an ERK-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that FAK signaling pathways provide a link between activation of ERK1/2 by ECM, and stimulate subsequent phosphorylation of the Runx2/Cbfa-1 transcription factor that controls osteogenic gene expression. We plated hMSC on purified collagen I (COLL-I) and vitronectin (VN) in the presence or absence of FAK-specific siRNA, and assayed for phosphorylation of Runx2/Cbfa-1 as well as expression of established osteogenic differentiation markers (bone sialoprotein-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium deposition, and spectroscopically determined mineral:matrix ratio). We found that siRNA treatment reduced FAK mRNA levels by >40% and decreased ECM-mediated phosphorylation of FAK Y397 and ERK1/2. Serine phosphorylation of Runx2/Cbfa-1 was significantly reduced after 8 days in treated cells. Finally, FAK inhibition blocked osterix transcriptional activity and the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC, as assessed by lowered expression of osteogenic genes (RT-PCR), decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, greatly reduced calcium deposition, and a lower mineral:matrix ratio after 28 days in culture. These results suggest that FAK signaling plays an important role in regulating ECM-induced osteogenic differentiation of hMSC.

    Funded by: NIBIB NIH HHS: R01 EB002197, R01 EB002197-02, R01 EB002197-03, R01-EB002197

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;1;22-37

  • Gastrin-releasing peptide mediates its morphogenic properties in human colon cancer by upregulating intracellular adhesion protein-1 (ICAM-1) via focal adhesion kinase.

    Taglia L, Matusiak D, Matkowskyj KA and Benya RV

    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 South Wood St., Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRPR) act as morphogens when expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), promoting the assumption of a better differentiated phenotype by regulating cell motility in the context of remodeling and retarding tumor cell metastasis by enhancing cell-matrix attachment. Although we have shown that these processes are mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the downstream target(s) of GRP-induced FAK activation are not known. Since osteoblast differentiation is mediated by FAK-initiated upregulation of ICAM-1 (Nakayamada S, Okada Y, Saito K, Tamura M, Tanaka Y. J Biol Chem 278: 45368-45374, 2003), we determined whether GRP-induced activation of FAK alters ICAM-1 expression in CRC and, if so, determined the contribution of ICAM-1 to mediating GRP's morphogenic properties. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells variably express GRP/GRPR. These cells only express ICAM-1 when GRPR are present. In human CRC, GRPR and ICAM-1 are only expressed by better differentiated tumor cells, with ICAM-1 located at the basolateral membrane. ICAM-1 expression was only observed subsequent to GRPR signaling via FAK. To study the effect of ICAM-1 expression on tumor cell motility, CRC cells expressing GRP, GRPR, and ICAM-1 were cultured in the presence and absence of GRPR antagonist or monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1. CRC cells engaged in directed motility in the context of remodeling and were highly adherent to the extracellular matrix, only in the absence of antagonist or ICAM-1 antibody. These data indicate that GRP upregulation of ICAM-1 via FAK promotes tumor cell motility and attachment to the extracellular matrix.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-094346

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2007;292;1;G182-90

  • Phosphorylation of FAK, PI-3K, and impaired actin organization in CK-positive micrometastatic breast cancer cells.

    Kallergi G, Mavroudis D, Georgoulias V and Stournaras C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion Voutes, Greece.

    Several markers have been used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer. However, analysis of activated signaling kinases in CTC implicated in cellular transformation, migration, and survival has not been addressed so far. In the present study, we focused on the phenotypic profile of micrometastatic cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) preparations from 45 breast cancer patients. PBMC cytospins from 28 cytokeratin (CK)-positive and 17 CK-negative samples were assessed for the expression of phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK), phosphorylated PI-3 kinase (p-PI-3K), and HER2 using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The expression of p-FAK was documented in all 28 CK-positive samples, while all 17 CK-negative samples were tested negative for p-FAK. Immunomagnetic separation using EpCAM antibody fully confirmed these findings, implying a sound correlation for the co-expression of the two molecules. Interestingly, 15 of 28 CK- and p-FAK-positive samples also expressed the HER2 oncoprotein. p-PI-3K was documented in 15 of 17 CK- and p-FAK-positive samples. Immunoblot analysis of micrometastatic cells in co-culture with PBMC confirmed the specific expression of both p-FAK and p-PI-3K. Finally, impaired actin organization was apparent in CK- and p-FAK/p-PI-3K-positive samples, comparable to that observed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our findings provide strong evidence that micrometastatic cells express activated signaling kinases, which may regulate migration mechanisms, supporting the presumption of their malignant and metastatic nature.

    Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2007;13;1-2

  • Activation of FAK/PI3K/Rac1 signaling controls actin reorganization and inhibits cell motility in human cancer cells.

    Kallergi G, Agelaki S, Markomanolaki H, Georgoulias V and Stournaras C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Crete Medical School and University Hospital, Heraklion, Greece.

    We have recently identified a specific signaling pathway that regulates actin reorganization in malignant human breast and prostate epithelial cells associated with FAK, PI-3K and Rac1 activation. Here we report that this pathway operates in MCF7 cells upon activation of membrane androgen receptors (mAR). Stimulation of mAR by the non-permeable testosterone-BSA conjugate resulted in early actin reorganization documented by quantitative measurements of actin dynamics and morphological analysis of microfilament organization. This effect was regulated by early phosphorylation of FAK and subsequent PI-3K and Rac1 activation. The functional role of this pathway was further shown in A375 melanoma cells. Treatment with the opioid antagonist alpha(s1) casomorphin resulted in rapid and potent actin remodeling in A375 cells, regulated by rapid activation of the FAK/PI-3K/Rac1 signaling. Pretreatment of both cell lines with the specific PI-3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked actin reorganization. Interestingly, wound healing assays revealed that testosterone-BSA and alpha (s1) casomorphin significantly inhibited MCF7 and A375 cell motility respectively. These effects were abrogated through blockade of PI-3K signaling by wortmannin. The results presented here indicate that actin reorganization through FAK/PI3-K/Rac-1 activation operates in various human cancer cell systems supporting a functional role for FAK/PI-3K/Rac1/actin signaling in controlling cell motility.

    Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2007;20;6;977-86

  • Enhanced expression of cholecystokinin-2 receptor promotes the progression of colon cancer through activation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Yu HG, Tong SL, Ding YM, Ding J, Fang XM, Zhang XF, Liu ZJ, Zhou YH, Liu QS, Luo HS and Yu JP

    Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060 Wuhan, China. yuyang68@public.wh.hb.cn

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is suggested to be intimately involved in the progression of malignancies. Our previous research has demonstrated that activation of cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) by gastrin stimulates a rapid activation of FAK pathway in human colon cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of CCK2R and FAK in the progression of colon cancer. In this study, matched tissue samples of primary colon cancer and adjacent normal colon mucosa from the same patient were collected from 45 patients with colon cancer undergoing surgical resection. The gastrin expression was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The CCK2R expression was examined by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. The expression of FAK and phosphorylated FAK at tyrosine 397 (phospho-FAK) were detected using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Colo320 and SW787, 2 colon cancer cell lines with or without CCK2R expression, were recruited in this study. Antisense oligonucleotide of FAK was used to block the expression of FAK. Invasiveness and motility of colon cancer cells were detected by Boyden chamber. In this series, enhanced expression of gastrin, CCK2R, FAK and phospho-FAK were observed in colon cancer tissues. CCK2R expression correlated with expression of phospho-FAK. Coexpression of CCK2R and phospho-FAK associated with invasion and lymph node metastasis. Increased invasion and motility was induced by gastrin in Colo320 cells. Overexpression of CCK2R by stable transfection of CCK2R plasmid amplified this increase and incubation with 1 microM L-365,260, a specific CCK2R antagonist, completely inhibited the effect of gastrin. FAK antisense largely blocked the increase of invasion and motility in Colo320 cells. Our data represent the evidence for the CCK2R regulating invasion and motility of colon cancer cells, and support a role of CCK2R in the progression of colon cancer. FAK play a critical role in this CCK2R-mediated effect.

    International journal of cancer 2006;119;12;2724-32

  • Association of focal adhesion kinase with tuberous sclerosis complex 2 in the regulation of s6 kinase activation and cell growth.

    Gan B, Yoo Y and Guan JL

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 tumor suppressor proteins have been shown to negatively regulate cell growth through inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in integrin signaling. Here we identify a novel interaction between FAK and TSC2 and show that TSC2 is phosphorylated by FAK. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of FAK kinase dead mutant inhibits the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1, two key mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) downstream targets, and negatively regulates the cell size and that FAK regulation of S6K phosphorylation is through TSC2. Finally, we provide data that FAK plays a positive role in cell adhesion-induced S6K phosphorylation, whereas TSC2 is required for cell suspension-induced S6K inactivation. Together, these results suggest that FAK might regulate S6K activation and cell size through its interaction with and phosphorylation of TSC2 and also provide a previously unappreciated role of TSC2 in the regulation of mTOR signaling by cell adhesion.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050, GM52890

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;49;37321-9

  • Cancer/testis antigen cancer-associated gene (CAGE) promotes motility of cancer cells through activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK).

    Shim H, Lee H and Jeoung D

    School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 200-701, Korea.

    The cancer-associated gene (CAGE) is a novel cancer/testis antigen. Over-expression of it increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and enhanced motility of SNU387 cells. Focal adhesion, kinase-related non-kinase (FRNK), an endogenous inhibitor of FAK, was significantly suppressed. This suggests that CAGE-promoted motility requires FAK. The inhibition of Rho-Associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), an activator of FAK, also suppressed CAGE-promoted motility.

    Biotechnology letters 2006;28;24;2057-63

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A general approach for investigating enzymatic pathways and substrates for ubiquitin-like modifiers.

    Li T, Santockyte R, Shen RF, Tekle E, Wang G, Yang DC and Chock PB

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) contain ubiquitin homology domains and can covalently modify target proteins in a manner similar to ubiquitylation. In this study, we revealed a general proteomic approach to elucidate the enzymatic pathways and identify target proteins for three UBLs: SUMO-2, SUMO-3, and NEDD8. Expression plasmids containing the cDNAs of Myc/6xHis doubly-tagged processed or non-conjugatable forms of these UBLs were constructed. The constructed vectors were then used to transfect HEK 293 Tet-On cells, and stable cell lines expressing these UBLs and their mutants were established. The epitope-tagged proteins were purified by immunoprecipitation under native conditions or by affinity chromatography on nickel resin under denaturing conditions. Purified proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Most of the E1-like activating enzymes, E2-like conjugating enzymes and the majorities of the known target as well as some previously unreported proteins for SUMO-2, SUMO-3, and NEDD8 pathways were identified.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006;453;1;70-4

  • Focal adhesion kinase protein levels in gut epithelial motility.

    Basson MD, Sanders MA, Gomez R, Hatfield J, Vanderheide R, Thamilselvan V, Zhang J and Walsh MF

    Chief, Surgical Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, 4646 John R. St., Detroit, MI 48201-1932, USA. marc.basson@va.gov

    Mucosal healing requires migration and proliferation. Most studies of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a protein that regulates motility, proliferation, and apoptosis, have focused on rapid phosphorylation. We reported lower FAK protein levels in motile Caco-2 colon cancer cells and postulated that this reduction in FAK available for activation might impact cell migration and mucosal healing. Therefore, total and active FAK (FAK(397)) immunoreactivity was assessed at the migrating fronts of human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 and IEC-6 motility, quantitated as migration into linear or circular wounds, was examined following FAK protein inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA). FAK protein stability and mRNA expression were ascertained by cycloheximide decay, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization in static and migrating Caco-2 cells. Cells at the migrating front of Caco-2 and IEC-6 monolayers exhibited lower immunostaining for both total and activated FAK than cells immediately behind the front. Western blot analysis also demonstrated diminished FAK protein levels in motile cells by >/=30% in both the differential density seeding and multiple scrape models. siRNA FAK protein inhibition enhanced motility in both the linear scrape (20% in Caco-2) and circular wound (16% in Caco-2 and 19% in IEC-6 cells) models. FAK protein degradation did not differ in motile and static Caco-2 cells and was unaffected by FAK(397) phosphorylation, but FAK mRNA was lower in migrating Caco-2 cells. Thus FAK protein abundance appears regulated at the mRNA level during gut epithelial cell motility and may influence epithelial cell migration coordinately with signals that modify FAK phosphorylation.

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2006;291;3;G491-9

  • Up-regulation of focal adhesion kinase in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Carelli S, Zadra G, Vaira V, Falleni M, Bottiglieri L, Nosotti M, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A and Bosari S

    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Milan, Polo H. San Paolo, Milan, Italy.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase linked to the integrin and growth factor receptor-signalling pathways that regulates a number of the biological processes involved in neoplastic transformation, invasion and metastases, such as cell adhesion, migration and apoptosis. Its up-regulation might play a role in the tumourigenesis of invasive tumours, but its involvement in human lung cancer tissues has not yet been determined. We immunohistochemically compared FAK expression and localisation in 60 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues with that in the surrounding non-neoplastic tissue and in a further five microscopically normal lungs. FAK mRNA levels were quantitatively determined by real-time RT-PCR in frozen tissue specimens of all of the tumours and 21 matched non-neoplastic lung parenchymas, and protein expression in 16 homogenates of the matched neoplastic/non-neoplastic specimens was evaluated by Western blotting. The three different techniques showed that FAK is weakly expressed in non-neoplastic lung parenchyma and up-regulated in NSCLCs. Moreover, Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR indicated a statistically significant correlation between FAK up-regulation and higher disease stages (I+II versus III+IV, p=0.019 and 0.028, respectively). Our results provide evidence that FAK is up-regulated in NSCLCs, and suggest its potential involvement in lung cancer progression.

    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2006;53;3;263-71

  • Role of focal adhesion kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase in integrin fibronectin receptor-mediated, matrix metalloproteinase-1-dependent invasion by metastatic prostate cancer cells.

    Zeng ZZ, Jia Y, Hahn NJ, Markwart SM, Rockwood KF and Livant DL

    Department of Radiation Oncology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0582, USA.

    alpha(5)beta(1) Integrin interacts with the PHSRN sequence of plasma fibronectin, causing constitutive invasion by human prostate cancer cells. Inhibition of this process reduces tumorigenesis and prevents metastasis and recurrence. In this study, naturally serum-free basement membranes were used as in vitro invasion substrates. Immunoassays were employed to dissect the roles of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase Cdelta (PKC delta) in alpha(5)beta(1)-mediated, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)-dependent invasion by metastatic human DU 145 prostate cancer cells. We found that a peptide composed of the PHSRN sequence induced rapid FAK phosphorylation at Tyr(397) (Y397), a site whose phosphorylation is associated with kinase activation. The technique of RNA silencing [small interfering RNA (siRNA)] confirmed the role of FAK in PHSRN-induced invasion. PHSRN also induced the association of the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K with FAK at a time corresponding to FAK phosphorylation and activation, and maximal PI3K activity occurred at this same time. The necessity of PI3K activity in both PHSRN-induced invasion and MMP-1 expression was confirmed by using specific PI3K inhibitors. By employing a specific inhibitor, Rottlerin, and by using siRNA, we also found that PKC delta, a PI3K substrate found in focal adhesions, functions in PHSRN-induced invasion. In addition, the induction of MMP-1 in PHSRN-treated DU 145 cells was shown by immunoblotting, and the role of MMP-1 in PHSRN-induced invasion was confirmed by the use of blocking anti-MMP-1 monoclonal antibody. Finally, a close temporal correspondence was observed between PHSRN-induced invasion and PHSRN-induced MMP-1 activity in DU 145 cells.

    Cancer research 2006;66;16;8091-9

  • Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on Ser732 is induced by rho-dependent kinase and is essential for proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2-mediated phosphorylation of FAK on Tyr407 in response to vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Le Boeuf F, Houle F, Sussman M and Huot J

    Le Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l'Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R-2J6, Canada.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine residues after cell activation. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of FAK in promoting endothelial cell migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that VEGF induces the activation of the Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) downstream from vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2. In turn, activated ROCK directly phosphorylates FAK on Ser732. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) is also activated in response to VEGF. Its activation requires the clustering of integrin alphavbeta3 and triggers directly the phosphorylation of Tyr407 within FAK, an event necessary for cell migration. Interestingly, ROCK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser732 is essential for Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr407, because the latter is abrogated in cells expressing a FAK mutant that is nonphosphorylatable on Ser732. We suggest that VEGF elicits the activation of the VEGFR2-ROCK pathway, leading to phosphorylation of Ser732 within FAK. In turn, phosphorylation of Ser732 would change the conformation of FAK, making it accessible to Pyk2 activated in response to its association with integrin beta3. Then, activated Pyk2 triggers the phosphorylation of FAK on Tyr407, promoting cell migration.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;8;3508-20

  • C/EBPalpha inactivation in FAK-overexpressed HL-60 cells impairs cell differentiation.

    Hashimoto K, Sonoda Y, Yamakado M, Funakoshi-Tago M, Yoshida N, Rokudai A, Aizu-Yokota E and Kasahara T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy, Shibakoen 1-5-30, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8512, Japan.

    We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-overexpressed (HL-60/FAK) cells have marked resistance against various apoptotic stimuli such as oxidative stress, ionizing radiation and TNF-receptor-induced ligand (TRAIL) compared with vector-transfected (HL-60/Vect) cells. Here, we show that HL-60/FAK cells are highly resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation, whereas original HL-60 or HL-60/Vect cells are sensitive. Treatment with ATRA at 1 muM for 5 days markedly inhibited the proliferation and increased the expression of differentiation markers (CD38, CD11b) in HL-60/Vect cells, but showed no such effect in HL-60/FAK cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using an oligonucleotide for the c/EBP consensus binding sequence showed that c/EBPalpha was activated in ATRA-treated HL-60/Vect cells but not in HL-60/FAK cells, indicating that c/EBPalpha activation by ATRA was impaired in HL-60/FAK cells. In addition, the association of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and c/EBPalpha after treatment with ATRA was seen in HL-60/Vect cells but not in HL-60/FAK cells. Further, hyperphosphorylation of pRb was observed in HL-60/FAK cells. Finally, the introduction of FAK siRNA into HL-60/FAK cells resulted in the recovery of sensitivity to ATRA-induced differentiation, confirming that the inhibition of HL-60/FAK differentiation resulted from both the induction of pRb hyperphosphorylation and the inhibition of association of pRb and c/EBPalpha.

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;7;955-63

  • Focal adhesion kinase controls cellular levels of p27/Kip1 and p21/Cip1 through Skp2-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Bryant P, Zheng Q and Pumiglia K

    Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    Endothelial cell proliferation is a critical step in angiogenesis and requires a coordinated response to soluble growth factors and the extracellular matrix. As focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from both adhesion events and growth factor stimulation, we investigated its role in endothelial cell proliferation. Expression of a dominant-negative FAK protein, FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK), impaired phosphorylation of FAK and blocked DNA synthesis in response to multiple angiogenic stimuli. These results coincided with elevated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21/Cip and p27/Kip, as a consequence of impaired degradation. FRNK inhibited the expression of Skp2, an F-box protein that targets CDKIs, by inhibiting mitogen-induced mRNA. The FAK-regulated degradation of p27/Kip was Skp2 dependent, while levels of p21/Cip were regulated independent of Skp2. Skp2 is required for endothelial cell proliferation as a consequence of degrading p27. Finally, knockdown of both p21 and p27 in FRNK-expressing cells completely restored mitogen-induced endothelial cell proliferation. These data demonstrate a critical role for FAK in the regulation of CDKIs through two independent mechanisms: Skp2 dependent and Skp2 independent. They also provide important insights into the requirement of focal adhesion kinase for normal vascular development and reveal novel regulatory control points for angiogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA81419, R01 CA081419, R01 CA081419-07; NHLBI NIH HHS: T32 HL007194, T32-HL-07194

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;11;4201-13

  • p130Cas: a versatile scaffold in signaling networks.

    Defilippi P, Di Stefano P and Cabodi S

    Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin, Via Santena 5 bis 10126 Turin, Italy. paola.defilippi@unito.it

    The Cas family of multiadaptor and scaffold molecules has an essential role in intracellular signaling events. Although these proteins do not have enzymatic or transcriptional activity, they spatially and temporally control signaling events through their ability to undergo changes in phosphorylation and to associate with effectors proteins in multimolecular complexes. The involvement of p130Cas in cell motility as a component of the integrin signaling machinery is well established. Here, we discuss recent developments that highlight a fundamental role in cell transformation and microbial pathogenesis and the implications of these developments on p130Cas function under normal and pathological conditions.

    Trends in cell biology 2006;16;5;257-63

  • Weak expression of focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) in patients with cervical cancer is associated with poor disease outcome.

    Gabriel B, zur Hausen A, Stickeler E, Dietz C, Gitsch G, Fischer DC, Bouda J, Tempfer C and Hasenburg A

    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Freiburg University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany. bGabriel@frk.ukl.uni-freiburg.de

    Purpose: The pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in tumor cell signaling. FAK expression has been linked to tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but data on cervical cancer are inconclusive. Our goal was to investigate FAK expression in cervical cancer and to assess whether its expression correlates with prognosis.

    FAK expression was examined using immunohistochemistry with sections from 162 resected cervical cancer specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to determine the significance of FAK expression in the prognosis of cervical cancer patients.

    Results: Specific FAK expression was found in the tumor cells, whereas normal cervical epithelium showed barely any FAK expression. Of 162 invasive cervical cancer specimens, 55 (34%) revealed weak expression of FAK, whereas moderate and strong expression was found in 63 (39%) and 44 (27%) tumors, respectively. Patients with tumors expressing weak amounts of FAK were characterized by a significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with moderate and high intratumoral FAK expression (P = 0.002). Weak expression of FAK correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026) and recurrent disease (P = 0.013). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed decreased FAK expression and pelvic lymph node metastasis to be significant independent factors predictive of poor disease outcome (hazard ratio, 0.36; P = 0.005; hazard ratio, 2.38; P = 0.018, respectively).

    Conclusions: Weak expression of FAK in invasive cervical cancer is a strong independent predictor of poor patient outcome. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether FAK expression analysis is a suitable tool identifying patients at high risk even at an early clinical stage.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2006;12;8;2476-83

  • Role of c-Src and focal adhesion kinase in progression and metastasis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Planas-Silva MD, Bruggeman RD, Grenko RT and Stanley Smith J

    Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. mcplanas@psu.edu

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (Fak) mediate signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we investigated whether c-Src and Fak are activated during progression of hormone-dependent breast cancer. Maximally active c-Src was overexpressed in a subset of tamoxifen-resistant variants and in metastases of recurrent hormone-treated breast cancer. Active Fak was also frequently observed in these tumors. We also show that estrogen receptor (ER) can bind to Fak and that estrogen can modulate Fak autophosphorylation supporting a cross-talk between these two pathways. Inhibition of c-Src activity blocked proliferation of all tamoxifen-resistant variants, suggesting that inhibitors of c-Src-Fak activity may delay or prevent progression and metastasis of ER-positive tumors. These studies also raise the possibility that fully active forms of c-Src and Fak in breast tumors may be biomarkers to predict tamoxifen resistance and/or risk of recurrence in ER-positive breast cancer.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;341;1;73-81

  • Role of Src-specific phosphorylation site on focal adhesion kinase for senescence-associated apoptosis resistance.

    Ryu SJ, Cho KA, Oh YS and Park SC

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, S. Korea.

    A decreased apoptotic response toward noxious stress is an issuing characteristic of the aging phenotype. Hydrogen peroxide or staurosporine induced apoptosis readily in young cells but not in senescent cells. We showed that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and its phosphorylation at Tyr397, autophosphorylation site for focal adhesion formation, and Tyr577, Src-dependent phosphorylation site, were both increased in senescent cells. Moreover, FAK was inactivated proteolytically by apoptotic stimuli in young cells, but not in senescent cells. In addition, senescent cells whose FAK expression was downregulated by siRNA showed the increased level of apoptosis by staurosporine treatment via caspase-3 activation but not by hydrogen peroxide treatment. Interestingly dephosphorylation at Tyr577 of FAK by PP2 treatment, Src-family kinase inhibitor, induced the apoptosis by staurosporine in senescent cells but dephosphorylation at Tyr397 by downregulation of caveolin-1 was not affected. These data suggest that FAK might differently regulate apoptosis and focal adhesion formation through site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation in senescent cells.

    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 2006;11;3;303-13

  • Hair cycle and wound healing in mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of FAK.

    Essayem S, Kovacic-Milivojevic B, Baumbusch C, McDonagh S, Dolganov G, Howerton K, Larocque N, Mauro T, Ramirez A, Ramos DM, Fisher SJ, Jorcano JL, Beggs HE, Reichardt LF and Ilic D

    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94070, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical component in transducing signals downstream of both integrins and growth factor receptors. To determine how the loss of FAK affects the epidermis in vivo, we have generated a mouse model with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of fak (FAKK5 KO mice). FAK(K5 KO) mice displayed three major phenotypes--irregularities of hair cycle, sebaceous glands hypoplasia, and a thinner epidermis--pointing to defects in the proliferative capacity of multipotent stem cells found in the bulge. FAK-null keratinocytes in conventional primary culture undergo massive apoptosis hindering further analyses, whereas the defects observed in vivo do not shorten the mouse lifespan. These results suggest that the structure and the signaling environment of the native tissue may overcome the lack of signaling through FAK. Our findings point to the importance of in vivo and three-dimensional in vitro models in analyses of cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Surprisingly, the difference between FAKloxP/+ and FAKK5 KO mice in wound closure was not statistically significant, suggesting that in vivo loss of FAK does not affect migration/proliferation of basal keratinocytes in the same way as it affects multipotent stem cells of the skin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87652, K01 CA087652; NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR016490, C06RR16490; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS019090, R01 NS019090-25

    Oncogene 2006;25;7;1081-9

  • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 and focal adhesion kinase bind and suppress apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Garces CA, Kurenova EV, Golubovskaya VM and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, PO Box 100286, 1600 Southwest Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) are protein tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in human cancer and play an important role in survival signaling. In addition to its involvement with cell survival, VEGFR-3 is a primary factor in lymphatic angiogenesis. Because FAK function is regulated by its COOH terminus (FAK-CD), we used FAK-CD as a target to identify binding partners. We isolated a peptide from a phage library that bound to FAK-CD, specifically the focal adhesion targeting domain of FAK and was homologous to VEGFR-3, suggesting these two tyrosine kinases physically interact. We have also shown that VEGFR-3 is overexpressed in human breast tumors and cancer cell lines. For the first time, we have shown the physical association of FAK and VEGFR-3. The association between the NH(2) terminus of VEGFR-3, containing the peptide identified by phage display, and the COOH terminus of FAK was detected by in vitro and in vivo binding studies. We then coupled a 12-amino-acid VEGFR-3 peptide, AV3, to a TAT cellular penetration sequence and showed that AV3 and not control-scrambled peptide caused specific displacement of FAK from the focal adhesions and affected colocalization of FAK and VEGFR-3. In addition, AV3 peptide decreased proliferation and caused cell detachment and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines but not in normal breast cells. Thus, the FAK/VEGFR-3 interaction may have a potential use to develop novel molecular therapeutics to target the signaling between FAK and VEGFR-3 in human tumors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 65910

    Cancer research 2006;66;3;1446-54

  • Suppression of RhoA activity by focal adhesion kinase-induced activation of p190RhoGAP: role in regulation of endothelial permeability.

    Holinstat M, Knezevic N, Broman M, Samarel AM, Malik AB and Mehta D

    Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois, 835 S. Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

    The interaction of endothelial cells with extracellular matrix proteins at focal adhesions sites contributes to the integrity of vascular endothelial barrier. Although focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation is required for the recovery of the barrier function after increased endothelial junctional permeability, the basis for the recovery remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that FAK activates p190RhoGAP and, thus, negatively regulates RhoA activity and promotes endothelial barrier restoration in response to the permeability-increasing mediator thrombin. We observed that thrombin caused a transient activation of RhoA but a more prolonged FAK activation temporally coupled to the recovery of barrier function. Thrombin also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP, which coincided with decrease in RhoA activity. We further showed that FAK was associated with p190RhoGAP, and importantly, recombinant FAK phosphorylated p190RhoGAP in vitro. Inhibition of FAK by adenoviral expression of FRNK (a dominant negative FAK construct) in monolayers prevented p190RhoGAP phosphorylation, increased RhoA activity, induced actin stress fiber formation, and produced an irreversible increase in endothelial permeability in response to thrombin. We also observed that p190RhoGAP was unable to attenuate RhoA activation in the absence of FAK activation induced by FRNK. The inhibition of RhoA by the C3 toxin (Clostridium botulinum toxin) restored endothelial barrier function in the FRNK-expressing cells. These findings in endothelial cells were recapitulated in the lung microcirculation in which FRNK expression in microvessel endothelia increased vascular permeability. Our studies demonstrate that FAK-induced down-modulation of RhoA activity via p190RhoGAP is a crucial step in signaling endothelial barrier restoration after increased endothelial permeability.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 71794, R01 HL071794, T32 HL 07829

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;4;2296-305

  • EphB receptors regulate dendritic spine morphogenesis through the recruitment/phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and RhoA activation.

    Moeller ML, Shi Y, Reichardt LF and Ethell IM

    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

    Dendritic filopodia are small protrusions on the surface of neuronal dendrites that transform into dendritic spines upon synaptic contact with axon terminals. The formation of dendritic spines is a critical aspect of synaptic development. Dendritic spine morphogenesis is characterized by filopodia shortening followed by the formation of mature mushroom-shaped spines. Here we show that activation of the EphB receptor tyrosine kinases in cultured hippocampal neurons by their ephrinB ligands induces morphogenesis of dendritic filopodia into dendritic spines. This appears to occur through assembly of an EphB-associated protein complex that includes focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, Grb2, and paxillin and the subsequent activations of FAK, Src, paxillin, and RhoA. Furthermore, Cre-mediated knock-out of loxP-flanked fak or RhoA inhibition blocks EphB-mediated morphogenesis of dendritic filopodia. Finally, EphB-mediated RhoA activation is disrupted by FAK knock-down. These data suggest that EphB receptors are upstream regulators of FAK in dendritic filopodia and that FAK-mediated RhoA activation contributes to assembly of actin filaments in dendritic spines.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH67121, R01 MH067121, R01 MH067121-04; NINDS NIH HHS: NS19090

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;3;1587-98

  • Phosphorylated alpha-actinin and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B coregulate the disassembly of the focal adhesion kinase x Src complex and promote cell migration.

    Zhang Z, Lin SY, Neel BG and Haimovich B

    Department of Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick 08903, USA.

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key regulator of cell migration. Phosphorylation at Tyr-397 activates FAK and creates a binding site for Src family kinases. FAK phosphorylates the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin at Tyr-12. Here we report that protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) is an alpha-actinin phosphatase. PTP 1B-dependent dephosphorylation of alpha-actinin was seen in COS-7 cells and PTP 1B-null fibroblasts reconstituted with PTP 1B. Furthermore, we show that coexpression of wild-type alpha-actinin and PTP 1B causes dephosphorylation at Tyr-397 in FAK. No dephosphorylation was observed in cells coexpressing the alpha-actinin phosphorylation mutant Y12F and PTP 1B. Furthermore, the phosphorylation at four other sites in FAK was not altered by PTP 1B. In addition, we found that phosphorylated alpha-actinin bound to Src and reduced the binding of FAK to Src. The dephosphorylation at Tyr-397 in FAK triggered by wild-type alpha-actinin and PTP 1B caused a significant increase in cell migration. We propose that phosphorylated alpha-actinin disrupts the FAK x Src complex exposing Tyr-397 in FAK to PTP 1B. These findings uncover a novel feedback loop involving phosphorylated alpha-actinin and PTP 1B that regulates FAK x Src interaction and cell migration.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL54104

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;3;1746-54

  • CXCL8-induced FAK phosphorylation via CXCR1 and CXCR2: cytoskeleton- and integrin-related mechanisms converge with FAK regulatory pathways in a receptor-specific manner.

    Cohen-Hillel E, Yron I, Meshel T, Soria G, Attal H and Ben-Baruch A

    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

    CXCL8 is a potent chemokine, inducing focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, and migration via a FAK-mediated pathway. Since, unlike growth factors, chemokines directly control integrins and cytoskeleton rearrangements, we determined whether these elements regulate CXCL8-induced FAK phosphorylation. The analysis intentionally dissociated between the CXCL8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. In both CXCR1- and CXCR2-expressing cells, actin and microtubules were required for CXCL8-induced FAK phosphorylation, and CXCL8-induced cell spreading was accompanied by concordant re-localization of FAK with actin and beta-tubulin. The phosphorylation of five FAK sites depended on intact actin filaments and microtubules. While in CXCR2-expressing cells FAK phosphorylation was adhesion-dependent and was stimulated by fibronectin, in CXCR1-expressing cells FAK phosphorylation was adhesion-independent. Of note, even in the absence of integrin stimulation, the CXCL8-induced phosphorylation of FAK in CXCR1-expressing cells required cytoskeletal elements. CXCL8-induced migration in both cell types was highly reliant on actin filaments, but only the migration of CXCR1-expressing cells was fully dependent on microtubules. Overall, several aspects of CXCL8-induced FAK phosphorylation and migration are regulated in a receptor-specific manner. These observations lay the basis for future investigation of the equilibrium between CXCR1 and CXCR2 in cells expressing both receptors together, such as neutrophils, endothelial cells and tumor cells.

    Cytokine 2006;33;1;1-16

  • FAK and Src kinases are required for netrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of UNC5.

    Li W, Aurandt J, Jürgensen C, Jürgense C, Rao Y and Guan KL

    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. wqli@umich.edu

    During neuronal development, netrin and its receptors UNC5 and DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) guide axonal growth cones in navigating to their targets. Netrin also plays important roles in the regulation of cell migration, tissue morphogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we show that netrin induces UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this effect of netrin is dependent on its co-receptor DCC. UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation is known to be important for netrin to induce cell migration and axonal repulsion. Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for netrin to stimulate UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation in neurons and transfected cells. The SH2 domain of Src kinase directly interacts with the cytosolic domain of UNC5 in a tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is also involved in netrin-induced UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Src and FAK can phosphorylate UNC5. Our data suggest a model in which netrin stimulates UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling in a manner dependent on the co-receptor DCC, through the recruitment of Src and FAK kinases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA107193, R01 CA107193-03

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 1;47-55

  • Focal adhesion kinase is a substrate and downstream effector of SHP-2 complexed with Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    Tsutsumi R, Takahashi A, Azuma T, Higashi H and Hatakeyama M

    Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    Infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The cagA gene product CagA is translocated from H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases (SFKs). Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA binds and activates SHP-2 phosphatase and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) while inducing an elongated cell shape termed the "hummingbird phenotype." Here we show that CagA reduces the level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells. The decrease in phosphorylated FAK is due to SHP-2-mediated dephosphorylation of FAK at the activating phosphorylation sites, not due to Csk-dependent inhibition of SFKs, which phosphorylate FAK. Coexpression of constitutively active FAK with CagA inhibits induction of the hummingbird phenotype, whereas expression of dominant-negative FAK elicits an elongated cell shape characteristic of the hummingbird phenotype. These results indicate that inhibition of FAK by SHP-2 plays a crucial role in the morphogenetic activity of CagA. Impaired cell adhesion and increased motility by CagA may be involved in the development of gastric lesions associated with cagA-positive H. pylori infection.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;1;261-76

  • FAK and PYK2 interact with SAP90/PSD-95-Associated Protein-3.

    Bongiorno-Borbone L, Kadaré G, Benfenati F and Girault JA

    INSERM, U536, Paris, France.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) are two related non-receptor tyrosine kinases highly expressed in brain. Although they are both involved in synaptic plasticity, little is known about their specific neuronal partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen and GST pull-down assays we show that SAPAP3 (SAP90/PSD-95-Associated Protein-3) interacts with FAK (residues 676-840) and PYK2. The three proteins partly co-distribute in the same sucrose gradient fractions as the post-synaptic density protein PSD-95 and Src. Our results suggest that SAPAP3 is an anchoring protein for FAK and PYK2 in post-synaptic densities and may contribute to the synaptic function of these tyrosine kinases.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;2;641-6

  • JSAP1/JIP3 cooperates with focal adhesion kinase to regulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cell migration.

    Takino T, Nakada M, Miyamori H, Watanabe Y, Sato T, Gantulga D, Yoshioka K, Yamada KM and Sato H

    Department of Molecular Virology, Cancer Research Institute, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Japan.

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1) (also termed JNK-interacting protein 3; JIP3) is a member of a family of scaffold factors for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, and it also forms a complex with focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we demonstrate that JSAP1 serves as a cooperative scaffold for activation of JNK and regulation of cell migration in response to fibronectin (FN) stimulation. JSAP1 mediated an association between FAK and JNK, which was induced by either co-expression of Src or attachment of cells to FN. Complex formation of FAK with JSAP1 and p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130(Cas)) resulted in augmentation of FAK activity and phosphorylation of both JSAP1 and p130(Cas), which required p130(Cas) hyperphosphorylation and was abolished by inhibition of Src. JNK activation by FN was enhanced by JSAP1, which was suppressed by disrupting the FAK/p130(Cas) pathway by expression of a dominant-negative form of p130(Cas) or by inhibiting Src. We also documented the co-localization of JSAP1 with JNK and phosphorylated FAK at the leading edge and stimulation of cell migration by JSAP1 expression, which depended on its JNK binding domain and was suppressed by inhibition of JNK. The level of JSAP1 mRNA correlated with advanced malignancy in brain tumors, unlike other JIPs. We propose that the JSAP1.FAK complex functions cooperatively as a scaffold for the JNK signaling pathway and regulator of cell migration on FN, and we suggest that JSAP1 is also associated with malignancy in brain tumors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;45;37772-81

  • Dual function of focal adhesion kinase in regulating integrin-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 release by human T lymphoid cells.

    Segarra M, Vilardell C, Matsumoto K, Esparza J, Lozano E, Serra-Pages C, Urbano-Márquez A, Yamada KM and Cid MC

    Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2005;19;13;1875-7

  • In situ analysis of integrin and growth factor receptor signaling pathways in human glioblastomas suggests overlapping relationships with focal adhesion kinase activation.

    Riemenschneider MJ, Mueller W, Betensky RA, Mohapatra G and Louis DN

    Department of Pathology, Molecular Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 149-7151, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

    Deregulated integrin signaling is common in cancers, including glioblastoma. Integrin binding and growth factor receptor signaling activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and subsequently up-regulate extracellular regulated kinases (ERK-1/2), leading to cell-cycle progression and cell migration. Most studies of this pathway have used in vitro systems or tumor lysate-based approaches. We examined these pathways primarily in situ using a panel of 30 glioblastomas and gene expression arrays, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, emphasizing the histological distribution of molecular changes. Within individual tumors, increased expression of FAK, p-FAK, paxillin, ERK-1/2, and p-ERK-1/2 occurred in regions of elevated EGFR and/or PDGFRA expression. Moreover, FAK activation levels correlated with EGFR and PDGFRA expression, and p-FAK and EGFR expression co-localized at the single-cell level. In addition, integrin expression was enriched in EGFR/PDGFRA-overexpressing areas but was more regionally confined than FAK, p-FAK, and paxillin. Integrins beta8 and alpha5beta1 were most commonly expressed, often in a perinecrotic or perivascular pattern. Taken together, our data suggest that growth factor receptor overexpression facilitates alterations in the integrin signaling pathway. Thus, FAK may act in glioblastoma as a downstream target of growth factor signaling, with integrins enhancing the impact of such signaling in the tumor microenvironment.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA57683, R01 CA057683

    The American journal of pathology 2005;167;5;1379-87

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Regulation of FAK Ser-722 phosphorylation and kinase activity by GSK3 and PP1 during cell spreading and migration.

    Bianchi M, De Lucchini S, Marin O, Turner DL, Hanks SK and Villa-Moruzzi E

    Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

    In addition to tyrosine sites, FAK (focal adhesion kinase) is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues. In the present study, the regulation of two of these sites, Ser-722 (S1) and Ser-911 (S4), was investigated. Phosphorylation of S1 (but not S4) decreased in resuspended cells, and recovered during spreading on fibronectin, indicating adhesion-dependent regulation. GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3) inhibitors decreased S1 phosphorylation, and siRNA (short interfering RNA) silencing indicated further the involvement of GSK3beta. Furthermore, GSK3beta was found to become activated during cell spreading on fibronectin, and to physically associate with FAK. S1 phosphorylation was observed to decrease in wounded cell monolayers, while GSK3beta underwent inactivation and later was observed to increase to the original level within 24 h. Direct phosphorylation of S1, requiring pre-phosphorylation of Ser-726 in the +4 position, was demonstrated using purified GSK3 and a synthetic peptide containing FAK residues 714-730. An inhibitory role for S1 phosphorylation in FAK signalling was indicated by findings that both alanine substitution for S1 and dephosphorylation of S1 by PP1 (serine/threonine protein phosphatase type-1) resulted in an increase in FAK kinase activity; likewise, this role was also shown by cell treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor LiCl. The inhibitory role was confirmed by the finding that cells expressing FAK with alanine substitution for S1 displayed improved cell spreading and faster migration in wound-healing and trans-well assays. Finally, the finding that S1 phosphorylation increased in cells treated with the PP1 inhibitor okadaic acid indicated targeting of this site by PP1. These results indicate an additional mechanism for regulation of FAK activity during cell spreading and migration, involving Ser-722 phosphorylation modulated through the competing actions of GSK3beta and PP1.

    The Biochemical journal 2005;391;Pt 2;359-70

  • Regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and disassembly by phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine 397.

    Hamadi A, Bouali M, Dontenwill M, Stoeckel H, Takeda K and Rondé P

    UMR CNRS 7034, Pharmacologie et Physicochimie des Interactions Cellulaires et Moléculaires, Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Faculté de Pharmacie, BP 60024, 67401 Illkirch, France.

    One of the major tyrosine phosphorylation activities linked to integrin signalling is that of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). High amounts of FAK are located at specialised subcellular compartments known as focal adhesions. FAK tyrosine phosphorylation at focal adhesions is increased by various stimuli including integrin engagement during migration processes, growth factors and oncogene transformation. Phosphorylation of FAK at various tyrosine residues regulates focal adhesion turnover by mechanisms that are not well understood. We made a fluorescent FAK mutant (Y397F-FAK/YCam) to analyse, in living cells, how phosphorylation of FAK regulates the turnover of focal adhesions. We found that expression of Y397F-FAK/YCam in human astrocytoma cells decreases the level of phosphorylation of FAK at endogenous Tyr-397 residues and at both endogenous and exogenous Tyr-576 residues, in the putative activation loop of the kinase. This corresponds to a decrease in phosphorylation of FAK at focal adhesions in Y397F-FAK/YCam cells, since the cellular localisation of FAK phosphoTyr-576 in cells expressing Y397F-FAK/YCam or FAK/YCam was not different. Furthermore, FRAP analysis showed that phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 increases specifically the time-residency of FAK at focal adhesions but not in cytosol. This in turn induces disassembly of focal adhesions at the cell tail and promotes cell motility as shown by the decrease in microtubule-mediated turnover of Y397F-FAK/YCam-containing focal adhesions. Our data show that phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 is a key determinant of how FAK controls focal adhesion turnover.

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 19;4415-25

  • Increased tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins including pp125(FAK) suggests endogenous activation and aggregation in pulmonary hypertension.

    Maeda NY, Bydlowski SP and Lopes AA

    Pró-Sangue Foundation, Heart Institute, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil. nanamaeda@uol.com.br

    Despite of several lines of evidence indicating a pathophysiologic role of platelets in pulmonary hypertension, the occurrence of chronic endogenous platelet activation has been a matter of debate. It was hypothesized that the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins examined ex vivo could provide information on the state of platelet activation. This was examined in 10 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension aged 18 to 53 years. Phosphotyrosine density and the amounts of specific proteins were analyzed in resting platelets after reaction with anti-phosphotyrosine, anti-pp60(s-src), anti-pp125(FAK), and anti-alphaIIbbeta3 antibodies. There was a 79% increase in protein-associated phosphotyrosine in patients in comparison to levels in controls (p<0.05). In particular, phosphorylation on tyrosine residues of pp120 and pp125(FAK) increased 24% and 57%, respectively (p<0.05). Although pp60(s-src)-associated phosphotyrosine was not altered in the patient group as a whole, it was clearly decreased in three subjects. Platelet content of beta3 integrin, pp60(s-src), and pp125(FAK), was not altered. This pattern of phosphorylation suggests an ongoing process of platelet activation. Because phosphorylation of pp125(FAK) is a late, integrin-dependent event, results suggest that platelet activation and aggregation occur in vivo in these patients.

    Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 2005;11;4;411-5

  • Methylation silencing of SOCS-3 promotes cell growth and migration by enhancing JAK/STAT and FAK signalings in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Niwa Y, Kanda H, Shikauchi Y, Saiura A, Matsubara K, Kitagawa T, Yamamoto J, Kubo T and Yoshikawa H

    Department of Epigenetic Carcinogenesis, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-10-6, Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.

    We identified that suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) gene was aberrantly methylated in its CpG island in three of 10 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. SOCS-3 RNA was undetectable in five of the 10 HCC cell lines including the three methylated cell lines, and a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, reactivated SOCS-3 expression in three cell lines tested. The DNA region where we found aberrant DNA methylation includes a signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) binding consensus sequence. When the DNA region was used as a promoter, DNA methylation markedly reduced promoter activity. SOCS-3 was also aberrantly methylated in six of 18 primary HCC samples. SOCS-3 expression was reduced in three of the three methylated and one of the three unmethylated primary samples examined. Restoration of SOCS-3 in cells lacking SOCS-3 expression suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation and cell growth. We found that IL-6 acted as a growth factor in HCC cells. Inhibition of SOCS-3 expression in cells whose growth was induced by IL-6 enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation and cell growth. In addition, AG490, a chemical JAK2 inhibitor, suppressed cell growth and downregulated STAT3 phosphorylation, but not FAK phosphorylation. We also found that SOCS-3 physically interacted with phosphorylated FAK and Elongin B in HCC cells. Restoration of SOCS-3 decreased FAK phosphorylation as well as FAK protein level. Inhibition of SOCS-3 expression increased FAK phosphorylation, resulting in enhancement of cell migration. These data indicate that SOCS-3 negatively regulates cell growth and cell motility by inhibiting Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT and FAK signalings in HCC cells. Thus, loss of SOCS-3 by the associated DNA methylation confers cells advantage in growth and migration.

    Oncogene 2005;24;42;6406-17

  • Specific induction of pp125 focal adhesion kinase in human breast cancer.

    Watermann DO, Gabriel B, Jäger M, Orlowska-Volk M, Hasenburg A, zur Hausen A, Gitsch G and Stickeler E

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

    The pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in integrin-mediated cell signalling and overexpressed in a variety of solid tumours. Focal adhesion kinase expression has been correlated to invasion and metastasis, but the data on breast cancer are inconclusive. We analysed FAK mRNA, protein levels and expression patterns in primary breast cancer and normal breast tissue. FAK expression on the functional protein level and mRNA was determined in 55 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding normal tissue by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Using a score ranging from 0 to +5 for Western blots, we determined in normal breast tissue a score of 1.51+/-0.84 (mean+/-standard deviation), which was strongly induced to 2.91 (+/-1.22) in breast cancers (P<0.001). Overall, 45 out of 55 tissue pairs (81.8%) showed this upregulation of FAK protein in tumours in comparison to normal tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings with a significant higher score for tumours vs physiological tissue (1.0+/-0.63 vs 2.27+/-0.91; P=0.001). Interestingly, no overall significant difference in the mRNA levels (P=0.359) was observed. In conclusion, expression levels of the FAK protein are specifically upregulated in breast cancer in comparison to matched normal breast tissue supporting its pivotal role in neoplastic signal transduction and representing a potential marker for malignant transformation.

    British journal of cancer 2005;93;6;694-8

  • A truncated FAK lacking the FERM domain displays high catalytic activity but retains responsiveness to adhesion-mediated signals.

    Jácamo RO and Rozengurt E

    Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, USA.

    In order to determine the role of the FERM domain in the regulation of FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-397, the major autophosphorylation site, we generated a truncated FAK lacking a region of the N-terminus corresponding to amino acids 1-384 (FAKDelta384). FAKDelta384 showed a striking increase in phosphorylation, as compared with wild type FAK, in lysates of either HEK 293 or FAK-/- cells. Interestingly, the truncated form of FAK lacking the N-terminal domain retains responsiveness to integrin-mediated signals, as judged by its dephosphorylation by holding cells in suspension and by the recovery of the phosphorylation when replating the cells on fibronectin. We propose a model in which removal of FERM-mediated auto-inhibition is important to increase FAK catalytic activity but the translocation and clustering of this enzyme at the focal adhesions is required for maximal phosphorylation at Tyr-397.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 55003, DK 56930

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;334;4;1299-304

  • alpha(v)beta3-integrin-dependent activation of focal adhesion kinase mediates NF-kappaB activation and motogenic activity by HIV-1 Tat in endothelial cells.

    Urbinati C, Bugatti A, Giacca M, Schlaepfer D, Presta M and Rusnati M

    General Pathology and Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, University of Brescia, viale Europe 11, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

    Once in the extracellular environment, the transactivator protein HIV-1 Tat exerts several pleiotropic effects by interacting with different cellular receptors, including integrin alpha(v)beta3. Real-time surface plasmon resonance analysis reveals that Tat/alpha(V)beta3 interaction occurs with rapid kinetics (association and dissociation rates equal to 1.16 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.78 x 10(-1) s(-1), respectively) and high affinity (dissociation constant = 32 nM). Through this interaction, substratum-immobilized Tat promotes adhesion and motogenic activity in endothelial cells. Also, alpha(v)beta(3)/Tat interaction triggers the activation of focal adhesion kinase, RhoA and pp60src. Overexpression of the dominant negative form of focal adhesion kinase, but not of an inactive Leu1034Ser substitution mutant isoform, impairs the activation of focal adhesion kinase and RhoA, but not that of pp60src, without affecting endothelial cell adhesion and spreading. alpha(v)beta3/Tat interaction triggers the activation of NF-kappaB in endothelial cells in a focal adhesion kinase-, RhoA- and pp60src-dependent manner, as shown in dominant negative focal adhesion kinase transfectants or using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Finally, the activation of focal adhesion kinase, RhoA, NF-kappaB and pp60src are required to mediate the motogenic activity of Tat in endothelial cells. Since Tat accumulates in an immobilized form in the extracellular matrix, these results provide new biochemical and biological insights about alpha(v)beta3/Tat interaction exploitable for the design of anti-Tat strategies.

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 17;3949-58

  • Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules.

    Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA and White FM

    Biological Engineering Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    Ligand binding to cell surface receptors initiates a cascade of signaling events regulated by dynamic phosphorylation events on a multitude of pathway proteins. Quantitative features, including intensity, timing, and duration of phosphorylation of particular residues, may play a role in determining cellular response, but experimental data required for analysis of these features have not previously been available. To understand the dynamic operation of signaling cascades, we have developed a method enabling the simultaneous quantification of tyrosine phosphorylation of specific residues on dozens of key proteins in a time-resolved manner, downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Tryptic peptides from four different EGFR stimulation time points were labeled with four isoforms of the iTRAQ reagent to enable downstream quantification. After mixing of the labeled samples, tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides were immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and further enriched by IMAC before LC/MS/MS analysis. Database searching and manual confirmation of peptide phosphorylation site assignments led to the identification of 78 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on 58 proteins from a single analysis. Replicate analyses of a separate biological sample provided both validation of this first data set and identification of 26 additional tyrosine phosphorylation sites and 18 additional proteins. iTRAQ fragment ion ratios provided time course phosphorylation profiles for each site. The data set of quantitative temporal phosphorylation profiles was further characterized by self-organizing maps, which resulted in identification of several cohorts of tyrosine residues exhibiting self-similar temporal phosphorylation profiles, operationally defining dynamic modules in the EGFR signaling network consistent with particular cellular processes. The presence of novel proteins and associated tyrosine phosphorylation sites within these modules indicates additional components of this network and potentially localizes the topological action of these proteins. Additional analysis and modeling of the data generated in this study are likely to yield more sophisticated models of receptor tyrosine kinase-initiated signal transduction, trafficking, and regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA96504; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK070172, DK42816; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM68762

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;9;1240-50

  • Direct phosphorylation of proliferative and survival pathway proteins by RET.

    Panta GR, Du L, Nwariaku FE and Kim LT

    Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.

    Background: Gain-of-function mutations in the RET tyrosine kinase receptor cause the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes type 2a and 2b, and medullary thyroid cancer. We have previously shown that RET signals through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in medullary thyroid cancer cells and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity can be blocked by pp2, an inhibitor of both Src and RET. We hypothesized that RET could directly phosphorylate FAK and ERK.

    Methods: RET and ERK kinase activity were measured with the use of an in vitro kinase assay. The relative contribution of RET in phosphorylation of ERK was tested by treating cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK, and the RET inhibitor PP2, then measuring ERK activity.

    Results: Immunoprecipitated, mutant RET from cells or the recombinant RET kinase domain was able to directly phosphorylate tyrosine residues on FAK. Specifically Y576/577, Y861, and Y925, but not the autophosphorylation site Y397 of FAK, were phosphorylated by RET. Similarly ERK 2 could be phosphorylated at Y187 (Y204 in ERK1). Inhibition of both MEK (upstream of ERK) and RET was more potent than inhibition of either alone in decreasing ERK activity. Furthermore, tyrosine residues in DOK1, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase, JNK 1 and 2, P-38, and phospholipase-gamma were directly phosphorylated by RET.

    Conclusions: RET directly phosphorylates tyrosine residues on FAK, ERK 1/2, DOK1, the p85 subunit of of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase, JNK 1 and 2, P-38, and phospholipase-gamma. These data indicate a direct interaction between RET and a broad range of effector molecules that may contribute to tumor pathogenesis.

    Surgery 2005;138;2;269-74

  • FAK-mediated src phosphorylation of endophilin A2 inhibits endocytosis of MT1-MMP and promotes ECM degradation.

    Wu X, Gan B, Yoo Y and Guan JL

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important mediator of integrin signaling in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. To understand how FAK contributes to cell invasion, we explored the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by FAK. We found that v-Src-transformed cells activate a FAK-dependent mechanism that attenuates endocytosis of MT1-MMP. This in turn increases cell-surface expression of MT1-MMP and cellular degradation of extracellular matrix. Further, we identified an interaction between FAK's second Pro-rich motif and endophilin A2's SH3 domain. This interaction served as an autophosphorylation-dependent scaffold to allow Src phosphorylation of endophilin A2 at Tyr315. Tyr315 phosphorylation inhibited endophilin/dynamin interactions, and blockade of Tyr315 phosphorylation promoted endocytosis of MT1-MMP. Together, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism of cell invasion whereby FAK promotes cell-surface presentation of MT1-MMP by inhibiting endophilin A2-dependent endocytosis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050

    Developmental cell 2005;9;2;185-96

  • Direct interaction of the N-terminal domain of focal adhesion kinase with the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53.

    Golubovskaya VM, Finch R and Cance WG

    Departments of Surgery and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, School of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and associates with multiple cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling proteins through which it can play an important role in survival signaling. A link between FAK and p53 in survival signaling has been reported, although the molecular basis of these events has not been described. In the present study, we report that FAK physically and specifically interacts with p53 as demonstrated by pull-down, immunoprecipitation, and co-localization analyses. Using different constructs of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal fragments of FAK and p53 proteins, we determined that the N-terminal fragment of FAK directly interacts with the N-terminal transactivation domain of p53. Inhibition of p53 with small interfering p53 RNA resulted in a decreased complex of FAK and p53 proteins in 293 cells, and induction of p53 with doxorubicin in normal human fibroblasts caused an increase of FAK and p53 interaction. Introduction of the FAK plasmid into p53-null SAOS-2 cells was able to rescue these cells from apoptosis induced by expression of wild type p53. In HCT 116 colon cancer cells, co-transfection of FAK plasmid with p21, MDM-2, and BAX luciferase plasmids resulted in significant inhibition of p53-responsive luciferase activities, demonstrating that FAK can reduce transcriptional activity of p53. The results of the FAK and p53 interaction study strongly support the conclusion that FAK can suppress p53-mediated apoptosis and inhibit transcriptional activity of p53. This provides a novel mechanism for FAK-p53-mediated survival/apoptotic signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;26;25008-21

  • Targeting of alpha(v) integrins interferes with FAK activation and smooth muscle cell migration and invasion.

    Varadarajulu J, Laser M, Hupp M, Wu R and Hauck CR

    ZINF, Universität Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg, Germany.

    Aberrant migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is a key feature of restenosis. Since extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors of the integrin family play a critical role in this process, it is instrumental to understand their contribution to cell migration and invasive motility of SMC on the molecular level. Therefore, we investigated the role of alpha(v)-containing integrins expressed by primary human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) in vitronectin (VN)-initiated signaling events and cell migration. In hCASMC plated on VN, alpha(v)-containing integrins were localized at focal adhesion sites. Haptotactic stimulation through VN led to a dose-dependent increase in cell migration and concomitantly to enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Both events were completely blocked by a specific inhibitor of integrin alpha(v). Additionally, the integrin alpha(v) inhibitor abolished PDGF-BB-stimulated chemotactic migration. Confocal microscopy confirmed the increased tyrosine phosphorylation at VN-initiated focal contact sites in hCASMC, that was abolished upon alpha(v) inhibition. In vitro invasion of hCASMC was severely compromised in the presence of the integrin alpha(v) inhibitor paralleled by decreased levels of secreted matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2). Together, integrin alpha(v) inhibition abrogates tyrosine phosphorylation at focal adhesion sites and diminishes MMP-2 secretion leading to reduced migration and invasion of hCASMCs.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;331;2;404-12

  • Microtubule-induced focal adhesion disassembly is mediated by dynamin and focal adhesion kinase.

    Ezratty EJ, Partridge MA and Gundersen GG

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, BB 1217, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Imaging studies implicate microtubule targeting of focal adhesions in focal adhesion disassembly, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we develop a model system of focal adhesion disassembly based on the finding that microtubule regrowth after nocodazole washout induces disassembly of focal adhesions, and that this disassembly occurs independently of Rho and Rac, but depends on focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and dynamin. During disassembly, dynamin interacts with FAK and colocalizes with focal adhesions. Inhibition of dynamin prevents migration of cells with a focal adhesion phenotype. Our results show that focal adhesion disassembly involves microtubules, dynamin and FAK, and is not simply the reversal of focal adhesion formation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM68595

    Nature cell biology 2005;7;6;581-90

  • JNK1 and JNK2 oppositely regulate p53 in signaling linked to apoptosis triggered by an altered fibronectin matrix: JNK links FAK and p53.

    Tafolla E, Wang S, Wong B, Leong J and Kapila YL

    Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143-0512, USA.

    The extracellular matrix regulates many cellular processes, including survival, and alterations in the matrix or in matrix survival signals can trigger apoptosis. Previously, we showed that an altered fibronectin matrix triggers apoptosis in primary cells via a novel pathway regulated by transcriptionally mediated decreases in p53 and c-Myc levels. Here we report that this apoptotic mechanism is propagated by decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is linked to increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and to decreased levels of p53. FAK is physically and spatially linked to JNK and p53, which relocalize from the nucleus to the cell membrane to mediate this interaction. Further, p53 participates in a feedback mechanism with JNK to regulate this apoptotic process and is oppositely regulated by JNK1 and JNK2.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE13725, T32-DE07306, T35-DE07103

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;20;19992-9

  • Focal adhesion kinase is required for bombesin-induced prostate cancer cell motility.

    Lacoste J, Aprikian AG and Chevalier S

    Urologic Oncology Research Group, Urology Division, Departmentof Surgery, McGill University Health Center (MUHC) Research Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1A4.

    Clinical evidence links neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) to prostate cancer progression. In the prostate carcinoma PC-3 cell model, the action of the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) analog, bombesin (BN), on the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and invasiveness suggests that this kinase might favor metastasis. Given that components of the FAK signalling pathway are also up regulated in prostate cancer, the aim of the present investigation was to test if FAK function is required for BN-induced motility in PC-3 cells. In wound assays designed to investigate the fate of FAK in cells undergoing BN-induced motility, it was observed that BN treatment resulted in relocalization of FAK in focal contacts concomitantly with its tyrosine phosphorylation on residue 397 (FAK [pY(397)]) and with the formation of actin lamellipodia. Moreover, BN-induced cell motility was significantly reduced in the presence of FAK inhibitors (either anti-FAK [pY(397)] antibody or FRNK, the FAK-related non-kinase). Altogether, these observations point towards a critical role for FAK in the action of BN on PC-3 cell motility.

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2005;235;1-2;51-61

  • Loss of Rb-E2F repression results in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis through inactivation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Lieman JH, Worley LA and Harbour JW

    Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Molecular hardwiring of the cell cycle to the apoptotic machinery is a critical tumor suppressor mechanism for eliminating hyperproliferative cells. Deregulation of the Rb-E2F repressor complex by genetic deletion or functional inhibition of Rb triggers apoptosis through both the intrinsic (caspase-9 mediated) and extrinsic (caspase-8 mediated) death pathways. Induction of the intrinsic pathway has been studied extensively and involves release of free E2F and direct transcriptional activation of E2F-responsive apoptotic genes such as ARF, APAF1, and CASP9. In contrast, the mechanisms leading to activation of the extrinsic pathway are less well understood. There is growing evidence that Rb-E2F perturbation induces the extrinsic pathway, at least in part, through derepression (as opposed to transactivation) of apoptotic genes. Here, we explore this possibility using cells in which Rb-E2F complexes are displaced from promoters without stimulating E2F transactivation. This derepression of Rb-E2F-regulated genes leads to apoptosis through inactivation of focal adhesion kinase and activation of caspase-8. These findings reveal a new mechanistic link between Rb-E2F and the extrinsic (caspase 8-mediated) apoptotic pathway.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY13169

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;11;10484-90

  • Residues within the first subdomain of the FERM-like domain in focal adhesion kinase are important in its regulation.

    Cohen LA and Guan JL

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    We have previously described regulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by its amino-terminal FERM-like domain through an autoinhibitory interaction with its kinase domain (Cooper, L. A., Shen, T. L., and Guan, J. L. (2003) Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 8030-8041). Here we show that the first two subdomains of the FERM-like domain are independently capable of inhibiting phosphorylation of FAK in trans. We characterized several point mutations within the first subdomain of the FERM-like domain and find that mutation of Lys-38 to alanine results in a FAK mutant that is strongly hyperphosphorylated when expressed in mammalian cells, and promotes increased phosphorylation of the FAK substrate paxillin. A second mutation of Lys-78 to alanine results in a FAK mutant that is underphosphorylated, but can be activated by extracellular matrix stimuli. Like deletion of the amino terminus itself the K38A mutation is phosphorylated in suspension. The Delta375 truncation mutant of FAK is strongly phosphorylated both when Tyr-397 is mutated to phenylalanine, and in the presence of the Src inhibitor, PP2, suggesting that removal of the amino terminus can render FAK Src independent. This is in contrast to the K38A mutant that is not phosphorylated in the Y397F background, and which shows decreased phosphorylation in the presence of the Src inhibitor PP2, suggesting that regulation of FAK by Src is a secondary step in its activation. The K38A mutation weakens the interaction between the amino terminus of FAK and its own kinase domain, and disrupts the ability of the amino terminus to inhibit the phosphorylation of FAK in trans. The K38A mutation of FAK also increases the ability of FAK to promote cell cycle progression and cell migration, suggesting that hyperphosphorylation of this mutant can positively affect FAK function in cells. Together, these data strongly suggest a role for the first FAK subdomain of the FERM domain in its normal regulation and function in the cell.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;9;8197-207

  • Polymorphisms in the tyrosine kinase 2 and interferon regulatory factor 5 genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Göring HH, Lindroos K, Wiman AC, Sturfelt G, Jönsen A, Rantapää-Dahlqvist S, Möller B, Kere J, Koskenmies S, Widén E, Eloranta ML, Julkunen H, Kristjansdottir H, Steinsson K, Alm G, Rönnblom L and Syvänen AC

    Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Genome scans in families with SLE point to multiple potential chromosomal regions that harbor SLE susceptibility genes, and association studies in different populations have suggested several susceptibility alleles for SLE. Increased production of type I interferon (IFN) and expression of IFN-inducible genes is commonly observed in SLE and may be pivotal in the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. We analyzed 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes from the type I IFN pathway in 679 Swedish, Finnish, and Icelandic patients with SLE, in 798 unaffected family members, and in 438 unrelated control individuals for joint linkage and association with SLE. In two of the genes--the tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) and IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) genes--we identified SNPs that displayed strong signals in joint analysis of linkage and association (unadjusted P<10(-7)) with SLE. TYK2 binds to the type I IFN receptor complex and IRF5 is a regulator of type I IFN gene expression. Thus, our results support a disease mechanism in SLE that involves key components of the type I IFN system.

    American journal of human genetics 2005;76;3;528-37

  • Angiotensin II induces focal adhesion kinase/paxillin phosphorylation and cell migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Montiel M, de la Blanca EP and Jiménez E

    Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain. mmontiel@uma.es

    In the present study, we demonstrated that Ang II provokes a transitory enhancement of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin phosphorylation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, Ang II induces a time- and dose-dependent augmentation in cell migration, but does not affect HUVEC proliferation. The effect of Ang II on FAK and paxillin phosphorylation was markedly attenuated in cells pretreated with wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in regulating FAK activation. Similar results were observed when HUVEC were pretreated with genistein, a non-selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor, or with the specific inhibitor PP2 for Src family kinases, demonstrating the involvement of protein tyrosine kinases, and particularly Src family of tyrosine kinases, in the downstream signalling pathway of Ang II receptors. Furthermore, FAK and paxillin phosphorylation was markedly blocked after treatment of HUVEC with AG1478, a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of PI3K, Src family tyrosine kinases, and EGFR also decreased HUVEC migration. In conclusion, these results suggest that Ang II mediates an increase in FAK and paxillin phosphorylation and induces HUVEC migration through signal transduction pathways dependent on PI3K and Src tyrosine kinase activation and EGFR transactivation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;327;4;971-8

  • p27Kip1 and cyclin D1 are necessary for focal adhesion kinase regulation of cell cycle progression in glioblastoma cells propagated in vitro and in vivo in the scid mouse brain.

    Ding Q, Grammer JR, Nelson MA, Guan JL, Stewart JE and Gladson CL

    Department of Pathology, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    We have reported previously that the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is elevated in glioblastomas and that expression of FAK promotes the proliferation of glioblastoma cells propagated in either soft agar or in the C.B.17 severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mouse brain. We therefore determined the effect of FAK on cell cycle progression in these cells. We found that overexpression of wild-type FAK promoted exit from G(1) in monolayer cultures of glioblastoma cells, enhanced the expression of cyclins D1 and E while reducing the expression of p27(Kip1) and p21(Waf1), and enhanced the kinase activity of the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (cdk4) complex. Transfection of the monolayers with a FAK molecule in which the autophosphorylation site is mutated (FAK397F) inhibited exit from G(1) and reduced the expression of cyclins D1 and E while enhancing the expression of p27(Kip1) and p21(Waf1). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated down-regulation of cyclin D1 inhibited the enhancement of cell cycle progression observed on expression of wild-type FAK, whereas siRNA-mediated down-regulation of cyclin E had no effect. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of p27(Kip1) overcame the inhibition of cell cycle progression observed on expression of FAK397F, whereas down-regulation of p21(Waf1) had no effect. These results were confirmed in vivo in the scid mouse brain xenograft model in which propagation of glioblastoma cells expressing FAK397F resulted in a 50% inhibition of tumor growth and inhibited exit from G(1). Taken together, our results indicate that FAK promotes proliferation of glioblastoma cells by enhancing exit from G(1) through a mechanism that involves cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1).

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA59958, CA70145, CA97110

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;8;6802-15

  • Focal adhesion kinase regulates metastatic adhesion of carcinoma cells within liver sinusoids.

    von Sengbusch A, Gassmann P, Fisch KM, Enns A, Nicolson GL and Haier J

    Molecular Biology Lab, Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Münster, Waldeyerstrasse 1, 48149 Münster, Germany.

    Organ-specific tumor cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell migration into host organs often involve integrin-mediated cellular processes that can be modified by environmental conditions acting on metastasizing tumor cells, such as shear forces within the blood circulation. Since the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) appears to be essential for the regulation of the integrin-mediated adhesive and migratory properties of tumor cells, its role in early steps of the metastatic cascade was investigated using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Human colo 1f40 n and hepatocellular carcinoma cells were used to study adhesive properties under static conditions and in a parallel plate laminar flow chamber in vitro. In addition, intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate early interactions between circulating tumor cells and the microvasculature of potential target organs in vivo. Shear forces caused by hydrodynamic fluid flow induced Tyr-hyperphosphorylation of FAK in cell monolayers. Reduced expression of FAK or its endogenous inhibition by FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK) interfered with early adhesion events to extracellular matrix components under flow conditions. In contrast, tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells under these conditions was not affected. Furthermore, down-regulation of FAK inhibited metastatic cell adhesion in vivo within the liver sinusoids. In summary, FAK appears to be involved in early events of integrin-mediated adhesion of circulating carcinoma cells under fluid flow in vitro and in vivo. This kinase may take part in the establishment of definitive adhesive interactions that enable adherent tumor cells to resist fluid shear forces, resulting in an organ-specific formation of distant metastases.

    The American journal of pathology 2005;166;2;585-96

  • Differential expression of protease activated receptor 1 (Par1) and pY397FAK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue samples.

    Grisaru-Granovsky S, Salah Z, Maoz M, Pruss D, Beller U and Bar-Shavit R

    Department of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.

    Protease activated receptors (PAR) form a family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) encoding their own ligands and uniquely activated via proteolytic cleavage. Although proteases in general have been implicated in the remodeling of the extracellular tumor microenvironment, the role of cell surface receptors activated by proteolysis is now emerging. In our present study we investigated the expression pattern of protease activated receptor 1 hPar1 in ovarian carcinoma tissue samples. Abundant hPar1 mRNA and protein were detected in "low malignant potential" and in invasive carcinomas, regardless of the histological subtype. In contrast, no hPar1 expression was detected on the cell surface of normal ovarian epithelium. The differential expression pattern of hPar1 was shown by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses. In early stages of ovarian carcinoma (Ia), the contra lateral normal ovary showed strong PAR1 expression as opposed to the lack of expression in the ovarian epithelium obtained from normal individuals. In parallel, we analyzed the expression pattern of alphavbeta5 integrin and of activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a major focal contact protein, in these tissues. Although abundant expression of alphavbeta5 integrin was observed in all tissues specimens examined, regardless of either normal or malignant, the level of activated FAK was differentially expressed. Phosphorylated FAK was seen in invasive ovarian carcinoma, but not in the normal ovarian epithelium. The abundant hPar1 levels in pathological malignant ovarian carcinoma is likely to transmit signals leading to the phosphorylation of FAK and thereby alterations in the integrin functional state. Altogether our data suggest that hPar1 and FAK cooperate to promote ovarian cancer malignancy.

    International journal of cancer 2005;113;3;372-8

  • High expression of focal adhesion kinase (p125FAK) in node-negative breast cancer is related to overexpression of HER-2/neu and activated Akt kinase but does not predict outcome.

    Schmitz KJ, Grabellus F, Callies R, Otterbach F, Wohlschlaeger J, Levkau B, Kimmig R, Schmid KW and Baba HA

    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Essen-Duisburg, Essen, Germany. klaus.schmitz@uni-essen.de

    Introduction: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates multiple cellular processes including growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility and apoptosis. In breast carcinoma, FAK overexpression has been linked to cancer progression but the prognostic relevance remains unknown. In particular, with regard to lymph node-negative breast cancer it is important to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from further adjuvant therapy.

    Methods: We analyzed 162 node-negative breast cancer cases to determine the prognostic relevance of FAK expression, and we investigated the relationship of FAK with major associated signaling pathways (HER2, Src, Akt and extracellular regulated kinases) by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis.

    Results: Elevated FAK expression did not predict patient outcome, in contrast to tumor grading (P = 0.005), Akt activation (P = 0.0383) and estrogen receptor status (P = 0.0033). Significant positive correlations were observed between elevated FAK expression and HER2 overexpression (P = 0.001), as well as phospho-Src Tyr-215 (P = 0.021) and phospho-Akt (P < 0.001), but not with phospho-ERK1/2 (P = 0.108). Western blot analysis showed a significant correlation of FAK Tyr-861 activation and HER2 overexpression (P = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Immunohistochemical detection of FAK expression is of no prognostic significance in node-negative breast cancer but provides evidence that HER2 is involved in tumor malignancy and metastatic ability of breast cancer through a novel signaling pathway participating FAK and Src.

    Breast cancer research : BCR 2005;7;2;R194-203

  • RET signals through focal adhesion kinase in medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    Panta GR, Nwariaku F and Kim LT

    Surgical Service 112, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, 4300 W. 7th Street, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

    Background: The RET proto-oncogene is implicated in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and has been shown to signal indirectly to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in cell types other than MTC. We have previously shown that FAK is phosphorylated in MTC cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of RET with pharmacologic inhibitors or by depletion with siRNA would decrease FAK phosphorylation in MTC cells, thereby implicating a RET-FAK signaling pathway.

    Methods: Human MTC cells (TT cells) were treated with pharmacologic inhibitors or transfected with RET siRNA. Total protein was detected by immunoblotting. Phosphorylated FAK was detected by immunoprecipitating total FAK and immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine.

    Results: Treatment of MTC cells with the inhibitor PP2 significantly inhibited RET phosphorylation and, to a lesser extent, FAK phosphorylation. Imatinib mesylate inhibited FAK phosphorylation only at high doses. RET siRNA significantly decreased RET expression and FAK phosphorylation.

    Conclusions: RET signals through FAK in MTC cells. Whether this is due to a direct or indirect interaction is not yet clear. PP2 or a similar inhibitor might be a useful treatment for MTC.

    Surgery 2004;136;6;1212-7

  • HIV-1 Tat-mediated effects on focal adhesion assembly and permeability in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Avraham HK, Jiang S, Lee TH, Prakash O and Avraham S

    Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a network formed mainly by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The integrity of the BBB is critical for brain function. Breakdown of the BBB is commonly seen in AIDS patients with HIV-1-associated dementia despite the lack of productive HIV infection of the brain endothelium. The processes by which HIV causes these pathological conditions are not well understood. In this study we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which Tat mediates its pathogenic effects in vitro on primary human BMECs (HBMECs). Tat treatment of HBMECs stimulated cytoskeletal organization and increased focal adhesion sites compared with control cells or cells treated with heat-inactivated Tat. Pretreatment with Tat Abs or with the specific inhibitor SU-1498, which interferes with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (Flk-1/KDR) phosphorylation, blocked the ability of Tat to stimulate focal adhesion assembly and the migration of HBMECs. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was tyrosine-phosphorylated by Tat and was found to be an important component of focal adhesion sites. Inhibition of FAK by the dominant interfering mutant form, FAK-related nonkinase, significantly blocked HBMEC migration and disrupted focal adhesions upon Tat activation. Furthermore, HIV-Tat induced permeability changes in HBMECs in a time-dependent manner. Tat also impaired BBB permeability, as observed in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice. These studies define a mechanism for HIV-1 Tat in focal adhesion complex assembly in HBMECs via activation of FAK, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization and permeability changes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01 CA 096805

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2004;173;10;6228-33

  • Squamous cell carcinoma cell aggregates escape suspension-induced, p53-mediated anoikis: fibronectin and integrin alphav mediate survival signals through focal adhesion kinase.

    Zhang Y, Lu H, Dazin P and Kapila Y

    Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    Resistance to anoikis, or apoptosis triggered by detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM), lengthens the survival of malignant cells, facilitating reattachment and colonization of secondary sites. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to anoikis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, we cultured human squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) cells in suspension on plates coated with poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which blocks access to the ECM. Cells in suspension that formed multicellular aggregates had significantly lower levels of apoptosis than single cells. Aggregates, but not single cells, had high levels of fibronectin. Preincubation with a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide or fibronectin-blocking antibody significantly increased anoikis. Single cells had markedly lower expression of the integrin alpha(v) receptor than aggregates. Blocking alpha(v) function with a blocking antibody or by transfection with an antisense oligonucleotide increased apoptosis and inhibited aggregation. In single cells but not aggregates, phosphorylation of the integrin-associated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at tyrosine 397 was reduced, and p53 levels were increased. Apoptosis was increased by blocking FAK with an antisense oligonucleotide and reduced by blocking p53. These findings show that SCC cells escape suspension-induced anoikis by forming multicellular aggregates that avail themselves of fibronectin survival signals mediated by integrin alpha(v). Single cells in suspension that do not form aggregates undergo anoikis because of decreased FAK phosphorylation and increased p53 levels. Thus, SCC cells appear to use neighboring cells and the ECM molecule FN to promote the metastatic phenotype.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: P01 DE13904, R01 DE14429

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;46;48342-9

  • Focal adhesion kinase in netrin-1 signaling.

    Ren XR, Ming GL, Xie Y, Hong Y, Sun DM, Zhao ZQ, Feng Z, Wang Q, Shim S, Chen ZF, Song HJ, Mei L and Xiong WC

    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    Netrins are a family of secreted molecules that are important for axonal outgrowth and guidance in the developing nervous system. However, the signaling mechanisms that lie immediately downstream of netrin receptors remain poorly understood. Here we report that the netrin receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) interacts with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a kinase implicated in regulating cell adhesion and migration. FAK was expressed in developing brains and was localized with DCC in cultured neurons. Netrin-1 induced FAK and DCC tyrosine phosphorylation. Disruption of FAK signaling abolished netrin-1-induced neurite outgrowth and attractive growth cone turning. Taken together, these results indicate a new signaling mechanism for DCC, in which FAK is activated upon netrin-1 stimulation and mediates netrin-1 function; they also identify a critical role for FAK in axon navigation.

    Nature neuroscience 2004;7;11;1204-12

  • Functional analysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) reduction by small inhibitory RNAs.

    Han EK, Mcgonigal T, Wang J, Giranda VL and Luo Y

    Abbott Laboratories, Global Pharmaceutical Research Division, Cancer Division, 100 Abbott Park Rd, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA. edward.k.han@abbott.com

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to the points of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, called focal adhesions. Many factors induce tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK including growth factors, neuropeptides and integrin-dependent adhesion to the extracellular matrix. FAK has been implicated in several cellular processes such as invasion, motility, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, FAK expression was shown to be elevated in a number of different human cancers, suggesting a role in the development of malignancy. We examined the biological functions of FAK using small inhibitory RNAs (siRNA) in cancer cells. Although FAK siRNA reduced the FAK protein levels by approximately 70% in several cancer cell lines, there was no clear evidence of apoptosis. However, in clonogenic and soft-agar assays in H1299, a lung cancer cell line, FAK siRNA treatment led to a 43% to 55% decrease in colony formation. Furthermore, FAK siRNA-treated cells displayed a decrease in migration when serum or EGF (epidermal growth factor) were used as chemo-attractants. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of FAK protein leads to alterations in cell growth and migration.

    Anticancer research 2004;24;6;3899-905

  • Netrin requires focal adhesion kinase and Src family kinases for axon outgrowth and attraction.

    Liu G, Beggs H, Jürgensen C, Park HT, Tang H, Gorski J, Jones KR, Reichardt LF, Wu J and Rao Y

    Department of Anatomy, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave., St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Although netrins are an important family of neuronal guidance proteins, intracellular mechanisms that mediate netrin function are not well understood. Here we show that netrin-1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Src family kinase Fyn. Blockers of Src family kinases inhibited FAK phosphorylation and axon outgrowth and attraction by netrin. Dominant-negative FAK and Fyn mutants inhibited the attractive turning response to netrin. Axon outgrowth and attraction induced by netrin-1 were significantly reduced in neurons lacking the FAK gene. Our results show the biochemical and functional links between netrin, a prototypical neuronal guidance cue, and FAK, a central player in intracellular signaling that is crucial for cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107193, R01 CA107193, R01 CA107193-03; NINDS NIH HHS: NS19090, R01 NS019090

    Nature neuroscience 2004;7;11;1222-32

  • Down-regulation of procaspase-8 expression by focal adhesion kinase protects HL-60 cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Tamagiku Y, Sonoda Y, Kunisawa M, Ichikawa D, Murakami Y, Aizu-Yokota E and Kasahara T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy, Shibakoen 1-5-30, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan.

    We have demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-overexpressed (HL-60/FAK) cells have marked resistance against various apoptotic stimuli such as hydrogen peroxide, etoposide, and ionizing radiation compared with the vector-transfected (HL-60/Vect) cells. HL-60/FAK cells are highly resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, while original HL-60 or HL-60/Vect cells were sensitive. TRAIL at 500 ng/ml induced significant DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-8 and 3, the processing of a proapoptotic BID, and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in HL-60/Vect cells, whereas no such events were observed in the HL-60/FAK cells. In particular, the expression of procaspase-8 gene and subsequent cleavage of caspase-8 were markedly reduced in HL-60/FAK cells, while expression of TRAIL-receptor 2 and 3, TRADD, and FADD was equivalent in both types of cells. In HL-60/FAK cells, the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt survival pathway was constitutively activated, accompanied by significant induction of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins, XIAP, RIP, and Bcl-XL. The introduction of FAK siRNA in HL-60/FAK cells sensitized them against TRAIL-induced apoptosis, confirming that overexpressed FAK downregulates procaspase-8 expression, which subsequently inhibits downstream apoptosis pathway in the HL-60/FAK cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;323;2;445-52

  • Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase by heat shock protein 90 and Src kinase activities.

    Le Boeuf F, Houle F and Huot J

    Le Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l'Université Laval, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada.

    Exposure of endothelial cells to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on site Tyr(407), an effect that required the association of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with HSP90. The association of VEGFR2 with HSP90 involved the last 130 amino acids of VEGFR2 and was blocked by geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of HSP90. Moreover, geldanamycin inhibited the VEGF-induced activation of the small GTPase RhoA, which resulted in an inhibition of phosphorylation of FAK on site Tyr(407). In this context, the inhibition of RhoA kinase (ROCK) with Y27632 or by expression of dominant negative forms of RhoA or ROCK impaired the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of Tyr(407) within FAK. In contrast to phosphorylation of Tyr(861), the phosphorylation of site Tyr(407) was insensitive to Src kinase inhibition by 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2). We also found that the recruitment of paxillin to FAK was inhibited by geldanamycin but not by PP2, whereas both geldanamycin and PP2 inhibited the recruitment of vinculin to FAK. In accordance, the recruitment of paxillin and vinculin to FAK was inhibited in cells that express the mutant FAK-Y407F, whereas the expression of the mutant Y861F inhibited the recruitment of paxillin but not of vinculin. Importantly, cell migration was abolished in cells in which the signal from the VEGFR2-HSP90 pathway was blocked by the expression of Delta130VEGFR2, a deletant of VEGFR2 that does not associate with HSP90. Our findings underscore for the first time the key role played by the VEGFR2-HSP90-RhoA-ROCK-FAK/Tyr(407) pathway in transducing the VEGF signal that leads to the assembly of focal adhesions and endothelial cell migration.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;37;39175-85

  • Modulation of FAK, Akt, and p53 by stress release of the fibroblast-populated collagen matrix.

    Carlson MA, Longaker MT and Thompson JS

    Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center and the Omaha VA Medical Center, 4101 Woolworth Avenue, Omaha, NE 68105, USA. macarlso@unmc.edu

    Background: Fibroblast survival in a three-dimensional collagen matrix is dependent in part upon the rigid anchorage of the matrix to tissue culture plastic. We hypothesized that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein kinase B (Akt) would be activated and that the p53 level would be low in the rigidly anchored (attached) collagen matrix; loss of anchorage (detachment) was hypothesized to have the opposite effects.

    Human foreskin fibroblasts were cultured in attached bovine collagen matrices for 48 h before detachment as free-floating matrices. At various time points postrelease, matrix lysates were blotted for the proteins of interest, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end label assay was performed on both whole matrices and cytospin preparations. Irradiated monolayer fibroblasts were used as positive controls for the amount of p53 protein.

    Results: Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end label positivity in attached versus detached matrices (at 24 h post detachment) was 0.7 +/- 03 versus 5.3 +/- 1.7% (P < 0.05, unpaired t test). FAK and Akt were phosphorylated (activated) in the attached matrix; there was a near complete of loss of both activated forms within 4 h of matrix detachment. Irradiated monolayer fibroblasts had increased levels of p53, mdm2, and p21. In contrast, the p53, mdm2, and p21 levels were just at the level of detection in the attached matrix, but were induced 5- to 10-fold within 2-4 h after matrix detachment.

    Conclusions: FAK and Akt are activated in the attached fibroblast-populated collagen matrix whereas the p53 level is relatively low; matrix detachment downregulates FAK and Akt activity and induces p53. The state of mechanical anchorage of the collagen matrix regulates the survival of embedded fibroblasts through a mechanism which may involve FAK.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: K08 GM 00703

    The Journal of surgical research 2004;120;2;171-7

  • Focal adhesion kinase is upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt in regulating fibroblast survival in response to contraction of type I collagen matrices via a beta 1 integrin viability signaling pathway.

    Xia H, Nho RS, Kahm J, Kleidon J and Henke CA

    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, USA.

    The beta(1) integrin, functioning as a mechanoreceptor, senses a mechanical stimulus generated during collagen matrix contraction and down-regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt survival signal triggering apoptosis. The identities of integrin-associated signal molecules in the focal adhesion complex that are responsible for propagating beta(1) integrin viability signals in response to collagen matrix contraction are not known. Here we show that in response to collagen contraction focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is dephosphorylated. In contrast, enforced activation of beta(1) integrin by anti-beta(1) integrin antibody, which protects fibroblasts from apoptosis, preserves FAK phosphorylation. We demonstrate that ligation of beta(1) integrin by type I collagen or by enforced activation of beta(1) integrin by antibody promotes phosphorylation of FAK, p85 subunit of PI3K, and serine 473 of Akt. Wortmannin inhibited Akt but not FAK phosphorylation in response to enforced activation of beta(1) integrin by antibody. Blocking FAK by pharmacologic inhibition or by dominant negative FAK attenuated phosphorylation of p85 subunit of PI3K and Akt. Dominant negative FAK augmented fibroblast apoptosis during collagen contraction, and this was associated with diminished Akt activity. Constitutively active FAK augmented levels of p85 subunit of PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, and fibroblasts were protected from apoptosis. Our data identify a novel role for FAK, functioning upstream of PI3K/Akt, in transducing a beta(1) integrin viability signal in collagen matrices.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;31;33024-34

  • Sequential activation of RhoA and FAK/paxillin leads to ATP release and actin reorganization in human endothelium.

    Hirakawa M, Oike M, Karashima Y and Ito Y

    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

    We have investigated the cellular mechanisms of mechanical stress-induced immediate responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypotonic stress (HTS) induced ATP release, which evoked a Ca(2+) transient, followed by actin reorganization within a few minutes, in HUVECs. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton did not suppress HTS-induced ATP release, and inhibition of the ATP-mediated Ca(2+) response did not affect actin reorganization, thereby indicating that these two responses are not interrelated. ATP release and actin reorganization were also induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). HTS and LPA induced membrane translocation of RhoA, which occurs when RhoA is activated, and tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (herbimycin A or tyrphostin 46) inhibited both HTS- and LPA-induced ATP release and actin reorganization, but did not affect RhoA activation. In contrast, Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632) inhibited all of the HTS- and LPA-induced responses. These results indicate that the activation of the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin leads to ATP release and actin reorganization in HUVECs. Furthermore, the fact that HTS and LPA evoke exactly the same intracellular signals and responses suggests that even these immediate mechanosensitive responses are in fact not mechanical stress-specific.

    The Journal of physiology 2004;558;Pt 2;479-88

  • Calcium rises locally trigger focal adhesion disassembly and enhance residency of focal adhesion kinase at focal adhesions.

    Giannone G, Rondé P, Gaire M, Beaudouin J, Haiech J, Ellenberg J and Takeda K

    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Physicochimie des Interactions Cellulaires et Moléculaires, Unité Mixte de Recherche CNRS 7034, Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, 67401 Illkirch, France.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity and Ca(2+) signaling led to a turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) required for cell spreading and migration. We used yellow Cameleon-2 (Ycam), a fluorescent protein-based Ca(2+) sensor fused to FAK or to a FAK-related non-kinase domain, to measure simultaneously local Ca(2+) variations at FA sites and FA dynamics. Discrete subcellular Ca(2+) oscillators initiate both propagating and abortive Ca(2+) waves in migrating U87 astrocytoma cells. Ca(2+)-dependent FA disassembly occurs when the Ca(2+) wave reaches individual FAs, indicating that local but not global Ca(2+) increases trigger FA disassembly. An unexpectedly rapid flux of FAK between cytosolic and FA compartments was revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies. The FAK-Ycam recovery half-time (17 s) at FAs was slowed (to 29 s) by Ca(2+) elevation. FAK-related non-kinase domain-Ycam had a faster, Ca(2+)-insensitive recovery half-time (11 s), which is consistent with the effect of Ca(2+) on FAK-Ycam dynamics not being due to a general modification of the dynamics of FA components. Because FAK association at FAs was prolonged by Ca(2+) and FAK autophosphorylation was correlated to intracellular Ca(2+) levels, we propose that local Ca(2+) elevations increase the residency of FAK at FAs, possibly by means of tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, thereby leading to increased activation of its effectors involved in FA disassembly.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;27;28715-23

  • Study of the PTEN gene expression and FAK phosphorylation in human hepatocarcinoma tissues and cell lines.

    Zhang L, Yu Q, He J and Zha X

    Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugate Research, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, PR China.

    The tumor suppressor PTEN gene maps to chromosome 10q23.3 and encodes a dual specificity phosphatase. Mutations of this gene had been found in a variety of human tumors. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and expression of the PTEN gene in 34 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and two hepatoma cell lines. We found neither homozygous nor hemizygous deletions in these samples. We, however, found point mutations in 4 of the 34 tissue samples. Five of ten hepatocellular carcinoma tissues showed reduced PTEN expression at mRNA level. HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells showed decreased PTEN expression at both mRNA and protein levels compared with immortalized L02 hepatic cells. PTEN mRNA in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells could be reduced by TGF-betaI treatment. We also found that the phosphorylation levels of FAK in both of the hepatoma cell lines were higher than that in L02 hepatic cells. Transient expression of the PTEN gene in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 hepatoma cells resulted in decreased FAK phosphorylation. The level of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appeared to be inversely correlated with the level of the PTEN protein. In summary, our results indicated that the function of the PTEN gene in hepatocarcinomas may be impaired mainly through point mutations and expression deficiency and that the defect of PTEN in tumor cells could alter the phosphorylation of FAK.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2004;262;1-2;25-33

  • Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances FAK and ERK activation by distinct mechanisms.

    Yang J, Price MA, Neudauer CL, Wilson C, Ferrone S, Xia H, Iida J, Simpson MA and McCarthy JB

    University of Minnesota, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 312 Church St. SE, Room 7-124 BSBE, Minneapolis, MN 55406, USA.

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, implicated in tumor growth and survival, has also been linked to clinical melanoma progression. We have cloned the MCSP core protein and expressed it in the MCSP-negative melanoma cell line WM1552C. Expression of MCSP enhances integrin-mediated cell spreading, FAK phosphorylation, and activation of ERK1/2. MCSP transfectants exhibit extensive MCSP-rich microspikes on adherent cells, where it also colocalizes with alpha4 integrin. Enhanced activation of FAK and ERK1/2 by MCSP appears to involve independent mechanisms because inhibition of FAK activation had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that MCSP may facilitate primary melanoma progression by enhancing the activation of key signaling pathways important for tumor invasion and growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA089480, P01 CA89480, R01 CA082295, R01 CA82295; NCRR NIH HHS: S10 RR016851

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;165;6;881-91

  • Cloning and characterization of the promoter region of human focal adhesion kinase gene: nuclear factor kappa B and p53 binding sites.

    Golubovskaya V, Kaur A and Cance W

    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) gene encodes focal adhesion kinase that localizes at contact points of cells with extracellular matrix. It was shown that FAK expression is increased in a variety of malignancies, both at early and advanced stages of tumorigenesis. To understand mechanisms of FAK gene expression and regulation, we cloned and characterized the 5' promoter region of the FAK gene. The 1.2-kb fragment with FAK promoter was placed upstream of the luciferase reporter gene in a pGL3-Basic vector and transfected into different cell lines. Endogenous high-FAK-expressing cell lines showed high levels of luciferase activity in contrast to low-FAK-expressing cells, indicating on transcriptional level of FAK regulation. Serial deletion constructs revealed that a approximately 600 base pair region (-564 to +47) is required for the maximal FAK promoter activity. The 5'-flanking region of FAK is GC-rich and contains several potential transcription factor binding sites, including two NF-kappa B and p53 binding sites. Inhibition of NF-kappa B with NF-kappa B super-repressor decreased FAK luciferase activity. Induction with TNF-alpha increased luciferase activity confirming a role of NF-kappa B transcription factor in the FAK transcriptional activation. The binding of NF-kappa B and p53 transcription factors to the FAK promoter region was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cotransfection of NF-kappa B and p53 plasmids with FAK promoter luciferase constructs demonstrate induction and inhibition, respectively, of FAK luciferase activity. The results provide a molecular basis for analysis of FAK transcriptional regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2004;1678;2-3;111-25

  • Overexpression of FAK promotes Ras activity through the formation of a FAK/p120RasGAP complex in malignant astrocytoma cells.

    Hecker TP, Ding Q, Rege TA, Hanks SK and Gladson CL

    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling may be mediated through the modulation of Ras activity. We have shown previously that grade III malignant astrocytoma biopsy samples exhibit elevated levels of FAK, and that overexpression of FAK in U-251MG malignant astrocytoma cells promotes the phosphorylation of Shc, a potential upstream mediator of Ras activity. Here, we report that overexpression of FAK promotes Ras activity in U-251MG malignant astrocytoma cells cultured in aggregate suspension or as monolayers adherent to vitronectin. The overexpression of FAK also promoted the association of FAK with p120RasGAP, which is a negative regulator of Ras activity, in the U-251MG cells cultured in aggregate suspension, with this association being abrogated upon plating of the cells onto vitronectin. An association of FAK with p120RasGAP also was observed in malignant astrocytoma biopsy samples, but not in normal brain samples. As overexpression of FAK in U-251MG cells in aggregate suspension culture reduced the amount of p120RasGAP complexed with active Ras, we hypothesize that the association of FAK with p120 RasGAP may facilitate Ras activity. The overexpression of a mutated FAK in which the Y397 had been mutated to F did not result in the formation of the FAK/p120RasGAP complex and did not promote Ras activity, indicating that the Y397 residue of FAK plays a role in the formation of this complex and in the activation of Ras. Moreover, the overexpression of mutated FAK (397F) was found to inhibit anchorage-independent growth. These data provide the basis for a previously undescribed mechanism in which the elevated expression of FAK can promote Ras activity through its competitive recruitment of p120RasGAP, thereby diminishing the association of p120RasGAP with active Ras.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA59958, CA97100; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882

    Oncogene 2004;23;22;3962-71

  • Differential regulation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation by the small GTP-binding protein Rho in human corneal epithelial cells.

    Saito J, Morishige N, Chikama T, Gu J, Sekiguchi K and Nishida T

    Department of Biomolecular Recognition and Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Japan.

    Purpose: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which activates the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho, was previously shown to promote migration of the rabbit corneal epithelium in culture. The signaling pathway responsible for this effect of LPA was examined in this study with a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line.

    Methods: The activation of Rho was detected with a pull-down assay. Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were examined both by immunofluorescence staining and by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. Expression of integrins alpha5 and beta1 was evaluated by immunoblot analysis.

    Results: Incubation of cells with LPA (10 micro M) for 2 min resulted in marked activation of Rho, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with the Rho inhibitor exoenzyme C3 (2 micro g/ml) for 24 h. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both paxillin and FAK was detected in HCE cells under basal conditions by immunofluorescence staining, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblot analyses. LPA induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, which was maximal at a concentration of 10 micro M and a time of 2 min. Exoenzyme C3 inhibited LPA-induced paxillin phosphorylation. Neither LPA nor exoenzyme C3 affected tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK or expression of integrins alpha5 and beta1.

    Conclusions: LPA induces Rho activation and the consequent tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin in HCE cells, and these effects likely contribute to the promotion of corneal epithelial migration by this agent.

    Japanese journal of ophthalmology 2004;48;3;199-207

  • Focal adhesion kinase suppresses apoptosis by binding to the death domain of receptor-interacting protein.

    Kurenova E, Xu LH, Yang X, Baldwin AS, Craven RJ, Hanks SK, Liu ZG and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

    Tumor cells resist the apoptotic stimuli associated with invasion and metastasis by activating survival signals that suppress apoptosis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, mediates one of these survival signals. Attenuation of FAK expression in tumor cells results in apoptosis that is mediated by caspase 8- and FADD-dependent pathways, suggesting that death receptor pathways are involved in the process. Here, we report a functional link between FAK and death receptors. We have demonstrated that FAK binds to the death domain kinase receptor-interacting protein (RIP). RIP is a major component of the death receptor complex and has been shown to interact with Fas and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 through its binding to adapter proteins. We have shown that RIP provides proapoptotic signals that are suppressed by its binding to FAK. We thus propose that FAK overexpression in human tumors provides a survival signal function by binding to RIP and inhibiting its interactio 1350 n with the death receptor complex.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910, R01 CA065910

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;10;4361-71

  • Role of expression of focal adhesion kinase in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Itoh S, Maeda T, Shimada M, Aishima S, Shirabe K, Tanaka S and Maehara Y

    Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. itoshin@surg2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    Purpose: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer of the human liver, the mechanisms that regulate HCC development and progression remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in the progression of human HCC.

    Western blot analysis for FAK was performed on three HCC cell lines. We reviewed 64 consecutive patients who had undergone initial liver resection for HCC without preoperative treatment. Immunohistochemistry analysis for FAK was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues. FAK expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis in several clinical samples. We investigated the correlation between FAK expression and clinical outcome.

    Results: FAK proteins were detected in all HCC cell lines. Hepatocytes in the normal liver and chronic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis were negative for immunohistochemical staining for FAK expression. Cytoplasmic FAK expression was observed in 18 of 64 patients (28.1%), and this positive staining was correlated with gender (P < 0.05), a lower level of serum albumin (P < 0.05), and portal venous invasion (P < 0.01). Positive staining for FAK was associated with significantly poorer survival (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, FAK overexpression was an independent factor in determining the prognosis of patients.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that FAK plays an important role in promoting tumor progression, especially vascular invasion, in HCC. FAK could play an important role in HCC progression and would be a novel target for HCC therapeutics as well as a prognostic marker.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2004;10;8;2812-7

  • TRIP6 enhances lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell migration by interacting with the lysophosphatidic acid 2 receptor.

    Xu J, Lai YJ, Lin WC and Lin FT

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294-0005, USA.

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces actin rearrangement, focal adhesion assembly, and cell migration through the activation of small G protein Rho and its downstream effectors. These diverse cellular responses are mediated by its associated G protein-coupled receptors. However, the mechanisms and specificity by which these LPA receptors mediate LPA actions are still poorly understood. Here we show that LPA stimulation promotes the interaction of the LPA(2) receptor with a focal adhesion molecule, TRIP6 (thyroid receptor interacting protein 6)/ZRP-1 (zyxin-related protein 1). TRIP6 directly binds to the carboxyl-terminal tail of the LPA(2) receptor through its LIM domains. LPA-dependent recruitment of TRIP6 to the plasma membrane promotes its targeting to focal adhesions and co-localization with actin stress fibers. In addition, TRIP6 associates with the components of focal complexes including paxillin, focal adhesion kinase, c-Src, and p130(cas) in an agonist-dependent manner. Overexpression of TRIP6 augments LPA-induced cell migration; in contrast, suppression of endogenous TRIP6 expression by a TRIP6-specific small interfering RNA reduces it in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Strikingly, the association with TRIP6 is specific to the LPA(2) receptor but not LPA(1) or LPA(3) receptor, indicating a specific role for TRIP6 in regulating LPA(2) receptor-mediated signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that TRIP6 functions at a point of convergence between the activated LPA(2) receptor and downstream signals involved in cell adhesion and migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA100848, R01 CA100848, R01 CA100857

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;11;10459-68

  • Focal adhesion kinase interacts with the transcriptional coactivator FHL2 and both are overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Gabriel B, Mildenberger S, Weisser CW, Metzger E, Gitsch G, Schüle R and Müller JM

    Universitäts-Frauenklinik, Klinikum der Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. bGabriel@frk.ukl.uni-freiburg.de

    Abnormal signal transduction arising from integrins and protein tyrosine kinases has been implicated in the initiation and progression of a variety of human cancers. Integrin-mediated signal transduction pathways require regulated cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions. However, little is known about integrin-associated proteins and ovarian cancer. In our study we investigated the association of pp125FAK, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, involved in anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells, and the Four and a Half LIM domain (FHL) protein FHL2, which was recently shown to interact with integrins. Our data demonstrated that pp125FAK and FHL2 form a protein complex in human ovarian carcinoma. Furthermore, we showed that pp125FAK is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer, but virtually absent in normal ovary. Our immunohistochemistry data showed that FHL2 protein expression is also augmented in epithelial ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time FHL2 expression in human ovarian cancer cells, suggesting an important functional role of pp125FAK and FHL2 complex in gynecologic malignancies.

    Anticancer research 2004;24;2B;921-7

  • Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor-coupled G alpha q leads to stimulation of Src and focal adhesion kinase via two separate pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Deo DD, Bazan NG and Hunt JD

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid second messenger, has diverse physiological functions, including responses in differentiated endothelial cells to external stimuli. We used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model system. We show that PAF activated pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha(q) protein upon binding to its seven transmembrane receptor. Elevated cAMP levels were observed via activation of adenylate cyclase, which activated protein kinase A (PKA) and was attenuated by a PAF receptor antagonist, blocking downstream activity. Phosphorylation of Src by PAF required G alpha(q) protein and adenylate cyclase activation; there was an absolute requirement of PKA for PAF-induced Src phosphorylation. Immediate (1 min) PAF-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation required the activation of G alpha(q) protein, adenylate cyclase, and PKA, and was independent of these intermediates at delayed (30 min) and prolonged (60 min) PAF exposure. PAF activated PLC beta 3 through its G alpha(q) protein-coupled receptor, whereas activation of phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) by PAF was independent of G proteins but required the involvement of Src at prolonged PAF exposure (60 min). We demonstrate for the first time in vascular endothelial cells: (i) the involvement of signaling intermediates in the PAF-PAF receptor system in the induction of TIMP2 and MT1-MMP expression, resulting in the coordinated proteolytic activation of MMP2, and (ii) a receptor-mediated signal transduction cascade for the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK by PAF. PAF exposure induced binding of p130(Cas), Src, SHC, and paxillin to FAK. Clearly, PAF-mediated signaling in differentiated endothelial cells is critical to endothelial cell functions, including cell migration and proteolytic activation of MMP2.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES00358-03

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;5;3497-508

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Pressure activates colon cancer cell adhesion by inside-out focal adhesion complex and actin cytoskeletal signaling.

    Thamilselvan V and Basson MD

    Department of Surgery, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

    Few circulating tumor cells implant or cause metastasis. We hypothesized that venous or lymphatic pressure or iatrogenic pressure during resection activates signals governing malignant colonocyte adhesion.

    Methods: We studied the effect of 15 mm Hg increased pressure for 30 minutes on adhesion of primary human colon cancer cells and SW620 colonocytes to collagen and endothelial cells. We modulated integrin affinity with extracellular cations. We assessed binding affinity by detachment assay; integrin surface expression by flow cytometry; and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by Western analysis and Src in vitro kinase assay. We inhibited Src (PP2), FAK (small RNA interference, SiRNA, or FRNK transfection), MEK (PD98059), PKC (calphostin C), and actin destabilization (phalloidin).

    Results: Pressure and manganese stimulated primary and SW620 colonocyte adhesion to collagen. Pressure also stimulated SW620 adhesion to endothelial monolayers. Pressure strengthened SW620 binding force to matrix without changing integrin surface expression. Pressure activated SW620 FAK and Src, but not ERK. Manganese did not. Calcium-inhibited adhesion but stimulated FAK (but not Src). PP2 prevented pressure activation of Src, Src phosphorylation of FAK576, and pressure-stimulated adhesion but not FAK397 autophosphorylation. FRNK transfection or FAK SiRNA also prevented pressure-stimulated adhesion. FAK SiRNA ablated pressure-activated FAK397, Src, and FAK576 phosphorylation. Neither Src nor FAK inhibition blocked cation effects. Phalloidin prevented pressure-stimulated adhesion. PD98059 or calphostin C did not.

    Conclusions: In contrast to divalent cations, extracellular pressure may increase integrin affinity and promote colon cancer adhesion via actin dependent inside-out FAK and Src signals. This mechanotransduced pathway may regulate metastasizing tumor cell adhesion.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK60771

    Gastroenterology 2004;126;1;8-18

  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulated protein kinase B serine-473 and focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation dependent on cell adhesion in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Xu Z, Ma DZ, Wang LY, Su JM and Zha XL

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent growth inhibitor and apoptosis inducer for most normal cells. However, tumor cells are commonly nevertheless sensitive to the tumor-suppressing effects of TGF-beta1. In this paper, we focus on the effects of TGF-beta1 on two important anti-apoptotic protein kinases, protein kinase B (PKB), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), in SMMC-7721 cells. We found that PKB-Ser-473 phosphorylation was apparently up-regulated by TGF-beta1. In the meantime, PKB-Thr-308 phosphorylation was slightly up-regulated by TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 could also enhance FAK-Tyr phosphorylation. We observed that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was also up-regulated by TGF-beta1 in good accordance with PKB-Ser-473 phosphorylation. We first found that TGF-beta1 could stimulate PKB-Ser-473 phosphorylation possibly via up-regulating ILK expression. Furthermore, we also failed to detect PKB-Ser-473 and FAK-Tyr phosphorylation with various concentrations of TGF-beta1 treatment when cells were kept in suspension. The above results indicate that PKB-Ser-473 and FAK-Tyr phosphorylation stimulated by TGF-beta1 are both dependent on cell adhesion.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;312;2;388-96

  • FAK regulates biological processes important for the pathogenesis of cancer.

    Gabarra-Niecko V, Schaller MD and Dunty JM

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

    Since its initial discovery as a substrate and binding partner for the Src oncogene, a role for the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in cancer has been speculated. In this review the clinical evidence correlating FAK overexpression with cancer and the experimental evidence demonstrating that FAK can control some phenotypes associated with cancer will be discussed. In addition, the emerging theme of interactions between the FAK and growth factor signaling pathways will be described. The evidence presented in this review provides a compelling case for a role for FAK in the pathology of human cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA90901; NIDCR NIH HHS: P60-DE13079; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM59943

    Cancer metastasis reviews 2003;22;4;359-74

  • PIAS1-mediated sumoylation of focal adhesion kinase activates its autophosphorylation.

    Kadaré G, Toutant M, Formstecher E, Corvol JC, Carnaud M, Boutterin MC and Girault JA

    INSERM/UPMC U536, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut du Fer à Moulin, 17 rue du Fer à Moulin, 75005 Paris, France.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase enriched in focal adhesions, which plays a critical role in integrin-dependent cell motility and survival. The crucial step in its activation is autophosphorylation on Tyr-397, which promotes the recruitment of several enzymes including Src family kinases and the activation of multiple signaling pathways. We found in a yeast two-hybrid screen that the N-terminal domain of FAK interacted with protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1). This interaction was confirmed and shown to be direct using in vitro assays. PIAS1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FAK from transfected cells and brain extracts. PIAS1 has recently been recognized as a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ligase. In the presence of PIAS1 and SUMO-1, FAK was sumoylated in intact cells, whereas PYK2, a closely related enzyme, was not. Sumoylation occurred on Lys-152, a residue conserved in FAK during evolution. Sumoylated FAK, like PIAS1, was recovered predominantly from the nuclear fraction. Sumoylation did not require the catalytic activity or autophosphorylation of FAK. In contrast, sumoylation increased dramatically the ability of FAK to autophosphorylate in intact cells and in immune precipitate kinase assays. Endogenous FAK was sumoylated in the presence of PIAS1 and SUMO-1 independently of cell adhesion, and autophosphorylation of sumoylated FAK was persistently increased in suspended cells. These observations show that sumoylation controls the activity of a protein kinase and suggest that FAK may play a novel role in signaling between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;48;47434-40

  • Calcium-and integrin-binding protein regulates focal adhesion kinase activity during platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen.

    Naik MU and Naik UP

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. unaik@udel.edu

    Platelet spreading on the subendothelium in response to vascular injury is fundamental to the regulation of physiologic hemostasis. Previously, we have shown that, when bound to glycoprotein IIb (GPIIb), calcium- and integrin-binding protein (CIB) regulates platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen (Fg). In this study, we investigated the signaling events that occur downstream of CIB in the absence of signaling that occurs as a result of granular secretion. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model, we demonstrate that CIB induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence analysis of CIB localization indicates that endogenous CIB accumulates in areas of focal adhesions, and its overexpression up-regulates the formation of focal adhesion complexes compared with control cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that CIB associates with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key regulator in focal complex formation, and up-regulates its activity. Overexpression of dominant-negative FAK, FRNK, along with CIB in CHO cells completely inhibits CIB-induced cell migration. Further, confirmation of these data in the platelet system indicates that CIB and FAK associate throughout all stages of platelet spreading but only on Fg binding to GPIIb/IIIa. Taken together, our results suggest that CIB regulates platelet spreading through the regulation of FAK activation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1P20RR155801; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL57630

    Blood 2003;102;10;3629-36

  • Beta1 integrin/focal adhesion kinase-mediated signaling induces intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation.

    Nakayamada S, Okada Y, Saito K, Tamura M and Tanaka Y

    First and Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, 807-8555, Japan.

    We have assessed characteristics of primary human osteoblasts, shedding light on signaling mediated by beta1 integrin. beta1 integrins are major receptors for these matrix glycoproteins. 1) Integrins beta1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, and alphav were highly expressed on primary osteoblasts. 2) Engagement of beta1 integrins on osteoblasts by cross-linking with specific antibody or ligand matrices, such as fibronectin or collagen, augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) on the surface. 3) Up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL on osteoblasts by beta1 stimulation was completely abrogated by pretreatment with herbimycin A and genistein, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or transfection of dominant negative truncations of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). 4) Engagement of beta1 integrins on osteoblasts induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinuclear cell formation in the coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes. 5) Up-regulation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinuclear cell formation by beta1 stimulation was completely abrogated by transfection of dominant negative truncations of FAK. Our results indicate that beta1 integrin-dependent adhesion of osteoblasts to bone matrices induces ICAM-1 and RANKL expression and osteoclast formation via tyrosine kinase, especially FAK. We here propose that beta1 integrin/FAK-mediated signaling on osteoblasts could be involved in ICAM-1- and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;46;45368-74

  • PTK2 and EIF3S3 genes may be amplification targets at 8q23-q24 and are associated with large hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Okamoto H, Yasui K, Zhao C, Arii S and Inazawa J

    Department of Molecular Cytogenetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

    We investigated 39 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) for aberrations in DNA copy number, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Gain of DNA at 8q was common in these tumors; high-level gains, indicative of gene amplification, occurred most frequently at 8q23-q24. Gains of 8q correlated with large (>5 cm) tumor size. To identify targets of the amplification events involving 8q, we determined expression levels of 14 candidate genes within that region in a total of 41 HCCs by means of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). Significant correlation was found between elevated levels of expression and increases in copy number for PTK2 (located at 8q24.3) and EIF3S3 (at 8q23.3), but for none of the other candidates, which included MYC (8q24.1). Southern blot analyses confirmed that PTK2 and EIF3S3 were amplified, respectively, in 5 (19%) and 7 (26%) of the 27 tumors examined in accordance with expression patterns, an indication that expression of PTK2 and EIF3S3 was probably up-regulated by the amplification mechanism. When we analyzed potential relationships between elevated expression of PTK2 and EIF3S3 and clinicopathologic parameters, high expression of the 2 transcripts was significantly associated with large (>5 cm) tumor size and with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In conclusion, PTK2 and EIF3S3, which, respectively, encode focal adhesion kinase and the p40 subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3, were probable targets within the amplification at 8q23-q24 and may be involved in progression of HCC.

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2003;38;5;1242-9

  • Src mediates prolactin-dependent proliferation of T47D and MCF7 cells via the activation of focal adhesion kinase/Erk1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways.

    Acosta JJ, Muñoz RM, González L, Subtil-Rodríguez A, Dominguez-Caceres MA, García-Martínez JM, Calcabrini A, Lazaro-Trueba I and Martín-Pérez J

    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas A Sols, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain.

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation; however, the involvement of PRL-activated signaling molecules in cell proliferation is not fully established. Here we studied the role of c-Src on PRL-stimulated proliferation of T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. We initially observed that PRL-dependent activation of focal adhesion kinase (Fak), Erk1/2, and cell proliferation was mediated by c-Src in T47D cells, because expression of a dominant-negative form of c-Src (SrcDM, K295A/Y527F) blocked the PRL-dependent effects. The Src inhibitor PP1 abrogated PRL-dependent in vivo activation of Fak, Erk1/2, p70S6K, and Akt and the proliferation of T47D and MCF7 cells; Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) activation was not affected. However, in vitro, Fak and Jak2 kinases were not directly inhibited by PP1, demonstrating the effect of PP1 on c-Src kinase as an upstream activator of Fak. Expression of Fak mutant Y397F abrogated PRL-dependent activation of Fak, Erk1/2, and thymidine incorporation, but had no effect on p70S6K and Akt kinases. MAPK kinase 1/2 (Mek1/2) inhibitor PD184352 blocked PRL-induced stimulation of Erk1/2 and cell proliferation; however, p70S6K and Akt activation were unaffected. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolished cell proliferation and activation of p70S6K and Akt; however, PRL-dependent activation of Erk1/2 was not modified. Moreover, we show that both c-Src/PI3K and c-Src/Fak/Erk1/2 pathways are involved in the up-regulation of c-myc and cyclin d1 expression mediated by PRL. The previous findings suggest the existence of two PRL-dependent signaling cascades, initiated by the c-Src-mediated activation of Fak/Erk1/2 and PI3K pathways that, subsequently, control the expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 and the proliferation of T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2003;17;11;2268-82

  • Newly established Askin tumor cell line and overexpression of focal adhesion kinase in Ewing sarcoma family of tumors cell lines.

    Moritake H, Sugimoto T, Kuroda H, Hidaka F, Takahashi Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Yoshida MA, Cui Q, Akiyoshi K, Izumi T and Nunoi H

    Department of Pediatrics, Miyazaki Medical College, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Japan. moritake@fc.miyazkai-med.ac.jp

    Askin tumor is a malignant small round cell tumor that originates from the thoracopulmonary region and is a member of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). Only a few Askin tumor cell lines have been established. An Askin tumor cell line, designated MP-ASKIN-SA, was established from the left thoracic tumor of a 13-year-old Japanese boy. ESFT is known to have a high rate of distant metastases at diagnosis. The genes controlling the spread of ESFT cells, however, have not been elucidated. G-banding chromosome analysis revealed that the MP-ASKIN-SA cell line has complex chromosomal abnormalities including trisomy 8. The EWS/FLI1 chimeric transcript and c-myc overexpression were revealed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) gene in the ESFT cell lines using Northern blot analysis. In addition to the MP-ASKIN-SA cell line, six Ewing sarcoma cell lines, one peripheral nerve sheath tumor cell line, and two Askin tumor cell lines were analyzed. All ESFT cell lines, including MP-ASKIN-SA, expressed five- to twenty-eight-fold-increased values of FAK, as compared with fibroblasts obtained from the bone marrow of a healthy volunteer. These results raise the possibility that the overexpression of c-myc and FAK are involved in the poor prognosis of ESFT.

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2003;146;2;102-9

  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 protects human breast epithelial cells against intrinsic apoptotic cell death via the focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathway.

    Liu XW, Bernardo MM, Fridman R and Kim HR

    Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) is a natural protease inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent studies revealed a novel function of TIMP-1 as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms by which TIMP-1 exerts its anti-apoptotic effect are not understood. Here we show that TIMP-1 activates cell survival signaling pathways involving focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and ERKs in human breast epithelial cells to TIMP-1. TIMP-1-activated cell survival signaling down-regulates caspase-mediated classical apoptotic pathways induced by a variety of stimuli including anoikis, staurosporine exposure, and growth factor withdrawal. Consistently, down-regulation of TIMP-1 expression greatly enhances apoptotic cell death. In a previous study, substitution of the second amino acid residue threonine for glycine in TIMP-1, which confers selective MMP inhibition, was shown to obliterate its anti-apoptotic activity in activated hepatic stellate cells suggesting that the anti-apoptotic activity of TIMP-1 is dependent on MMP inhibition. Here we show that the same mutant inhibits apoptosis of human breast epithelial cells, suggesting different mechanisms of TIMP-1 regulation of apoptosis depending on cell types. Neither TIMP-2 nor a synthetic MMP inhibitor protects breast epithelial cells from intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, TIMP-1 enhances cell survival in the presence of the synthetic MMP inhibitor. Taken together, the present study unveils some of the mechanisms mediating the anti-apoptotic effects of TIMP-1 in human breast epithelial cells through TIMP-1-specific signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-82298, CA89113

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;41;40364-72

  • Focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK interacts with the large conductance calcium-activated hSlo potassium channel in human osteoblasts: potential role in mechanotransduction.

    Rezzonico R, Cayatte C, Bourget-Ponzio I, Romey G, Belhacene N, Loubat A, Rocchi S, Van Obberghen E, Girault JA, Rossi B and Schmid-Antomarchi H

    Faculté de Médecine, INSERM U364, Nice, France. rezzonic@unice.fr

    Unlabelled: Molecular events of mechanotransduction in osteoblasts are poorly defined. We show that the mechanosensitive BK channels open and recruit the focal adhesion kinase FAK in osteoblasts on hypotonic shock. This could convert mechanical signals in biochemical events, leading to osteoblast activation.

    Introduction: Mechanical strains applied to the skeleton influence bone remodeling and architecture mainly through the osteoblast lineage. The molecular mechanisms involved in osteoblastic mechanotransduction include opening of mechanosensitive cation channels and the activation of protein tyrosine kinases, notably FAK, but their interplay remains poorly characterized. The large conductance K+ channel (BK) seems likely as a bone mechanoreceptor candidate because of its high expression in osteoblasts and its ability to open in response to membrane stretch or hypotonic shock. Propagation of the signals issued from the mechanosensitivity of BK channels inside the cell likely implies complex interactions with molecular partners involved in mechanotransduction, notably FAK.

    Methods: Interaction of FAK with the C terminus of the hSlo alpha-subunit of BK was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid system as well as immunofluorescence microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a rabbit anti-hslo antibody on MG63 and CAL72 human osteosarcoma cell lines and on normal human osteoblasts. Mapping of the FAK region interacting with hSlo was approached by testing the ability of hSlo to recruit mutated ot truncated FAK proteins.

    Results: To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence of the physical association of FAK with the intracellular part of hslo. We show that FAK/hSlo interaction likely takes place through the Pro-1-rich domain situated in the C-terminal region of the kinase. FAK/hSlo association occurs constitutively at a low, but appreciable, level in human osteosarcoma cells and normal human osteoblasts that express endogenous FAK and hSlo. In addition, we found that application of an hypo-osmotic shock to these cells induced a sustained activation of BK channels associated to a marked increase in the recruitment of FAK on hSlo.

    Conclusions: Based on these data, we propose that BK channels might play a triggering role in the signaling cascade induced by mechanical strains in osteoblasts.

    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 2003;18;10;1863-71

  • Involvement of the beta3 E749ATSTFTN756 region in stabilizing integrin alphaIIbbeta3-ligand interaction.

    Litjens PE, Gorter G, Ylänne J, Akkerman JW and van Willigen G

    Laboratory for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Department of Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, NL-3508 GA Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 must be activated via intracellular mechanisms before it binds soluble ligands, and it is thought to be activated at its extracellular site by surface-bound ligands. Integrin activation is associated with rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and phosphorylation of proteins that become localized in focal contacts. In these processes, the cytoplasmic tail of the beta-subunit plays a central role. We introduced peptides homologous to the E749ATSTFTN756 domain (E-N peptide) and the T755NITYRGT762 domain (T-T peptide) of beta3 in streptolysin O-permeabilized platelets and analyzed the initial interaction with soluble fibronectin, fibrinogen and PAC-1 after stimulation with thrombin. E-N peptide left the initial binding of fibronectin intact but interfered with stable receptor occupancy. E-N peptide also inhibited fibrinogen binding, thereby reducing the formation of large aggregates. Strikingly, E-N peptide did not disturb the binding of PAC-1, which is known to reflect activation of the integrin. E-N peptide also inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, a response known to be dependent on alphaIIbbeta3. T-T peptide did not affect these processes. In a model for outside-in integrin activation, E-N peptide disrupted the binding of CHO cells expressing alphaIIbbeta3 to surface-bound ligand. Again, T-T peptide had no effect. We conclude that the E749ATSTFTN756 region of the beta3-tail stabilizes the binding of soluble and surface-bound ligand to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 via a mechanism that involves the phosphorylation of FAK.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2003;1;10;2216-24

  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-mediated T cell adhesion is impaired by low molecular weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase-dependent inhibition of FAK activity.

    Giannoni E, Chiarugi P, Cozzi G, Magnelli L, Taddei ML, Fiaschi T, Buricchi F, Raugei G and Ramponi G

    Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Università di Firenze, V.le Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the earliest signaling events detected in response to lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) engagement during lymphocyte adhesion. In particular, the focal adhesion kinase p125FAK, involved in the modulation and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, seems to be a crucial mediator of LFA-1 signaling. Herein, we investigate the role of a FAK tyrosine phosphatase, namely low molecular weight phosphotyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), in the modulation of LFA-1-mediated T cell adhesion. Overexpression of LMW-PTP in Jurkat cells revealed an impairment of LFA-1-dependent cell-cell adhesion upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, in these conditions LMW-PTP causes FAK dephosphorylation, thus preventing the activation of FAK downstream pathways. Our results also demonstrated that, upon antigen stimulation, LMW-PTP-dependent FAK inhibition is associated to a strong reduction of LFA-1 and TCR co-clustering toward a single region of T cell surface, thus causing an impairment of receptor activity by preventing changes in their avidity state. Because co-localization of both LFA-1 and TCR is an essential event during encounters of T cells with antigen-presenting cells and immunological synapse (IS) formation, we suggest an intriguing role of LMW-PTP in IS establishment and stabilization through the negative control of FAK activity and, in turn, of cell surface receptor redistribution.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36763-76

  • Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates focal adhesion assembly in human brain microvascular endothelial cells through activation of the focal adhesion kinase and related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase.

    Avraham HK, Lee TH, Koh Y, Kim TA, Jiang S, Sussman M, Samarel AM and Avraham S

    Division of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. savraham@bidmc.harvard.edu

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a significant role in blood-brain barrier breakdown and angiogenesis after brain injury. VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration is a key step in the angiogenic response and is mediated by an accelerated rate of focal adhesion complex assembly and disassembly. In this study, we identified the signaling mechanisms by which VEGF regulates human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) integrity and assembly of focal adhesions, complexes comprised of scaffolding and signaling proteins organized by adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We found that VEGF treatment of HBMECs plated on laminin or fibronectin stimulated cytoskeletal organization and increased focal adhesion sites. Pretreating cells with VEGF antibodies or with the specific inhibitor SU-1498, which inhibits Flk-1/KDR receptor phosphorylation, blocked the ability of VEGF to stimulate focal adhesion assembly. VEGF induced the coupling of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to integrin alphavbeta5 and tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal components paxillin and p130cas. Additionally, FAK and related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK)/Pyk2 kinases were tyrosine-phosphorylated by VEGF and found to be important for focal adhesion sites. Overexpression of wild type RAFTK/Pyk2 increased cell spreading and the migration of HBMECs, whereas overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant RAFTK/Pyk2 markedly suppressed HBMEC spreading ( approximately 70%), adhesion ( approximately 82%), and migration ( approximately 65%). Furthermore, blocking of FAK by the dominant-interfering mutant FRNK (FAK-related non-kinase) significantly inhibited HBMEC spreading and migration and also disrupted focal adhesions. Thus, these studies define a mechanism for the regulatory role of VEGF in focal adhesion complex assembly in HBMECs via activation of FAK and RAFTK/Pyk2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA096805, CA76226; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL51456; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39558

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36661-8

  • Degradation and dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase during okadaic acid-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Kim B, van Golen CM and Feldman EL

    Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) prevents apoptosis in many cell types. We have reported that tyrosine residues in FAK are dephosphorylated and FAK is degraded during mannitol-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. Several studies suggest that FAK dephosphorylation and degradation are separate events. The current study defines the relationship between FAK dephosphorylation and degradation in neuroblastoma cells using okadaic acid (OA). OA, a serine phosphatase inhibitor, promotes serine/threonine phosphorylation, which in turn blocks tyrosine phosphorylation. OA induced focal adhesion loss, actin cytoskeleton disorganization, and cellular detachment, which corresponded to a loss of FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation. These changes preceded caspase-3 activation, Akt and MAP kinase activity loss, protein ubiquitination, and cellular apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor-I prevented mannitol-induced, but not OA-induced, substrate detachment and FAK Tyr397 dephosphorylation, and the effects of OA on FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation were irreversible. The proteolytic degradation of FAK is temporally distinct from its tyrosine dephosphorylation, occurring when apoptotic pathways are already initiated and during a generalized destruction of signaling proteins. Therefore, agents resulting in the dephosphorylation of FAK may be beneficial for therapeutic treatment, irrespective of FAK protein levels, as this may result in apoptosis, which cannot be prevented by growth factor signaling.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS36778, NS38849, R01 NS036778, R01 NS038849

    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 2003;5;5;405-16

  • Tumor necrosis factor-induced nuclear factor kappaB activation is impaired in focal adhesion kinase-deficient fibroblasts.

    Funakoshi-Tago M, Sonoda Y, Tanaka S, Hashimoto K, Tago K, Tominaga S and Kasahara T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is widely involved in important cellular functions such as proliferation, migration, and survival, although its roles in immune and inflammatory responses have yet to be explored. We demonstrate a critical role for FAK in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, using FAK-deficient (FAK-/-) embryonic fibroblasts. Interestingly, TNF-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production was nearly abolished in FAK-/- fibroblasts, whereas a normal level of production was obtained in FAK+/- or FAK+/+ fibroblasts. FAK deficiency did not affect the three types of mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK, JNK, and p38. Similarly, TNF-induced activation of activator protein 1 or NF-IL-6 was not impaired in FAK-/- cells. Of note, TNF-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and activation of IkappaB kinases (IKKs) were markedly impaired in FAK-/- cells, whereas the expression of TNF receptor I or other signaling molecules such as receptor-interacting protein (RIP), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and IKKgamma was unchanged. Also, TNF-induced association of FAK with RIP and subsequent association of RIP with TRAF2 were not observed, resulting in a failure of RIP to recruit the IKK complex in FAK-/- cells. The reintroduction of wild type FAK into FAK-/- cells restored the interaction of RIP with TRAF2 and the IKK complex and allowed recovery of NF-kappaB activation and subsequent IL-6 production. Thus, we propose a novel role for FAK in the NF-kappaB activation pathway leading to the production of cytokines.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;31;29359-65

  • Simultaneous inhibition of focal adhesion kinase and SRC enhances detachment and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines.

    Golubovskaya VM, Gross S, Kaur AS, Wilson RI, Xu LH, Yang XH and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0286, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src have been shown to be overexpressed in colon cancer. We have studied the role of these two kinases in resistance to apoptosis. Adenovirus-containing FAK-CD (Ad-FAK-CD), a dominant-negative, COOH-terminal portion of FAK, was used to inhibit FAK and cause apoptosis. Colon cancer cell lines were more resistant to Ad-FAK-CD-induced detachment and apoptosis than the breast cancer cell line, BT474. Colon cancer cell lines overexpressed highly active Src and FAK. Ad-FAK-CD-induced apoptosis was significantly increased by PP2, an inhibitor of Src family kinases. Activation of caspase-3, down-regulation of FAK, and Src and AKT activities were demonstrated in Ad-FAK-CD + PP2-treated colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. The results suggest that FAK and Src are both important survival factors, playing a role in protecting colon cancer cell lines from Ad-FAK-CD-induced apoptosis. Dual inhibition of these kinases may be important for therapies designed to enhance the apoptosis in colon cancers.

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2003;1;10;755-64

  • Focal adhesion kinase N-terminus in breast carcinoma cells induces rounding, detachment and apoptosis.

    Beviglia L, Golubovskaya V, Xu L, Yang X, Craven RJ and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has a central role in adhesion-mediated cell signalling. The N-terminus of FAK is thought to function as a docking site for a number of proteins, including the Src-family tyrosine kinases. In the present study, we disrupted FAK signalling by expressing the N-terminal domain of FAK (FAK-NT) in human breast carcinoma cells, BT474 and MCF-7 lines, and non-malignant epithelial cells, MCF-10A line. Expression of FAK-NT led to rounding, detachment and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Apoptosis was accompanied by dephosphorylation of FAK Tyr(397), degradation of the endogenous FAK protein and activation of caspase-3. Over-expression of FAK rescued FAK-NT-mediated cellular rounding. Expression of FAK-NT in non-malignant breast epithelial cells did not lead to rounding, loss of FAK phosphorylation or apoptosis. Thus FAK-NT contributes to cellular adhesion and survival pathways in breast cancer cells which are not required for survival in non-malignant breast epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910; NICHD NIH HHS: K12HD001441

    The Biochemical journal 2003;373;Pt 1;201-10

  • Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.

    Rose DM, Liu S, Woodside DG, Han J, Schlaepfer DD and Ginsberg MH

    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. drose@vapop.ucsd.edu

    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL48728, HL59007; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR27214, P30 AR47360

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;170;12;5912-8

  • Activation of pp125FAK by type 2B recombinant von Willebrand factor binding to platelet GPIb at a high shear rate occurs independently of alpha IIb beta 3 engagement.

    Mekrache M, Bachelot-Loza C, Ajzenberg N, Saci A, Legendre P and Baruch D

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France.

    Shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) involves the sequential interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with both glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and alphaIIbbeta3 receptors. Type 2B recombinant VWF (2B-rVWF), characterized by an increased affinity for GPIb, induces strong SIPA at a high shear rate (4000 s-1). Despite the increased affinity of 2B-rVWF for GPIb, patients with type 2B von Willebrand disease have a paradoxical bleeding disorder, which is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if SIPA induced by 2B-rVWF was associated with alphaIIbbeta3-dependent platelet activation. To this end, we have addressed the influence of 2B-rVWF (Val553Met substitution) on SIPA-dependent variations of tyrosine protein phosphorylation (P-Tyr) and the effect of alphaIIbbeta3 blockers. At a high shear rate, 2B-rVWF induced a strong SIPA, as shown by a 92.7% +/- 0.4% disappearance of single platelets (DSP) after 4.5 minutes. In these conditions, increased P-Tyr of proteins migrating at positions 64 kd, 72 kd, and 125 kd were observed. The band at 125 kd was identified as pp125FAK using anti-phospho-FAK antibody. This effect, which required a high level of SIPA (> 70% DSP), was observed at 4000 s-1 but not at 200 s-1. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) 6D1 (anti-GPIb) and 328 (anti-VWF A1 domain), completely abolished SIPA and p125FAK phosphorylation mediated by 2B-rVWF. In contrast, neither RGDS peptide nor MoAb 7E3, both known to block alphaIIbbeta3 engagement, had any effect on SIPA and pp125FAK. The size of aggregates formed at a high shear rate in the presence of 2B-rVWF was decreased by genistein, demonstrating the biologic relevance of pp125FAK. These findings provide a unique mechanism whereby the enhanced interaction of 2B-rVWF with GPIb, without engagement of alphaIIbbeta3, is sufficient to induce SIPA but does not lead to stable thrombus formation.

    Blood 2003;101;11;4363-71

  • hsp72 inhibits focal adhesion kinase degradation in ATP-depleted renal epithelial cells.

    Mao H, Li F, Ruchalski K, Mosser DD, Schwartz JH, Wang Y and Borkan SC

    Renal Section, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118-2518, USA.

    Prior heat stress (HS) or the selective overexpression of hsp72 prevents apoptosis caused by exposure to metabolic inhibitors by protecting the mitochondrial membrane and partially reducing caspase-3 activation. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase, exhibits anti-apoptotic properties and is a potential target for degradation by caspase-3. This study tested the hypothesis that hsp72 interacts with FAK, preventing caspase-3-mediated degradation during ATP depletion. ATP depletion (5 mm NaCN and 5 mm 2-deoxy-d-glucose in the absence of medium glucose) caused FAK degradation within 15 min. FAK degradation was completely prevented by a caspase-3-specific inhibitor. HS induced the accumulation of hsp72, increased the interaction between hsp72 and FAK, and significantly inhibited FAK degradation during ATP depletion. Selective overexpression of wild-type hsp72 (but not hsp72DeltaEEVD) reproduced the protective effects of HS on FAK cleavage. Purified hsp72 prevented the degradation of FAK by caspase-3 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner without affecting caspase-3 activity. Interaction between hsp72 and FAK is critical because both exogenous ATP and deletion of the substrate-binding site decreased protection of FAK by hsp72. These data indicate that FAK is an early target of injury in cells exposed to metabolic inhibitors and demonstrate that hsp72 reduces caspase-3-mediated proteolysis of FAK, an anti-apoptotic protein.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-52898, DK-53387

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;20;18214-20

  • Focal adhesion kinase signaling activities and their implications in the control of cell survival and motility.

    Hanks SK, Ryzhova L, Shin NY and Brábek J

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. steve.hanks@vanderbilt.edu

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was first described in 1992 as a novel nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase localized prominently within focal adhesions, suggesting a signaling role in regulating cell behavior resulting from integrin interaction with the extracellular matrix. Subsequent studies over the past decade have established functional roles for FAK as a positive regulator of both cell motility and cell survival, while providing considerable insight into signaling mechanisms involved. FAK signaling results from its ability to become highly phosphorylated in response to integrin-mediated adhesion on Tyr-397, permitting interactions with a number of different signaling effectors containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. Src-family kinases recruited to the Tyr-397 site phosphorylate two FAK-interacting proteins, Crk-associated substrate (CAS) and paxillin, which results ultimately in regulation of Rho-family GTPases contributing to cell motility. CAS phosphorylation, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation resulting from its binding to the FAK Tyr-397 site, have been implicated as downstream FAK signaling events that confer a resistance to apoptosis. This article reviews these and other aspects of FAK signaling and function.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK56018; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2003;8;d982-96

  • Signaling between focal adhesion kinase and trio.

    Medley QG, Buchbinder EG, Tachibana K, Ngo H, Serra-Pagès C and Streuli M

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Quintas_Medley@dcfi.harvard.edu

    The Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor functions in neural development in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila and in the development of neural tissues and skeletal muscle in mouse. The association of Trio with the Lar tyrosine phosphatase led us to study the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in Trio function using focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The Lar-interacting domain of Trio is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated when expressed in COS-7 cells and was highly phosphorylated when it was co-transfected with FAK. Co-precipitation studies indicated that Trio binds to the FAK amino-terminal domain and to the FAK kinase domain via its SH3 and kinase domains, respectively. Tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK and Trio were present mainly in the detergent-insoluble fraction of cell lysates, and co-expression of Trio and FAK resulted in increased amounts of Trio present in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Immunofluorescence of cells co-transfected with FAK and Trio revealed significant co-localization of the proteins at the cell periphery, indicating that they form a stable complex in vivo. A FAK phosphorylation site, tyrosine residue 2737, was identified in subdomain I of the Trio kinase domain. Additionally, in vitro phosphorylation assays and in vivo co-expression studies indicated that Trio enhances FAK kinase activity. These results suggest Trio may be involved in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics in addition to effecting changes in the actin cytoskeleton through the activation of Rho family GTPases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55547, CA75091

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;13265-70

  • Myofibroblast differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta1 is dependent on cell adhesion and integrin signaling via focal adhesion kinase.

    Thannickal VJ, Lee DY, White ES, Cui Z, Larios JM, Chacon R, Horowitz JC, Day RM and Thomas PE

    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. vjt@umich.edu

    Myofibroblast differentiation and activation by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of human fibrotic diseases, but regulatory mechanisms for this effect are unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that stable expression of the myofibroblast phenotype requires both TGF-beta1 and adhesion-dependent signals. TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast differentiation of lung fibroblasts is blocked in non-adherent cells despite the preservation of TGF-beta receptor(s)-mediated signaling of Smad2 phosphorylation. TGF-beta1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) including that of its autophosphorylation site, Tyr-397, an effect that is dependent on cell adhesion and is delayed relative to early Smad signaling. Pharmacologic inhibition of FAK or expression of kinase-deficient FAK, mutated by substituting Tyr-397 with Phe, inhibit TGF-beta1-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, stress fiber formation, and cellular hypertrophy. Basal expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin is elevated in cells grown on fibronectin-coated dishes but is decreased on laminin and poly-d-lysine, a non-integrin binding polypeptide. TGF-beta1 up-regulates expression of integrins and fibronectin, an effect that is associated with autophosphorylation/activation of FAK. Thus, a safer and more effective therapeutic strategy for fibrotic diseases characterized by persistent myofibroblast activation may be to target this integrin/FAK pathway while not interfering with tumor-suppressive functions of TGF-beta1/Smad signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-67967, T32 HL007749

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;14;12384-9

  • Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase by antisense oligonucleotides enhances the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to camptothecins.

    Satoh TH, Surmacz TA, Nyormoi O and Whitacre CM

    School of Natural and Health Sciences, Barry University, 11300 N.E. Second Ave., Miami Shores, FL 33161, USA.

    This study shows a strong association between cell attachment to substratum and activation of beta 1-integrin-signaling with resistance to the camptothecin derivative topotecan (TPT) in breast cancer cells. We propose a mechanistic-driven approach to sensitize the cells to camptothecins. ZR-75-1 anchorage-dependent breast cancer cell line, its derivative 9D3S suspension cells (9D3S-S), and 9D3S cells attached to fibronectin-coated plates (9D3S-A) were treated with TPT (1 microM) or CPT-11 (40 microM) for 48 h. Programmed cell death (PCD), as shown by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 cleavage, was observed in 9D3S-S cells but not in ZR-75-1 or 9D3S-A cells. Because p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a transducer in the beta 1-integrin signaling pathway, it is essential to cell adhesion and it is overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer, we hypothesized that attenuation of FAK might enhance the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to camptothecins. Moreover, inhibition of FAK gene expression by a phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting the portion of the gene encoding amino acids 262-268, increased the sensitivity of ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells to treatment with TPT or CPT-11.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: KO1 CA77065

    Biocell : official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopia Electronica ... et. al 2003;27;1;47-55

  • Physiologic role of decidual beta1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase in embryonic implantation.

    Hanashi H, Shiokawa S, Akimoto Y, Sakai K, Sakai K, Suzuki N, Kabir-Salmani M, Nagamatsu S, Iwashita M and Nakamura Y

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan.

    Implantation refers to a series of interactions between embryo and endometrium including hatching, attachment, and outgrowth. We investigated the expression and function of beta1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in human decidual cells during implantation. Immunofluorescent staining localized beta1 integrin to surfaces of cultured decidual cells. Double staining for beta1 integrin and mediators of intracellular signaling involving beta1 integrin, such as FAK and vinculin, colocalized beta1 integrin with these substances, suggesting that human decidual cells express beta1 integrin in the focal adhesion region. We next investigated the actions of beta1 integrin and FAK in implantation by co-culturing mouse embryos and human decidual cells. Mouse blastocysts attached to cultured decidual cells after embryo hatching, usually within 24 h of culture initiation. Blastocysts attached to decidual cells exhibited extensive outgrowth at 48 h. Treatment of decidual cells with an antibody against beta1 integrin or with an antisense FAK oligonucleotide did not affect hatching or attachment of blastocysts, but either one could inhibit outgrowth. Thus, it was concluded that human decidual beta1 integrin and FAK participate in this final step of implantation.

    Endocrine journal 2003;50;2;189-98

  • Differential regulation of cell motility and invasion by FAK.

    Hsia DA, Mitra SK, Hauck CR, Streblow DN, Nelson JA, Ilic D, Huang S, Li E, Nemerow GR, Leng J, Spencer KS, Cheresh DA and Schlaepfer DD

    The Scripps Research Institute, Dept. of Immunology, IMM26, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Cell migration and invasion are fundamental components of tumor cell metastasis. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and tyrosine phosphorylation are connected with elevated tumorigenesis. Null mutation of FAK results in embryonic lethality, and FAK-/- fibroblasts exhibit cell migration defects in culture. Here we show that viral Src (v-Src) transformation of FAK-/- cells promotes integrin-stimulated motility equal to stable FAK reexpression. However, FAK-/- v-Src cells were not invasive, and FAK reexpression, Tyr-397 phosphorylation, and FAK kinase activity were required for the generation of an invasive cell phenotype. Cell invasion was linked to transient FAK accumulation at lamellipodia, formation of a FAK-Src-p130Cas-Dock180 signaling complex, elevated Rac and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, and increased matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity. Our studies support a dual role for FAK in promoting cell motility and invasion through the activation of distinct signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA45726, CA50286, CA75240, CA78045, CA87038, P01 CA078045, R01 CA045726, R01 CA050286, R01 CA075240, R01 CA087038, R29 CA075240, R37 CA050286; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL54352, HL65754, R01 HL054352, R01 HL065754

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;160;5;753-67

  • Interaction between liprin-alpha and GIT1 is required for AMPA receptor targeting.

    Ko J, Kim S, Valtschanoff JG, Shin H, Lee JR, Sheng M, Premont RT, Weinberg RJ and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    Liprin-alpha is a multidomain protein that interacts with the LAR family of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases and the GRIP/ABP family of AMPA receptor-interacting proteins. Previous studies have indicated that liprin-alpha regulates the development of presynaptic active zones and that the association of liprin-alpha with GRIP is required for postsynaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report that liprin-alpha directly interacts with GIT1, a multidomain protein with GTPase-activating protein activity for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases known to regulate protein trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton. Electron microscopic analysis indicates that GIT1 distributes to the region of postsynaptic density (PSD) as well as presynaptic active zones. GIT1 is enriched in PSD fractions and forms a complex with liprin-alpha, GRIP, and AMPA receptors in brain. Expression of dominant-negative constructs interfering with the GIT1-liprin-alpha interaction leads to a selective and marked reduction in the dendritic and surface clustering of AMPA receptors in cultured neurons. These results suggest that the GIT1-liprin-alpha interaction is required for AMPA receptor targeting and that GIT1 may play an important role in the organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic multiprotein complexes.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2003;23;5;1667-77

  • Differential role of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and focal adhesion kinase in determining glioblastoma migration and proliferation.

    Lipinski CA, Tran NL, Bay C, Kloss J, McDonough WS, Beaudry C, Berens ME and Loftus JC

    Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.

    The propensity of malignant gliomas to invade surrounding brain tissue contributes to poor clinical outcome. Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix regulates the migration and proliferation of many cell types, but its role in glioma progression is undefined. We investigated the role of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2, potential integrin effectors, in the phenotypic determination of four different human glioblastoma cell lines. While FAK expression was similar between the four cell lines, increased FAK activity correlated with high proliferation and low migratory rates. In contrast, Pyk2 activity was significantly increased in migratory cell lines and depressed in proliferative cell lines. Overexpression of Pyk2 stimulated migration, whereas FAK overexpression inhibited cell migration and stimulated cellular proliferation. These data suggest that FAK and Pyk2 function as important signaling effectors in gliomas and indicate that their differential regulation may be determining factors in the temporal development of proliferative or migrational phenotypes.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL67938; NINDS NIH HHS: NS42262

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2003;1;5;323-32

  • The GIT family of proteins forms multimers and associates with the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Piccolo.

    Kim S, Ko J, Shin H, Lee JR, Lim C, Han JH, Altrock WD, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED, Premont RT, Kaang BK and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The cytoskeletal matrix assembled at active zones (CAZ) is implicated in defining neurotransmitter release sites. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the CAZ is organized. Here we report a novel interaction between Piccolo, a core component of the CAZ, and GIT proteins, multidomain signaling integrators with GTPase-activating protein activity for ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPases. A small region (approximately 150 amino acid residues) in Piccolo, which is not conserved in the closely related CAZ protein Bassoon, mediates a direct interaction with the Spa2 homology domain (SHD) domain of GIT1. Piccolo and GIT1 colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Piccolo forms a complex with GIT1 and various GIT-associated proteins, including betaPIX, focal adhesion kinase, liprin-alpha, and paxillin. Point mutations in the SHD of GIT1 differentially interfere with the association of GIT1 with Piccolo, betaPIX, and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that these proteins bind to the SHD by different mechanisms. Intriguingly, GIT proteins form homo- and heteromultimers through their C-terminal G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-binding domain in a tail-to-tail fashion. This multimerization enables GIT1 to simultaneously interact with multiple SHD-binding proteins including Piccolo and betaPIX. These results suggest that, through their multimerization and interaction with Piccolo, the GIT family proteins are involved in the organization of the CAZ.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01-AG06569; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS39471

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;8;6291-300

  • R-Ras promotes focal adhesion formation through focal adhesion kinase and p130(Cas) by a novel mechanism that differs from integrins.

    Kwong L, Wozniak MA, Collins AS, Wilson SD and Keely PJ

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

    R-Ras regulates integrin function, but its effects on integrin signaling pathways have not been well described. We demonstrate that activation of R-Ras promoted focal adhesion formation and altered localization of the alpha2beta1 integrin from cell-cell to cell-matrix adhesions in breast epithelial cells. Constitutively activated R-Ras(38V) dramatically enhanced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p130(Cas) phosphorylation upon collagen stimulation or clustering of the alpha2beta1 integrin, even in the absence of increased ligand binding. Signaling events downstream of R-Ras differed from integrins and K-Ras, since pharmacological inhibition of Src or disruption of actin inhibited integrin-mediated FAK and p130(Cas) phosphorylation, focal adhesion formation, and migration in control and K-Ras(12V)-expressing cells but had minimal effect in cells expressing R-Ras(38V). Therefore, signaling from R-Ras to FAK and p130(Cas) has a component that is Src independent and not through classic integrin signaling pathways and a component that is Src dependent. R-Ras effector domain mutants and pharmacological inhibition suggest a partial role for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but not Raf, in R-Ras signaling to FAK and p130(Cas). However, PI3K cannot account for the Src-independent pathway, since simultaneous inhibition of both PI3K and Src did not completely block effects of R-Ras on FAK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that R-Ras promotes focal adhesion formation by signaling to FAK and p130(Cas) through a novel mechanism that differs from but synergizes with the alpha2beta1 integrin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29 CA076537, R29 CA76537-06

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;3;933-49

  • Site-specific phosphorylation of platelet focal adhesion kinase by low-density lipoprotein.

    Relou IA, Bax LA, van Rijn HJ and Akkerman JW

    Laboratory for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Department of Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. i.relou@azu.nl

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in signalling pathways mediated by integrins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon stimulation FAK is phosphorylated on six tyrosine residues. Here we report the site-specific phosphorylation by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is known to induce integrin-independent FAK phosphorylation, and compare this with the effect of thrombin, which phosphorylates FAK via integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Stimulation with LDL reveals (i) a major role for Tyr-925 phosphorylation which surpasses the phosphorylation of the other residues, including Tyr-397, in rate and extent, (ii) alphaIIbbeta3-independent phosphorylation of Tyr-925 and Tyr-397, and (iii) complex formation between FAK and the Src-kinase Fgr but not with c-Src. These patterns differ profoundly from those induced by thrombin. LDL-induced phosphorylation of Tyr-925 and Tyr-397 was inhibited by 60-75% by receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of members of the LDL receptor family. Thus these findings reveal a novel mechanism of FAK phosphorylation by signalling cascades involving a member of the LDL receptor family.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;369;Pt 2;407-16

  • Specific interactions of neuronal focal adhesion kinase isoforms with Src kinases and amphiphysin.

    Messina S, Onofri F, Bongiorno-Borbone L, Giovedì S, Valtorta F, Girault JA and Benfenati F

    Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Genova, Italy.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that activates Src family kinases via SH2- and SH3-mediated interactions. Specific FAK isoforms (FAK+), responsive to depolarization and neurotransmitters, are enriched in neurons. We analyzed the interactions of endogenous FAK+ and recombinant FAK+ isoforms containing amino acid insertions (boxes 6,7,28) with an array of SH3 domains and the c-Src SH2/SH3 domain tandem. Endogenous FAK+ bound specifically to the SH3 domains of c-Src (but not n-Src), Fyn, Yes, phosphtidylinositol-3 kinase, amphiphysin II, amphiphysin I, phospholipase Cgamma and NH2-terminal Grb2. The inclusion of boxes 6,7 was associated with a significant decrease in the binding of FAK+ to the c-Src and Fyn SH3 domains, and a significant increase in the binding to the Src SH2 domain, as a consequence of the higher phosphorylation of Tyr-397. The novel interaction with the amphiphysin SH3 domain, involving the COOH-terminal proline-rich region of FAK, was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of the two proteins and a closely similar response to stimuli affecting the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, an impairment of endocytosis was observed in synaptosomes after internalization of a proline-rich peptide corresponding to the site of interaction. The data account for the different subcellular distribution of FAK and Src kinases and the specific regulation of the transduction pathways linked to FAK activation in the brain and implicate FAK in the regulation of membrane trafficking in nerve terminals.

    Funded by: Telethon: 1131

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;84;2;253-65

  • Inhibition of migration of human glioblastoma cells by cerivastatin in association with focal adhesion kinase (FAK).

    Obara S, Nakata M, Takeshima H, Kuratsu J, Maruyama I and Kitajima I

    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, 890-8520, Kagoshima, Japan. sochian@ta2.so-net.ne.jp

    To investigate the biological effect of cerivastatin on glioblastoma cells, we exposed them to various concentrations of cerivastatin. Cerivastatin exhibited dual effects on glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed disruption of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion plaques even at nanomolar concentrations. Matrigel assay demonstrated marked inhibition of glioblastoma cell invasion. Immunoblot analysis using a phosphospecific antibody against focal adhesion kinase (FAK) showed that inhibition of migration was associated with the down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK. Our data suggest that cerivastatin may be beneficial for combination therapy with conventional anti-cancer drugs by inhibiting the invasion of glioblastoma.

    Cancer letters 2002;185;2;153-61

  • The focal adhesion kinase amino-terminal domain localises to nuclei and intercellular junctions in HEK 293 and MDCK cells independently of tyrosine 397 and the carboxy-terminal domain.

    Stewart A, Ham C and Zachary I

    Department of Medicine, University College London, The Rayne Building, 5 University Street, WC1E 6JJ, London, UK.

    The function and intracellular loc 17d8 alisation of the non-catalytic NH(2)-terminal region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are unclear. We investigated the targetting of the FAK NH(2)-terminal domain in HEK 293 and epithelial MDCK cells. Exogenous expression of a variety of GFP-fused and epitope-tagged NH(2) terminal domain constructs either including or lacking the major Tyr 397 autophosphorylation and Src-binding site targeted to nuclei and cell-cell junctions in HEK 293 cells and co-localised at junctions with occludin, and beta1 integrin subunits at junctions. Mutation of Tyr 397 also had no effect on localisation of the NH(2)-terminal domain. In contrast, constructs encoding either the kinase or focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domains but lacking the NH(2)-terminal region failed to localise to intercellular junctions or nuclei. The NH(2)-terminal domain was not associated with beta1 integrin subunits as indicated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, but did co-localise with cortical actin filaments. The NH(2)-terminal domain also targetted to nuclei and intercellular junctions in MDCK cells, whereas full-length FAK localised only to focal adhesions in these cells. These results indicate that the FAK NH(2)-terminal domain targets to epithelial intercellular junctions and nuclei and suggest novel functions for FAK NH(2)-terminal domain fragments independent of Y397, kinase, and FAT domains.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;299;1;62-73

  • Dual inhibition of focal adhesion kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways cooperatively induces death receptor-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Golubovskaya V, Beviglia L, Xu LH, Earp HS, Craven R and Cance W

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, and the Department Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are protein-tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed and activated in human breast cancer. To determine the role of EGFR and FAK survival signaling in breast cancer, EGFR was stably overexpressed in BT474 breast cancer cells, and each signaling pathway was specifically targeted for inhibition. FAK and EGFR constitutively co-immunoprecipitated in EGFR-overexpressing BT474 cells. In low EGFR-expressing BT474-pcDNA3 vector control cells, inhibition of FAK by the FAK C-terminal domain caused detachment and apoptosis via pathways involving activation of caspase-3 and -8, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspase-3-dependent degradation of AKT. This apoptosis could be rescued by the dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain, indicating involvement of the death receptor pathway. EGFR overexpression did not inhibit detachment induced by the FAK C-terminal domain, but did suppress apoptosis, activating AKT and ERK1/2 survival pathways and inhibiting cleavage of FAK, caspase-3 and -8, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, this protective effect of EGFR signaling was reversed by EGFR kinase inhibition with AG1478. In addition, inhibition of FAK and EGFR in another breast cancer cell line (BT20) endogenously overexpressing these kinases also induced apoptosis via the same mechanism as in the EGFR-overexpressing BT474 cells. The results of this study indicate that dual inhibition of FAK and EGFR signaling pathways can cooperatively enhance apoptosis in breast cancers.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38978-87

  • Tyr-863 phosphorylation enhances focal adhesion kinase autophosphorylation at Tyr-397.

    Leu TH and Maa MC

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, Republic of China. tzengleu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    Tyr-397 phosphorylation is important for focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated signalling. In vitro FAK immunocomplex kinase experiments demonstrated that both FAK Tyr-576/577 and Tyr-863 phosphorylation regulated FAK Tyr-397 phosphorylation. While the former increased the intermolecular transphosphorylation activity of FAK, the latter was crucial for its cis-phosphorylation. This observation was further supported by the reduced complex formation between Src and 3F-FAK (576F/577F/863F-FAK) as compared to that between Src and 576F/577F-FAK or Src and 863F-FAK. Regulation of cis- and transphosphorylation activities of FAK by such a differential tyrosyl phosphorylation mechanism is unprecedented. Furthermore, in fibronectin-stimulated cells, both Tyr-576/577 and Tyr-863 phosphorylation could enhance FAK Tyr-397 phosphorylation. This observation implies that integrin-mediated FAK Tyr-397 phosphorylation was also regulated through both FAK cis- and transphosphorylation mechanisms.

    Oncogene 2002;21;46;6992-7000

  • Expression of focal adhesion kinase in normal and pathologic human prostate tissues.

    Rovin JD, Frierson HF, Ledinh W, Parsons JT and Adams RB

    Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA.

    Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates multiple cellular processes including growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, and apoptosis. In tumor cells, including prostate adenocarcinoma, FAK overexpression has been linked to cancer progression.

    Methods: By using immunohistochemistry, FAK expression was investigated in human prostate specimens.

    Results: FAK was expressed predominantly in the basal layer of normal prostate epithelium but not in secretory epithelium. FAK was expressed at similar levels in all stages of prostate tumorigenesis, including preinvasive carcinoma and metastatic disease. Elevated FAK expression was observed at the earliest stages of transformation and expression continued during cancer progression.

    Conclusion: Given the established role for FAK in the regulation of integrin signaling, we suggest that the sustained elevated levels of FAK expression during prostate tumor cell progression is consistent with a role for FAK in the development and maintenance of prostate carcinoma.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA74298, CA76465

    The Prostate 2002;53;2;124-32

  • CD44 signaling through focal adhesion kinase and its anti-apoptotic effect.

    Fujita Y, Kitagawa M, Nakamura S, Azuma K, Ishii G, Higashi M, Kishi H, Hiwasa T, Koda K, Nakajima N and Harigaya K

    Department of Molecular and Tumor Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Japan.

    Adhesion molecules can initiate intracellular signaling. Engagement of CD44 either by its natural ligand hyaluronan or a specific antibody on a cell line induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which then associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase at its downstream. However, the introduction of dominant negative Rho into the cells inhibited the CD44-stimulated FAK phosphorylation. Cells expressing CD44 were significantly resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. This anti-apoptotic effect was cancelled by the inhibition of either Rho, FAK or PI3K. These results may indicate a signaling pathway from CD44 to mediate the resistance against drug-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

    FEBS letters 2002;528;1-3;101-8

  • A scaffold protein in the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway is associated with focal adhesion kinase and tyrosine-phosphorylated.

    Takino T, Yoshioka K, Miyamori H, Yamada KM and Sato H

    Division of Molecular Virology and Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934, Japan. ttakino@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) becomes activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins in a variety of cell types, and associates with a number of signaling molecules, structural proteins, and beta integrin cytoplasmic domains. Here we demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1), a scaffold factor in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, forms a complex with the N-terminus of FAK. The complex formation was further stimulated by c-Src, in which JSAP1 was tyrosine-phosphorylated and other FAK/Src signaling molecules were recruited. Fibronectin (FN) stimulation of cells expressing JSAP1 induced its tyrosine phosphorylation concomitant with association with FAK. Expression of JSAP1 in Hela cells facilitated formation of well-organized focal contacts and actin stress fibers, and promoted cell spreading onto FN. Taken together, these results suggest that JSAP1 is involved an integrin-mediated signaling pathway through FAK/Src by recruiting other signaling molecules, resulting in promotion of cell spreading onto FN.

    Oncogene 2002;21;42;6488-97

  • Focal adhesion kinase activated by beta(4) integrin ligation to mCLCA1 mediates early metastatic growth.

    Abdel-Ghany M, Cheng HC, Elble RC and Pauli BU

    Cancer Biology Laboratories, Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Early metastatic growth occurs at sites of vascular arrest of blood-borne cancer cells and is entirely intravascular. Here we show that lung colonization by B16-F10 cells is licensed by beta(4) integrin adhesion to the mouse lung endothelial Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel protein mCLCA1. In a manner independent of Met, beta(4) integrin-mCLCA1-ligation leads to complexing with and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and downstream signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). FAK/ERK signaling is Src-dependent and is interrupted by adhesion blocking antibodies and by dominant-negative (dn)-FAK mutants. Levels of ERK activation in B16-F10 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant FAK are closely associated with rates of proliferation and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation of tumor cells grown in mCLCA1-coated dishes, the ability to form tumor cell colonies on CLCA-expressing endothelial cell monolayers, and the extent of pulmonary metastatic growth. Parallel with the transfection rates, B16-F10 cells transfected with dn-FAK mutants and injected intravenously into syngeneic mice generate approximately half the number and size of lung colonies that vector-transfected B16-F10 cells produce. For the first time, beta(4) integrin ligation to its novel CLCA-adhesion partner is shown to be associated with FAK complexing, activation, and signaling to promote early, intravascular, metastatic growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 47668

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;37;34391-400

  • [Expression analysis of protein tyrosine kinases of the FAK (focal adhesion kinase) family in osteosarcoma].

    Schröder A, Delling G and Kaiser EA

    Abteilung Osteopathologie/Zentrum für Biomechanik, Pathologisches Institut, Universitätskrankenhaus Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

    Aims: Expression analysis of the protein tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase2 (Pyk2) in high grade osteosarcomas.

    Expression of the kinases was evaluated qualitatively by immunohistochemical staining and quantitatively by real-time PCR.

    Results: Osteoblastic cells of high grade osteosarcomas show a distinct FAK expression but an overexpression at the transcriptional level could not be detected. The Pyk2-mRNA expression was decreased in osteosarcomas.

    Conclusion: An altered relationship of FAK and Pyk2 was observed for different tumors and could also be important for osteosarcoma development.

    Der Pathologe 2002;23;5;361-6

  • Expression of focal adhesion kinase and alpha5 and beta1 integrins in carcinomas and its clinical significance.

    Su JM, Gui L, Zhou YP and Zha XL

    Department of Biochemistry, FuDan University Medical Center, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

    Aim: To detect the expression pattern of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunits in different kinds of cancerous tissues and to study their correlation with clinicopathological data including tumor type, grade and lymph node status.

    Methods: Using an immunohistochemical technique, we examined the expression of FAK and integrin and subunits in cancerous and noncancerous tissues obtained from 75 patients with gastric carcinomas, 21 colorectal carcinomas, 16 hepatocellular carcinomas, 20 uterocervical carcinomas, and 20 breast carcinomas.

    Results: The staining of FAK was stronger in cancerous than in noncancerous areas. Enhanced expression of FAKwas detected in poor-differentiated carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum. Tumors with lymph node metastases had more FAK protein than those without metastases. In addition, the deeper the extent of tumor infiltration, the higher the FAK expression. The expression of integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunits was lower in cancerous areas than in noncancerous areas, but it was higher in well-differentiated cancerous tissues than in poor differentiated tissues. The relationship between the expression of integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunits and infiltration or metastasis was not significant. Cancerous tissues with stronger FAK expression (++ or +++) also had a higher expression of integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunits in the tumor and its unaffected margins.

    Conclusion: FAK is a better marker for carcinogenesis and the progression of cancer than integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunit, and it may be not only a transformation-linked enzyme but also a progression-linked enzyme.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2002;8;4;613-8

  • Functional involvement of src and focal adhesion kinase in a CD99 splice variant-induced motility of human breast cancer cells.

    Lee HJ, Kim E, Jee B, Hahn JH, Han K, Jung KC, Park SH and Lee H

    Vascular System Research Center, Division of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Korea.

    Earlier report showed that expression of a splice variant of CD99 transmembrane protein increases invasive ability of human breast cancer cells. Cell motility was also significantly enhanced by the CD99 splice variant expression. In an effort to identify the cellular components that mediate a signal transduction pathway triggered by the CD99 splice variant, known signal path inhibitors were examined for their effects on the motility of the CD99 splice variant-transfected MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Phenylarsine oxide, an inhibitor of phosphatase specific for focal adhesion kinase, and PP1, an inhibitor of src kinase family, significantly suppressed motility of the cells. Among different types of src transfectant clones generated, kinase-negative mutant src transfectant cells were 80% less motile than the mock cells transfected with an empty-vector, while v-src and c-src transfectants exhibited cell motility levels at or slightly above the mock transfectant. These results suggest that src and focal adhesion kinase mediate the intracellular signaling pathway of a CD99 splice variant for the induction of motility of human breast cancer cells.

    Experimental & molecular medicine 2002;34;3;177-83

  • Insulin-like growth factor I prevents mannitol-induced degradation of focal adhesion kinase and Akt.

    Kim B and Feldman EL

    Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 200 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    In our laboratory, we are interested in hyperosmolarity-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. We have shown that high concentrations of glucose or mannitol induce apoptotic cell death in dorsal root ganglia in culture and in SH-SY5Y and SH-EP human neuroblastoma cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that has a critical role for transmitting integrin-mediated-signals. In this study, we report that hyperosmolar treatment mediates FAK dephosphorylation and cleavage, which is prevented by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. Mannitol treatment of SH-EP cells transfected with vector (SH-EP/pSFFV) results in concentration- and time-dependent dephosphorylation and degradation of FAK. Dephosphorylation and degradation of FAK are tightly correlated with apoptotic morphological changes, including the disruption of actin stress fibers, the loss of focal adhesion sites, membrane blebbing, and cell detachment. Treatment of SH-EP/pSFFV cells with IGF-I or transfection of IGF-I receptor prevents these changes. Treatment of cells with pharmacologic inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways does not affect mannitol-induced FAK dephosphorylation and degradation. However, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is necessary for IGF-I-mediated protection against FAK alteration. Mannitol treatment also results in the degradation of Akt. Mannitol induces the activation of caspases-3 and -9 in a time course similar to the dephosphorylation and degradation of FAK. Treatment of the cells with ZVAD, a general caspase inhibitor, blocks the mannitol-induced FAK and Akt degradation as well as cell detachment and apoptosis. These results suggest that one of the pathways of mannitol-mediated apoptosis is through the degradation of FAK and Akt and that IGF-I protects the cells from apoptosis by blocking the activation of caspases, which may be responsible for the loss of FAK and Akt.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS 38849

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;30;27393-400

  • A p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylated substrate domain decoy disrupts v-crk signaling.

    Kirsch K, Kensinger M, Hanafusa H and August A

    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, The Rockefeller University, NY, NY 10021, USA. kirschk@bu.edu

    Background: The adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas) has been shown to be involved in different cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration and transformation. This protein has a substrate domain with up to 15 tyrosines that are potential kinase substrates, able to serve as docking sites for proteins with SH2 or PTB domains. Cas interacts with focal adhesion plaques and is phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinases FAK and Src. A number of effector molecules have been shown to interact with Cas and play a role in its function, including c-crk and v-crk, two adaptor proteins involved in intracellular signaling. Cas function is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of its substrate domain, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas in part regulates its control of adhesion and migration. To determine whether the substrate domain alone when tyrosine phosphorylated could signal, we have constructed a chimeric Cas molecule that is phosphorylated independently of upstream signals.

    Results: We found that a tyrosine phosphorylated Cas substrate domain acts as a dominant negative mutant by blocking Cas-mediated signaling events, including JNK activation by the oncogene v-crk in transient and stable lines and v-crk transformation. This block was the result of competition for binding partners as the chimera competed for binding to endogenous c-crk and exogenously expressed v-crk.

    Conclusion: Our approach suggests a novel method to study adaptor proteins that require phosphorylation, and indicates that mere tyrosine phosphorylation of the substrate domain of Cas is not sufficient for its function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA44356

    BMC cell biology 2002;3;18

  • beta 1 integrin regulates fibroblast viability during collagen matrix contraction through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/protein kinase B signaling pathway.

    Tian B, Lessan K, Kahm J, Kleidon J and Henke C

    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

    Integrins regulate cell viability through their interaction with the extracellular matrix. Integrins can sense mechanical forces arising from the matrix and convert these stimuli to chemical signals capable of modulating intracellular signal transduction. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is a major regulator of cell survival. It is not known, however, whether integrins, acting as mechanoreceptors, regulate cell survival via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Here, we show that in response to a matrix-derived mechanical stimulus, beta1 integrin regulated cell viability by regulating Akt activity in a PI3K-dependent fashion. To accomplish this, we employed fibroblasts cultured in collagen gels. During contraction of collagen matrices, fibroblasts underwent apoptosis. We demonstrate that ligation of beta1 integrin with anti-beta1 integrin antibodies protected fibroblasts from apoptosis. The nature of the survival signal activated by beta1 integrin engagement with antibody was mediated by PI3K acting through Akt/protein kinase B. We show that Akt phosphorylation decreased during collagen contraction and that this decrease correlated precisely with the onset of fibroblast apoptosis. Fibroblasts transfected with constitutively active PI3K displayed increased Akt phosphorylation and were protected from anoikis and collagen gel contraction-induced apoptosis. Our data identify a novel role for beta1 integrin in regulating fibroblast viability through a PI3K/Akt/protein kinase B signaling pathway in response to a matrix-derived mechanical stimulus.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL50152

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;27;24667-75

  • Activation of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and its association with other proteins by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha is associated with cell migration in a T-lymphocyte line.

    Okabe S, Fukuda S and Broxmeyer HE

    Department of Microbiology/Immunology and the Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

    Objectives: Chemokines play a central role in lymphocyte trafficking and homing. The actin cytoskeleton is involved in cell morphological changes and motility. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein (WASP) has been implicated in regulation of cytoskeleton rearrangement. To evaluate mechanisms that might be involved in migration of T cells, we examined effects of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha on WASP and associated proteins.

    Methods: Jurkat T cells were stimulated by SDF-1alpha and analyzed for chemotaxis and also by Western blot analysis for signal transduction.

    Results: Jurkat T cells displayed chemotaxis to SDF-1alpha, which was inhibited by pretreatment of cells with either pertussis toxin, a Galphai protein inhibitor, wortmannin or Ly294002, phophatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, or herbimycin, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor. WASP was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to SDF-1alpha stimulation in Jurkat T cells. Crk associated substrate (Cas), Nck, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were also phosphorylated after SDF-1alpha stimulation. Moreover, activated Nck interacted with Cas and WASP as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and FAK also bound to Cas.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that WASP, Cas, Nck, and FAK may play a role in SDF-1alpha-induced migration of the T-cell line, Jurkat.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL 56416, R01 HL67384; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK53674

    Experimental hematology 2002;30;7;761-6

  • Nck-2 interacts with focal adhesion kinase and modulates cell motility.

    Goicoechea SM, Tu Y, Hua Y, Chen K, Shen TL, Guan JL and Wu C

    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, 707B Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

    Nck-2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein comprising primarily three N-terminal SH3 domains and one C-terminal SH2 domain. We report here that Nck-2 interacts with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase critically involved in the cellular control of motility. Using a mutational strategy, we have found that the formation of the Nck-2-FAK complex is mediated by interactions involving multiple SH2 and SH3 domains of Nck-2. The Nck-2 SH2 domain-mediated interaction with FAK is dependent on phosphorylation of Tyr397, a site that is involved in the regulation of cell motility. A fraction of Nck-2 co-localizes with FAK at cell periphery in spreading cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Nck-2 modestly decreased cell motility, whereas overexpression of a mutant form of Nck-2 containing the SH2 domain but lacking the SH3 domains significantly promoted cell motility. These results identify a novel interaction between Nck-2 and FAK and suggest a role of Nck-2 in the modulation of cell motility.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK54639; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050

    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2002;34;7;791-805

  • A fragment of paxillin binds the alpha 4 integrin cytoplasmic domain (tail) and selectively inhibits alpha 4-mediated cell migration.

    Liu S, Kiosses WB, Rose DM, Slepak M, Salgia R, Griffin JD, Turner CE, Schwartz MA and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Vascular Biology and Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. shouchun.liu@mpi.com

    The alpha(4) integrins play important roles in embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, cardiac development, and the immune responses. The alpha(4) integrin subunit is indispensable for these biological processes, possibly because the alpha(4) subunit regulates cellular functions differently from other integrin alpha subunits. We have previously reported that the alpha(4) cytoplasmic domain directly and tightly binds paxillin, an intracellular signaling adaptor molecule, and this interaction accounts for some of the unusual functional responses to alpha(4) integrin-mediated cell adhesion. We also have identified a conserved 9-amino acid region (Glu(983)-Tyr(991)) in the alpha(4) cytoplasmic domain that is sufficient for paxillin binding, and an alanine substitution at either Glu(983) or Tyr(991) within this region disrupted the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction and reversed the effects of the alpha(4) cytoplasmic domain on cell spreading and migration. In the current study, we have mapped the alpha(4)-binding site within paxillin using mutational analysis, and examined its effects on the alpha(4) tail-mediated functional responses. Here we report that sequences between residues Ala(176) and Asp(275) of paxillin are sufficient for binding to the alpha(4) tail. We found that the alpha(4) tail, paxillin, and FAT, the focal adhesion targeting domain of pp125(FAK), could form a ternary complex and that the alpha(4)-binding paxillin fragment, P(Ala(176)-Asp(275)), specifically blocked paxillin binding to the alpha(4) tail more efficiently than it blocked binding to FAT. Furthermore, when expressed in cells, this alpha(4)-binding paxillin fragment specifically inhibited the alpha(4) tail-stimulated cell migration. Thus, paxillin binding to the alpha(4) tail leads to enhanced cell migration and inhibition of the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction selectively blocks the alpha4-dependent cellular responses.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL31950, HL48728; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR27214; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;23;20887-94

  • Possible involvement of the vascular endothelial growth factor-Flt-1-focal adhesion kinase pathway in chemotaxis and the cell proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells in arthritic joints.

    Matsumoto Y, Tanaka K, Hirata G, Hanada M, Matsuda S, Shuto T and Iwamoto Y

    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory joint disease, including angiogenesis and synovitis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive synovitis and subsequent bone destruction mediated by osteoclasts (OCs). In this study, we investigate the effects of VEGF on OC precursor cells (pOCs) using Raw cells and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. OCs and pOCs in the arthritic joints express VEGF and VEGF receptor type I (Flt-1). Raw cells also express Flt-1, and VEGF treatment stimulated chemotaxis, cell proliferation, the association of Flt-1 with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in Raw cells. The tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK was also observed in pOCs in the arthritic joints of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of FAK-related nonkinase in Raw cells inhibited the effects of VEGF in a dominant negative manner. Furthermore, intra-articular injection of the FAK-related nonkinase virus suppressed the recruitment of pOCs and bone destruction. Our results suggest the possible involvement of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in inflammatory disease-induced joint destruction.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2002;168;11;5824-31

  • The association of ASAP1, an ADP ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein, with focal adhesion kinase contributes to the process of focal adhesion assembly.

    Liu Y, Loijens JC, Martin KH, Karginov AV and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    ASAP1 (ADP ribosylation factor [ARF]- GTPase-activating protein [GAP] containing SH3, ANK repeats, and PH domain) is a phospholipid-dependent ARF-GAP that binds to and is phosphorylated by pp60(Src). Using affinity chromatography and yeast two-hybrid interaction screens, we identified ASAP1 as a major binding partner of protein tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed the binding of ASAP1 to FAK is mediated by an interaction between the C-terminal SH3 domain of ASAP1 with the second proline-rich motif in the C-terminal region of FAK. Transient overexpression of wild-type ASAP1 significantly retarded the spreading of REF52 cells plated on fibronectin. In contrast, overexpression of a truncated variant of ASAP1 that failed to bind FAK or a catalytically inactive variant of ASAP1 lacking GAP activity resulted in a less pronounced inhibition of cell spreading. Transient overexpression of wild-type ASAP1 prevented the efficient organization of paxillin and FAK in focal adhesions during cell spreading, while failing to significantly alter vinculin localization and organization. We conclude from these studies that modulation of ARF activity by ASAP1 is important for the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and/or organization by influencing the mechanisms responsible for the recruitment and organization of selected focal adhesion proteins such as paxillin and FAK.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29243, CA40042, CA80606, P01 CA040042, R01 CA029243, R01 CA080606, R37 CA029243; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1 F32 GM19795, F32 GM019795

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;6;2147-56

  • Antiapoptotic action of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) against ionizing radiation.

    Kasahara T, Koguchi E, Funakoshi M, Aizu-Yokota E and Sonoda Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Shibakoen 1-5-30, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8512, Japan. kasahara-td@kyoritsu-ph.ac.jp

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an antiapoptotic role in anchorage-dependent cells via an unknown mechanism. To elucidate the role of FAK in the antiapoptosis, we have demonstrated that FAK-overexpressed (HL-60/FAK) cells have marked resistance against various apoptotic stimuli. That is, HL-60/FAK cells were highly resistant to hydrogen peroxide or etoposide-induced apoptosis compared with the vector-transfected cells. In this study, we demonstrated that HL-60/FAK cells were highly resistant to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. IR at 10-40 Gy induced significant DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3 and -8, the processing of a proapoptotic BID, and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in the parental or HL-60/Vect cells, whereas no significant DNA fragmentation or no other concurring events were observed in the HL-60/FAK cells. Of note is that, in the HL-60/FAK cells, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-Akt survival pathway was activated, accompanied with significant induction of inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (cIAP-2, XIAP). Finally, constructs of FAK mutants revealed that the central kinase domain (K454), autophosphorylation site (Y397), as well as focal adhesion target regions (Y925), were prerequisite for the FAK function. These results indicated that mitochondria pathway is required for IR-induced apoptosis, and FAK overexpression prevents this pathway, thus rendering antiapoptotic states.

    Antioxidants & redox signaling 2002;4;3;491-9

  • Laminin-10/11 and fibronectin differentially prevent apoptosis induced by serum removal via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and MEK1/ERK-dependent pathways.

    Gu J, Fujibayashi A, Yamada KM and Sekiguchi K

    Division of Protein Chemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix inhibits apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the signals transduced by different matrix components are not well understood. Here, we examined integrin-mediated antiapoptotic signals from laminin-10/11 in comparison with those from fibronectin, the best characterized extracellular adhesive ligand. We found that the activation of protein kinase B/Akt in cells adhering to laminin-10/11 can rescue cell apoptosis induced by serum removal. Consistent with this, wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Akt selectively accelerated cell death upon serum removal. In contrast to laminin-10/11, fibronectin rescued cells from serum depletion-induced apoptosis mainly through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Cell survival on fibronectin but not laminin was significantly reduced by treatment with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of mitogen- or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) and by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MEK1. Laminin-10/11 was more potent than fibronectin in preventing apoptosis induced by serum depletion. These results, taken together, demonstrate laminin-10/11 potency as a survival factor and demonstrate that different extracellular matrix components can transduce distinct survival signals through preferential activation of subsets of multiple integrin-mediated signaling pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;22;19922-8

  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes.

    Huang D, Cheung AT, Parsons JT and Bryer-Ash M

    UCLA Gonda (Goldschmied) Diabetes Center and the Research Service, West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    Experimental data support a role for FAK, an important component of the integrin signaling pathway, in insulin action. To test the hypothesis that FAK plays a regulatory role in hepatic insulin action, we overexpressed wild type (WT), a kinase inactive (KR), or a COOH-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) sequence-truncated mutant of FAK in HepG2 hepatoma cells. In control untransfected (NON) and vector (CMV2)- and WT-transfected cells, insulin stimulated an expected 54 +/- 13, 37 +/- 4, and 47 +/- 12 increase in [U-(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen, respectively. This was entirely abolished in the presence of either KR (-1 +/- 7%) or FAT mutants (0 +/- 8%, n = 5, p < 0.05 for KR or FAT versus other groups), and this was associated with a significant attenuation of incremental insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase (GS) activity. Insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B was significantly impaired in mutant-transfected cells. Moreover, the ability of insulin to inactivate GS kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), the regulatory enzyme immediately upstream of GS, by serine phosphorylation (308 +/- 16, 321 +/- 41, and 458 +/- 34 optical densitometric units (odu) in NON, CMV2, and WT, respectively, p < 0.02 for WT versus CMV2) was attenuated in the presence of either FAT (205 +/- 14, p < 0.01) or KR (189 +/- 4, p < 0.005) mutants. FAK co-immunoprecipitated with GSK-3beta, but only in cells overexpressing the KR (374 +/- 254 odu) and FAT (555 +/- 308) mutants was this association stimulated by insulin compared with NON (-209 +/- 92), CMV2 (-47 +/- 70), and WT (-39 +/- 31 odu). This suggests that FAK and GSK-3beta form both a constitutive association and a transient complex upon insulin stimulation, the dissociation of which requires normal function and localization of FAK. We conclude that FAK regulates the activity of Akt/protein kinase B and GSK-3beta and the association of GSK-3beta with FAK to influence insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes. Insulin action may be subject to regulation by the integrin signaling pathway, ensuring that these growth and differentiation-promoting pathways act in a coordinated and/or complementary manner.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00211

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;20;18151-60

  • Primary arrest of circulating platelets on collagen involves phosphorylation of Syk, cortactin and focal adhesion kinase: studies under flow conditions.

    Arderiu G, Díaz-Ricart M, Buckley B, Escolar G and Ordinas A

    Servei d'Hemoterapia-Hemostasia, Hospital Clínic, Institut de Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.

    After a vessel wall injury, platelets adhere to the subendothelium following a sequence of events: arrest of single platelets on the surface, progression to platelet spreading and final aggregation. Primary arrest of circulating platelets on subendothelial components occurs through platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib and collagen receptors; then platelets spread and aggregate through a GPIIb-IIIa-dependent mechanism. A series of strategies were applied to analyse the tyrosine-phosphorylation mechanisms occurring at the different stages of platelet adhesion on subendothelial components under flow conditions, with special attention to primary arrest. To evaluate spread platelets, samples were exposed to acetylsalicylic acid, which blocks aggregate formation. To study single platelets in contact, a monoclonal antibody specific for GPIIb-IIIa was used to prevent platelet spreading and further aggregation. This experimental situation was also investigated using blood from two patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (i.e. lacking GPIIb-IIIa). Results demonstrated that blockade of both spreading and aggregation results in significant changes in the tyrosine-phosphorylation patterns. Arrest of single platelets on collagen-rich surfaces resulted in phosphorylation of p125, identified as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the 80/85 kDa doublet (cortactin), and p72, identified as Syk. Arrest of single platelets on von Willebrand factor as adhesive substrate showed that interaction through GPIb induces Syk phosphorylation, but not that of cortactin and FAK. Our data indicate that the initial arrest of platelets on subendothelial components involves Syk phosphorylation, which seems to be GPIb-dependent, and this is followed by activation and phosphorylation of cortactin and FAK. These processes seem to occur before GPIIb-IIIa becomes activated.

    The Biochemical journal 2002;364;Pt 1;65-71

  • Focal adhesion kinase enhances signaling through the Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in anaplastic astrocytoma tumor biopsy samples.

    Hecker TP, Grammer JR, Gillespie GY, Stewart J and Gladson CL

    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that on activation generates signals that can modulate crucial cell functions, including cell proliferation, migration, and survival. In vitro, overexpression of FAK has been shown to promote cell proliferation by signaling through the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in several cell types. We have shown previously that overexpression of exogenous FAK lacking alternative splicing in malignant astrocytoma clones injected intracerebrally into SCID mouse brains promotes tumor cell proliferation. Here, we show that in anaplastic astrocytoma biopsy samples, FAK is expressed as an unspliced variant and migrates with a faster mobility similar to that observed in embryonic brain. Compared with nonneoplastic adult brain biopsies, the levels of FAK protein are elevated as are its levels of activation as assessed by autophosphorylation and overall tyrosine phosphorylation. The activity of Src kinase in these tumors is also elevated, as well as the activity of Src kinase associated with FAK; the latter may result in enhanced Src kinase phosphorylation of FAK. Phosphorylated Shc is associated with FAK in the anaplastic astrocytoma biopsy samples and in astrocytoma cells overexpressing FAK in vitro but not in nonneoplastic brain biopsy samples. Elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 activation and elevated expression of cyclins D and E are also found in anaplastic astrocytoma biopsy samples. These data provide evidence that the increased FAK activity in these tumors contributes to phosphorylation of Shc and likely to the promotion of Ras activity, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 activation, and cell proliferation in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA59958

    Cancer research 2002;62;9;2699-707

  • Mutated focal adhesion kinase induces apoptosis in a human glioma cell line, T98G.

    Sakurai S, Sonoda Y, Koguchi E, Shinoura N, Hamada H and Kasahara T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Shibakoen 1-5-30, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan.

    We have established that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-transfected HL-60 (HL-60/FAK) cells were highly resistant to hydrogen peroxide and etoposide-induced apoptosis compared to vector-transfected cells. Mutagenesis study revealed that Y397 is required for anti-apoptotic activity in HL-60/FAK, since Y397F-mutated FAK (397FAK) lost anti-apoptotic function. Assuming that 397FAK functions as a dominant negative FAK, we introduced 397FAK cDNA into a human glioma cell line, T98G, using an adenoviral vector. We found that 397FAK induced marked apoptosis with significant FAK degradation. As PI3-kinase-Akt survival pathway was constitutively activated in T98G cells, we hypothesized that this pathway was shut off by 397FAK gene transfection. As expected, activation of PI3-kinase-Akt survival pathway was decreased by the 397FAK gene transfection. 397FAK activated mainly caspase-6 which induced degradation of transfected FAK as well as endogenous FAK. These results indicated that 397FAK induces apoptosis in T98G cells, by interrupting signals of FAK leading to the survival pathway in T98G glioma cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;293;1;174-81

  • Regulation of G protein-linked guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho, PDZ-RhoGEF, and LARG by tyrosine phosphorylation: evidence of a role for focal adhesion kinase.

    Chikumi H, Fukuhara S and Gutkind JS

    Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4330, USA.

    A recently identified family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho that includes PDZ-RhoGEF, LARG, and p115RhoGEF exhibits a unique structural feature consisting in the presence of area of similarity to regulators of G protein signaling (RGS). This RGS-like (RGL) domain provides a structural motif by which heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits of the Galpha(12) family can bind and regulate the activity of RhoGEFs. Hence, these newly discovered RGL domain-containing RhoGEFs provide a direct link from Galpha(12) and Galpha(13) to Rho. Recently available data suggest, however, that tyrosine kinases can regulate the ability of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to stimulate Rho, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we found that the activation of thrombin receptors endogenously expressed in HEK-293T cells leads to a remarkable increase in the levels of GTP-bound Rho within 1 min (11-fold) and a more limited but sustained activation (4-fold) thereafter, which lasts even for several hours. Interestingly, tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not affect the early phase of Rho activation, immediately after thrombin addition, but diminished the levels of GTP-bound Rho during the delayed phase. As thrombin receptors stimulate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) potently, we explored whether this non-receptor tyrosine kinase participates in the activation of Rho by GPCRs. We obtained evidence that FAK can be activated by thrombin, Galpha(12), Galpha(13), and Galpha(q) through both Rho-dependent and Rho-independent mechanisms and that PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG can in turn be tyrosine-phosphorylated through FAK in response to thrombin, thereby enhancing the activation of Rho in vivo. These data indicate that FAK may act as a component of a positive feedback loop that results in the sustained activation of Rho by GPCRs, thus providing evidence of the existence of a novel biochemical route by which tyrosine kinases may regulate the activity of Rho through the tyrosine phosphorylation of RGL-containing RhoGEFs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;14;12463-73

  • Src-mediated coupling of focal adhesion kinase to integrin alpha(v)beta5 in vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

    Eliceiri BP, Puente XS, Hood JD, Stupack DG, Schlaepfer DD, Huang XZ, Sheppard D and Cheresh DA

    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. eliceiri@scripps.edu

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes vascular permeability (VP) and neovascularization, and is required for development. We find that VEGF-stimulated Src activity in chick embryo blood vessels induces the coupling of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to integrin alpha(v)beta5, a critical event in VEGF-mediated signaling and biological responsiveness. In contrast, FAK is constitutively associated with beta1 and beta3 integrins in the presence or absence of growth factors. In cultured endothelial cells, VEGF, but not basic fibroblast growth factor, promotes the Src-mediated phosphorylation of FAK on tyrosine 861, which contributes to the formation of a FAK/alpha(v)beta5 signaling complex. Moreover, formation of this FAK/alpha(v)beta5 complex is significantly reduced in pp60c-src-deficient mice. Supporting these results, mice deficient in either pp60c-src or integrin beta5, but not integrin beta3, have a reduced VP response to VEGF. This FAK/alpha(v)beta5 complex was also detected in epidermal growth factor-stimulated epithelial cells, suggesting a function for this complex outside the endothelium. Our findings indicate that Src can coordinate specific growth factor and extracellular matrix inputs by recruiting integrin alpha(v)beta5 into a FAK-containing signaling complex during growth factor-mediated biological responses.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1T32CA75924, CA 87038, CA45726, CA50286, CA75240, CA78045, P01 CA078045, R01 CA045726, R01 CA050286, R01 CA075240, R01 CA087038, R29 CA075240, R37 CA050286, T32 CA075924

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;157;1;149-60

  • The structural basis of localization and signaling by the focal adhesion targeting domain.

    Arold ST, Hoellerer MK and Noble ME

    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

    The localization of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to sites of integrin clustering initiates downstream signaling. The C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain causes this localization by interacting with talin and paxillin. FAT also mediates signaling through Grb2 via phosphorylated Y925. We report two crystal structures of the FAT domain. Large rearrangements of the structure are indicated to allow phosphorylation of Y925 and subsequent interaction with Grb2. Sequence homology and structural compatibility suggest a FAT-like fold for the C-terminal domains of CAS, Efs/Sin, and HEF1. A structure-based alignment including these proteins and the vinculin tail domain reveals a conserved region that could play a role in focal adhesion targeting. Previously postulated "paxillin binding subdomains" may contribute to structural integrity rather than directly to paxillin binding.

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 2002;10;3;319-27

  • Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and focal adhesion kinase are involved in different phases of platelet activation by vWF.

    Canobbio I, Lova P, Sinigaglia F, Balduini C and Torti M

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, Italy.

    Stimulation of human platelets with von Willebrand factor (vWF) induces the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, but very little is known on the tyrosine kinases involved in this process. In the present work, we investigated and compared the activation of two related tyrosine kinases expressed in platelets: the proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Both kinases were tyrosine phosphorylated upon vWF interaction with glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex, but with different mechanisms. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK was totally dependent on thromboxane A2 production, and was inhibited by the integrin alphaIIbeta3 antagonist RGDS peptide. Moreover, chelation of intracellular calcium or inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) totally blocked vWF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, indicating that this event is downstream phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C activation. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 was only partially reduced by aspirin and RGDS, and was not affected by either calcium chelation or PKC inhibition, suggesting that activation of this kinase does not require phospholipase-mediated signalling. Both FAK and Pyk2 translocated to the cytoskeleton upon vWF stimulation of human platelets by a mechanism depending on agonist-induced actin polymerisation. Prevention of cytoskeletal relocation of Pyk2 and FAK by cytochalasin D totally blocked vWF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of both kinases. Finally, phosphorylation of Pyk2 induced by vWF, but not by thrombin, was inhibited by piceatannol, suggesting that this kinase lies downstream Syk. These results demonstrate that both Pyk2 and FAK are involved in platelet stimulation by vWF, but indicate that only Pyk2 may play a role in the early signal transduction events activated by ligand binding to glycoprotein Ib-IX-V.

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2002;87;3;509-17

  • PTEN regulates tumor cell adhesion of colon carcinoma cells under dynamic conditions of fluid flow.

    Haier J and Nicolson GL

    The Institute for Molecular Medicine 15162 Triton Lane, Huntington Beach, California, CA 92649, USA. haier@uni-muenster.de

    The regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion and its stabilization involves different phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been recently found to be a substrate of the dual-specific phosphatase PTEN in glioma cells, where it appears to be involved in regulation of cell spreading and migration as part of focal adhesions. We have investigated the role of PTEN in cell adhesion of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells under static and hydrodynamic conditions of fluid flow. PTEN coprecipitated with FAK and paxillin dependent on the formation of adhesions to collagens. This corresponded with an adhesion-dependent increase in Tyr-phosphatase activity of PTEN. Using preparations of native FAK and PTEN from HT-29 cells in a specific Tyr-phosphatase assay FAK was identified as substrate for this dephosphorylation. If expression of PTEN was reduced using antisense oligonucleotides cell adhesion under dynamic conditions of laminar flow, but not under static conditions was significantly increased. In addition, cell spreading was increased in cells with reduced PTEN expression. We conclude that PTEN appears to be involved in the regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion through dephosphorylation of FAK. This phosphatase might play a role as a negative regulator for the formation of stable HT-29 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix.

    Oncogene 2002;21;9;1450-60

  • The focal adhesion kinase--a regulator of cell migration and invasion.

    Hauck CR, Hsia DA and Schlaepfer DD

    Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Würzburg, Germany.

    Cell migration plays an important role in embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and in pathological phenomena such as tissue invasion and metastasis formation. In this review, we summarize recent reports that connect the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to cell migration and invasion. FAK is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction from integrin-enriched focal adhesion sites that mediate cell contact with the extracellular matrix. Multiple protein-protein interaction sites allow FAK to associate with adapter and structural proteins allowing for the modulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases, and small GTPase activity. FAK-enhanced signals have been shown to mediate the survival of anchorage-dependent cells and are critical for efficient cell migration in response to growth factor receptor and integrin stimulation. Elevated expression of FAK in human tumors has been correlated with increased malignancy and invasiveness. Because recent findings show that FAK contributes to the secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases, FAK may represent an important checkpoint in coordinating the dynamic processes of cell motility and extracellular matrix remodeling during tumor cell invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA75240, CA87038

    IUBMB life 2002;53;2;115-9

  • Differential regulation of components of the focal adhesion complex by heregulin: role of phosphatase SHP-2.

    Vadlamudi RK, Adam L, Nguyen D, Santos M and Kumar R

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. rvadlamudi@mdanderson.org

    Heregulin (HRG) has been implicated in the progression of breast cancer cells to a malignant phenotype, a process that involves changes in cell motility and adhesion. Here we demonstrate that HRG differentially regulates the site-specific phosphorylation of the focal adhesion components focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxilin in a dose-dependent manner. HRG at suboptimal doses (0.01 and 0.1 nM) increased adhesion of cells to the substratum, induced phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-577, -925, and induced formation of well-defined focal points in breast cancer cell line MCF-7. HRG at a dose of 1 nM, increased migratory potential of breast cancer cells, selectively dephosphorylated FAK at Tyr-577, -925, and paxillin at Tyr-31. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 remained unaffected by HRG stimulation. FAK associated with HER2 only in response to 0.01 nM HRG. In contrast, 1 nM HRG induced activation and increased association of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 with HER2 but decreased association of HER2 with FAK. Expression of dominant-negative SHP-2 blocked HRG-mediated dephosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, leading to persistent accumulation of mature focal points. Our results suggest that HRG differentially regulates signaling from focal adhesion complexes through selective phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and that tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 has a role in the HRG signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80066

    Journal of cellular physiology 2002;190;2;189-99

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, FAK, and p130CAS: effects on cell spreading and migration.

    Panetti TS

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Thrombosis Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. tpanetti@temple.edu

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell attachment to the substrate. At the cytoplasmic surface of the integrin, cytoskeletal proteins cluster into focal adhesions. The focal adhesions contain multiple proteins that provide a structural and signaling complex inside the cell. This review focuses on three of the cytoskeletal components of the focal adhesion, paxillin, FAK, and p130CAS, that are phosphorylated and play a regulatory role in cell spreading and cell migration. A brief discussion is included of tyrosine phosphorylation of the integrin in relation to localization and phosphorylation of these cytoskeletal proteins. The phosphorylation of integrins and cytoskeletal proteins regulates localization and downstream signaling with profound effects on cell movement.

    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 2002;7;d143-50

  • Role of tyrosine phosphorylation in ligand-independent sequestration of CXCR4 in human primary monocytes-macrophages.

    Wang J, Guan E, Roderiquez G, Calvert V, Alvarez R and Norcross MA

    Laboratory of Gene Regulation, Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. wangj@cber.fda.gov

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathophysiology, leukocyte trafficking, inflammation, hematopoiesis, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. The effects of cytokines on the regulation of CXCR4 function were investigated in human primary monocytes-macrophages. The expression of functional CXCR4 on the cell surface was demonstrated by the detection of ligand-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, chemotaxis, and ligand-induced receptor endocytosis. Surface CXCR4 expression was down-regulated by cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and up-regulated by IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta 1. Down-regulation was mediated post-translationally, in the absence of protein degradation, through an endocytotic mechanism. In contrast to SDF-1 alpha-induced CXCR4 endocytosis, cytokine-induced endocytosis of this receptor was independent of actin filament polymerization. GM-CSF increased the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3), beta-arrestin-1, Pyk2, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Cytokine treatment also increased the total and tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of CXCR4 as well as the phosphorylation of FAK on tyrosine 397. It also induced the formation of GRK3.CXCR4 or FAK.CXCR4 complexes. Infection of macrophages by primary R5X4 and X4 isolates of HIV-1 was inhibited by IL-4, IL-13, and GM-CSF, an effect that was associated with down-regulation of surface CXCR4 expression. These data indicate that ligand-dependent and ligand-independent endocytoses of CXCR4 are mediated by different mechanisms. Cytokine-induced endocytosis of chemokine receptors may be of therapeutic value in HIV-1 infection, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and defective hematopoiesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;52;49236-43

  • Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate directs association of Src homology 2-containing signaling proteins with gelsolin.

    Chellaiah MA, Biswas RS, Yuen D, Alvarez UM and Hruska KA

    Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biological Sciences, University of Maryland, 666 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. mac001@dental.umaryland.edu

    Podosomes are adhesion structures in osteoclasts and are structurally related to focal adhesions mediating cell motility during bone resorption. Here we show that gelsolin coprecipitates some of the focal adhesion-associated proteins such as c-Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p130(Cas), focal adhesion kinase, integrin alpha(v)beta(3), vinculin, talin, and paxillin. These proteins were inducibly tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to integrin activation by osteopontin. Previous studies have defined unique biochemical properties of gelsolin related to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in osteoclast podosomes, and here we demonstrate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate/gelsolin function in mediating organization of the podosome signaling complex. Overlay and GST pull-down assays demonstrated strong phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-PI3K interactions based on the Src homology 2 domains of PI3K. Furthermore, lipid extraction of lysates from activated osteoclasts eliminated interaction between gelsolin, c-Src, PI3K, and focal adhesion kinase despite equal amounts of gelsolin in both the lipid-extracted and unextracted experiment. The cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-proline-glutamic acid-serine-threonine amino acid sequences (PEST) was also found to be associated with gelsolin in osteoclast podosomes and with stimulation of alpha(v)beta(3)-regulated phosphorylation of PTP-PEST. We conclude that gelsolin plays a key role in recruitment of signaling proteins to the plasma membrane through phospholipid-protein interactions and by regulation of their phosphorylation status through its association with PTP-PEST. Because both gelsolin deficiency and PI3K inhibition impair bone resorption, we conclude that phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-based protein interactions are critical for osteoclast function.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 41677, AR 46292; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 09976

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;50;47434-44

  • Basal keratinocytes from uninvolved psoriatic skin exhibit accelerated spreading and focal adhesion kinase responsiveness to fibronectin.

    Chen G, McCormick TS, Hammerberg C, Ryder-Diggs S, Stevens SR and Cooper KD

    Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106-5028, USA.

    We previously proposed that the keratinocyte hyperproliferative state in psoriatic skin results from a combination of T cell cytokine interaction with basal keratinocytes that exist in a primed state. We now provide evidence that basal keratinocytes from psoriatic uninvolved skin are in a preactivated state with regard to their interaction with fibronectin. Freshly isolated basal keratinocytes (K(1)/K(10)(-)) from non-lesional psoriatic skin demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of spreading cells 1 h after plating on fibronectin-coated plates than keratinocytes isolated from normal skin (p =0.0002). No differences were observed on collagen-laminin-coated plates, however. The keratinocyte spreading on fibronectin-coated plates involved alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha V beta 1 integrins. To address the potential signaling cascades that may respond to integrin changes in psoriatic keratinocytes, focal adhesion kinase changes were assessed. The percentage of keratinocytes from psoriatic uninvolved skin that exhibit positive focal adhesion kinase staining was significantly greater than the percentage from healthy volunteers after 1 h incubation on fibronectin (p =0.006). Additionally, focal adhesion kinase isolated from uninvolved psoriatic keratinocytes had a greater degree of tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the proliferative effect of fibronectin in combination with T cell lymphokines on psoriatic uninvolved basal keratinocyte progenitors may be due to abnormal in vivo integrin-driven focal adhesion kinase activity and downstream signaling.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR41707, KO8AR02063

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2001;117;6;1538-45

  • Signalling of GPI-anchored CD157 via focal adhesion kinase in MCA102 fibroblasts.

    Liang F, Qi RZ and Chang CF

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore.

    CD157, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, has previously been shown to mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of a 130 kDa protein (p130) in several cell lines. In this study, we have identified the p130 protein to be focal adhesion kinase (FAK or pp125(FAK)). FAK undergoes phosphorylation at Tyr-397 and Tyr-861 in intact MCA102 cells stably transfected with CD157 (MCA/CD157). MCA/CD157 cells, which displayed a rounded and compact cell morphology, exhibited a dispersed distribution, in contrast to a more closely associated and elongated spindle cell shape in the vector-transfected cells. MCA/CD157 cells proliferated at a rate 20-25% slower than the control cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that FAK is a downstream signalling molecule of CD157.

    FEBS letters 2001;506;3;207-10

  • Ezrin interacts with focal adhesion kinase and induces its activation independently of cell-matrix adhesion.

    Poullet P, Gautreau A, Kadaré G, Girault JA, Louvard D and Arpin M

    Laboratoire de Morphogenèse et Signalisation Cellulaires, UMR 144 CNRS/Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, Paris 75248, cedex 05, France.

    Ezrin, a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, is required for cell morphogenesis, motility, and survival through molecular mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. Using the N-terminal domain of ezrin as a bait, we found that p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) interacts with ezrin. We show that the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from cultured cell lysates. However, FAK does not interact with full-length ezrin in vitro, indicating that the FAK binding site on ezrin is cryptic. Mapping experiments showed that the entire N-terminal domain of FAK (amino acids 1-376) is required for optimal ezrin binding. While investigating the role of the ezrin-FAK interaction, we observed that, in suspended kidney-derived epithelial LLC-PK1 cells, overproduction of ezrin promoted phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-397, the major autophosphorylation site, creating a docking site for FAK signaling partners. Treatment of the cells with a Src family kinase inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of Tyr-577 but not that of Tyr-397, indicating that ezrin-mediated FAK activation does not require the activity of Src kinases. Altogether, these observations indicate that ezrin is able to trigger FAK activation in signaling events that are not elicited by cell-matrix adhesion.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;40;37686-91

  • Cell-cycle-dependent association of protein phosphatase 1 and focal adhesion kinase.

    Fresu M, Bianchi M, Parsons JT and Villa-Moruzzi E

    Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55 56126 Pisa, Italy.

    Immunofluorescence studies with protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) isoforms-specific antibodies detected PP1delta, but not alpha or gamma1, at focal adhesions. PP1delta also co-immunoprecipitated with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the alphav-integrin. In the present study glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PP1delta pulled-down FAK from fibroblasts extract and the interaction domain localized between residues 159 and 295 of delta. The association was confirmed by the ability to GST-FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK) to pull-down PP1delta from fibroblasts extract. GST-FRNK also pulled-down purified muscle PP1 catalytic subunit, thus indicating direct interaction between FAK and PP1. FAK displays consensus sequences for phosphorylation by cell division cycle kinase-2-cyclin B, and might be a PP1 substrate. In fact, FAK immunoprecipitated from metabolically-labelled mitotic HeLa cells without tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors was phosphorylated on Ser only and was dephosphorylated in vitro by purified muscle PP1, with loss of phospho-Ser. No PP1 was associated with FAK immunoprecipitated from mitotic HeLa cells. However, progressively more PP1 activity was assayed in FAK-immunoprecipitates obtained from cells released from mitosis. The associated activity was maximal at 2 h from the mitotic release (when 85-90% of the cells remained round) and decreased to basal level by 8 h (when cells were all polygonal). At the same time FAK underwent dephosphorylation, which was completed by 4 h. FAK obtained from cells at 1.5 h was Ser-phosphorylated, and underwent dephosphorylation during in vitro incubation, with loss of phospho-Ser, indicating the presence of active FAK-bound phosphatase. The only FAK-associated PP1 isoform between 1 and 8 h was PP1delta. The results suggest that FAK dephosphorylation by PP1delta occurs in cells released from mitosis, and confirmed the specific association of PP1delta, as detected previously in adherent cells.

    Funded by: Telethon: 1112

    The Biochemical journal 2001;358;Pt 2;407-14

  • The cytoskeletal/non-muscle isoform of alpha-actinin is phosphorylated on its actin-binding domain by the focal adhesion kinase.

    Izaguirre G, Aguirre L, Hu YP, Lee HY, Schlaepfer DD, Aneskievich BJ and Haimovich B

    Department of Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA.

    alpha-Actinin is tyrosine-phosphorylated in activated human platelets (Izaguirre, G., Aguirre, L., Ji, P., Aneskievich, B., and Haimovich, B. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 37012--37020). Analysis of platelet RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that alpha-actinin expressed in platelets is identical to the cytoskeletal/non-muscle isoform. A construct of this isoform containing a His(6) tag at the amino terminus was generated. Robust tyrosine phosphorylation of the recombinant protein was detected in cells treated with the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. The tyrosine phosphorylation site was localized to the amino-terminal domain by proteolytic digestion. A recombinant alpha-actinin protein containing a Tyr --> Phe mutation at position 12 (Y12F) was no longer phosphorylated when expressed in vanadate-treated cells, indicating that tyrosine 12 is the site of phosphorylation. The wild type recombinant protein was not phosphorylated in cells lacking the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Re-expression of FAK in these cells restored alpha-actinin phosphorylation. Purified wild type alpha-actinin, but not the Y12F mutant, was phosphorylated in vitro by wild type as well as a Phe-397 mutant of FAK. In contrast, no phosphorylation was detected in the presence of a kinase-dead FAK. Tyrosine phosphorylation reduced the amount of alpha-actinin that cosedimented with actin filaments. These results establish that alpha-actinin is a direct substrate for FAK and suggest that alpha-actinin mediates FAK-dependent signals that could impact the physical properties of the cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R29 CA75240; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-541044

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;31;28676-85

  • Focal adhesion kinase and p130Cas mediate both sarcomeric organization and activation of genes associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.

    Kovacic-Milivojević B, Roediger F, Almeida EA, Damsky CH, Gardner DG and Ilić D

    Metabolic Research Unit, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0540, USA.

    Hypertrophic terminally differentiated cardiac myocytes show increased sarcomeric organization and altered gene expression. Previously, we established a role for the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src in signaling cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Here we report evidence that p130Cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulate this process. In neonatal cardiac myocytes, tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas and FAK increased upon endothelin (ET) stimulation. FAK, Cas, and paxillin were localized in sarcomeric Z-lines, suggesting that the Z-line is an important signaling locus in these cells. Cas, alone or in cooperation with Src, modulated basal and ET-stimulated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene promoter activity, a marker of cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of the C-terminal focal adhesion-targeting domain of FAK interfered with localization of endogenous FAK to Z-lines. Expression of the Cas-binding proline-rich region 1 of FAK hindered association of Cas with FAK and impaired the structural stability of sarcomeres. Collectively, these results suggest that interaction of Cas with FAK, together with their localization to Z-lines, is critical to assembly of sarcomeric units in cardiac myocytes in culture. Moreover, expression of the focal adhesion-targeting and/or the Cas-binding proline-rich regions of FAK inhibited ANP promoter activity and suppressed ET-induced ANP and brain natriuretic peptide gene expression. In summary, assembly of signaling complexes that include the focal adhesion proteins Cas, FAK, and paxillin at Z-lines in the cardiac myocyte may regulate, either directly or indirectly, both cytoskeletal organization and gene expression associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K01 CA087652, KO1 CA87652-01; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 35753; NIDCR NIH HHS: T32 DE007204, T32-DE07204

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;8;2290-307

  • Hic-5-reduced cell spreading on fibronectin: competitive effects between paxillin and Hic-5 through interaction with focal adhesion kinase.

    Nishiya N, Tachibana K, Shibanuma M, Mashimo JI and Nose K

    Department of Microbiology, Showa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hatanodai, Tokyo, Japan.

    Hic-5 is a paxillin homologue that is localized to focal adhesion complexes. Hic-5 and paxillin share structural homology and interacting factors such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Pyk2/CAKbeta/RAFTK, and PTP-PEST. Here, we showed that Hic-5 inhibits integrin-mediated cell spreading on fibronectin in a competitive manner with paxillin in NIH 3T3 cells. The overexpression of Hic-5 sequestered FAK from paxillin, reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK, and prevented paxillin-Crk complex formation. In addition, Hic-5-mediated inhibition of spreading was not observed in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from FAK(-/-) mice. The activity of c-Src following fibronectin stimulation was decreased by about 30% in Hic-5-expressing cells, and the effect of Hic-5 was restored by the overexpression of FAK and the constitutively active forms of Rho-family GTPases, Rac1 V12 and Cdc42 V12, but not RhoA V14. These observations suggested that Hic-5 inhibits cell spreading through competition with paxillin for FAK and subsequent prevention of downstream signal transduction. Moreover, expression of antisense Hic-5 increased spreading in primary MEFs. These results suggested that the counterbalance of paxillin and Hic-5 expression may be a novel mechanism regulating integrin-mediated signal transduction.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;16;5332-45

  • Overexpression of the focal adhesion kinase (p125FAK) in the vascular smooth muscle cells of intimal hyperplasia.

    Owens LV, Xu L, Marston WA, Yang X, Farber MA, Iacocca MV, Cance WG and Keagy BA

    Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, USA.

    Purpose: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important events in the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH). The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) gene encodes a protein tyrosine kinase (p125FAK) involved in signal transduction pathways used in cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation. Because alterations in these cellular processes are thought to occur in VSMCs during IH, we studied FAK expression in healthy arteries and veins in comparison with that in pathologic vessels containing IH.

    Methods: To determine p125FAK expression at the cellular level, we developed a monoclonal antibody that specifically detected FAK in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections (5 microm) and analyzed the levels of FAK expression in human arteries and veins. Specificity of monoclonal antibody 4.47 was demonstrated by means of immunofluorescence microscopy showing FAK-specific staining at focal adhesions of healthy human vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). By using immunohistochemistry techniques, we analyzed the expression of p125FAK in 25 adult human vascular tissue samples from individual patients, which contained a histologically confirmed healthy artery, vein, or IH.

    Results: FAK expression in healthy and pathologic human vascular tissue was localized predominantly within VSMC cytoplasm. In healthy human artery and vein, borderline FAK expression was detected in the media of seven of 17 vessels and undetectable in the remainder of specimens. However, in vessels containing IH, FAK was overexpressed in the pathologic VSMC populations at moderate-to-strong levels in eight of eight specimens. The levels of FAK expression were directly correlated with structures containing IH, and the results of FAK staining intensity and the percentage of positive cells in these samples were significantly increased compared with normal vascular tissue levels (P <.05, Student t test).

    Conclusion: These results provide the first evidence that FAK is overexpressed in VSMCs involved in IH and suggest that FAK upregulation may be part of a mechanism for migration and proliferation of VSMCs during this process. Furthermore, the dramatic upregulation of FAK in IH and the relative lack of expression in healthy vessels suggest that FAK may be a rational target for controlling IH.

    Journal of vascular surgery 2001;34;2;344-9

  • Biochemical signals and biological responses elicited by the focal adhesion kinase.

    Schaller MD

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA. crispy4@med.unc.edu

    The focal adhesion kinase, FAK, is an important component of an integrin-dependent signaling pathway, which functions to transmit signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm. FAK is an essential gene product, since the fak-/- mouse exhibits embryonic lethality. A number of important biological processes, including cell motility and cell survival, are controlled by integrin-dependent signals and FAK has been implicated in regulating these processes. This review will focus upon recent findings providing insight into the mechanisms by which FAK transmits biochemical signals and elicits biological effects.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA90901; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM57943

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2001;1540;1;1-21

  • Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (pp125(FAK)) is increased in human keratinocytes induced to migrate by extracellular matrices.

    Yurko MA, O'Toole EA and Woodley DT

    Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    During the healing process of skin wounds, human keratinocytes migrate across a provisional matrix of the wound bed. The mechanisms by which keratinocytes migrate on connective tissue are not known. In this study, we examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an 125 kDa protein that co-localizes with focal adhesions in cells plated on extracellular matrix. We induced human keratinocytes into various states of migration by plating them on extracellular matrices that minimally, moderately, or strongly induce cellular migration, and then examined the expression of FAK at the protein level and its degree of tyrosine phosphorylation using Western immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. In highly migratory human keratinocytes, we found that three proteins were predominantly tyrosine phosphorylated, one of them being FAK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK tightly correlated with the level of cellular motility but not cell attachment to the matrix. Time course experiments demonstrated that in highly motile keratinocytes, tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK peaked at 12 h, the time when maximal migration on the matrix ensues. In contrast to FAK, the beta1 integrin subunit of human keratinocytes that configures with the alpha2, alpha3, and alpha5 integrin subunits to form integrin receptors for matrix, did not display tyrosine phosphorylation linked to motility. Using anti-sense oligonucleotides to FAK, we demonstrate that FAK is required for human keratinocyte migration, but not for focal adhesion formation.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: P01 AR41045, R01 AR33525

    Journal of cellular physiology 2001;188;1;24-32

  • Inhibition of the catalytic activity of cell adhesion kinase beta by protein-tyrosine phosphatase-PEST-mediated dephosphorylation.

    Lyons PD, Dunty JM, Schaefer EM and Schaller MD

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase that can bind and dephosphorylate the focal adhesion-associated proteins p130(CAS) and paxillin. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and cell adhesion kinase beta (CAKbeta)/PYK2/CADTK/RAFTK are protein-tyrosine kinases that can colocalize with, bind to, and induce tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(CAS) and paxillin. Thus, we considered the possibility that these kinases might be substrates for PTP-PEST. Using a combination of substrate-trapping assays and overexpression of PTP-PEST in mammalian cells, CAKbeta was found to be a substrate for PTP-PEST. Both the major autophosphorylation site of CAKbeta (Tyr(402)) and activation loop tyrosine residues, Tyr(579) and Tyr(580), were targeted for dephosphorylation by PTP-PEST. Dephosphorylation of CAKbeta by PTP-PEST dramatically inhibited CAKbeta kinase activity. In contrast, FAK was a poor substrate for PTP-PEST, and treatment with PTP-PEST had no effect on FAK kinase activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, which is greatly enhanced by CAKbeta overexpression, was dramatically reduced upon coexpression of PTP-PEST. Finally, endogenous PTP-PEST and endogenous CAKbeta were found to localize to similar cellular compartments in epithelial and smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that CAKbeta is a substrate of PTP-PEST and that FAK is a poor PTP-PEST substrate. Further, PTP-PEST can negatively regulate CAKbeta signaling by inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM57943

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;26;24422-31

  • B cell receptor signaling involves physical and functional association of FAK with Lyn and IgM.

    Mlinaric-Rascan I and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation induces phosphorylation of a number of proteins, leading to functional activation of B lymphocytes. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we show that FAK is tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated following BCR stimulation. We also demonstrate constitutive association of FAK with the Src-family kinase Lyn and with components of the BCR. Association of Lyn with FAK which was not correlated with BCR-induced activation of both kinases, appeared to be mediated via the binding of Lyn to the COOH-terminal part of the FAK molecule. Our results indicate that FAK is a component of the BCR complex and that it participates in BCR signaling.

    FEBS letters 2001;498;1;26-31

  • Focal adhesion kinase activates Stat1 in integrin-mediated cell migration and adhesion.

    Xie B, Zhao J, Kitagawa M, Durbin J, Madri JA, Guan JL and Fu XY

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8023, USA.

    Recent studies suggest that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for cell migration. We now suggest a mechanism by which FAK activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, regulating cell adhesion and migration. In particular, we observe that FAK is capable of activating Stat1, but not Stat3. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays demonstrate that Stat1 is transiently and directly associated with FAK during cell adhesion, and Stat1 is activated in this process. FAK with a C-terminal deletion (FAKDeltaC14) completely abolishes this interaction, indicating this association is dependent on the C-terminal domain of FAK, which is required for FAK localization at focal contacts. Moreover, Stat1 activation during cell adhesion is diminished in FAK-deficient cells, correlating with decreased migration in these cells. Finally, we show that depletion of Stat1 results in an enhancement of cell adhesion and a decrease in cell migration. Thus, our results have demonstrated, for the first time, a critical signaling pathway from integrin/FAK to Stat1 that reduces cell adhesion and promotes cell migration.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI34522; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050, GM52890; PHS HHS: R01 44906

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;22;19512-23

  • Epidermal growth factor-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis initiated by dephosphorylation and downregulation of focal adhesion kinase.

    Lu Z, Jiang G, Blume-Jensen P and Hunter T

    Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Upregulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) expression and EGFR-induced signaling have been correlated with progression to invasion and metastasis in a wide variety of carcinomas, but the mechanism behind this is not well understood. We show here that, in various human carcinoma cells that overexpress EGFR, EGF treatment induced rapid tyrosine dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) associated with downregulation of its kinase activity. The downregulation of FAK activity was both required and sufficient for EGF-induced refractile morphological changes, detachment of cells from the extracellular matrix, and increased tumor cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor cells with downregulated FAK activity became less adherent to the extracellular matrix. However, once cells started reattaching, FAK activity was restored by activated integrin signaling. Moreover, this process of readhesion and spreading could not be abrogated by further EGF stimulation. Interruption of transforming growth factor alpha-EGFR autocrine regulation with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor led to a substantial increase in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Consistent with this, FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was reduced in cells from tumors growing in transplanted, athymic, nude mice, which have an intact autocrine regulation of the EGFR. We suggest that the dynamic regulation of FAK activity, initiated by EGF-induced downregulation of FAK leading to cell detachment and increased motility and invasion, followed by integrin-dependent reactivation during readhesion, plays a role in EGF-associated tumor invasion and metastasis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA14195, CA82863, P30 CA014195

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;12;4016-31

  • The role of the Src homology 3-Src homology 2 interface in the regulation of Src kinases.

    Arold ST, Ulmer TS, Mulhern TD, Werner JM, Ladbury JE, Campbell ID and Noble ME

    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics and Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom.

    The regulatory fragment of Src kinases, comprising Src homology (SH) 3 and SH2 domains, is responsible for controlled repression of kinase activity. We have used a multidisciplinary approach involving crystallography, NMR, and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the regulatory fragment of Fyn (FynSH32) and its interaction with a physiological activator: a fragment of focal adhesion kinase that contains both phosphotyrosine and polyproline motifs. Although flexible, the preferred disposition of SH3 and SH2 domains in FynSH32 resembles the inactive forms of Hck and Src, differing significantly from LckSH32. This difference, which results from variation in the SH3-SH2 linker sequences, will affect the potential of the regulatory fragments to repress kinase activity. This surprising result implies that the mechanism of repression of Src family members may vary, explaining functional distinctions between Fyn and Lck. The interaction between FynSH32 and focal adhesion kinase is restricted to the canonical SH3 and SH2 binding sites and does not affect the dynamic independence of the two domains. Consequently, the interaction shows no enhancement by an avidity effect. Such an interaction may have evolved to gain specificity through an extended recognition site while maintaining rapid dissociation after signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;20;17199-205

  • Inhibition of cell growth and spreading by stomach cancer-associated protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SAP-1) through dephosphorylation of p130cas.

    Noguchi T, Tsuda M, Takeda H, Takada T, Inagaki K, Yamao T, Fukunaga K, Matozaki T and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan. noguchi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp

    SAP-1 (stomach cancer-associated protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1) is a transmembrane-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is abundant in the brain and certain cancer cell lines. With the use of a "substrate-trapping" approach, p130(cas), a major focal adhesion-associated phosphotyrosyl protein, has now been identified as a likely physiological substrate of SAP-1. Expression of recombinant SAP-1 induced the dephosphorylation of p130(cas) as well as that of two other components of the integrin-signaling pathway (focal adhesion kinase and p62(dok)) in intact cells. In contrast, expression of a substrate-trapping mutant of SAP-1 induced the hyperphosphorylation of these proteins, indicating a dominant negative effect of this mutant. Overexpression of SAP-1 induced disruption of the actin-based cytoskeleton as well as inhibited various cellular responses promoted by integrin-mediated cell adhesion, including cell spreading on fibronectin, growth factor-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, and colony formation. Finally, the enzymatic activity of SAP-1, measured with an immunocomplex phosphatase assay, was substantially increased by cell-cell adhesion. These results suggest that SAP-1, by mediating the dephosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated substrates, negatively regulates integrin-promoted signaling processes and, thus, may contribute to contact inhibition of cell growth and motility.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;18;15216-24

  • Regulation of the PH-domain-containing tyrosine kinase Etk by focal adhesion kinase through the FERM domain.

    Chen R, Kim O, Li M, Xiong X, Guan JL, Kung HJ, Chen H, Shimizu Y and Qiu Y

    Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

    Etk/BMX, a member of the Btk family of tyrosine kinases, is highly expressed in cells with great migratory potential, including endothelial cells and metastatic carcinoma cell lines. Here, we present evidence that Etk is involved in integrin signalling and promotes cell migration. The activation of Etk by extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by FAK through an interaction between the PH domain of Etk and the FERM domain of FAK. The lack of Etk activation by extracellular matrix in FAK-null cells could be restored by co-transfection with wild-type FAK. Disrupting the interaction between Etk and FAK diminished the cell migration promoted by either kinase. Furthermore, inhibiting Etk expression in metastatic carcinoma cell lines with an antisense oligonucleotide blocks integrin-mediated migration of these cells. Taken together, our data indicate the essential role of the interaction of the PH domain of Etk and the FERM domain of FAK in integrin signalling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA85380

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;5;439-44

  • Tumor cell invasion is promoted by activation of protease activated receptor-1 in cooperation with the alpha vbeta 5 integrin.

    Even-Ram SC, Maoz M, Pokroy E, Reich R, Katz BZ, Gutwein P, Altevogt P and Bar-Shavit R

    Departments of Oncology and Pharmacology at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem 91120, Israel, the Department of Hematology, Medical Center, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel.

    The first prototype of the protease activated receptor (PAR) family, the thrombin receptor PAR1, plays a central role both in the malignant invasion process of breast carcinoma metastasis and in the physiological process of placental implantation. The molecular mechanism underlying PAR1 involvement in tumor invasion and metastasis, however, is poorly defined. Here we show that PAR1 increases the invasive properties of tumor cells primarily by increased adhesion to extracellular matrix components. This preferential adhesion is accompanied by the cytoskeletal reorganization of F-actin toward migration-favoring morphology as detected by phalloidin staining. Activation of PAR1 increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, and the induced formation of focal contact complexes. PAR1 activation affected integrin cell-surface distribution without altering their level of expression. The specific recruitment of alpha(v)beta(5) to focal contact sites, but not of alpha(v)beta(3) or alpha(5)beta(1), was observed by immunofluorescent microscopy. PAR1 overexpressing cells showed selective reciprocal co-precipitation with alpha(v)beta(5) and paxillin but not with alpha(v)beta(3) that remained evenly distributed under these conditions. This co-immunoprecipitation failed to occur in cells containing the truncated form of PAR1 that lacked the entire cytoplasmic portion of the receptor. Thus, the PAR1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for conveying the cross-talk and recruiting the alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. While PAR1 overexpressing cells were invasive in vitro, as reflected by their migration through a Matrigel barrier, invasion was further enhanced by ligand activation of PAR1. Moreover, the application of anti-alpha(v)beta(5) antibodies specifically attenuated this PAR1 induced invasion. We propose that the activation of PAR1 may lead to a novel cooperation with the alpha(v)beta(5) integrin that supports tumor cell invasion.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;14;10952-62

  • Activation of the focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway by structural alterations in the carboxyl-terminal region of c-Crk II.

    Zvara A, Fajardo JE, Escalante M, Cotton G, Muir T, Kirsch KH and Birge RB

    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    The Crk II adaptor protein encodes an SH2/SH3-domain containing adaptor protein with an SH2-SH3-SH3 domain structure that transmits signals from tyrosine kinases. The two SH3 domains are separated by a 54 amino acid linker region, whose length is highly conserved in xenopus, chicken, and mamalian Crk II proteins. To gain a better understanding into the role of the C-terminal region of Crk, we generated a series of C-terminal SH3 domain and SH3 linker mutants and examined their role in tyrosine kinase pathways. Expression of point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain (W276K Crk), at the tyrosine phosphorylation site (Y222F Crk II), or truncation of the entire C-terminus (Crk I or Crk Delta242), all increased c-Abl binding to the N-terminal SH3 domain of Crk and, where relevant, increased Tyr(222) phosphorylation. Deletion analysis of c-Crk II also revealed the presence of a C-terminal segment important for trans-activation of FAK. Such mutants, Crk Delta255 or Crk Delta242 Extended Linker (Crk Delta242([EL])), characterized by a disruption in the SH3 linker/C-terminal SH3 boundary, induced robust hyperphosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on Tyr(397), hyperphosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins p130(cas) and paxillin and increased focal adhesion formation in NIH3T3 cells. The effects of Crk Delta242([EL]) could be abrogated by co-expression of dominant negative c-Src or the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST, but not by dominant negative Abl. Our results suggest that the C-terminal region of Crk contains negative regulatory elements important for both Abl and FAK dependent signal pathways, and offers a paradigm for an autoinhibitory region in the SH3 linker/C-terminal SH3 domain.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM55760

    Oncogene 2001;20;8;951-61

  • Serine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in interphase and mitosis: a possible role in modulating binding to p130(Cas).

    Ma A, Richardson A, S 1f40 chaefer EM and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important regulator of integrin signaling in adherent cells and accordingly its activity is significantly modulated during mitosis when cells detach from the extracellular matrix. During mitosis, FAK becomes heavily phosphorylated on serine residues concomitant with its inactivation and dephosphorylation on tyrosine. Little is known about the regulation of FAK activity by serine phosphorylation. In this report, we characterize two novel sites of serine phosphorylation within the C-terminal domain of FAK. Phosphorylation-specific antibodies directed to these sites and against two previously characterized sites of serine phosphorylation were used to study the regulated phosphorylation of FAK in unsynchronized and mitotic cells. Among the four major phosphorylation sites, designated pS1-pS4, phosphorylation of pS1 (Ser722) is unchanged in unsynchronized and mitotic cells. In contrast, pS3 and pS4 (Ser843 and Ser910) exhibit increased phosphorylation during mitosis. In vitro peptide binding experiments provide evidence that phosphorylation of pS1 (Ser722) may play a role in modulating FAK binding to the SH3 domain of the adapter protein p130(Cas).

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-29243, CA-40042, P01 CA040042, R01 CA029243, R37 CA029243

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;1;1-12

  • Modification of the composition of polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes by calcium and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Geng L, Burrow CR, Li HP and Wilson PD

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1243, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, 10029, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    Mutations in the PKD1 gene are responsible for >85% of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The protein product of PKD1, polycystin-1, is a large, modular membrane protein, with putative ligand-binding motifs in the extracelluar N-terminal portion, 9-11 transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminal portion with phosphorylation sites. A role for polycystin-1 as a cell surface receptor involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions has been proposed. In this study, we have analyzed polycystin-1 and associated protein distribution in normal human epithelial cells and examined the role of cell-matrix versus cell-cell interactions in regulation of the assembly of polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes. Immunocytochemistry, sucrose density gradient sedimentation, co-immunoprecipitation analyses and in vitro binding assays have shown that polycystin-1 associates with the focal adhesion proteins talin, vinculin, p130Cas, FAK, alpha-actinin, paxillin and pp60c-src in subconfluent normal human fetal collecting tubule (HFCT) epithelia when cell-matrix interactions predominate. Polycystin-1 also forms higher S value complexes with the cell-cell adherens junction proteins E-cadherin, beta- and gamma-catenins in confluent cultures when cell-cell interactions are predominant. Polycystin-1 multiprotein complexes can be disrupted by cytochalasin D but not by colchicine, suggesting involvement of the actin cytoskeleton. Although inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation by tyrphostin inhibits polycystin-1-FAK interactions, E-cadherin interactions are enhanced. High calcium treatment also increases polycystin-1-E-cadherin interactions.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: F32 DK 09778-01, R01 DK 40698, R01 DK 44833

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2000;1535;1;21-35

  • Coupling of PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX to GIT1 promotes focal complex disassembly.

    Zhao ZS, Manser E, Loo TH and Lim L

    Glaxo-IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 117609, Singapore.

    The p21-activated kinase PAK is targeted to focal complexes (FCs) through interactions with the SH3 domains of the PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX and Nck. PIX is a Rac GTP exchange factor that also binds the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein known as GIT1. Overexpression of GIT1 in fibroblasts or epithelial cells causes a loss of paxillin from FCs and stimulates cell motility. This is due to the direct interaction of a C-terminal 125-residue domain of GIT1 with paxillin, under the regulation of PIX. In its activated state, GIT1 can promote FC disassembly independent of actin-myosin contractile events. Additionally, GIT directly couples to a key component of FCs, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), via a conserved Spa2 homology domain. We propose that GIT1 and FAK cooperate to promote motility both by directly regulating focal complex dynamics and by the activation of Rac.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;17;6354-63

  • Regulation of neutrophil adhesion by pituitary growth hormone accompanies tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2, p125FAK, and paxillin.

    Ryu H, Lee JH, Kim KS, Jeong SM, Kim PH and Chung HT

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Neutrophil adhesion is fundamentally important during the onset of inflammatory responses. The adhesion signaling pathways control neutrophil arrest and extravasation and influence neutrophil shape and function at sites of inflammation. In the present study the intracellular signaling pathways for the adhesion of human neutrophils by pituitary growth hormone (GH) were examined. Pituitary GH triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) and STAT3 in neutrophils. In addition, pituitary GH treatment resulted in the morphological changes and the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p125FAK) and paxillin. Preincubation with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the GH-stimulated adhesion and Jak2, STAT3, p125FAK, and paxillin phosphorylation. Confocal microscopy revealed that pituitary GH stimulates the focal localization of p125FAK, paxillin, phosphotyrosine, and filamentous actin filament into the membrane rufflings and uropods of human neutrophils. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association of Jak2 with p125FAK via STAT3 in vivo. Also an in vitro kinase assay showed an augmentation of p125FAK autophosphorylation as a result of pituitary GH treatment. These results suggest that pituitary GH modulates neutrophil adhesion through tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2, p125FAK, and paxillin and actin polymerization.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;165;4;2116-23

  • Echistatin inhibits pp125FAK autophosphorylation, paxillin phosphorylation and pp125FAK-paxillin interaction in fibronectin-adherent melanoma cells.

    Della Morte R, Squillacioti C, Garbi C, Derkinderen P, Belisario MA, Girault JA, Di Natale P, Nitsch L and Staiano N

    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biotecnologie Mediche, and CEOS - Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

    Echistatin, a snake-venom RGD-containing protein, was previously shown to disrupt cell-matrix adhesion by a mechanism that involves the reduction of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation levels. The aim of this study was to establish the sequence of events downstream pp125FAK dephosphorylation that could be responsible for echistatin-induced disassembly of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions in fibronectin-adherent B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The results obtained show that echistatin induces a decrease of both autophosphorylation and kinase activity of pp125FAK. One hour of cell exposure to echistatin caused a 39% decrease of pp125FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and a 31% reduction of pp125FAK autophosphorylation activity as measured by immune-complex kinase assay. Furthermore, 1 h of cell treatment by echistatin produced a 63% decrease of paxillin phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the amount of paxillin bound to pp125FAK. Immunofluorescence analysis of echistatin treated cells showed the concomitant disappearance of both paxillin and pp125FAK from focal adhesions. The reduction of paxillin phosphorylation may represent a critical step in the pathway by which disintegrins exert their biological activity, including the inhibition of experimental metastasis in vivo.

    Funded by: Telethon: E.0738

    European journal of biochemistry 2000;267;16;5047-54

  • Beta 1-integrin-mediated cell signaling in T lymphocytes.

    Iwata S, Ohashi Y, Kamiguchi K and Morimoto C

    Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    beta1-integrins play crucial roles in a variety of cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. For understanding the molecular mechanisms of these various biological effects, it may be particularly important to analyze cell signaling through the beta1-integrins. Our previous study had shown that PLC-gamma, pp125FAK (focal adhesion kinase), pp105, paxillin, p59fyn, p56lck and ERK1/2 are phosphorylated in their tyrosine residues upon engagement of beta1-integrins. We identified pp105 as Cas (Crk-associated substrate)-related protein and successfully cloned its cDNA. pp105 is a Cas homologue predominantly expressed in the cells of lymphoid lineage, which led us to designate it as Cas-L. Like p130Cas, Cas-L contains a single SH3 domain and multiple SH2 binding sites (YXXP motif), which is suggested to bind SH2 domains of Crk, Nck, and SHPTP2. Subsequent studies revealed that pp125FAK binds Cas-L on its SH3 domain and phosphorylates its tyrosine residues upon beta1-integrin stimulation. Since Cas-L is preferentially expressed in lymphocytes, it is conceivable that Cas-L plays an important role in lymphocyte-specific signals. We have shown that Cas-L is involved in the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 signaling pathway as well as the beta1-integrin signaling pathway. Cas-L is transiently phosphorylated following CD3 cross-linking, and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cas-L binds to Crk and C3G. Furthermore, a Cas-L mutant (Cas-LDeltaSH3), which lacks the binding site for FAK, is still tyrosine-phosphorylated upon CD3 cross-linking, but not upon beta1-integrin cross-linking, suggesting that FAK is not involved in CD3-dependent Cas-L phosphorylation. Finally, we have identified a crucial role of Cas-L in beta1-integrin-mediated T-cell co-stimulation. beta1-integrins have known to provide a co-stimulus for TCR/CD3-driven interleukin-2 production and proliferation of peripheral T-cells. We have found that this co-stimulatory pathway is impaired in the Jurkat T-cell line, and that the expression level of Cas-L is reduced in Jurkat cells compared with peripheral T-cells. The transfection of Cas-L cDNA into Jurkat cells restored the beta1-integrin-mediated co-stimulation, while the transfection of Cas-LDeltaSH3 mutant failed to do so, showing a contrast to the case with CD3-mediated signaling. These results indicate that Cas-L plays a key role through the association and phosphorylation by FAK in the beta1-integrin-mediated T-cell co-stimulation. Taken together, Cas-L might be the bi-modal docking protein that assembles the signals through beta1-integrins and TCR/CD3, and participates in a variety of T-cell functions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI29530; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR33713

    Journal of dermatological science 2000;23;2;75-86

  • Immunohistochemical analyses of focal adhesion kinase expression in benign and malignant human breast and colon tissues: correlation with preinvasive and invasive phenotypes.

    Cance WG, Harris JE, Iacocca MV, Roche E, Yang X, Chang J, Simkins S and Xu L

    Department of Surgery and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, 27599-7210, USA. cance@med.unc.edu

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase linked to signaling events between cells and the extracellular matrix. Studies at the Western blot level have demonstrated up-regulation of FAK expression in invasive breast and colon cancers. To assess p125FAK expression at the cellular level, we developed monoclonal antibodies that specifically detected FAK in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and analyzed the levels of FAK expression in human breast and colon tissues. Monoclonal antibody 4.47 demonstrated FAK-specific focal adhesion staining by immunofluorescence assays on BT-474 breast cancer cells and detected a Mr 125,000 protein by both Western blotting and immunoprecipitation analyses. 1f40 Using immunohistochemical techniques, the expression of p125FAK was analyzed in 36 normal and 43 preinvasive or invasive human breast and colon tissues from individual patients. FAK was weakly expressed in most benign breast epithelium but was up-regulated at moderate or strong levels in 14 of 18 invasive breast carcinomas. In seven samples of ductal carcinoma-in situ, FAK was overexpressed. Borderline-to-weak expression of FAK was detected in the normal colonic epithelium. In the invasive colon cancers, FAK was overexpressed at moderate or strong levels in 13 of 15 tumors. Furthermore, FAK expression was up-regulated in areas of dysplastic, premalignant colon epithelium. These results provide the first evidence at the cellular level that FAK expression is variably overexpressed in breast and colon cancer and suggest that up-regulation occurs at an early stage of tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA65910

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2000;6;6;2417-23

  • Tyrosine dephosphorylation, but not phosphorylation, of p130Cas is dependent on integrin alpha IIb beta 3-mediated aggregation in platelets: implication of p130Cas involvement in pathways unrelated to cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Ohmori T, Yatomi Y, Inoue K, Satoh K and Ozaki Y

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yamanashi Medical University, Nakakoma, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

    The newly described adapter molecule p130 Crk-associated substrate (Cas) has been reported to contribute to cytoskeletal organization through assembly of actin filaments and to be pivotal in embryonic development and in oncogene-mediated transformation. We characterized the regulation of Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in highly differentiated, anucleate platelets. Phospholipase C-activating receptor agonists, including collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), and U46619 (a thromboxane A2 analogue), and A23187 (a Ca2+ ionophore) induced rapid Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in platelets. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, protein kinase C (PKC) activators, also induced Cas tyrosine phosphorylation, albeit sluggishly. Cas tyrosine phosphorylation induced by collagen or TRAP was transient in aggregating platelets; Cas became dephosphorylated in a manner dependent on integrin alpha IIb beta 3-mediated aggregation. While BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) inhibited Cas phosphorylation induced by collagen or TRAP, Ro31-8220 (a PKC inhibitor) rather prolonged it. Under the conditions, this PKC inhibitor suppressed platelet aggregation but not intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. In contrast to Cas involvement in focal adhesions in other cells, platelet Cas phosphorylation preceded the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and blockage of alpha IIb beta 3-mediated platelet aggregation with a GRGDS peptide resulted in prolongation of stimulation-dependent Cas tyrosine phosphorylation but in suppression of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, TRAP-induced Cas phosphorylation was insensitive to cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor. The failure of FAK to associate with Cas in immunoprecipitation studies also suggests that Cas tyrosine phosphorylation is independent of FAK activation. Of the signaling molecules investigated in this study, Src seemed to associate with Cas. Finally, Cas existed mainly in cytosol and membrane cytoskeleton fractions in the resting state, and remained unchanged during platelet aggregation, when FAK translocated to the cytoskeletal fraction. Our findings on platelet Cas suggest that (i) rapid Cas tyrosine phosphorylation occurs following phosphoinositide turnover by receptor-mediated agonists and may be mediated by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization; (ii) PKC activation, by itself, may elicit sluggish Cas phosphorylation; (iii) Cas tyrosine dephosphorylation, but not phosphorylation, is dependent on integrin alpha IIb beta 3-mediated aggregation; and (iv) Cas is not involved in cytoskeletal reorganization. Anucleate platelets seem to provide a unique model system to fully elucidate the functional role(s) of Cas.

    Biochemistry 2000;39;19;5797-807

  • FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration.

    Sieg DJ, Hauck CR, Ilic D, Klingbeil CK, Schaefer E, Damsky CH and Schlaepfer DD

    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Here we show that cells lacking focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are refractory to motility signals from platelet-derived and epidermal growth factors (PDGF and EGF respectively), and that stable re-expression of FAK rescues these defects. FAK associates with activated PDGF- and EGF-receptor (PDGFR and EGFR) signalling complexes, and expression of the band-4.1-like domain at the FAK amino terminus is sufficient to mediate an interaction with activated EGFR. However, efficient EGF-stimulated cell migration also requires FAK to be targeted, by its carboxy-terminal domain, to sites of integrin-receptor clustering. Although the kinase activity of FAK is not needed to promote PDGF- or EGF-stimulated cell motility, kinase-inactive FAK is transphosphorylated at the indispensable Src-kinase-binding site, FAK Y397, after EGF stimulation of cells. Our results establish that FAK is an important receptor-proximal link between growth-factor-receptor and integrin signalling pathways.

    Nature cell biology 2000;2;5;249-56

  • Protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A, and focal adhesion kinase from in thrombospondin-treated smooth muscle cells.

    Sajid M, Hu Z, Lele M and Stouffer GA

    Sealy Center for Molecular Cardiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

    alpha v beta 3 integrins have been implicated in regulating vascular healing in animal models of arterial injury. Because the specific cellular events mediated by alpha v beta 3 integrins are not completely understood, we examined alpha v beta 3 integrin-dependent cytoplasmic events in cultured human smooth muscle cells (SMC) following treatment with thrombospondin-1 (TSP), a glycoprotein concentrated at sites of blood vessel injury. TSP treatment elicited a time-dependent association of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A (NMHC-A) with alpha v beta 3 integrins. NMHC-A also associated with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSP-treated SMC. FAK, a nonreceptor kinase implicated in integrin-mediated signaling, was phosphorylated on tyrosine in growth-arrested SMC, but levels of tyrosine phosphorylation increased following treatment with TSP. To test whether NMHC-A was regulated by vascular injury, we examined expression in baboon brachial arteries. In uninjured arteries, NMHC-A staining was present in the media. In arteries injured by balloon withdrawal, medial NMHC-A expression was increased with intense staining at specific sites. In summary, heteromeric protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, NMHC-A, and FAK form following treatment of human SMC with TSP. These results suggest that the formation of protein signaling complexes is one mechanism whereby alpha v beta 3 integrins influence intracellular signaling pathways.

    Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research 2000;48;3;190-7

  • Suppression of Pyk2 kinase and cellular activities by FIP200.

    Ueda H, Abbi S, Zheng C and Guan JL

    Cancer Biology Laboratories, Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase implicated to play a role in several intracellular signaling pathways. We report the identification of a novel Pyk2-interacting protein designated FIP200 (FAK family kinase-interacting protein of 200 kD) by using a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro binding assays and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed association of FIP200 with Pyk2, and similar assays also showed FIP200 binding to FAK. However, immunofluorescent staining indicated that FIP200 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. FIP200 bound to the kinase domain of Pyk2 and inhibited its kinase activity in in vitro kinase assays. FIP200 also inhibited the kinase activity of the Pyk2 isolated from SYF cells (deficient in Src, Yes, and Fyn expression) and the Pyk2 mutant lacking binding site for Src, suggesting that it regulated Pyk2 kinase directly rather than affecting the associated Src family kinases. Consistent with its inhibitory effect in vitro, FIP200 inhibited activation of Pyk2 and Pyk2-induced apoptosis in intact cells, which correlated with its binding to Pyk2. Finally, activation of Pyk2 by several biological stimuli correlated with the dissociation of endogenous FIP200-Pyk2 complex, which provided further support for inhibition of Pyk2 by FIP200 in intact cells. Together, these results suggest that FIP200 functions as an inhibitor of Pyk2 via binding to its kinase domain.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050, GM52890, R01 GM048050, R01 GM052890

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;2;423-30

  • Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple focal adhesion proteins and induces migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells: roles of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and protein kinase C.

    Wang JF, Park IW and Groopman JE

    Divisions of Experimental Medicine and Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is an alpha chemokine that binds to the CXCR4 receptor. Knock-out studies in mice demonstrate that this ligand-receptor pair is essential in hematopoiesis. One function of SDF-1 appears to be the regulation of migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells. We previously characterized signal transduction pathways induced by SDF-1alpha in human hematopoietic progenitors and found tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion components, including the related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK), the adaptor molecule p130 Cas, and the cytoskeletal protein paxillin. To better understand the functional role of signaling molecules connecting the CXCR4 receptor to the process of hematopoietic migration, we studied SDF-1alpha-mediated pathways in a model hematopoietic progenitor cell line (CTS), as well as in primary human bone marrow CD34(+) cells. We observed that several other focal adhesion components, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the adaptor molecules Crk and Crk-L, are phosphorylated on SDF-1alpha stimulation. Using a series of specific small molecule inhibitors, both protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) appeared to be required for SDF-1alpha-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins and the migration of both CTS and primary marrow CD34(+) cells, whereas the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and -2 were not. These studies further delineate the molecular pathways mediating hematopoietic progenitor migration and response to an essential chemokine, SDF-1alpha. (Blood. 2000;95:2505-2513)

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 51456-02, HL 53745-02, HL 55187-01; ...

    Blood 2000;95;8;2505-13

  • Activation of EphA2 kinase suppresses integrin function and causes focal-adhesion-kinase dephosphorylation.

    Miao H, Burnett E, Kinch M, Simon E and Wang B

    Rammelkamp Center for Research, MetroHealth Campus, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.

    Interactions between receptor tyrosine kinases of the Eph family and their ligands, ephrins, are implicated in establishment of organ boundaries and repulsive guidance of cell migration during development, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are unclear. Here we show that activation of endogenous EphA2 kinase induces an inactive conformation of integrins and inhibits cell spreading, migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. Moreover, EphA2 is constitutively associated with focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) in resting cells. Within one minute after stimulation of EphA2 with its ligand, ephrin-A1, the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 is recruited to EphA2; this is followed by dephosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, and dissociation of the FAK-EphA2 complex. We conclude that Eph kinases mediate some of their functions by negatively regulating integrins and FAK.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P50 DK54178

    Nature cell biology 2000;2;2;62-9

  • Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas.

    Eisenmann KM, McCarthy JB, Simpson MA, Keely PJ, Guan JL, Tachibana K, Lim L, Manser E, Furcht LT and Iida J

    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

    Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP) is a cell-surface antigen that has been implicated in the growth and invasion of melanoma tumours. Although this antigen is expressed early in melanoma progression, its biological function is unknown. MCSP can stimulate the integrin-alpha4 beta1-mediated adhesion and spreading of melanoma cells. Here we show that stimulated MCSP recruits tyrosine-phosphorylated p130 cas, an adaptor protein important in tumour cell motility and invasion. MCSP stimulation also results in a pronounced activation and recruitment of the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42. MCSP-induced spreading of melanoma cells is dependent upon active Cdc42, a Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase (Ack-1) and tyrosine phosphorylation of p130cas. Furthermore, vectors inhibiting Ack-1 or Cdc42 expression and/or function abrogate MCSP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of p130cas. Our findings indicate that MCSP may modify tumour growth or invasion by a unique signal-transduction pathway that links Cdc42 activation to downstream tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA21463

    Nature cell biology 1999;1;8;507-13

  • Degraded collagen fragments promote rapid disassembly of smooth muscle focal adhesions that correlates with cleavage of pp125(FAK), paxillin, and talin.

    Carragher NO, Levkau B, Ross R and Raines EW

    Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195-7470, USA.

    Active matrix metalloproteinases and degraded collagen are observed in disease states, such as atherosclerosis. To examine whether degraded collagen fragments have distinct effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), collagenase-digested type I collagen was added to cultured human arterial SMC. After addition of collagen fragments, adherent SMC lose their focal adhesion structures and round up. Analysis of components of the focal adhesion complex demonstrates rapid cleavage of the focal adhesion kinase (pp125(FAK)), paxillin, and talin. Cleavage is suppressed by inhibitors of the proteolytic enzyme, calpain I. In vitro translated pp125(FAK) is a substrate for both calpain I- and II-mediated processing. Mapping of the proteolytic cleavage fragments of pp125(FAK) predicts a dissociation of the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) sequence and second proline-rich domain from the tyrosine kinase domain and integrin-binding sequence. Coimmunoprecipitation studies confirm that the ability of pp125(FAK) to associate with paxillin, vinculin, and p130cas is significantly reduced in SMC treated with degraded collagen fragments. Further, there is a significant reduction in the association of intact pp125(FAK) with the cytoskeletal fraction, while pp125(FAK) cleavage fragments appear in the cytoplasm in SMC treated with degraded collagen fragments. Integrin-blocking studies indicate that integrin-mediated signals are involved in degraded collagen induction of pp125(FAK) cleavage. Thus, collagen fragments induce distinct integrin signals that lead to initiation of calpain-mediated cleavage of pp125(FAK), paxillin, and talin and dissolution of the focal adhesion complex.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL18645, P01 HL018645

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;147;3;619-30

  • Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase, a protein tyrosine kinase, in ovarian carcinoma.

    Judson PL, He X, Cance WG and Van Le L

    Gynecologic Oncology Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7570, USA.

    Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a tyrosine kinase that is important to such key functions such as cell adhesion, motility, and invasion. A MEDLINE search of the years 1980-1998 found no previous reports of FAK expression in human ovarian carcinoma. The authors performed experiments to determine whether FAK expression is elevated in this disease.

    Methods: Ten normal human ovarian tissue samples and 26 cancer samples from patients with Stage I-IV ovarian carcinoma were obtained. Two ovarian carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed. FAK expression was determined by Western blot analysis with the V39 anti-human FAK polyclonal antibody. The level of FAK protein expression was determined using densitometric scanning of the 125 kD band on autoradiographs of Western immunoblots.

    Results: Serous cancers expressed fourfold-increased values of FAK relative to normal ovarian tissue (P < 0.0001), and nonserous adenocarcinomas expressed threefold- to fourfold-increased values of FAK (P < 0. 0006). Ovarian carcinoma cell lines also expressed increased values of FAK. With a cutoff of 40, an elevated FAK level was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 100%. There was no significant difference in FAK expression with regard to grade or stage of tumor.

    Conclusions: FAK is significantly overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, implying that FAK may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis. FAK expression may be useful as a screening tool to identify newly developed disease or as a tumor marker in confirmed cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. FAK may also serve as a potential target for therapeutic disruption of ovarian carcinoma progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: T32 CA09688

    Cancer 1999;86;8;1551-6

  • Complex formation with focal adhesion kinase: A mechanism to regulate activity and subcellular localization of Src kinases.

    Schaller MD, Hildebrand JD and Parsons JT

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) creates a high-affinity binding site for the src homology 2 domain of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Assembly of a complex between FAK and Src kinases may serve to regulate the subcellular localization and the enzymatic activity of members of the Src family of kinases. We show that simultaneous overexpression of FAK and pp60(c-src) or p59(fyn) results in the enhancement of the tyrosine phosphorylation of a limited number of cellular substrates, including paxillin. Under these conditions, tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin is largely cell adhesion dependent. FAK mutants defective for Src binding or focal adhesion targeting fail to cooperate with pp60(c-src) or p59(fyn) to induce paxillin phosphorylation, whereas catalytically defective FAK mutants can direct paxillin phosphorylation. The negative regulatory site of pp60(c-src) is hypophosphorylated when in complex with FAK, and coexpression with FAK leads to a redistribution of pp60(c-src) from a diffuse cellular location to focal adhesions. A FAK mutant defective for Src binding does not effectively induce the translocation of pp60(c-src) to focal adhesions. These results suggest that association with FAK can alter the localization of Src kinases and that FAK functions to direct pho 1f40 sphorylation of cellular substrates by recruitment of Src kinases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 29243, CA 50042, R01 CA029243, R37 CA029243

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;10;3489-505

  • Cytoskeleton-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the p130(Cas) family member HEF1 downstream of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin induces the association of HEF1, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase.

    Zhang Z, Hernandez-Lagunas L, Horne WC and Baron R

    Departments of Cell Biology and Orthopaedics and the Yale Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8044, USA.

    HEF1 is a recently described p130(Cas)-like docking protein that contains one SH3 domain and multiple SH2 binding motifs. In B cells, HEF1 is phosphorylated by a cytoskeleton-dependent mechanism that is triggered by integrin ligation. However, the induction of HEF1 phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptors has not been reported. We found that HEF1, but not p130(Cas), is tyrosine-phosphorylated following stimulation of the rabbit C1a calcitonin receptor stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The calcitonin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of HEF1 increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin had little or no effect on HEF1 phosphorylation, and the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 failed to detectably inhibit the response to calcitonin, indicating that the G(s)/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway does not mediate the calcitonin effect. Pertussis toxin, which selectively blocks G(i/o) signaling, also had no effect. Increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) with ionomycin stimulated HEF1 phosphorylation and preventing any calcitonin-induced change in cytosolic calcium by a combination of BAPTA and extracellular EGTA completely blocked the calcitonin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of HEF1. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also induced HEF1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C completely inhibited both calcitonin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated HEF1 phosphorylation. Calcitonin also induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase, and the association of these two proteins with HEF1. Pretreatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts actin microfilaments, prevented the calcitonin-induced HEF1 and paxillin phosphorylation. In conclusion, the calcitonin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of HEF1 is mediated by calcium- and protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms and requires the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-42927, AR-46032; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE-04724

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;35;25093-8

  • Association of focal adhesion kinase with Grb7 and its role in cell migration.

    Han DC and Guan JL

    Cancer Biology Laboratories, Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated to play a key role in integrin-mediated signal transduction in cell migration. Grb7 is an Src homology (SH) 2-containing and pleckstrin homology domain-containing molecule, which shares significant homology with the Caenorhabditis elegans gene for Mig-10 involved in cell migration during embryogenesis. Here, we report that the SH2 domain of Grb7 can directly interact with FAK through Tyr-397, a major autophosphorylation site in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is cell adhesion-dependent, suggesting that the FAK-Grb7 complex is involved in integrin signaling. Using tetracycline-regulated expression system, we showed that overexpression of Grb7 enhanced cell migration toward fibronectin, whereas overexpression of its SH2 domain alone inhibited cell migration. In addition, we found that phosphorylation of FAK or p130(cas) was not affected by the expression of either Grb7 or its SH2 domain alone, suggesting that Grb7 is downstream of FAK and does not compete with Src for binding to FAK in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the FAK-Grb7 complex plays a role in cell migration stimulated by integrin signaling through FAK.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48050, GM52890

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;34;24425-30

  • Focal adhesion kinase promotes phospholipase C-gamma1 activity.

    Zhang X, Chattopadhyay A, Ji QS, Owen JD, Ruest PJ, Carpenter G and Hanks SK

    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase FAK ("focal adhesion kinase") is a key mediator of integrin signaling events controlling cellular responses to the extracellular matrix, including spreading, migration, proliferation, and survival. Integrin-ligand interactions stimulate FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of FAK signaling functions. Here evidence is presented that the FAK autophosphorylation site Tyr-397 mediates a direct interaction with the C-terminal Src homology 2 domain of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1 and that this is required for both adhesion-dependent association of the two molecules and increased inositol phosphate production in mouse embryo fibroblasts. Overexpression of FAK and PLC-gamma1 in COS-7 cells increases PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and tyrosine phosphorylation, also dependent on FAK Tyr-397. However, FAK appears incapable of directly phosphorylating PLC-gamma1. These observations suggest a role for FAK in recruiting PLC-gamma1 to the plasma membrane at sites of cell-matrix adhesion and there promoting its enzymatic activity, possibly by releasing the repression caused by intramolecular interactions of the PLC-gamma1 Src homology domains and/or by positioning it for phosphorylation by associated Src-family kinases. These findings expand the known signaling functions of FAK and provide mechanistic insight into integrin-stimulation of PLC-gamma1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA75195, R01 CA075195; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882, R01 GM049882

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;16;9021-6

  • PTEN interactions with focal adhesion kinase and suppression of the extracellular matrix-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell survival pathway.

    Tamura M, Gu J, Danen EH, Takino T, Miyamoto S and Yamada KM

    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4370, USA.

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and it can inhibit cell growth, invasion, migration, and focal adhesions. We investigated molecular interactions of PTEN and FAK in glioblastoma and breast cancer cells lacking PTEN. The PTEN trapping mutant D92A bound wild-type FAK, requiring FAK autophosphorylation site Tyr397. In PTEN-mutated cancer cells, FAK phosphorylation was retained even in suspension after detachment from extracellular matrix, accompanied by enhanced PI 3-K association with FAK and sustained PI 3-K activity, PIP3 levels, and Akt phosphorylation; expression of exogenous PTEN suppressed all five properties. PTEN-mutated cells were resistant to apoptosis in suspension, but most of the cells entered apoptosis after expression of exogenous PTEN or wortmannin treatment. Moreover, overexpression of FAK in PTEN-transfected cells reversed the decreased FAK phosphorylation and PI 3-K activity, and it partially rescued PIP3 levels, Akt phosphorylation, and PTEN-induced apoptosis. Our results show that FAK Tyr397 is important in PTEN interactions with FAK, that PTEN regulates FAK phosphorylation and molecular associations after detachment from matrix, and that PTEN negatively regulates the extracellular matrix-dependent PI 3-K/Akt cell survival pathway in a process that can include FAK.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;29;20693-703

  • Induction of phosphorylation and intracellular association of CC chemokine receptor 5 and focal adhesion kinase in primary human CD4+ T cells by macrophage-tropic HIV envelope.

    Cicala C, Arthos J, Ruiz M, Vaccarezza M, Rubbert A, Riva A, Wildt K, Cohen O and Fauci AS

    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ccicala@nih.gov

    Binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to the surface of a CD4+ cell transduces intracellular signals through the primary envelope receptor, CD4, and/or the envelope coreceptor, a seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor. Macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 preferentially use CCR5 as an entry coreceptor, whereas T cell-tropic strains use CXC chemokine receptor-4 for entry. Intracellular signals transduced by HIV-1 envelope may have immunopathogenic consequences, including anergy, syncytium formation, apoptosis, and inappropriate cell trafficking. We demonstrate here that a recombinant envelope protein derived from an M-tropic isolate of HIV-1 can transduce CD4-dependent as well as CCR5-dependent intracellular signals in primary human CD4+ T cells. Novel HIV-induced intracellular signals that were identified include tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and CCR5, which are involved in cell adhesion and chemotaxis, respectively. HIV envelope-induced cellular association of FAK and CCR5 was also demonstrated, suggesting that ligation of CD4 and CCR5 leads to the formation of an activation complex composed of FAK and CCR5. Activation of this signaling pathway by HIV-1 envelope may be an important pathogenic mechanism of dysregulated cellular activation and trafficking during HIV infection.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999;163;1;420-6

  • Paxillin LD4 motif binds PAK and PIX through a novel 95-kD ankyrin repeat, ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling.

    Turner CE, Brown MC, Perrotta JA, Riedy MC, Nikolopoulos SN, McDonald AR, Bagrodia S, Thomas S and Leventhal PS

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, State University of New York, Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA. turnerc@vax.cs.hscsyr.edu

    Paxillin is a focal adhesion adaptor protein involved in the integration of growth factor- and adhesion-mediated signal transduction pathways. Repeats of a leucine-rich sequence named paxillin LD motifs (Brown M.C., M.S. Curtis, and C.E. Turner. 1998. Nature Struct. Biol. 5:677-678) have been implicated in paxillin binding to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vinculin. Here we demonstrate that the individual paxillin LD motifs function as discrete and selective protein binding interfaces. A novel scaffolding function is described for paxillin LD4 in the binding of a complex of proteins containing active p21 GTPase-activated kinase (PAK), Nck, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, PIX. The association of this complex with paxillin is mediated by a new 95-kD protein, p95PKL (paxillin-kinase linker), which binds directly to paxillin LD4 and PIX. This protein complex also binds to Hic-5, suggesting a conservation of LD function across the paxillin superfamily. Cloning of p95PKL revealed a multidomain protein containing an NH2-terminal ARF-GAP domain, three ankyrin-like repeats, a potential calcium-binding EF hand, calmodulin-binding IQ motifs, a myosin homology domain, and two paxillin-binding subdomains (PBS). Green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged p95PKL localized to focal adhesions/complexes in CHO.K1 cells. Overexpression in neuroblastoma cells of a paxillin LD4 deletion mutant inhibited lamellipodia formation in response to insulin-like growth fac- tor-1. Microinjection of GST-LD4 into NIH3T3 cells significantly decreased cell migration into a wound. These data implicate paxillin as a mediator of p21 GTPase-regulated actin cytoskeletal reorganization through the recruitment to nascent focal adhesion structures of an active PAK/PIX complex potentially via interactions with p95PKL.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607, R01 GM047607

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;145;4;851-63

  • Concerted activity of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and focal adhesion kinase in regulation of cell motility.

    Mañes S, Mira E, Gómez-Mouton C, Zhao ZJ, Lacalle RA and Martínez-A C

    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain. smanes@cnb.uam.es

    The coordinated interplay of substrate adhesion and deadhesion is necessary for cell motility. Using MCF-7 cells, we found that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) induces the adhesion of MCF-7 to vitronectin and collagen in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that IGF-I triggers the activation of different integrins. On the other hand, IGF-I promotes the association of insulin receptor substrate 1 with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, resulting in FAK and paxillin dephosphorylation. Abrogation of SHP-2 catalytic activity with a dominant-negative mutant (SHP2-C>S) abolishes IGF-I-induced FAK dephosphorylation, and cells expressing SHP2-C>S show reduced IGF-I-stimulated chemotaxis compared with either mock- or SHP-2 wild-type-transfected cells. This impairment of cell migration is recovered by reintroduction of a catalytically active SHP-2. Interestingly, SHP-2-C>S cells show a larger number of focal adhesion contacts than wild-type cells, suggesting that SHP-2 activity participates in the integrin deactivation process. Although SHP-2 regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD-98059 has only a marginal effect on MCF-7 cell migration. The role of SHP-2 as a general regulator of cell chemotaxis induced by other chemotactic agents and integrins is discussed.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;4;3125-35

  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST regulates focal adhesion disassembly, migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts.

    Angers-Loustau A, Côté JF, Charest A, Dowbenko D, Spencer S, Lasky LA and Tremblay ML

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3G 1Y6.

    In this article, we show that, in transfected COS-1 cells, protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST translocates to the membrane periphery following stimulation by the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. When plated on fibronectin, PTP-PEST (-/-) fibroblasts display a strong defect in motility. 3 h after plating on fibronectin, the number and size of vinculin containing focal adhesions were greatly increased in the homozygous PTP-PEST mutant cells as compared with heterozygous cells. This phenomenon appears to be due in part to a constitutive increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of p130(CAS), a known PTP-PEST substrate, paxillin, which associates with PTP-PEST in vitro, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Another effect of this constitutive hyperphosphorylation, consistent with the focal adhesion regulation defect, is that (-/-) cells spread faster than the control cell line when plated on fibronectin. In the PTP-PEST (-/-) cells, an increase in affinity for the SH2 domains of Src and Crk towards p130(CAS) was also observed. In (-/-) cells, we found a significant increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of PSTPIP, a cleavage furrow-associated protein that interacts physically with all PEST family members. An effect of PSTPIP hyperphosphorylation appears to be that some cells remain attached at the site of the cleavage furrow for an extended period of time. In conclusion, our data suggest PTP-PEST plays a dual role in cell cytoskeleton organization, by promoting the turnover of focal adhesions required for cell migration, and by directly or indirectly regulating the proline, serine, threonine phosphatase interacting protein (PSTPIP) tyrosine phosphorylation level which may be involved in regulating cleavage furrow formation or disassembly during normal cell division.

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;144;5;1019-31

  • De novo expression of pp125FAK in human macrophages regulates CSK distribution and MAP kinase activation but does not affect focal contact structure.

    De Nichilo MO, Katz BZ, O'Connell B and Yamada KM

    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, NIDCR, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4370, USA.

    The protein tyrosine kinase pp125FAK (focal adhesion kinase, or FAK) is expressed by a variety of cell types and has been implicated in integrin-mediated signaling events. We explored the potential functions of FAK by expressing it de novo in a cell type lacking FAK. We showed previously that cultured human macrophages lack FAK yet still have well-formed focal contacts. Adenovirus-mediated expression of FAK results in the appearance of FAK protein, which localizes to focal contacts and becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated without perturbing overall cell morphology or focal contacts. FAK associates with CSK 48 h after infection and recruits it to focal contacts. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p130cas but not of paxillin is stimulated after FAK expression. The phosphorylation of p130cas is lost at 48 h in parallel with CSK accumulation in focal contacts. The ERK2 form of MAP kinase is similarly activated at 12-24 h, but it also returns to low levels at 48 h. These findings demonstrate that FAK can be reconstituted to focal contacts in cells that lack it without affecting cell morphology or focal contact structure. FAK can regulate the distribution and activities of elements of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    Journal of cellular physiology 1999;178;2;164-72

  • Low density lipoprotein phosphorylates the focal adhesion-associated kinase p125(FAK) in human platelets independent of integrin alphaIIb beta3.

    Hackeng CM, Pladet MW, Akkerman JW and van Rijn HJ

    Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Utrecht, and Institute for Biomembranes, Utrecht University, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is known to sensitize platelets to agonists via integrin mediated outside-in signaling (Hackeng, C. M., Huigsloot, M., Pladet, M. W., Nieuwenhuis, H. K., Rijn, H. J. M. v., and Akkerman, J. W. N. (1999) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., in press). As outside in signaling is associated with phosphorylation of p125(FAK), the effect of LDL on p125(FAK) phosphorylation in platelets was investigated. LDL induced p125(FAK) phosphorylation in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The phosphorylation was independent of ligand binding to integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and aggregation, such in contrast to alpha-thrombin-induced p125(FAK) phosphorylation, that critically depended on platelet aggregation. Platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombastenia showed the same LDL- induced phos- phorylation of p125(FAK) as control platelets, whereas alpha-thrombin completely failed to phosphorylate the kinase in the patients platelets. LDL signaling to p125(FAK) was independent of integrin alpha2 beta1, the FcgammaRII receptor, and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor and not affected by inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, protein kinase C, ERK1/2 or p38(MAPK). Phosphorylation of p125(FAK) by LDL was strongly inhibited by cyclic AMP. These observations indicate that LDL is a unique platelet agonist, as it phosphorylates p125(FAK) in platelet suspensions, under unstirred conditions and independent of integrin alphaIIb beta3.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;1;384-8

  • Characterization of a focal adhesion protein, Hic-5, that shares extensive homology with paxillin.

    Thomas SM, Hagel M and Turner CE

    Department of Medicine, Cancer Biology Program, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. sthomas@bidmc.harvard.edu.

    Paxillin is a focal adhesion scaffolding protein which was originally identified as a substrate of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase, v-src. Paxillin has been proposed to be involved in regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. Two alternatively spliced mouse paxillin cDNAs were cloned and in the process, a paxillin-related protein, Hic-5, was also identified. Cloning and characterization of Hic-5 indicates that this protein shares extensive homology with paxillin. Although Hic-5 was originally characterized as a TGF-beta-inducible gene and proposed to be a transcription factor involved in senescence, the studies here demonstrate that Hic-5 is localized to focal adhesion in REF52 cells and can interact with the focal adhesion proteins, Fak, Frnk, and vinculin. In addition, like paxillin, Hic-5 can bind to a negative regulator of Src PTKs, csk but does not bind to the adaptor protein Crk. Like paxillin, localization of this protein to focal adhesions is mediated primarily by the LIM domains; however, sequences outside the LIM domains also play a minor role in focal adhesion targeting. These results suggest that Hic-5 like paxillin could be involved in regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and raise the possibility that Hic-5 and paxillin could have overlapping or opposing functions in the overall regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA75621; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607

    Journal of cell science 1999;112 ( Pt 2);181-90

  • Growth hormone stimulates the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex involving p130(Cas) and CrkII. Resultant activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK).

    Zhu T, Goh EL, LeRoith D and Lobie PE

    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology and Defence Medical Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Republic of Singapore.

    We have demonstrated previously that growth hormone (GH) activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and this activation results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of two FAK substrates, namely paxillin and tensin. We now show here in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with rat GH receptor cDNA that human (h)GH induces the formation of a large multiprotein signaling complex centered around another FAK-associated protein, p130(Cas) and the adaptor protein CrkII. hGH stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of both p130(Cas) and CrkII, their association, and the association of multiple other tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins to the complex. Both the c-Src and c-Fyn tyrosine kinases are tyrosine phosphorylated and activated by cellular hGH stimulation and form part of the multiprotein signaling complex as does tensin, paxillin, IRS-1, the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, C3G, SHC, Grb-2, and Sos-1. c-Cbl and Nck are also tyrosine-phosphorylated by cellular stimulation with hGH and associate with the p130(Cas)-CrkII complex. c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) is activated in response to hGH in accordance with the formation of the abovementioned signaling complex, and hGH stimulated JNK/SAPK activity is increased in CrkII overexpressing NIH3T3 cells compared with vector transfected NIH3T3 cells. The formation of such a large multiprotein signaling complex by GH, with the resultant activation of multiple downstream effector molecules, may be central to many of the pleiotropic effects of GH.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;50;33864-75

  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 as a signaling molecule for focal adhesion kinase pp125(FAK) and pp60(src).

    Lebrun P, Mothe-Satney I, Delahaye L, Van Obberghen E and Baron V

    INSERM U145, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice Cédex 2, France.

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a major substrate of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I receptors, which upon phosphorylation on tyrosine docks several signaling molecules. Recently, IRS-1 was found to interact with alphav beta3 integrins upon insulin stimulation. Integrins are transmembrane proteins that play an important role in adhesion between cells and between cells and extracellular matrix. One of the major proteins implicated in integrin signaling is pp125(FAK), a cytosolic tyrosine kinase, which upon integrin engagement becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and subsequently binds to c-Src. Here, we established a mammalian two-hybrid system to show that pp125(FAK) binds to IRS-1. This association depends largely on the C terminus of pp125(FAK) but not on pp125(FAK) tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, we observed co-immunoprecipitation of pp125(FAK) with IRS-1 in 293 cells, suggesting a possible biological function of this association. When IRS-1 was expressed in 293 cells together with pp125(FAK) or Src, we found extensive IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. In pp125(FAK)-expressing cells, this was concomitant with increased association of IRS-1 with Src homology 2-containing proteins such as growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase p85alpha subunit, and Src homology 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2. In addition, pp125(FAK)-induced association of IRS-1 with PI 3-kinase resulted in increased PI 3-kinase activity. In contrast, no change in mitogen-activated protein kinase activity was observed, indicating that pp125(FAK)-induced association between IRS-1 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 does not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Moreover, we found that engagement of integrins induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Considering our results together, we suggest that integrins and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling pathways converge at an early point in the signaling cascade, which is the IRS-1 protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;48;32244-53

  • Layilin, a novel talin-binding transmembrane protein homologous with C-type lectins, is localized in membrane ruffles.

    Borowsky ML and Hynes RO

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    Changes in cell morphology and motility are mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Recent advances in our understanding of the regulators of microfilament structure and dynamics have shed light on how these changes are controlled, and efforts continue to define all the structural and signaling components involved in these processes. The actin cytoskeleton-associated protein talin binds to integrins, vinculin, and actin. We report a new binding partner for talin that we have named layilin, which contains homology with C-type lectins, is present in numerous cell lines and tissue extracts, and is expressed on the cell surface. Layilin colocalizes with talin in membrane ruffles, and is recruited to membrane ruffles in cells induced to migrate in in vitro wounding experiments and in peripheral ruffles in spreading cells. A ten-amino acid motif in the layilin cytoplasmic domain is sufficient for talin binding. We have identified a short region within talin's amino-terminal 435 amino acids capable of binding to layilin in vitro. This region overlaps a binding site for focal adhesion kinase.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA017007, R01 CA17007

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;2;429-42

  • Interaction of Hic-5, A senescence-related protein, with focal adhesion kinase.

    Fujita H, Kamiguchi K, Cho D, Shibanuma M, Morimoto C and Tachibana K

    Department of Cancer Immunology & AIDS, Dana-Faber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone (Hic)-5 is induced during the senescent process in human fibroblasts, and the overexpression of Hic-5 induces a senescence-like phenotype. Structurally, Hic-5 and paxillin, a 68-kDa cytoskeletal protein, share homology such as the LD motifs in the N-terminal half and the LIM domains in the C-terminal half. Here we show that Hic-5 binds to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by its N-terminal domain, and is localized to focal adhesions by its C-terminal LIM domains. However, Hic-5 is not tyrosine phosphorylated either by the coexpressed FAK in COS cells or by integrin stimulation in 293T cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Hic-5 results in a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These findings suggest that putative functions of Hic-5 are the recruitment of FAK to focal adhesions and a competitive inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI29530; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR33713

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;41;26516-21

  • Dot far-western blot analysis of relative binding affinities of the Src homology 3 domains of Efs and its related proteins.

    Ohba T, Ishino M, Aoto H and Sasaki T

    Cancer Research Institute, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Sapporo, Chuo-Ku, 060-8556, Japan.

    The Src homology 3 (SH3) domains are a modular structure of about 60 amino acid residues found in many proteins important in signal transduction. Each SH3 domain has a binding specificity to sequences containing a PXXP motif in ligand proteins. We found that a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-related protein, cell adhesion kinase beta (CAKbeta), was bound in vitro by the SH3 domain of embryonal Fyn-associated substrate (Efs), a docking protein structurally related to p130Cas (Cas) and HEF1. Here, we employed a dot far-Western blotting technique to evaluate the affinity and specificity of the binding by the SH3 domains of Efs and its related proteins. The SH3 domains and their ligands were prepared as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, and one of the binding components was immobilized on membranes while the other was labeled with 32P to use as a probe. The amount of the bound probe was determined by autoradiography using an imaging plate and a bioimaging analyzer. A competitive binding assay showed that Efs, compared with Cas and HEF1, had a SH3 domain with a lower relative affinity to CAKbeta and FAK and with a preference to interact with FAK rather than CAKbeta. Our assay based on dot far-Western blotting is a simple and sensitive method to evaluate fine differences in the binding affinity of SH3-mediated interactions.

    Analytical biochemistry 1998;262;2;185-92

  • HIV-1 Tat induces tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase in PC12 cells.

    Milani D, Mazzoni M, Zauli G, Mischiati C, Gibellini D, Giacca M and Capitani S

    Department of Morphology and Embriology, University of Ferrara, Italy.

    Objective: To evaluate the signal transduction potential of HIV-1 Tat in a neuronal cell model.

    Methods: The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the focal adhesion kinase p125FAK and its association with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) were evaluated in serum-starved rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, either treated with low concentrations (0.1-1 nM) of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein or stably transfected with Tat cDNA.

    Results: Extracellular Tat induced a rapid increase of p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and p125FAK-associated PI 3-K activity. By using recombinant mutated Tat proteins, it was found that deletion of amino acids 73-86 encoded by the second exon of the tat gene resulted in a significant decrease of the ability of Tat to induce p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Paradoxically, mutations in the basic region encoded by the first exon of tat, which is essential for nuclear localization and HIV-1 LTR transactivation, increased the ability of Tat to stimulate p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, in comparison with cells transfected with a control vector, PC12 cells stably transfected with tat cDNA showed greater amounts of p125FAK protein, an increase in p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and higher levels of p125FAK-associated PI 3-K activity. The addition of anti-Tat neutralizing antibody to tat-transfected PC12 cells in culture blocked both the p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with PI 3-K but did not affect the total amount of p125FAK.

    Conclusion: HIV-1 Tat protein enhanced both the expression and the functionality of p1 25FAK in PC12 neuronal cells. Whereas the first event required intracellular Tat, the increased p125FAK phosphorylation was strictly dependent upon extracellular Tat.

    AIDS (London, England) 1998;12;11;1275-84

  • Caspases cleave focal adhesion kinase during apoptosis to generate a FRNK-like polypeptide.

    Gervais FG, Thornberry NA, Ruffolo SC, Nicholson DW and Roy S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Pointe Claire-Dorval, Québec H9R 4P8, Canada.

    Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) is a non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that stimulates cell spreading and motility by promoting the formation of contact sites between the cell and the extracellular matrix (focal adhesions). It suppresses apoptosis by transducing survival signals that emanate from focal adhesions via the clustering of transmembrane integrins by components of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that Fak is cleaved by caspases at two distinct sites during apoptosis. The sites were mapped to DQTD772, which was preferentially cleaved by caspase-3, and VSWD704, which was preferentially cleaved by caspase-6 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-derived granzyme B. The cleavage of Fak during apoptosis separates the tyrosine kinase domain from the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. The carboxyl-terminal fragments that are generated suppress phosphorylation of endogenous Fak and thus resemble a natural variant of Fak, FRNK, that inhibits Fak activity by preventing the localization of Fak to focal adhesions. The cleavage of Fak by caspases may thus play an important role in the execution of the suicide program by disabling the anti-apoptotic function of Fak. Interestingly, rodent Fak lacks an optimal caspase-3 consensus cleavage site although it is cleaved in murine cells undergoing apoptosis at an upstream site. This appears to be the first example of a caspase substrate where the cleavage sites are not conserved between species.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;27;17102-8

  • Serine and threonine phosphorylation of the paxillin LIM domains regulates paxillin focal adhesion localization and cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    Brown MC, Perrotta JA and Turner CE

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

    We have previously shown that the LIM domains of paxillin operate as the focal adhesion (FA)-targeting motif of this protein. In the current study, we have identified the capacity of paxillin LIM2 and LIM3 to serve as binding sites for, and substrates of serine/threonine kinases. The activities of the LIM2- and LIM3-associated kinases were stimulated after adhesion of CHO.K1 cells to fibronectin; consequently, a role for LIM domain phosphorylation in regulating the subcellular localization of paxillin after adhesion to fibronectin was investigated. An avian paxillin-CHO.K1 model system was used to explore the role of paxillin phosphorylation in paxillin localization to FAs. We found that mutations of paxillin that mimicked LIM domain phosphorylation accelerated fibronectin-induced localization of paxillin to focal contacts. Further, blocking phosphorylation of the LIM domains reduced cell adhesion to fibronectin, whereas constitutive LIM domain phosphorylation significantly increased the capacity of cells to adhere to fibronectin. The potentiation of FA targeting and cell adhesion to fibronectin was specific to LIM domain phosphorylation as mutation of the amino-terminal tyrosine and serine residues of paxillin that are phosphorylated in response to fibronectin adhesion had no effect on the rate of FA localization or cell adhesion. This represents the first demonstration of the regulation of protein localization through LIM domain phosphorylation and suggests a novel mechanism of regulating LIM domain function. Additionally, these results provide the first evidence that paxillin contributes to "inside-out" integrin-mediated signal transduction.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-47607, R01 GM047607

    Molecular biology of the cell 1998;9;7;1803-16

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase by activation of muscarinic m3 receptors is dependent on integrin engagement by the extracellular matrix.

    Slack BE

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston MA 02118, USA. bslack@bu.edu

    The G protein-coupled m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increase tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including the focal adhesion-associated proteins paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but the mechanism is not understood. Activation of integrins during adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix, or stimulation of quiescent cell monolayers with G protein-coupled receptor ligands including bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin, vasopressin, and lysophosphatidic acid, also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK and formation of focal adhesions. These effects are generally independent of protein kinase C but are inhibited by agents that prevent cytoskeletal assembly or block activation of the small molecular weight G protein Rho. This report demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK elicited by stimulation of muscarinic m3 receptors with the acetylcholine analog carbachol is inhibited by soluble peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartate motif (the recognition site for integrins found in adhesion proteins such as fibronectin) but is unaffected by peptides containing the inactive sequence arginine-glycine-glutamate. Tyrosine phosphorylation elicited by carbachol, but not by cell adhesion to fibronectin, is reduced by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. The response to carbachol is dependent on the presence of fibronectin. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies show that carbachol treatment induces formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. These results suggest that muscarinic receptor stimulation activates integrins via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. The activated integrins transmit a signal into the cell's interior leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK. This represents a novel mechanism for regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by muscarinic receptors.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;13;7281-6

  • Growth hormone stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation and association of p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with JAK2. Fak is not required for stat-mediated transcription.

    Zhu T, Goh EL and Lobie PE

    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology and Defense Medical Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Republic of Singapore.

    We have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and this activation results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of two FAK substrates, paxillin and tensin. The activation of FAK is time-dependent (maximal activation at 5-15 min) and dose-dependent (maximal activation at 0.05 nM). FAK and paxillin are constitutively associated in the unstimulated state, remain associated during the stimulation phase, and recruit tyrosine-phosphorylated tensin to the complex after GH stimulation. Half of the carboxyl-terminal region of the GH receptor is dispensable for FAK activation, but FAK activation does require the proline-rich box 1 region of the GH receptor, indicative that FAK is downstream of JAK2. FAK associates with JAK2 but not JAK1 after GH stimulation of cells. Using FAK-replete and FAK-deficient cells, we also show that FAK is not required for STAT-mediated transcriptional activation by GH. The use of FAK in the signal transduction pathway utilized by GH may be central to many of the pleiotropic effects of GH, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, chemotaxis, mitogenesis, and/or prevention of apoptosis and gene transcription.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;17;10682-9

  • p125Fak focal adhesion kinase is a substrate for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I tyrosine kinase receptors.

    Baron V, Calléja V, Ferrari P, Alengrin F and Van Obberghen E

    INSERM, U145, Faculté de Médecine, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice Cédex 2, France. baron@unice.fr

    The focal adhesion kinase p125(Fak) is a widely expressed cytosolic tyrosine kinase, which is involved in integrin signaling and in signal transduction of a number of growth factors. In contrast to tyrosine kinase receptors such as the platelet-derived growth factor and the hepatocyte growth factor receptors, which induce p125(Fak) phosphorylation, insulin has been shown to promote its dephosphorylation. In this study, we compared p125(Fak) phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated cells maintained in suspension or in an adhesion state. We found that, in nonattached cells, insulin promotes p125(Fak) phosphorylation, whereas dephosphorylation occurred in attached cells. This was observed in Rat-1 fibroblasts overexpressing the insulin receptor, as well as in Hep G2 hepatocytes and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressing more natural levels of insulin receptors. Insulin-induced p125(Fak) phosphorylation correlated with an increase in paxillin phosphorylation, indicating that p125(Fak) kinase activity may be stimulated by insulin. Mixing of purified insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors with p125(Fak) resulted in an increase in p125(Fak) phosphorylation. Using a kinase-deficient p125(Fak) mutant, we found that this protein is a direct substrate of the insulin and IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinases. This view is supported by two additional findings. (i) A peptide corresponding to p125(Fak) sequence comprising amino acids 568-582, which contains tyrosines 576 and 577 of the kinase domain regulatory loop, is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor; and (ii) p125(Fak) phosphorylation by the insulin receptor is prevented by addition of this peptide. Finally, we observed that p125(Fak) phosphorylation by the receptor results in its activation. Our results show that the nature of the cross-talk between the insulin/IGF-I receptors and p125(Fak) is dependent on the cell architecture, and hence the interaction of the insulin/IGF-I signaling system with the integrin system will vary accordingly.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;12;7162-8

  • Direct association of protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST with paxillin.

    Shen Y, Schneider G, Cloutier JF, Veillette A and Schaller MD

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated proteins may be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and in the control of signals for growth and survival. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) functions in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of several of these proteins, including paxillin, tensin, and p130(cas). Protein- tyrosine phosphatases, the counterparts of protein-tyrosine kinases, also presumably regulate phosphorylation of these proteins. We have tested the hypothesis that FAK intimately associates with a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity associated with the recombinant C-terminal domain of FAK in vitro and could be coimmunoprecipitated with both FAK and paxillin from lysates of chicken embryo cells. However, the interaction with FAK appeared to be indirect and mediated via paxillin. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase was subsequently identified as protein-tyrosine phosphatase-PEST, a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase. The C-terminal noncatalytic domain of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-PEST directly bound to paxillin in vitro. The association of both a protein-tyrosine kinase and a protein-tyrosine phosphatase with paxillin suggests that paxillin may play a critical role in the regulation of the phosphotyrosine content of proteins in focal adhesions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM53666

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;11;6474-81

  • A role for CAP, a novel, multifunctional Src homology 3 domain-containing protein in formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions.

    Ribon V, Herrera R, Kay BK and Saltiel AR

    Department of Physiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    c-Cbl-associated protein, CAP, was originally cloned from a 3T3-L1 adipocyte cDNA expression library using full-length c-Cbl as a bait. CAP contains a unique structure, with three adjacent Src homology-3 (SH3) domains in the COOH terminus and a region sharing significant sequence similarity with the peptide hormone sorbin. Expression of CAP in NIH-3T3 cells overexpressing the insulin receptor induced the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. This effect of CAP expression on the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton was independent of the type of integrin receptors engaged with extracellular matrix, whereas membrane ruffling and decreased actin stress fibers induced by insulin were not affected by expression of CAP. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that CAP colocalized with actin stress fibers. Moreover, CAP interacted with the focal adhesion kinase, p125FAK, both in vitro and in vivo through one of the SH3 domains of CAP. The increased formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in CAP-expressing cells was correlated with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK in growing cells or upon integrin-mediated cell adhesion. These results suggest that CAP may mediate signals for the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;7;4073-80

  • Differential regulation of Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The C-terminal domain of FAK confers response to cell adhesion.

    Zheng C, Xing Z, Bian ZC, Guo C, Akbay A, Warner L and Guan JL

    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Pyk2 is a recently described cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and can be activated by a variety of stimuli that elevate intracellular calcium. In this report, we showed that Pyk2 and FAK tyrosine phosphorylation are regulated differentially by integrin-mediated cell adhesion and soluble factors both in rat aortic smooth muscle cells, which express endogenous Pyk2 and FAK, and in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. We also found that Pyk2 is diffusely present throughout the cytoplasm, while FAK is localized in focal contacts as expected, suggesting that the different localization may account for their differential regulation. By analyzing a chimeric protein contain N-terminal and kinase domains of Pyk2 and C-terminal domain of FAK, we provided evidence that the distinctive C-terminal domains of Pyk2 and FAK were responsible for their differential regulation by integrins and soluble stimuli as well as their subcellular localization. Finally, we correlated FAK, Pyk2, and the chimeric protein binding to talin, but not paxillin, with their regulation by integrins and focal contact localization. These results demonstrate that the distinctive C-terminal domain of Pyk2 and FAK confer their differential regulation by different subcellular localization and association with the cytoskeletal protein talin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: T32CA09682; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM52890

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;4;2384-9

  • Cell adhesion kinase beta forms a complex with a new member, Hic-5, of proteins localized at focal adhesions.

    Matsuya M, Sasaki H, Aoto H, Mitaka T, Nagura K, Ohba T, Ishino M, Takahashi S, Suzuki R and Sasaki T

    Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo 060, Japan.

    Cell adhesion kinase beta (CAKbeta/PYK2) is the second protein-tyrosine kinase of the focal adhesion kinase subfamily. We identified a cDNA that encodes a CAKbeta-binding protein. This cDNA clone encodes the human homologue of Hic-5, the cDNA of which was cloned in 1994 as transforming growth factor beta1- and hydrogen peroxide-inducible mRNA. We found that Hic-5 exclusively localized at focal adhesions in a rat fibroblast line, WFB. This localization of Hic-5 was confirmed in WFB cells expressing Myc-tagged Hic-5. The amino acid sequence of Hic-5 is highly similar to that of paxillin in the four LD motifs as well as in the four contiguous LIM domains. The Hic-5 N-terminal domain directly associated in vitro with the extreme C-terminal region (residue 801 to the end) of CAKbeta. CAKbeta was coimmunoprecipitated with Hic-5 from the WFB cell lysate. The coimmunoprecipitation of CAKbeta with Hic-5 was markedly inhibited by the addition of the extreme C-terminal region of CAKbeta. Coimmunoprecipitation of Hic-5 with CAKbeta, which was shown in COS-7 cells doubly transfected with cDNA constructs of CAKbeta and Myc-tagged Hic-5, was lost when the CAKbeta amino acid residues 741-903 were deleted. Hic-5 was tyrosine-phosphorylated in Src-transformed 3Y1 cells and in cells treated with pervanadate. Hic-5 associated with CAKbeta was selectively tyrosine-phosphorylated in WFB cells exposed to hypertonic osmotic stress. These results indicate that Hic-5 is a paxillin-related component of focal adhesions and binds to CAKbeta, implying possible involvement of Hic-5 in the downstream signaling of CAKbeta.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;2;1003-14

  • Transformation suppression by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B requires a functional SH3 ligand.

    Liu F, Sells MA and Chernoff J

    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.

    We have recently shown that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) associates with the docking protein p130Cas in 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. This interaction is mediated by a proline-rich sequence on PTP1B and the SH3 domain on p130Cas. Expression of wild-type PTP1B (WT-PTP1B), but not a catalytically competent, proline-to-alanine point mutant that cannot bind p130Cas (PA-PTP1B), causes substantial tyrosine dephosphorylation of p130Cas (F. Liu, D. E. Hill, and J. Chernoff, J. Biol. Chem. 271:31290-31295, 1996). Here we demonstrate that WT-, but not PA-PTP1B, inhibits transformation of rat 3Y1 fibroblasts by v-crk, -src, and -ras, but not by v-raf. These effects on transformation correlate with the phosphorylation status of p130Cas and two proteins that are associated with p130Cas, Paxillin and Fak. Expression of WT-PTP1B reduces formation of p130Cas-Crk complexes and inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by Src and Crk. These data show that transformation suppression by PTP1B requires a functional SH3 ligand and suggest that p130Cas may represent an important physiological target of PTP1B in cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-06927, P30 CA006927, R01 CA058836, R01 CA58836

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;1;250-9

  • Butylated hydroxyanisole and its metabolite tert-butylhydroquinone differentially regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases. The role of oxidative stress in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phenolic antioxidants.

    Yu R, Tan TH and Kong AN

    Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacodynamics, Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    Phenolic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a commonly used food preservative with broad biological activities, including protection against acute toxicity of chemicals, modulation of macromolecule synthesis and immune response, induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and especially its potential tumor-promoting activities. Understanding the molecular basis underlying these diverse biological actions of BHA is thus of great importance. Here we demonstrate that BHA is capable of activating distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activation of ERK2 by BHA was rapid and transient, whereas the JNK1 activation was relatively delayed and persistent. A major metabolite of BHA, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), also activated ERK2 but weakly stimulated JNK1 activity. Furthermore, tBHQ activation of ERK2 was late and prolonged, showing a kinetics different from that induced by BHA. ERK2 activation by both compounds required the involvement of an upstream signaling kinase MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), as evidenced by the inhibitory effect of a MEK inhibitor, PD98059. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, or vitamin E attenuated ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by BHA and tBHQ. Modulation of intracellular H2O2 levels by direct addition of catalase or pretreatment with a catalase inhibitor, aminotriazole, also affected BHA- and tBHQ-stimulated ERK2 activity but not JNK1, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in the ERK2 activation by these two compounds. However, we did not observe any generation of H2O2 after exposure of cells to BHA or tBHQ using a H2O2-sensitive fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Instead, BHA and tBHQ substantially reduced the amount of intracellular H2O2. Furthermore, BHA and tBHQ activation of ERK2 was strongly inhibited by ascorbic acid and a peroxidase inhibitor, sodium azide, suggesting the potential role of phenoxyl radicals and/or their derivatives. Taken together, our results indicate that (i) BHA and its metabolite tBHQ differentially regulate MAPK pathways, and (ii) oxidative stress due to the generation of reactive intermediates, possibly phenoxyl radicals but not H2O2, is responsible for the ERK2 activation by BHA and tBHQ, whereas the JNK1 activation may require a distinct yet unknown mechanism.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R01-ES06887; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01-GM49875, R29-GM49172; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;46;28962-70

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrates by focal adhesion kinase. A putative mechanism for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrates.

    Tachibana K, Urano T, Fujita H, Ohashi Y, Kamiguchi K, Iwata S, Hirai H and Morimoto C

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. tachiban@mbcrr.harvard.edu

    Integrin-ligand binding induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of various proteins including focal adhesion kinase (pp125(FAK)) and Crk-associated substrate (Cas). FAK is activated and autophosphorylated by the ligation of integrins, although the substrate of FAK has not been revealed. We show here that p130(Cas) and Cas-L are FAK substrates. FAK directly phosphorylates Cas proteins primarily at the YDYVHL sequence that is conserved among all Cas proteins. Furthermore, the phosphorylated YDYVHL sequence is a binding site for Src family protein-tyrosine kinases, and the recruited Src family kinase phosphorylates the other tyrosine residues within Cas. The Cas-L YDYVHL sequence is phosphorylated upon integrin-ligand binding, and this integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibited by the cotransfection of the FAK COOH-terminal domain that does not contain a kinase domain. These findings strongly suggest that FAK initiates integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas proteins; then, Src family tyrosine kinases, which are recruited to phosphorylated Cas and FAK, further phosphorylate Cas proteins.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-29530; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-33713

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;46;29083-90

  • Cleavage of focal adhesion kinase by caspases during apoptosis.

    Wen LP, Fahrni JA, Troie S, Guan JL, Orth K and Rosen GD

    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

    Apoptotic cells undergo characteristic morphological changes that include detachment of cell attachment from the substratum and loss of cell-cell interactions. Attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix and to other cells is mediated by integrins. The interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and suppresses apoptosis in diverse cell types. Members of the tumor necrosis family such as Fas and Apo-2L, also known as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), induce apoptosis in both suspension and adherent cells through the activation of caspases. These caspases, when activated, cleave substrates that are important for the maintenance of nuclear and membrane integrity. In this study, we show that FAK is sequentially cleaved into two different fragments early in Apo-2L-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrate that FAK cleavage is mediated by caspases and that FAK shows unique sensitivity to different caspases. Our results suggest that disruption of FAK may contribute to the morphological changes observed in apoptotic suspension and adherent cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM52890

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;41;26056-61

  • Relocation of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase to the actin filament network and subsequent association with Fak.

    Sada K, Minami Y and Yamamura H

    Department of Biochemistry, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Previous studies demonstrated that Syk protein-tyrosine kinase (Syk) is activated by thrombin in platelets. To elucidate the function of Syk in platelets, we have biochemically examined the intracellular location of Syk and the molecules associated with Syk, following platelet activation. In human platelets, thrombin induces the relocation of Syk to the cytoskeletal fraction presumably via Syk tyrosine phosphorylation. Relocated Syk is associated with the actin filament network, and the early phase (10-90 s) of this association can be partially inhibited by the pretreatment of platelets with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Upon thrombin stimulation, Syk becomes associated with Fak as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. The association of both kinases can be inhibited by pretreatment of platelets with cytochalasin D. Interestingly, reconstitution experiments, using COS cells transfected with various porcine Syk mutants, revealed that the kinase domain, but not the kinase activity, of Syk is required for the association of Syk with the actin filament network. These findings suggest that thrombin-induced association of Syk with Fak correlates with the state of actin polymerization, and may play an important role in platelet activation.

    European journal of biochemistry 1997;248;3;827-33

  • T cell receptor engagement induces tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and Pyk2 and their association with Lck.

    Berg NN and Ostergaard HL

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

    Stimulation through the TCR is known to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins, which leads to functional activation of T cells. Identification of the substrates that become phosphorylated and defining their interactions with other signaling molecules will provide insight into the mechanisms controlling T cell activation. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the recently described Pyk2 kinase are homologous members of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase family. FAK has been shown to become phosphorylated upon TCR stimulation, but its role, if any, in T cell activation remains to be defined. Although Pyk2 has been shown to play a role in neuronal cell activation stimulated through G-protein-coupled receptors, a role in T cell activation has not been described. In this study we show that FAK and Pyk2 are two of the major 115-to-120-kDa proteins that become tyrosine phosphorylated in T cells following TCR complex stimulation. Furthermore, coincident with the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, we show an association of these kinases with the SH2 domain of the tyrosine kinase Lck in vivo. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Pyk2, however, occurs in Lck-deficient cells suggesting that phosphorylation of both of these kinases does not require Lck. Taken together, these results suggest that FAK and Pyk2, perhaps in coordination with Lck, play a role in T cell activation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1997;159;4;1753-7

  • Adhesion of fibroblasts to fibronectin stimulates both serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin.

    Bellis SL, Perrotta JA, Curtis MS and Turner CE

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, State University of New York Health Science Center, 750 E. Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin by the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated as a signal transduction mechanism associated with cell adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. The potential role of serine phosphorylation of paxillin in these events has not been well characterized. In this study we have examined the phosphorylation profile of paxillin both in vitro and in vivo. By using glutathione S-transferase-paxillin fusion proteins in precipitation-kinase assays in vitro we observed that a fusion protein spanning amino acid residues 54-313 of paxillin, and containing a FAK-binding site, precipitated substantial serine kinase activity as well as FAK activity from a smooth-muscle lysate. Together these kinases phosphorylated paxillin on tyrosine residue 118, a site that has been identified previously as a target for FAK phosphorylation, and on serine residues 188 and/or 190. The binding site for the serine kinase, the identity of which is currently unknown, was further mapped to residues 168-191 of paxillin. To assess the physiological relevance of these sites phosphorylated in vitro, the profile of paxillin phosphorylation in vivo stimulated by seeding fibroblasts on fibronectin was characterized. As expected, plating cells on fibronectin enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. However, 96% of the phosphorylation of paxillin occurred on serine residues. Comparison by two-dimensional phosphopeptide analyses indicated that the major sites of tyrosine and serine phosphorylation detected in the assays in vitro co-migrate with phosphopeptides derived from paxillin phosphorylated in vivo in response to plating cells on fibronectin. These findings support a role for both tyrosine and serine kinases in the signal transduction pathway linking integrin activation to paxillin phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607

    The Biochemical journal 1997;325 ( Pt 2);375-81

  • Thrombspondin acts via integrin-associated protein to activate the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3.

    Chung J, Gao AG and Frazier WA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Integrin-associated protein (IAP or CD47) is a receptor for the cell/platelet-binding domain (CBD) of thrombospondin-1 (TS1), the most abundant protein of platelet alpha granules. Although it associates with alphaIIbbeta3, IAP has no known function in platelets. TS1, the CBD, and an IAP agonist peptide (4N1K) from the CBD of TS1 activate the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3, resulting in platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, stimulation of platelet aggregation, and enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Furthermore, 4N1K peptide selectively stimulates the phosphorylation of LYN and SYK and their association with FAK. The phosphorylation of SYK is blocked by pertussis toxin, implicating a Gi-like heterotrimeric G protein. IAP solublized from membranes of unstimulated platelets binds specifically to an affinity column of 4N1K peptide. Both alphaIIb and beta3 integrin subunits and c-Src bind along with IAP. This complex of proteins is also detected with immunoprecipitation. Activation of platelets with the agonist peptide 4N1K results in the association of FAK with the IAP-alphaIIbbeta3 complex. Thus an important function of TS1 in platelets is that of a secreted costimulator of alphaIIbbeta3 whose unique properties result in its localization to the platelet surface and the fibrin clot.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;23;14740-6

  • Focal adhesion kinase overexpression enhances ras-dependent integrin signaling to ERK2/mitogen-activated protein kinase through interactions with and activation of c-Src.

    Schlaepfer DD and Hunter T

    Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. dschlaep@scripps.edu

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (FN) triggers a number of intracellular signaling events including the increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) and also the stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) associates with integrin receptors, and FN-stimulated phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925 promotes the binding of Src family PTKs and Grb2, respectively. To investigate the mechanisms by which FAK, c-Src, and Grb2 function in FN-stimulated signaling events to ERK2, we expressed wild type and mutant forms of FAK in human 293 epithelial cells by transient transfection. FAK overexpression enhanced FN-stimulated activation of ERK2 approximately 4-fold. This was blocked by co-expression of the dominant negative Asn-17 mutant Ras, indicating that FN stimulation of ERK2 was Ras-dependent. FN-stimulated c-Src PTK activity was enhanced by wild type FAK expression, whereas FN-stimulated activation of ERK2 was blocked by expression of the c-Src binding site Phe-397 mutant of FAK. Expression of the Grb2 binding site Phe-925 mutant of FAK enhanced activation of ERK2, whereas a kinase-inactive Arg-454 mutant FAK did not. Expression of wild type and Phe-925 FAK, but not Phe-397 FAK, enhanced p130(Cas) association with FAK, Shc tyrosine phosphorylation, and Grb2 binding to Shc after FN stimulation. FN-induced Grb2-Shc association is another pathway leading to activation of ERK2 via Ras. The inhibitory effects of Tyr-397 FAK expression show that FAK-mediated association and activation of c-Src is essential for maximal signaling to ERK2. Moreover, multiple signaling pathways are activated upon the formation of an FAK.c-Src complex, and several of these can lead to Ras-dependent ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA14195, CA39780

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;20;13189-95

  • NCAM140 interacts with the focal adhesion kinase p125(fak) and the SRC-related tyrosine kinase p59(fyn).

    Beggs HE, Baragona SC, Hemperly JJ and Maness PF

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7260, USA.

    Axonal growth cones respond to adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components by rapid morphological changes and growth rate modification. Neurite outgrowth mediated by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) requires the src family tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) in nerve growth cones, but the molecular basis for this interaction has not been defined. The NCAM140 isoform, which is found in migrating growth cones, selectively co-immunoprecipitated with p59(fyn) from nonionic detergent (Brij 96) extracts of early postnatal mouse cerebellum and transfected rat B35 neuroblastoma and COS-7 cells. p59(fyn) did not associate significantly with the NCAM180 isoform, which is found at sites of stable neural cell contacts, or with the glycophosphatidylinositol-linked NCAM120 isoform. pp60(c-)src, a tyrosine kinase that promotes neurite growth on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1, did not interact with any NCAM isoform. Whereas p59(fyn) was constitutively associated with NCAM140, the focal adhesion kinase p125(fak), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase known to mediate integrin-dependent signaling, became recruited to the NCAM140-p59(fyn) complex when cells were reacted with antibodies against the extracellular region of NCAM. Treatment of cells with a soluble NCAM fusion protein or with NCAM antibodies caused a rapid and transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of p125(fak) and p59(fyn). These results suggest that NCAM140 binding interactions at the cell surface induce the assembly of a molecular complex of NCAM140, p125(fak), and p59(fyn) and activate the catalytic function of these tyrosine kinases, initiating a signaling cascade that may modulate growth cone migration.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS26620

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;13;8310-9

  • Monocyte cells and cancer cells express novel paxillin isoforms with different binding properties to focal adhesion proteins.

    Mazaki Y, Hashimoto S and Sabe H

    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606, Japan.

    The versatility of integrin functions is mediated by engagement of a number of proteins that assemble with integrins. Among them, paxillin is one of the important molecules interacting with a variety of signaling molecules and cytoskeletal building blocks. We report here that paxillin is not a single molecule with a unique physiological property. We identified two human paxillin isoforms, beta and gamma. These isoforms have distinct amino acid insertions; each consists of a distinct exon, at the same site of previously reported paxillin (paxillin alpha). Several proteins were co-precipitated with paxillin, and we found that beta bound to focal adhesion kinase but weakly to vinculin, and gamma bound to vinculin but only weakly to focal adhesion kinase, although both bound equally to talin. No additional proteins were found to bind to beta and gamma over those binding to alpha. Unlike the alpha isoform, beta and gamma mRNAs were not detected in normal tissues, but several cancer cells expressed both alpha and beta proteins simultaneously. All three isoform proteins were expressed in promonocytic cells with ratios comparable with each other, and the expression patterns were altered during differentiation of floating promonocytic cells into adherent macrophage-like cells. Therefore, each isoform of paxillin exhibits distinct expression and different biochemical as well as physiological properties and thereby appears to act as a distinct module involved in different functions of integrins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;11;7437-44

  • Focal adhesion and stress fiber formation is regulated by tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    Retta SF, Barry ST, Critchley DR, Defilippi P, Silengo L and Tarone G

    Department of Genetics, Biology and Medical Chemistry, University of Torino, Torino, 10126, Italy. U995torino@csivms.csi.it

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins plays an important role in the regulation of focal adhesions and stress fiber organization. In the present study we examined the role of tyrosine phosphatases in this process using p125FAK and paxillin as substrates. We show that tyrosine phosphatase activity in Swiss 3T3 cells was markedly increased when actin stress fibers were disassembled by cell detachment from the substratum, by serum starvation, or by cytochalasin D treatment. This activity was blocked by phenylarsine oxide, an inhibitor of a specific class of tyrosine phosphatases characterized by two vicinal thiol groups in the active site. Phenylarsine oxide treatment of serum-starved cells induced increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and paxillin in a dose-dependent manner and induced assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers, showing that inhibition of one or more phenylarsine oxide-sensitive tyrosine phosphatases is a sufficient stimulus for triggering focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation in adherent cells.

    Experimental cell research 1996;229;2;307-17

  • Focal adhesion kinase tyrosine-861 is a major site of phosphorylation by Src.

    Calalb MB, Zhang X, Polte TR and Hanks SK

    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) participates in signaling events induced by diverse stimuli including integrin engagement, oncogenic transformation and mitogenic neuropeptides. FAK's signaling function is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The major autophosphorylation site is tyrosine-397, which interacts with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Src-family kinases including Src and Fyn. Full activation of FAK appears to require additional phosphorylation by the associated Src-family kinases. Previously identified Src sites include catalytic domain tyrosines-576 and -577, important for maximal FAK kinase activity, and tyrosine-925, which permits an SH2-mediated association with Grb2. A full understanding of FAK-mediated signaling events will require the identification of all sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we report that tyrosine-861 is the major Src site in the carboxyl-terminal domain of FAK. Phosphotyrosine-861 may function in additional interactions between FAK and SH2-containing proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;228;3;662-8

  • Identification of LIM3 as the principal determinant of paxillin focal adhesion localization and characterization of a novel motif on paxillin directing vinculin and focal adhesion kinase binding.

    Brown MC, Perrotta JA and Turner CE

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse, 13210, USA.

    Paxillin is a 68-kD focal adhesion phosphoprotein that interacts with several proteins including members of the src family of tyrosine kinases, the transforming protein v-crk, and the cytoskeletal proteins vinculin and the tyrosine kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). This suggests a function for paxillin as a molecular adaptor, responsible for the recruitment of structural and signaling molecules to focal adhesions. The current study defines the vinculin- and FAK-interaction domains on paxillin and identifies the principal paxillin focal adhesion targeting motif. Using truncation and deletion mutagenesis, we have localized the vinculin-binding site on paxillin to a contiguous stretch of 21 amino acids spanning residues 143-164. In contrast, maximal binding of FAK to paxillin requires, in addition to the region of paxillin spanning amino acids 143-164, a carboxyl-terminal domain encompassing residues 265-313. These data demonstrate the presence of a single binding site for vinculin, and at least two binding sites for FAK that are separated by an intervening stretch of 100 amino acids. Vinculin- and FAK-binding activities within amino acids 143-164 were separable since mutation of amino acid 151 from a negatively charged glutamic acid to the uncharged polar residue glutamine (E151Q) reduced binding of vinculin to paxillin by >90%, with no reduction in the binding capacity for FAK. The requirement for focal adhesion targeting of the vinculin- and FAK-binding regions within paxillin was determined by transfection into CHO.K1 fibroblasts. Significantly and surprisingly, paxillin constructs containing both deletion and point mutations that abrogate binding of FAK and/or vinculin were found to target effectively to focal adhesions. Additionally, expression of the amino-terminal 313 amino acids of paxillin containing intact vinculin- and FAK-binding domains failed to target to focal adhesions. This indicated other regions of paxillin were functioning as focal adhesion localization motifs. The carboxyl-terminal half of paxillin (amino acids 313-559) contains four contiguous double zinc finger LIM domains. Transfection analyses of sequential carboxyl-terminal truncations of the four individual LIM motifs and site-directed mutagenesis of LIM domains 1, 2, and 3, as well as deletion mutagenesis, revealed that the principal mechanism of targeting paxillin to focal adhesions is through LIM3. These data demonstrate that paxillin localizes to focal adhesions independent of interactions with vinculin and/or FAK, and represents the first definitive demonstration of LIM domains functioning as a primary determinant of protein subcellular localization to focal adhesions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;135;4;1109-23

  • p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene.

    Salgia R, Pisick E, Sattler M, Li JL, Uemura N, Wong WK, Burky SA, Hirai H, Chen LB and Griffin JD

    Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) translocation generates a chimeric tyrosine kinase oncogene, BCR/ABL, which causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and a type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In primary samples from virtually all patients with CML or Ph+ALL, the CRKL adapter protein is tyrosine phosphorylated and physically associated with p210(BCR/ABL). CRKL has one SH2 domain and two SH3 domains and is structurally related to c-CRK-II (CRK) and the v-Crk oncoprotein. We have previously shown that CRKL, but not the related adapter protein c-CRK, is tyrosine phosphorylated in cell lines transformed by BCR/ABL, and that CRKL binds to BCR/ABL through the CRKL-SH3 domains. Furthermore, the CRKL-SH2 domain has been shown to bind one or more cellular proteins, one of which is p120(CBL). Here we demonstrate that another cellular protein linked to BCR/ABL through the CRKL-SH2 domain is p130(CAS). p130(CAS) was found to be tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with CRKL in BCR/ABL expressing cell lines and in samples obtained from CML and ALL patients, but not in samples from controls. In both normal and BCR/ABL transformed cells, p130(CAS) was detected in focal adhesion-like structures, as was BCR/ABL. In normal cells, the focal adhesion proteins tensin, p125(FAK), and paxillin constitutively associated with p130(CAS). However, in BCR/ABL transformed cells, the interaction between p130(CAS) and tensin was disrupted, while the associations between p130(CAS), p125(FAK), and paxillin were unaffected. These results suggest that the BCR/ABL oncogene could alter the function of p130(CAS) in at least three ways: tyrosine phosphorylation, inducing constitutive binding of CRKL to a domain in p130(CAS) containing Tyr-X-X-Pro motifs (substrate domain), and disrupting the normal interaction of p130(CAS) with the focal adhesion protein tensin. These alterations in the structure of signaling proteins in focal adhesion like structures could contribute to the known adhesion abnormalities in CML cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA36167, CA60821

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;41;25198-203

  • Structure and function of Cas-L, a 105-kD Crk-associated substrate-related protein that is involved in beta 1 integrin-mediated signaling in lymphocytes.

    Minegishi M, Tachibana K, Sato T, Iwata S, Nojima Y and Morimoto C

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Integrin/ligand binding evokes tyrosine phosphorylation of various proteins. We reported previously that a 105 kD protein (pp105) was tyrosine phosphorylated by the engagement of beta 1 integrins in T lymphocytes. We show here that pp105 is a novel p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate)-related protein. Deduced amino acid sequence revealed that pp105 contains conserved motifs with p130Cas, and both pp105 and p130Cas bind to focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) and Crk. However, pp105 has a clearly distinct structure from p130Cas, and pp105 is preferentially expressed in lymphocytes, whereas p130Cas is expressed in adherent cells. With these findings, we designate pp105 as Cas-L, lymphocyte-type Cas. Furthermore, we demonstrate that integrin/ligand binding results in the recruitment of Crk, Nck, and SHPTP2 to pp105. These findings further define the roles of pp105/Cas-L and pp125FAK in the integrin-mediated signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-92530; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-33713

    The Journal of experimental medicine 1996;184;4;1365-75

  • Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Schlaepfer DD and Hunter T

    Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA14195, CA39780

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;10;5623-33

  • Focal adhesion kinase-related fakB is regulated by the integrin LFA-1 and interacts with the SH3 domain of phospholipase C gamma 1.

    Kanner SB

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98121, USA.

    Signal transduction through integrin molecules expressed on platelets and nonlymphoid cells involves activation of the intracellular focal adhesion kinase ppI25FAK (FAK) to phosphorylate substrate proteins on tyrosine residues. Similar mechanisms are also functional in T-lymphocytes through the beta 1-integrin VLA-4. A putative FAK-related phosphoprotein (fakB) was identified that is responsive to intracellular signals induced through ligation of antigen receptors on both T- and B-lymphocytes, and whose induced tyrosine phosphorylation is augmented by TCR costimulation through the adhesion/costimulatory receptors CD2 and CD4. In this report, fakB is shown to respond to extracellular signals through the beta 2-integrin LFA-1 in the absence of primary signals through the TCR. Protein-protein complex formation was observed involving an association between fakB, phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1), and the tyrosine phosphoprotein pp35-36. Evidence is provided here that fakB interacts with PLC gamma 1 through its SH3 domain. The association between fakB and PLC gamma 1 does not appear to require T-cell activation, whereas the induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein complex components occurs following engagement of LFA-1. These data indicate that the beta2-integrin LFA-1 expressed on T-lymphocytes stimulates a novel, FAK-related molecule that may function in the interplay between adhesion receptors and intracellular signaling enzymes responsible for downstream second messenger generation.

    Cellular immunology 1996;171;1;164-9

  • Human enhancer of filamentation 1, a novel p130cas-like docking protein, associates with focal adhesion kinase and induces pseudohyphal growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Law SF, Estojak J, Wang B, Mysliwiec T, Kruh G and Golemis EA

    Division of Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.

    Budding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae follows a genetically programmed pattern of cell division which can be regulated by external signals. On the basis of the known functional conservation between a number of mammalian oncogenes and antioncogenes with genes in the yeast budding pathway, we used enhancement of pseudohyphal budding in S. cerevisiae by human proteins expressed from a HeLa cDNA library as a morphological screen to identify candidate genes that coordinate cellular signaling and morphology. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1), an SH3-domain-containing protein that is similar in structure to pl30cas, a recently identified docking protein that is a substrate for phosphorylation by a number of oncogenic tyrosine kinases. In contrast to p130cas, the expression of HEF1 appears to be tissue specific. Further, whereas p130cas is localized predominantly at focal adhesions, immunofluorescence indicates that HEF1 localizes to both the cell periphery and the cell nucleus and is differently localized in fibroblasts and epithelial cells, suggesting a more complex role in cell signalling. Through immunoprecipitation and two-hybrid analysis, we demonstrate a direct physical interaction between HEF1 and p130cas, as well as an interaction of the SH3 domain of HEF1 with two discrete proline-rich regions of focal adhesion kinase. Finally, we demonstrate that as with p130cas, transformation with the oncogene v-abl results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation on HEF1, mediated by a direct association between HEF1 and v-Abl. We anticipate that HEF1 may prove to be an important linking element between extracellular signalling and regulation of the cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-090035-20, CA-57273, R29-CA63366

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;7;3327-37

  • An SH3 domain-containing GTPase-activating protein for Rho and Cdc42 associates with focal adhesion kinase.

    Hildebrand JD, Taylor JM and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA.

    The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin engagement with the ECM initiates signaling cascades that regulate the organization of the actin-cytoskeleton and changes in gene expression. The Rho subfamily of Ras-related low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins and several protein tyrosine kinases have been implicated in mediating various aspects of integrin-dependent alterations in cell homeostasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK or pp125FAK) is one of the tyrosine kinases predicted to be a critical component of integrin signaling. To elucidate the mechanisms by which FAK participates in integrin-mediated signaling, we have used expression cloning to identify cDNAs that encode potential FAK-binding proteins. We report here the identification of a cDNA that encodes a new member of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family of GTPase regulators. This GAP, termed Graf (for GTPase regulator associated with FAK), binds to the C-terminal domain of FAK in an SH3 domain-dependent manner and preferentially stimulates the GTPase activity of the GTP-binding proteins RhoA and Cdc42. Subcellular localization studies using Graf-transfected chicken embryo cells indicates that Graf colocalizes with actin stress fibers, cortical actin structures, and focal adhesions. Graf mRNA is expressed in a variety of avian tissues and is particularly abundant in embryonic brain and liver. Graf represents the first example of a regulator of the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins that exhibits binding to a protein tyrosine kinase. We suggest that Graf may function to mediate cross talk between the tyrosine kinases such as FAK and the Rho family GTPase that control steps in integrin-initiated signaling events.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29243, CA40042

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;6;3169-78

  • Introduction of p130cas signaling complex formation upon integrin-mediated cell adhesion: a role for Src family kinases.

    Vuori K, Hirai H, Aizawa S and Ruoslahti E

    La Jolla Cancer Research Center, Burnham Institute, California 92037, USA.

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion triggers intracellular signaling cascades, including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Among these are the focal adhesion proteins p130cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we identify the kinase(s) mediating integrin-induced Cas phosphorylation and characterize protein-protein interactions mediated by phosphorylated Cas. We found that expression of a constitutively active FAK in fibroblasts results in a consecutive tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. This effect required the autophosphorylation site of FAK, which is a binding site for Src family kinases. Integrin-mediated phosphorylation of Cas was not, however, compromised in fibroblasts lacking FAK. In contrast, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas was reduced in cells lacking Src, whereas enhanced phosphorylation of Cas was observed Csk- cells, in which Src kinases are activated. These results suggest that Src kinases are responsible for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. FAK seems not to be necessary for phosphorylation of Cas, but when autophosphorylated, FAK may recruit Src family kinases to phosphorylate Cas. Cas was found to form complexes with Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing signaling molecules, such as the SH2/SH3 adapter protein Crk, following integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors C3G and Sos were found in the Cas-Crk complex upon integrin ligand binding. These observations suggest that Cas serves as a docking protein and may transduce signals to downstream signaling pathways following integrin-mediated cell adhesion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 28896, CA 30199, CA 67224

    Molecular and cellular biology 1996;16;6;2606-13

  • Leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium induces E-selectin linkage to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Yoshida M, Westlin WF, Wang N, Ingber DE, Rosenzweig A, Resnick N and Gimbrone MA

    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    We have examined functions of the cytoplasmic domain of E-selectin, an inducible endothelial transmembrane protein, especially its ability to associate with the cytoskeleton during leukocyte adhesion. Confocal microscopy of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) visualized clustering of E-selectin molecules in the vicinity of leukocyte-endothelial cell attachment sites. A detergent based extraction and Western blotting procedure demonstrated an association of E-selectin with the insoluble (cytoskeletal) fraction of endothelial monolayers that correlated with adhesion of leukocytes via an E-selectin-dependent mechanism. A mutant form of E-selectin lacking the cytoplasmic domain (tailless E-selectin) was expressed in COS-7 cell and supported leukocyte attachment (in a nonstatic adhesion assay) in a fashion similar to the native E-selectin molecule, but failed to become associated with the cytoskeletal fraction. To identify the cytoskeletal components that associate with the cytoplasmic domain of E-selectin, paramagnetic beads coated with the adhesion-blocking anti-E-selectin monoclonal antibody H18/7 were incubated with IL-1 beta-activated HUVEC, and then subjected to detergent extraction and magnetic separation. Certain actin-associated proteins, including alpha-actinin, vinculin, filamin, paxillin, as well as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), were copurified by this procedure, however talin was not. When a mechanical stress was applied to H18/7-coated ferromagnetic beads bound to the surface of IL-1 beta-activated HUVEC, using a magnetical twisting cytometer, the observed resistance to the applied stress was inhibited by cytochalasin D, thus demonstrating transmembrane cytoskeletal mechanical linkage. COS-7 cells transfected with the tailless E-selectin failed to show resistance to the twisting stress. Taken together, these data indicate that leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-activated HUVEC induces transmembrane cytoskeletal linkage of E-selectin through its cytoplasmic domain, a process which may have important implications for cell-cell signaling as well as mechanical anchoring during leukocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-45548; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-33009, P01-HL-36028

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;133;2;445-55

  • The association of focal adhesion kinase with a 200-kDa protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to platelet-derived growth factor.

    Chen HC and Guan JL

    Cancer Biology Laboratories, Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase implicated in the signal transduction pathways initiated by integrins. However, we have previously found that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) could stimulate the association of FAK with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in NIH 3T3 cells [Chen, H.-C. & Guan, J.-L. (1994) J. Biol. Chem 269, 31229-31223], suggesting that FAK might participate in some of the cellular effects of the growth factors in modulating cell morphology and migration. In this report, we describe the association of FAK with a 200-kDa protein (pp200) that is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to PDGF stimulation in NIH 3T3 cells. Although the identity of pp200 is unknown at present, we have excluded the possibilities that it is the PDGF receptor beta, tension, talin, myosin or the guanosine-triophosphatase-activating-protein-associated p190 protein. Furthermore, we found that the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK-associated pp200 upon PDGF stimulation is largely independent of cell adhesion or the integrity of the cytoskeleton. Therefore, pp200 and its interaction with FAK may also be involved in growth-factor-induced cellular effects such as the modulation of cell adhesion or cell migration via cytoskeletal reorganization or disruption of focal adhesions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM48050

    European journal of biochemistry 1996;235;3;495-500

  • Focal adhesion kinase as a marker of invasive potential in differentiated human thyroid cancer.

    Owens LV, Xu L, Dent GA, Yang X, Sturge GC, Craven RJ and Cance WG

    Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Background: The FAK gene encodes a 125-kDa tyrosine kinase (p125FAK) involved in signal transduction pathways used in cell adhesion, motility, and anchorage-independent growth. Because thyroid carcinomas have a wide variability in their propensity for invasion and metastasis, we studied the expression of FAK in a variety of thyroid tissues.

    Methods: We synthesized a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the human FAK protein and developed a specific polyclonal antisera. Using Western blot analysis, we assessed the levels of p125FAK expression in 30 human thyroid tissue samples from 27 patients that included paired normal and malignant specimens. Levels of FAK protein in individual tumors were quantitated by densitometric scanning of the immunoblots, and the results were correlated with tumor histology and biologic behavior.

    Results: The levels of FAK expression were directly correlated with thyroid carcinomas demonstrating the most aggressive phenotypes. The highest levels of p125FAK were seen in follicular carcinomas and tumors associated with distant metastatic foci. In contrast, neoplastic thyroid tissues with limited invasive potential, such as papillary carcinomas, follicular adenomas, and other nonmalignant thyroid lesions, showed minimal p125FAX expression.

    Conclusions: Overexpression of FAK may be part of a mechanism for invasion and metastasis of thyroid cancer. Furthermore, the levels of p125FAK may serve as a marker of biologic behavior in this disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA01625, CA09688

    Annals of surgical oncology 1996;3;1;100-5

  • Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas.

    Polte TR and Hanks SK

    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in integrin-mediated signaling events and in the mechanism of cell transformation by the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. To gain further insight into FAK signaling pathways, we used a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with mouse FAK. The screen identified two proteins that interact with FAK via their Src homology 3 (SH3) domains: a v-Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate (Cas), p130Cas, and a still uncharacterized protein, FIPSH3-2, which contains an SH3 domain closely related to that of p130Cas. These SH3 domains bind to the same proline-rich region of FAK (APPKPSR) encompassing residues 711-717. The mouse p130Cas amino acid sequence was deduced from cDNA clones, revealing an overall high degree of similarity to the recently reported rat sequence. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that p130Cas and FAK are associated in mouse fibroblasts. The stable interaction between p130Cas and FAK emerges as a likely key element in integrin-mediated signal transduction and further represents a direct molecular link between the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. The Src family kinase Fyn, whose Src homology 2 (SH2) domain binds to the major FAK autophosphorylation site (tyrosine 397), was also identified in the two-hybrid screen.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM49882

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;23;10678-82

  • p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and focal adhesion assembly: studies with phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitors.

    Defilippi P, Retta SF, Olivo C, Palmieri M, Venturino M, Silengo L and Tarone G

    Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Chimica Medica, Universita di Torino, Italy.

    p125FAK is a major tyrosine kinase phosphorylated in response to integrin-dependent adhesion. In this study we use vanadate and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), known inhibitors of phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), as a tool to artificially modulate p125FAK phosphorylation in human endothelial and in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Vanadate treatment strongly upregulates in a dose-dependent manner the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in adherent cells. PAO induces a more restricted profile of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, increasing primarily a broad band of 120-140 kDa. Maximal stimulation of p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation is reached at 10 microM PAO. In contrast, in vanadate-treated cells the p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation shows a biphasic curve, being increased at high doses of vanadate (100 microM) and downregulated at low doses (25 microM). Immunofluorescence analysis of cells treated with PTPase inhibitors showed a direct correlation between the level of p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Downregulation of p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation is observed by treating cells with cytochalasin D (CD), a drug known to rapidly disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. When PTPase inhibitors are added in combination to CD, the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK remains high and focal adhesions and actin stress fibers are preserved from the CD-mediated disruption. Based on these data we suggest that assembly of actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in inhibiting PTPases involved in p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Funded by: Telethon: 569

    Experimental cell research 1995;221;1;141-52

  • Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin.

    Chen HC, Appeddu PA, Parsons JT, Hildebrand JD, Schaller MD and Guan JL

    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    The interaction of cells with extracellular matrix proteins plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes. Recent studies suggest that cell-matrix interactions mediated by integrins can transduce biochemical signals to the cell interior that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. These studies have placed the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an intracellular protein tyrosine kinase, in a central position in integrin-initiated signal transduction pathways (Zachary, I., and Rozengurt, E. (1992) Cell 71, 891-894; Schaller, M., and Parsons, J. T. (1993) Trends Cell Biol. 3, 258-262). Here, we report data suggesting a possible association of FAK with the cytoskeletal protein talin in NIH 3T3 cells. We have identified a 48-amino acid sequence in the carboxyl-terminal domain of FAK necessary for talin binding in vitro. Furthermore, we have correlated the ability of integrin to induce FAK phosphorylation with its ability to bind talin using a mutant integrin lacking the carboxyl-terminal 13 amino acids. These studies suggest talin may be a mediator for FAK activation in signaling initiated by integrins and may provide an explanation for the dependence on the integrity of actin-cytoskeleton of multiple intracellular signaling pathways converging to FAK activation and autophosphorylation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;28;16995-9

  • Stimulation of human monocytes with macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces a Grb2-mediated association of the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK and dynamin.

    Kharbanda S, Saleem A, Yuan Z, Emoto Y, Prasad KV and Kufe D

    Division of Cancer Pharmacology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is required for the growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. In the present studies using human monocytes, we show that M-CSF induces interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK. The results demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK directly interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. The findings indicate that a pYENV site at Tyr-925 in pp125FAK is responsible for this interaction. We also demonstrate that the Grb2-FAK complex associates with the GTPase dynamin. Dynamin interacts with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and exhibits M-CSF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in association with pp125FAK. These findings suggest that M-CSF-induced signaling involves independent Grb2-mediated pathways, one leading to Ras activation and another involving pp125FAK and a GTPase implicated in receptor internalization.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA34183, CA42802

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;13;6132-6

  • A 77-kDa protein associates with pp125FAK in mast cells and becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated by high affinity IgE receptor aggregation.

    Hamawy MM, Minoguchi K, Swaim WD, Mergenhagen SE and Siraganian RP

    Laboratory of Immunology, NIDR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1188, USA.

    The focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, is a novel non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase expressed in different cells including mast cells. Here we report that a 77-kDa protein associates with pp125FAK in the mast cell analog, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. When pp125FAK immunoprecipitates were subjected to an in vitro kinase assay, there was prominent phosphorylation on tyrosine of pp125FAK and of a 77-kDa protein. By V8 protease digestion mapping and by immunoblotting with two different anti-pp125FAK antibodies, the 77-kDa protein was distinct from pp125FAK. This Fak Associated Protein or FAP was detected in RBL-2H3 cells but not in fibroblasts. The aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI, induced the in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of FAP. However, there was a marked decrease in the in vitro phosphorylation of FAP in the immunoprecipitates from Fc epsilon RI aggregated cells. Both of these Fc epsilon RI-mediated effects were enhanced by cell adhesion. There was strong association of FAP with non-tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK. Thus this interaction does not appear to be mediated by the Src homology 2 domain. Together the data indicate that FAP associates with pp125FAK and suggest that FAP may play a role in Fc epsilon RI signaling.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;20;12305-9

  • Integrin-dependent translocation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase to the cytoskeleton of thrombin-activated platelets involves specific interactions of p85 alpha with actin filaments and focal adhesion kinase.

    Guinebault C, Payrastre B, Racaud-Sultan C, Mazarguil H, Breton M, Mauco G, Plantavid M and Chap H

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 326, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France.

    Thrombin-induced accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) but not of PtdIns(3,4,5,)P3 is strongly correlated with the relocation to the cytoskeleton of 29% of the p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase) and is accompanied by a significant increase in PtdIns 3-kinase activity in this subcellular fraction. Actually, PtdIns(3,4)P2 accumulation and PtdIns 3-kinase, pp60c-src, and p125FAK translocations as well as aggregation were concomitant events occurring with a distinct lag after actin polymerization. The accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and the relocalization of PtdIns 3-kinase to the cytoskeleton were both dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation, integrin signaling, and aggregation. Furthermore, although p85 alpha was detected in anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates obtained from the cytoskeleton of thrombin-activated platelets, we failed to demonstrate tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoskeletal p85 alpha. Tyrphostin treatment clearly reduced its presence in this subcellular fraction, suggesting a physical interaction of p85 alpha with a phosphotyrosyl protein. These data led us to investigate the proteins that are able to interact with PtdIns 3-kinase in the cytoskeleton. We found an association of this enzyme with actin filaments: this interaction was spontaneously restored after one cycle of actin depolymerization-repolymerization in vitro. This association with F-actin appeared to be at least partly indirect, since we demonstrated a thrombin-dependent interaction of p85 alpha with a proline-rich sequence of the tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoskeletal focal adhesion kinase, p125FAK. In addition, we show that PtdIns 3-kinase is significantly activated by the p125FAK proline-rich sequence binding to the src homology 3 domain of p85 alpha subunit. This interaction may represent a new mechanism for PtdIns 3-kinase activation at very specific areas of the cell and indicates that the focal contact-like areas linked to the actin filaments play a critical role in signaling events that occur upon ligand engagement of alpha IIb/beta 3 integrin and platelet aggregation evoked by thrombin.

    The Journal of cell biology 1995;129;3;831-42

  • Mapping of the focal adhesion kinase (Fadk) gene to mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 8.

    Fiedorek FT and Kay ES

    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK or FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase stimulated in response to cell interactions with extracellular matrix components and by exposure to a variety of agonists, including neuropeptides. FAK lacks Src-homology SH2 and SH3 domains, is highly conserved across species, and may represent the prototype for a tyrosine kinase family involved in novel signal transduction pathways. We have identified sequence variants in the 3' untranslated regions of the focal adhesion kinase gene in mice and used a PCR-based oligonucleotide hybridization assay to map the mouse gene (Fadk) to Chromosome (Chr) 15 distal to the myelocytomatosis protooncogene (Myc). The human homolog (PTK2) has been assigned to human Chr 8 on a panel of somatic hybrid cell lines. On the basis of synteny of mouse and human chromosomal maps, the position of the human PTK2 gene probably corresponds to human Chr 8q24-qter.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-44074

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1995;6;2;123-6

  • Overexpressed Csk tyrosine kinase is localized in focal adhesions, causes reorganization of alpha v beta 5 integrin, and interferes with HeLa cell spreading.

    Bergman M, Joukov V, Virtanen I and Alitalo K

    Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Finland.

    The C-terminal Src kinase p50csk phosphorylates Src family tyrosine kinases and down-regulates their activity in vitro. To gain insight into the cellular functions of this potentially antioncogenic enzyme, we have overexpressed the csk cDNA by using an inducible promoter in HeLa cells. Despite some differences in basal Src activity in the clones analyzed, Src activity was not significantly suppressed, while the amount of p50csk and Csk activity increased at least 10-fold during 3 days of induction. Immunofluorescence for the induced p50csk was localized in the cytoplasm and distinctly in focal adhesions, in which the amount of phosphotyrosine containing proteins was also increased. Point and deletion mutagenesis experiments showed that localization in focal adhesions was dependent on the SH2 and SH3 domains of Csk but not on its catalytic activity. Csk formed a complex with the focal adhesion protein paxillin in cells, and its SH2 domain was shown to interact with pp125FAK and paxillin in vitro. After Csk induction, the cells became spherical and more loosely attached to the culture substratum, and the alpha v beta 5 integrin complex (vitronectin receptor) of focal adhesions was redistributed to a novel type of structure consisting of punctate plaques on the ventral cell surface. These phenotypic changes occurred in several clones analyzed and were totally reversible when Csk was switched off, but they did not occur in cells overexpressing the catalytically inactive Csk R-222 mutant or luciferase. Our results thus show that a fraction of cellular Csk is targeted to focal adhesions via its SH2 and SH3 domains, probably interacting with tyrosyl-phosphorylated focal adhesion proteins. They also suggest that Csk is involved in the regulation of integrins controlling cell attachment and shape.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1995;15;2;711-22

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at sites in the catalytic domain regulates kinase activity: a role for Src family kinases.

    Calalb MB, Polte TR and Hanks SK

    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a widely expressed nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase implicated in integrin-mediated signal transduction pathways and in the process of oncogenic transformation by v-Src. Elevation of FAK's phosphotyrosine content, following both cell adhesion to extracellular matrix substrata and cell transformation by Rous sarcoma virus, correlates directly with an increased kinase activity. To help elucidate the role of FAK phosphorylation in signal transduction events, we used a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach to identify tyrosine sites of phosphorylation responsive to both cell adhesion and Src transformation. We have identified four tyrosines, 397, 407, 576, and 577, which are phosphorylated in mouse BALB/3T3 fibroblasts in an adhesion-dependent manner. Tyrosine 397 has been previously recognized as the major site of FAK autophosphorylation. Phosphorylation of tyrosines 407, 576, and 577, which are previously unrecognized sites, is significantly elevated in the presence of c-Src in vitro and v-Src in vivo. Tyrosines 576 and 577 lie within catalytic subdomain VIII--a region recognized as a target for phosphorylation-mediated regulation of protein kinase activity. We found that maximal kinase activity of FAK immune complexes requires phosphorylation of both tyrosines 576 and 577. Our results indicate that phosphorylation of FAK by Src (or other Src family kinases) is an important step in the formation of an active signaling complex.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1995;15;2;954-63

  • Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    Schlaepfer DD, Hanks SK, Hunter T and van der Geer P

    Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Salk Institute, San Diego, California 92186.

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

    Nature 1994;372;6508;786-91

  • SH2 domain specificity and activity modified by a single residue.

    Marengere LE, Songyang Z, Gish GD, Schaller MD, Parsons JT, Stern MJ, Cantley LC and Pawson T

    Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Many intracellular targets of protein-tyrosine kinases possess Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that directly recognize phosphotyrosine-containing sites on autophosphorylated growth factor receptors and cytoplasmic proteins, and thereby mediate the activation of biochemical signalling pathways. SH2 domains possess relatively well conserved residues that form the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket, and more variable residues that are implicated in determining binding specificity by recognition of the three amino acids carboxy-terminal to phosphotyrosine (the +1 to +3 positions). One such residue, occupying the EF1 position of the +3-binding pocket, is a Thr in the SH2 domain of the Src tyrosine kinase, but is predicted to be a Trp in the SH2 domain of the Sem-5/drk/Grb2 adaptor protein. Here we report that changing this residue in the Src SH2 domain from Thr to Trp switches its selectivity to resemble that of the Sem-5/drk/Grb2 SH2 domain. Furthermore, this mutant Src SH2 domain effectively substitutes for the SH2 domain of the Sem-5 protein in activation of the Ras pathway in vivo. These results identify a residue that can modify SH2 selectivity, and indicate that the biological activity of an SH2 domain correlates with its binding specificity.

    Nature 1994;369;6480;502-5

  • Direct interaction of v-Src with the focal adhesion kinase mediated by the Src SH2 domain.

    Xing Z, Chen HC, Nowlen JK, Taylor SJ, Shalloway D and Guan JL

    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.

    The recently described focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in signal transduction pathways initiated by cell adhesion receptor integrins and by neuropeptide growth factors. To examine the mechanisms by which FAK relays signals from the membrane to the cell interior, we carried out a series of experiments to detect potential FAK interactions with proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that are important intracellular signaling molecules. Using v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells, we showed that FAK was present in the immune-complex precipitated by anti-Src antibody, suggesting potential interaction of FAK with v-Src in vivo. We also showed potentially direct interaction of FAK with v-Src in vivo using the yeast two-hybrid system. Using recombinant FAK expressed in insect cells and bacterial fusion proteins containing Src SH2 domains, we showed direct binding of FAK to the Src SH2 domain but not to the SH3 domain in vitro. A kinase-defective mutant of FAK, which is not autophosphorylated, did not interact with the Src SH2 domain under the same conditions, suggesting the involvement of the FAK autophosphorylation sites. Treatment of FAK with a protein-tyrosine phosphatase decreased its binding to the Src SH2 domain, whereas autophosphorylation in vitro increased its binding. These results confirm the importance of FAK autophosphorylation sites in its interaction with SH2 domain-containing proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that FAK may mediate signal transduction events initiated on the cell surface by kinase activation and autophosphorylation that result in its binding to other key intracellular signaling molecules.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-48050

    Molecular biology of the cell 1994;5;4;413-21

  • Autophosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, directs SH2-dependent binding of pp60src.

    Schaller MD, Hildebrand JD, Shannon JD, Fox JW, Vines RR and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908.

    The phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) on tyrosine residues is a critical regulatory event that modulates catalytic activity and triggers the physical association of PTKs with Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing proteins. The integrin-linked focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, exhibits extracellular matrix-dependent phosphorylation on tyrosine and physically associates with two nonreceptor PTKs, pp60src and pp59fyn, via their SH2 domains. Herein, we identify Tyr-397 as the major site of tyrosine phosphorylation on pp125FAK both in vivo and in vitro. Tyrosine 397 is located at the juncture of the N-terminal and catalytic domains, a novel site for PTK autophosphorylation. Mutation of Tyr-397 to a nonphosphorylatable residue dramatically impairs the phosphorylation of pp125FAK on tyrosine in vivo and in vitro. The mutation of Tyr-397 to Phe also inhibits the formation of stable complexes with pp60src in cells expressing Src and FAK397F, suggesting that autophosphorylation of pp125FAK may regulate the association of pp125FAK with Src family kinases in vivo. The identification of Tyr-397 as a major site for FAK autophosphorylation provides one of the first examples of a cellular protein containing a high-affinity binding site for a Src family kinase SH2 domain. This finding has implications for models describing the mechanisms of action of pp125FAK, the regulation of the Src family of PTKs, and signal transduction through the integrins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA 40042, P30 CA 44579, R37 CA 29243

    Molecular and cellular biology 1994;14;3;1680-8

  • A survey of protein tyrosine kinase mRNAs expressed in normal human melanocytes.

    Lee ST, Strunk KM and Spritz RA

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706.

    We have used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to survey the repertoire of protein tyrosine kinases expressed in cultured normal human melanocytes, a differentiated cell type derived from the neural crest. We identified 25 different tyrosine kinase cDNAs among a total of 608 protein tyrosinase kinase-related cDNAs analyzed. Six encode receptor tyrosine kinases for known ligands, several of which have been implicated in controlling melanocyte proliferation in vitro. Two others encode apparent receptor tyrosine kinases for unknown li 112 gands. Four encode known non-receptor tyrosine kinases and five encode previously identified anonymous protein tyrosine kinases. Of the eight other melanocyte-associated protein tyrosine kinases, most or all appear to be novel. These 25 protein tyrosine kinase genes exhibit 1f40 distinct patterns of expression in cultured human melanocytes, human erythroleukemia cells, and a variety of normal human tissues. We mapped 16 of the corresponding protein tyrosine kinase genes to specific human chromosomes, identifying a total of 19 human genetic loci, some of which may constitute candidate genes for genetic disorders of mammalian development.

    Funded by: ACF HHS: AF-39892

    Oncogene 1993;8;12;3403-10

  • Human T and B lymphocytes express a structurally conserved focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK.

    Whitney GS, Chan PY, Blake J, Cosand WL, Neubauer MG, Aruffo A and Kanner SB

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98121.

    Clustering of beta 1-integrins on adherent cells with antibodies or ligands results in increased tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a novel focal adhesion tyrosine kinase, pp125FAK. The genes encoding pp125FAK have been cloned previously from both chicken and mouse cDNA libraries, and the deduced amino acid sequences are nearly identical (94%). Two synthetic peptides derived from sequences at the carboxyl terminus of chicken pp125FAK were conjugated to ovalbumin to generate rabbit heteroantisera. Human pp125FAK was immunodetected in both T and B lymphocytes with these antisera. A basal state of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in T and B lymphocytes, and its expression level was in general augmented among human T- and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma lines. Additionally, the full-length sequence of human T-cell pp125FAK (huT-FAK) was derived from a Jurkat T-cell cDNA library. huT-FAK is structurally identical with both mouse and chicken FAK, and shares 95% amino acid identity with chicken pp125FAK and has 97% homology with the mouse sequence. This high degree of evolutionary conservation between species suggests that pp125FAK is likely to have a crucial function in the cell. Expression of the full-length huT-FAK gene in COS cells showed an immunologically indistinct human pp125FAK protein compared with the endogenous primate pp125FAK. Taken together, the data indicate that this structurally conserved human T-cell pp125FAK likely functions in T- and B-cell lineages, and its altered expression in human lymphocyte tumor cell lines may contribute to their transformed phenotype.

    DNA and cell biology 1993;12;9;823-30

  • Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2.

    Chardin P, Camonis JH, Gale NW, van Aelst L, Schlessinger J, Wigler MH and Bar-Sagi D

    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, Valbonne, France.

    A human complementary DNA was isolated that encodes a widely expressed protein, hSos1, that is closely related to Sos, the product of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene. The hSos1 protein contains a region of significant sequence similarity to CDC25, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras from yeast. A fragment of hSos1 encoding the CDC25-related domain complemented loss of CDC25 function in yeast. This hSos1 domain specifically stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on mammalian Ras proteins in vitro. Mammalian cells overexpressing full-length hSos1 had increased guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Thus hSos1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras. The hSos1 interacted with growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) in vivo and in vitro. This interaction was mediated by the carboxyl-terminal domain of hSos1 and the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of GRB2. These results suggest that the coupling of receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras signaling is mediated by a molecular complex consisting of GRB2 and hSos1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46370, CA55360

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1993;260;5112;1338-43

  • Expression of an N-terminally truncated form of human focal adhesion kinase in brain.

    André E and Becker-André M

    Glaxo Institute for Molecular Biology, Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland.

    We have cloned a novel tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in human tissues using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA clone was subsequently found to be the human homologue of the recently cloned chicken focal adhesion associated kinase (pp125FAK). The homology between the chicken and human sequences is 95% at the amino acid level. By RT-PCR we have detected hFAK in human tonsillar T and B cells, several human lymphoid cell lines, a neuroblastoma cell line and HeLa cells. By Northern blot analysis we show that hFAK is expressed in all organs tested with the highest abundance in brain and the least in heart and skeletal muscle. An additional transcript of ca. 3.3 kb, encoding an N-terminally truncated form of hFAK, was observed only in brain.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;190;1;140-7

Gene lists (1)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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