G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1
G00000144 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000157500 (Ensembl human gene)
26060 (Entrez Gene)
58 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
604299 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24035 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UKG1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • APPL

Literature (27)

Pubmed - other

  • Functional characterization of the interactions between endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 and the NuRD co-repressor complex.

    Banach-Orlowska M, Pilecka I, Torun A, Pyrzynska B and Miaczynska M

    International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ks. Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.

    Multifunctional adaptor protein APPL1 [adaptor protein containing PH (pleckstrin homology) domain, PTB (phosphotyrosine binding) domain and leucine zipper motif] belongs to a growing group of endocytic proteins which actively participate in various stages of signalling pathways. Owing to its interaction with the small GTPase Rab5, APPL1 localizes predominantly to a subpopulation of early endosomes but is also capable of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Among its various binding partners, APPL1 was reported to associate with the nuclear co-repressor complex NuRD (nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase), containing both nucleosome remodelling and HDAC (histone deacetylase) activities, but the biochemical basis or functional relevance of this interaction remained unknown. Here we characterized the binding between APPL1 and NuRD in more detail, identifying HDAC2 as the key NuRD subunit responsible for this association. APPL1 interacts with the NuRD complex containing enzymatically active HDAC2 but not HDAC1 as the only deacetylase. However, the cellular levels of HDAC1 can regulate the extent of APPL1-NuRD interactions, which in turn modulates the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of APPL1. Increased binding of APPL1 to NuRD upon silencing of HDAC1 promotes the nuclear localization of APPL1, whereas HDAC1 overexpression exerts an opposite effect. Moreover, we also uncovered a NuRD-independent interaction of APPL1 with HDAC1. APPL1 overexpression affects the composition of the HDAC1-containing NuRD complex and the expression of HDAC1 target p21WAF1/CIP1. Cumulatively, these data reveal a surprising complexity of APPL1 interactions with HDACs, with functional consequences for the modulation of gene expression. In a broader sense, these results contribute to an emerging theme of endocytic proteins playing alternative roles in the cell nucleus.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Wellcome Trust: 076469, 076469/Z/05/Z

    The Biochemical journal 2009;423;3;389-400

  • Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase in muscle cells via APPL1/LKB1-dependent and phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-dependent pathways.

    Zhou L, Deepa SS, Etzler JC, Ryu J, Mao X, Fang Q, Liu DD, Torres JM, Jia W, Lechleiter JD, Liu F and Dong LQ

    Departments of Biochemistry, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900.

    The binding of the adaptor protein APPL1 to adiponectin receptors is necessary for adiponectin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that in muscle cells adiponectin and metformin induce AMPK activation by promoting APPL1-dependent LKB1 cytosolic translocation. APPL1 mediates adiponectin signaling by directly interacting with adiponectin receptors and enhances LKB1 cytosolic localization by anchoring this kinase in the cytosol. Adiponectin also activates another AMPK upstream kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase by activating phospholipase C and subsequently inducing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which plays a minor role in AMPK activation. Our results show that in muscle cells adiponectin is able to activate AMPK via two distinct mechanisms as follows: a major pathway (the APPL1/LKB1-dependent pathway) that promotes the cytosolic localization of LKB1 and a minor pathway (the phospholipase C/Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-dependent pathway) that stimulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01 AG019316, PPG AG19316, T32 AG021890; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK069930, R01 DK076902, R01 DK69930, R01 DK76902

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;33;22426-22435

  • Endosomal adaptor proteins APPL1 and APPL2 are novel activators of beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription.

    Rashid S, Pilecka I, Torun A, Olchowik M, Bielinska B and Miaczynska M

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Ks. Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.

    Canonical Wnt signaling regulates many aspects of cellular physiology and tissue homeostasis during development and in adult organisms. In molecular terms, stimulation by Wnt ligands leads to the stabilization of beta-catenin, its translocation to the nucleus, and stimulation of TCF (T-cell factor)-dependent transcription of target genes. This process is controlled at various stages by a number of regulatory proteins, including transcriptional activators and repressors. Here we demonstrate that the endosomal proteins APPL1 and APPL2 are novel activators of beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription. APPL proteins are multifunctional adaptors and effectors of the small GTPase Rab5, which localize to a subpopulation of early endosomes but are also capable of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Overexpression of APPL1 or APPL2 protein stimulates the activity of beta-catenin/TCF-dependent reporter construct, whereas silencing of APPL1 reduces it. Both APPL proteins interact directly with Reptin, a transcriptional repressor binding to beta-catenin and HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1), and this interaction was mapped to the pleckstrin homology domain of APPL1. Moreover, APPL proteins are present in an endogenous complex containing Reptin, beta-catenin, HDAC1, and HDAC2. Overexpression of either APPL protein relieves Reptin-dependent transcriptional repression and correlates with the reduced amounts of HDACs and beta-catenin associated with Reptin as well as with the lower levels of Reptin and HDAC1 on the promoters of beta-catenin target genes. We propose that APPL proteins exert their stimulatory effects on beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription by decreasing the activity of a Reptin-containing repressive complex.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Wellcome Trust: 076469, 076469/Z/05/Z

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;27;18115-28

  • Adiponectin blocks interleukin-18-mediated endothelial cell death via APPL1-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and IKK/NF-kappaB/PTEN suppression.

    Chandrasekar B, Boylston WH, Venkatachalam K, Webster NJ, Prabhu SD and Valente AJ

    Department of Veterans Affairs South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA. chandraseka@uthscsa.edu

    The adipocyte-derived cytokine adiponectin is known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, circulating levels of adiponectin correlate inversely with those of the proinflammatory, proapoptotic cytokine interleukin (IL)-18. The opposing actions of IL-18 and adiponectin on both cell survival and inflammation led us to investigate whether adiponectin signaling antagonizes IL-18-mediated endothelial cell death and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with IL-18 suppressed Akt phosphorylation and its associated kinase activity, induced IkappaB kinase (IKK)-NF-kappaB-dependent PTEN activation, and promoted endothelial cell death. Pretreatment with adiponectin stimulated APPL1-dependent AMPK activation, reversed Akt inhibition in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner, blocked IKK-NF-kappaB-PTEN signaling, reduced caspase-3 activity, blocked Bax translocation, and inhibited endothelial cell death. The cytoprotective effect of adiponectin signaling was recapitulated by treatment with the pharmacological AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-riboside. Collectively, these results demonstrated that adiponectin reverses IL-18-mediated endothelial cell death through an AMPK-associated mechanism, which may thus have therapeutic potential for diminishing IL-18-dependent vascular injury and inflammation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD047400, U54 HD012303

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;36;24889-98

  • All known patient mutations in the ASH-RhoGAP domains of OCRL affect targeting and APPL1 binding.

    McCrea HJ, Paradise S, Tomasini L, Addis M, Melis MA, De Matteis MA and De Camilli P

    Department of Cell Biology, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

    Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL are responsible for Lowe syndrome, an X-linked disorder characterized by bilateral cataracts, mental retardation, neonatal hypotonia, and renal Fanconi syndrome, and for Dent disease, another X-linked condition characterized by kidney reabsorption defects. We have previously described an interaction of OCRL with the endocytic adaptor APPL1 that links OCRL to protein networks involved in the disease phenotype. Here, we provide new evidence showing that among the interactions which target OCRL to membranes of the endocytic pathway, binding to APPL1 is the only one abolished by all known disease-causing missense mutations in the ASH-RhoGAP domains of the protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that APPL1 and rab5 independently contribute to recruit OCRL to enlarged endosomes induced by the expression of constitutively active Rab5. Thus, binding to APPL1 helps localize OCRL at specific cellular sites, and disruption of this interaction may play a role in disease.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45735, P30 DK045735, P50 DK057328, P50-DK57328; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32GM07205, T32 GM007205; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36251, R01 NS036251, R37 NS036251

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;369;2;493-9

  • [Association of variants in APPL1 gene with body fat and its distribution in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus].

    Fang QC, Jia WP, Gao F, Zhang R, Hu C, Wang CR, Wang C, Ma XJ, Lu JX, Xu J, Chen HZ and Xiang KS

    Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center of Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200233, China.

    Objective: To investigate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APPL1 gene on body fat and its distribution.

    Methods: 590 unrelated Shanghai residents of Han nationality, including 358 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 232 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), underwent measurement of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (W), hip circumference (H), and femoral circumference (F). Peripheral blood samples were collected to detect the blood sugar, blood lipids, fasting C - peptide (FCP), fasting insulin (FINS), fasting plasma glucose (FGLU), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) 0 and 120 minutes after glucose challenge. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the 2 SNPs (rs3806622 and rs4640525).

    Results: No differences in the frequencies of rs3806622 and rs4640525 genotypes between the subjects with the BMI < 25 kg/m2 and those with the BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 either in the NGT group or T2DM group. The G allele frequencies of the rs3806622 and rs4640525 genotypes in the T2DM patients with longer W values were significantly higher than those in the patients with shorter W value (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.05 - 4.86, and OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.21 - 14.09). The W values of the T2DM subjects with G alleles were significantly higher than those of the T2DM subjects without G alleles after adjustment of age, sex, and BMI (all P < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that in addition to sex and BMI, rs4640525 was also an associated factor of waist circumference (all P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: SNPs (rs3806622 and rs4640525) in APPL1 gene are correlated with body fat distribution in T2DM.

    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 2008;88;6;369-73

  • Membrane targeting by APPL1 and APPL2: dynamic scaffolds that oligomerize and bind phosphoinositides.

    Chial HJ, Wu R, Ustach CV, McPhail LC, Mobley WC and Chen YQ

    Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. hchial@stanford.edu

    Human adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) and adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2 (APPL2) are homologous effectors of the small guanosine triphosphatase RAB5 that interact with a diverse set of receptors and signaling proteins and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling. Herein, we investigated the membrane-targeting properties of the APPL1 and APPL2 Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR), pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated that full-length APPL proteins formed homooligomers and heterooligomers and that the APPL minimal BAR domains were necessary and sufficient for mediating APPL-APPL interactions. When fused to a fluorescent protein and overexpressed, all three domains (minimal BAR, PH and PTB) were targeted to cell membranes. Furthermore, full-length APPL proteins bound to phosphoinositides, and the APPL isolated PH or PTB domains were sufficient for in vitro phosphoinositide binding. Live cell imaging showed that full-length APPL-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion proteins associated with cytosolic membrane structures that underwent movement, fusion and fission events. Overexpression of full-length APPL-YFP fusion proteins was sufficient to recruit endogenous RAB5 to enlarged APPL-associated membrane structures, although APPL1 was not necessary for RAB5 membrane targeting. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for APPL proteins as dynamic scaffolds that modulate RAB5-associated signaling endosomal membranes by their ability to undergo domain-mediated oligomerization, membrane targeting and phosphoinositide binding.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: F32 CA108196, F32CA108196, R01 CA107668, R01CA107668, R01CA74927; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI022564, R01AI22564; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS024054, R01 NS024054-17, R01 NS055371, R01 NS055371-03, R01NS024054, R01NS055371

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2008;9;2;215-29

  • The interaction of Akt with APPL1 is required for insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation.

    Saito T, Jones CC, Huang S, Czech MP and Pilch PF

    Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif 1) is an Akt/protein kinase B-binding protein involved in signal transduction and membrane trafficking pathways for various receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we establish a role for APPL1 in insulin signaling in which we demonstrate its interaction with Akt2 by co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays. In primary rat adipocytes and skeletal muscle, APPL1 and Akt2 formed a complex that was dissociated upon insulin stimulation in both tissues. To investigate possible APPL1 function in adipocytes, we analyzed Akt phosphorylation, 2-deoxyglucose uptake, and Glut4 translocation by immunofluorescence following APPL1 knockdown by small interfering and short hairpin RNAs. We show that APPL1 knockdown suppressed Akt phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and Glut4 translocation. We also tested the effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes of expressing full-length APPL1 or an N- or a C-terminal APPL1 construct. Interestingly, expression of full-length APPL1 and its N terminus suppressed insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and Glut4 translocation to roughly the same extent (40-60%). We confirmed by cellular fractionation that Glut4 translocation was substantially blocked in 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with full-length APPL1. By cellular fractionation, APPL1 was localized mainly in the cytosol, and it showed a small degree of re-localization to the light microsomes and nucleus in response to insulin. By immunofluorescence, we also show that APPL1 partially co-localized with Glut4. These data suggest that APPL1 plays an important role in insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation in muscle and adipose tissues and that its N-terminal portion may be critical for APPL1 function.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-30425, DK-56935, DK-60564

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;44;32280-7

  • Genetic variation within the APPL locus is not associated with metabolic or inflammatory traits in a healthy White population.

    Staiger H, Machicao F, Machann J, Schick F, Kuulasmaa T, Laakso M, Fritsche A, Stefan N and Häring HU

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Angiology, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

    Aims: APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper motif 1) is the first identified cytosolic protein that directly binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates cellular responses to adiponectin. We set out to determine whether genetic variation within the APPL locus (encoding APPL1) contributes to insulin resistance, changes in lipid metabolism or inflammatory parameters in a healthy White population.

    Methods: We genotyped 640 healthy subjects with and without a family history of diabetes for the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs6774584, rs3087684, rs17791685 and rs528035 and performed correlational analyses with metabolic and inflammatory traits.

    Results: SNPs rs6774584, rs3087684, rs17791685 and rs528035 are representative of the four blocks of high linkage disequilibrium covering a 78-kb genomic locus that harbours the APPL gene. None of these SNPs correlated with anthropometric data (gender, age, body mass index, body fat, waist-hip ratio) or with family history of diabetes. Furthermore, no correlations were found with parameters of insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion. None of the SNPs was correlated with ectopic lipid content or with plasma lipids (non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol). Moreover, no correlations were detected with leucocyte measures or plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin 6 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Finally, diplotypes derived from these SNPs did not reveal correlations with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, lipid measures or inflammatory parameters either.

    Conclusions: We conclude that genetic variation within the APPL locus may not play a major role in the development of prediabetes phenotypes.

    Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association 2007;24;8;817-22

  • Structure of the APPL1 BAR-PH domain and characterization of its interaction with Rab5.

    Zhu G, Chen J, Liu J, Brunzelle JS, Huang B, Wakeham N, Terzyan S, Li X, Rao Z, Li G and Zhang XC

    Crystallography Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

    APPL1 is an effector of the small GTPase Rab5. Together, they mediate a signal transduction pathway initiated by ligand binding to cell surface receptors. Interaction with Rab5 is confined to the amino (N)-terminal region of APPL1. We report the crystal structures of human APPL1 N-terminal BAR-PH domain motif. The BAR and PH domains, together with a novel linker helix, form an integrated, crescent-shaped, symmetrical dimer. This BAR-PH interaction is likely conserved in the class of BAR-PH containing proteins. Biochemical analyses indicate two independent Rab-binding sites located at the opposite ends of the dimer, where the PH domain directly interacts with Rab5 and Rab21. Besides structurally supporting the PH domain, the BAR domain also contributes to Rab binding through a small surface region in the vicinity of the PH domain. In stark contrast to the helix-dominated, Rab-binding domains previously reported, APPL1 PH domain employs beta-strands to interact with Rab5. On the Rab5 side, both switch regions are involved in the interaction. Thus we identified a new binding mode between PH domains and small GTPases.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM074692, R01 GM074692, R01 GM074692-02

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;14;3484-93

  • Adiponectin-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and nitric oxide production are mediated by APPL1 in endothelial cells.

    Cheng KK, Lam KS, Wang Y, Huang Y, Carling D, Wu D, Wong C and Xu A

    Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

    Adiponectin protects the vascular system partly through stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The current study investigated the role of two recently identified adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and -R2, and their downstream effectors in mediating the endothelium actions of adiponectin. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, adiponectin-induced phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at Ser(1177) and NO production were abrogated when expression of AdipoR1 and -R2 were simultaneously suppressed. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic tails of both AdipoR1 and -R2 interacted with APPL1, an adaptor protein that contains a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain, a PTB (phosphotyrosine-binding) domain, and a Leucine zipper motif. Suppression of APPL1 expression by RNA interference significantly attenuated adiponectin-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr(172) and eNOS at Ser(1177), and the complex formation between eNOS and heat shock protein 90, resulting in a marked reduction of NO production. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a constitutively active version of AMPK reversed these changes. In db/db diabetic mice, both APPL1 expression and adiponectin-induced vasodilation were significantly decreased compared with their lean littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that APPL1 acts as a common downstream effector of AdipoR1 and -R2, mediating adiponectin-evoked endothelial NO production and endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U120027537

    Diabetes 2007;56;5;1387-94

  • Crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1.

    Li J, Mao X, Dong LQ, Liu F and Tong L

    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

    APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors and other important signaling molecules. It contains a BAR and a PH domain near its N terminus, and the two domains may function as a unit (BAR-PH domain). We report here the crystal structures of the BAR-PH and PTB domains of human APPL1. The structures reveal novel features for BAR domain dimerization and for the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. The BAR domain dimer of APPL1 contains two four-helical bundles, whereas other BAR domain dimers have only three helices in each bundle. The PH domain is located at the opposite ends of the BAR domain dimer. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirm the interactions between the BAR and PH domains. Lipid binding assays show that the BAR, PH, and PTB domains can bind phospholipids. The ability of APPL1 to interact with multiple signaling molecules and phospholipids supports an important role for this adaptor in cell signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK069930

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 2007;15;5;525-33

  • APPL1, APPL2, Akt2 and FOXO1a interact with FSHR in a potential signaling complex.

    Nechamen CA, Thomas RM and Dias JA

    Wadsworth Center, David Axelrod Institute for Public Health, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, United States.

    A number of signaling proteins have been demonstrated to interact with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR), including APPL1, 14-3-3tau and Akt2. To further define the repertoire of proteins involved in FSH-induced signal transduction, several signaling and adapter proteins were examined for the ability to associate with FSHR. This report shows that, in addition to APPL1, FSHR interacts with FOXO1a and APPL2. Moreover, APPL1 and APPL2 associate with one another via the N-terminus of APPL1, presumably via the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. The interactions between FSHR and APPL2 and between FSHR and FOXO1a evidently are distinct since FOXO1a does not associate with either APPL1 or with APPL2. Though APPL1 and APPL2 show some similarity in primary sequence, APPL1 associates with Akt2, whereas APPL2 does not. This is the first documented difference in function between APPL1 and APPL2. These results suggest that FSHR, APPL1, APPL2, Akt2 and FOXO1a are organized into distinct scaffolding networks in the cell. Accordingly, the spatial organization of signaling and adapter proteins with FSHR likely facilitates and finely regulates the signal transduction induced by FSH.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD18407, R01 HD018407

    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2007;260-262;93-9

  • APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function.

    Mao X, Kikani CK, Riojas RA, Langlais P, Wang L, Ramos FJ, Fang Q, Christ-Roberts CY, Hong JY, Kim RY, Liu F and Dong LQ

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

    Adiponectin, also known as Acrp30, is an adipose tissue-derived hormone with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties. Two seven-transmembrane domain-containing proteins, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have recently been identified as adiponectin receptors, yet signalling events downstream of these receptors remain poorly defined. By using the cytoplasmic domain of AdipoR1 as bait, we screened a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human fetal brain. This screening led to the identification of a phosphotyrosine binding domain and a pleckstrin homology domain-containing adaptor protein, APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain and leucine zipper motif). APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors in mammalian cells and the interaction is stimulated by adiponectin. Overexpression of APPL1 increases, and suppression of APPL1 level reduces, adiponectin signalling and adiponectin-mediated downstream events (such as lipid oxidation, glucose uptake and the membrane translocation of glucose transport 4 (GLUT4)). Adiponectin stimulates the interaction between APPL1 and Rab5 (a small GTPase) interaction, leading to increased GLUT4 membrane translocation. APPL1 also acts as a critical regulator of the crosstalk between adiponectin signalling and insulin signalling pathways. These results demonstrate a key function for APPL1 in adiponectin signalling and provide a molecular mechanism for the insulin sensitizing function of adiponectin.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: T32 AG021890; NIDDK NIH HHS: F31DK068874, R01 DK069930, R01 DK52933, R01 DK69930

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;5;516-23

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor interacts with the adaptor protein APPL1 in HEK 293 cells: potential involvement of the PI3K pathway in FSH signaling.

    Nechamen CA, Thomas RM, Cohen BD, Acevedo G, Poulikakos PI, Testa JR and Dias JA

    Wadsworth Center, David Axelrod Institute for Public Health, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    Selection of a dominant follicle that will ovulate likely occurs by activation of cell survival pathways and suppression of death-promoting pathways in a mechanism involving FSH and its cognate receptor (FSHR). A yeast two-hybrid screen of an ovarian cDNA library was employed to identify potential interacting partners with human FSHR intracellular loops 1 and 2. Among eight cDNA clones identified in the screen, APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif; also known as APPL or DIP13alpha) was chosen for further analysis. APPL1 appears to coimmunoprecipitate with FSHR in HEK 293 cells stably expressing FSHR (293/FSHR cells), confirming APPL1 as a potential FSHR-interacting partner. The phosphorylation status of members of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was also examined because of the proposed role of APPL1 in the antiapoptotic PI3K/Akt pathway. FOXO1a, also referred to as forkhead homologue in rhabdomyosarcoma, is a downstream effector in the pathway and tightly linked to expression of proapoptotic genes. FOXO1a, but not the upstream kinase Akt, is rapidly phosphorylated, and FOXO1a is thereby inactivated when 293/FSHR cells are treated with FSH. In addition, FSHR coimmunoprecipitates with Akt. The identification of APPL1 as a potential interactor with FSHR and the finding that FOXO1a is phosphorylated in response to FSH provide a possible link between FSH and PI3K/Akt signaling, which may help to delineate a survival mechanism whereby FSH selects the dominant follicle to survive.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 77429; NICHD NIH HHS: F32 HD 08537, HD 18407

    Biology of reproduction 2004;71;2;629-36

  • APPL proteins link Rab5 to nuclear signal transduction via an endosomal compartment.

    Miaczynska M, Christoforidis S, Giner A, Shevchenko A, Uttenweiler-Joseph S, Habermann B, Wilm M, Parton RG and Zerial M

    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

    Signals generated in response to extracellular stimuli at the plasma membrane are transmitted through cytoplasmic transduction cascades to the nucleus. We report the identification of a pathway directly linking the small GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endocytosis, to signal transduction and mitogenesis. This pathway operates via APPL1 and APPL2, two Rab5 effectors, which reside on a subpopulation of endosomes. In response to extracellular stimuli such as EGF and oxidative stress, APPL1 translocates from the membranes to the nucleus where it interacts with the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase multiprotein complex NuRD/MeCP1, an established regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression. Both APPL1 and APPL2 are essential for cell proliferation and their function requires Rab5 binding. Our findings identify an endosomal compartment bearing Rab5 and APPL proteins as an intermediate in signaling between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

    Cell 2004;116;3;445-56

  • APPL suppresses androgen receptor transactivation via potentiating Akt activity.

    Yang L, Lin HK, Altuwaijri S, Xie S, Wang L and Chang C

    Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    APPL may function as an adapter protein to modulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Although we have previously proven that the PI3K/Akt pathway can suppress androgen receptor (AR) transactivation, the potential linkage from APPL to the AR remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that APPL could suppress AR-mediated transactivation in a dose-dependent manner in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. This suppressive effect could be blocked by either dominant-negative Akt or dominant-negative PI3K or LY294002, suggesting that the APPL-mediated suppression of AR transactivation is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. We also observed that APPL could further enhance the Akt-mediated suppression of AR transactivation and AR target gene using the reporter gene and Northern blot assay. APPL was able to enhance insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-mediated Akt activation. The abrogation of IGF-1-mediated Akt activation by the dominant-negative PI3K or LY294002 or antisense APPL suggests that APPL may function as an important adapter protein in controlling the IGF-1 --> Akt signal pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays suggest that APPL, Akt, and AR may exist in a complex and Akt may serve as an important bridge factor for the association of APPL with AR. Together, our data indicate that APPL may suppress AR transactivation via potentiating Akt activity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK60905, DK60948

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;19;16820-7

  • Mediation of the DCC apoptotic signal by DIP13 alpha.

    Liu J, Yao F, Wu R, Morgan M, Thorburn A, Finley RL and Chen YQ

    Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. However the function of DCC remains elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that forced expression of DCC induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest (Chen, Y. Q., Hsieh, J. T., Yao, F., Fang, B., Pong, R. C., Cipriano, S. C. & Krepulat, F. (1999) Oncogene 18, 2747-2754). To delineate the DCC-induced apoptotic pathway, we have identified a protein, DIP13 alpha, which interacts with DCC. The DIP13 alpha protein has a pleckstrin homology domain and a phosphotyrosine binding domain. It interacts with a region on the DCC cytoplasmic domain that is required for the induction of apoptosis. Although ectopic expression of DIP13 alpha alone causes only a slight increase in apoptosis, co-expression of DCC and DIP13 alpha results in an approximately 5-fold increase in apoptosis. Removal of the DCC-interacting domain on DIP13 alpha abolishes its ability to enhance DCC-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of endogenous DIP13 alpha expression by small interfering RNA blocks DCC-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that DIP13 alpha is a mediator of the DCC apoptotic pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA77489

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;29;26281-5

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. nagase@kazusa.or.jp

    We have carried out a human cDNA sequencing project to accumulate information regarding the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. As an extension of the preceding reports, we herein present the entire sequences of 150 cDNA clones of unknown human genes, named KIAA1294 to KIAA1443, from two sets of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of cDNA clones analyzed here reached 4.8 kb and 2.7 kb (910 amino acid residues), respectively. From sequence similarities and protein motifs, 73 predicted gene products were functionally annotated and 97% of them were classified into the following four functional categories: cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, cell structure/motility and protein management. Additionally, the chromosomal loci of the genes were assigned by using human-rodent hybrid panels for those genes whose mapping data were not available in the public databases. The expression profiles of the genes were also studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2000;7;1;65-73

  • Identification of a chromosome 3p14.3-21.1 gene, APPL, encoding an adaptor molecule that interacts with the oncoprotein-serine/threonine kinase AKT2.

    Mitsuuchi Y, Johnson SW, Sonoda G, Tanno S, Golemis EA and Testa JR

    Molecular Oncology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, PA 19111, USA.

    AKT2 is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in human ovarian and pancreatic cancers. AKT2 is activated by a variety of growth factors and insulin via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, its normal cellular role is not well understood. To gain insight into the function of AKT2, we performed yeast two-hybrid system to screen for interacting proteins. Using this technique, we identified a novel interactor, designated APPL, which contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain and a leucine zipper, classes of motifs defined in signaling molecules as functional interaction domains with specific targets. The PH domain of APPL shows similarity to those found in GTPase-activating proteins such as oligophrenin-1 and Graf, whereas its PTB domain exhibits homology with CED-6, an adaptor protein that promotes engulfment of apoptotic cells, and IB1, a transactivator of the GLUT2 gene. APPL is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, ovary and pancreas, tissues in which AKT2 mRNA is abundant. APPL interacts with the inactive form of AKT2; moreover, APPL binds to the PI3K catalytic subunit, p110alpha. These data suggest that APPL is an adaptor that may tether inactive AKT2 to p110alpha in the cytoplasm and thereby may expedite recruitment of AKT2 and p110alpha to the cell membrane upon mitogenic stimulation. Furthermore, the APPL gene was mapped to human chromosome 3p14.3-p21.1, where deletions and other rearrangements have often been reported in a variety of tumor types. The identification of APPL may facilitate further analysis of the physiological and oncogenic activities of AKT2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA06927, CA77429

    Oncogene 1999;18;35;4891-8

OMIM - other

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000043 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H12 Human orthologues of cluster 12 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 2
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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