G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00003268
Gene symbol
Lmo7 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
LIM domain only 7
Orthologue
G00006258 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (3)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000033060 (Ensembl mouse gene)
380928 (Entrez Gene)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1353586 (MGI)

Synonyms (2)

  • FBXO20
  • LOC380928

Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Screening large numbers of expression patterns of transcription factors in late stages of the mouse thymus.

    Chung YC, Tsai YJ, Shiu TY, Sun YY, Wang PF and Chen CL

    Tao-Yuan General Hospital, Department of Health, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Transcription factor families are well known to be involved in the intrinsic pathways that regulate the organogenesis, early development, and microenvironment of the thymus. However, identification of the transcription factors (TFs) involved in the late development of the thymus, particularly later than embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), is progressing slowly. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to screen numerous expression patterns of the TFs involved in the development of the mouse thymus. More than 400 members, including unique TFs and some transcription co-factors, were tested. Among the screened TFs, 160 were found to be expressed in the thymus after E15.5, and 74 of these were expressed in restricted areas.

    Gene expression patterns : GEP 2011;11;1-2;84-92

  • Increased susceptibility to spontaneous lung cancer in mice lacking LIM-domain only 7.

    Tanaka-Okamoto M, Hori K, Ishizaki H, Hosoi A, Itoh Y, Wei M, Wanibuchi H, Mizoguchi A, Nakamura H and Miyoshi J

    Department of Molecular Biology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, Japan.

    LIM-domain only (LMO) 7 is a multifunctional protein that is predicted to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, assembly of adherens junctions in epithelial cells, and gene expression. LMO7 was highly expressed in the mouse lung and predominantly localized to the apical membrane domain of bronchiolar epithelial cells. Although mice lacking LMO7 were viable and fertile in specific pathogen-free conditions, they developed protruding epithelial lesions in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts at 14-15 weeks of age. Furthermore, they tended to develop spontaneous adenocarcinoma in the lung at over 90 weeks of age. The cumulative incidence ratios of lung cancer were 22% in LMO7(-/-) mice and 13% in LMO7(+/-) mice whereas no primary lung cancer was observed in wild-type mice. Ex vivo analyses of the cancer cells showed numerical chromosome abnormalities and tumorigenicity in nude mice. These results suggest that LMO7 can act as a tumor suppressor whose deficiency confers a genetic predisposition to naturally occurring lung cancer.

    Cancer science 2009;100;4;608-16

  • The lim domain only protein 7 is important in zebrafish heart development.

    Ott EB, van den Akker NM, Sakalis PA, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Te Velthuis AJ and Bagowski CP

    Institute of Biology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    The LIM domain only protein 7 (LMO7), a member of the PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein family is a candidate gene with possible roles in embryonic development and breast cancer progression. LMO7 has been linked to actin cytoskeleton organization through nectin/afadin and to cell-cell adhesion by means of E-cadherin/catenin. In addition, LMO7 has been shown to regulate transcription of the nuclear membrane protein Emerin and other muscle relevant genes. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate LMO7 expression during embryonic development in three widely used vertebrate model species: the zebrafish, the chicken and the mouse. Our temporal and spatial gene expression analysis revealed both common and distinct patterns between these species. In mouse and chicken embryos we found expression in the outflow tract, the inflow tract, the pro-epicardial organ and the second heart field, structures highly important in the developing heart. Furthermore, gene knockdown experiments in zebrafish embryos resulted in severe defects in heart development with effects on the conduction system and on heart localization. In summary, we present here the first developmental study of LMO7. We reveal the temporal and spatial expression patterns of this important gene during mouse, chicken and fish development and our findings suggest essential functions for LMO7 during vertebrate heart development.

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 2008;237;12;3940-52

  • Large-scale identification of genes implicated in kidney glomerulus development and function.

    Takemoto M, He L, Norlin J, Patrakka J, Xiao Z, Petrova T, Bondjers C, Asp J, Wallgard E, Sun Y, Samuelsson T, Mostad P, Lundin S, Miura N, Sado Y, Alitalo K, Quaggin SE, Tryggvason K and Betsholtz C

    Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    To advance our understanding of development, function and diseases in the kidney glomerulus, we have established and large-scale sequenced cDNA libraries from mouse glomeruli at different stages of development, resulting in a catalogue of 6053 different genes. The glomerular cDNA clones were arrayed and hybridized against a series of labeled targets from isolated glomeruli, non-glomerular kidney tissue, FACS-sorted podocytes and brain capillaries, which identified over 300 glomerular cell-enriched transcripts, some of which were further sublocalized to podocytes, mesangial cells and juxtaglomerular cells by in situ hybridization. For the earliest podocyte marker identified, Foxc2, knockout mice were used to analyze the role of this protein during glomerular development. We show that Foxc2 controls the expression of a distinct set of podocyte genes involved in podocyte differentiation and glomerular basement membrane maturation. The primary podocyte defects also cause abnormal differentiation and organization of the glomerular vascular cells. We surmise that studies on the other novel glomerulus-enriched transcripts identified in this study will provide new insight into glomerular development and pathomechanisms of disease.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;5;1160-74

  • Differential expression and molecular characterisation of Lmo7, Myo1e, Sash1, and Mcoln2 genes in Btk-defective B-cells.

    Lindvall JM, Blomberg KE, Wennborg A and Smith CI

    Clinical Research Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen 7, SE-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden. jessica.lindvall@crc.ki.se

    Purpose: Bruton's tyrosine kinase is crucial for B-lymphocyte development. By the use of gene expression profiling, we have identified four expressed sequence tags among 38 potential Btk target genes, which have now been characterised.

    Methods: Bioinformatics tools including data mining of additional unpublished gene expression profiles, sequence verification of PCR products and qualitative RT-PCR were used. Stimulations targeting the B-cell receptor and the protein kinase C were used to activate whole B-cell splenocytes.

    Results: Target genes were characterised as Lim domain only 7 (Lmo7); Myosin1e (Myo1e); SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (Sash1); and Mucolipin2 (Mcoln2). Expression was found in cell lines of different origin and developmental stages as well as in whole B-cell splenocytes and Transitional type 1 (T1) splenic B-cells from wild type and Btk-defective mice, respectively. By the use of semi-quantitative RT-PCR we found Sash1 not to be expressed in the investigated haematopoietic cell lines, while transcripts were found in whole splenic B-cells from both wild type and Btk-defective mice, whereas Lmo7, Myo1e, and Mcoln2 were expressed in both B-cell lines and primary B-lymphocytes. Except for Lmo7, the transcript level was similarly affected by stimulation in control and Btk-defective cells.

    Cellular immunology 2005;235;1;46-55

  • Identification of FGF10 targets in the embryonic lung epithelium during bud morphogenesis.

    Lü J, Izvolsky KI, Qian J and Cardoso WV

    Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    Genetic studies implicate Fgf10-Fgfr2 signaling as a critical regulator of bud morphogenesis in the embryo. However, little is known about the transcriptional targets of Fgf10 during this process. Here we identified global changes in gene expression in lung epithelial explants undergoing FGF10-mediated budding in the absence of other growth factors and mesenchyme. Targets were confirmed by their localization at sites where endogenous Fgf10 signaling is active in embryonic lungs and by demonstrating their induction in intact lungs in response to local application of FGF10 protein. We show that the initial stages of budding are characterized by marked up-regulation of genes associated with cell rearrangement and cell migration, inflammatory process, and lipid metabolism but not cell proliferation. We also found that some genes implicated in tumor invasion and metastatic behavior are epithelial targets of Fgf10 in the lung and other developing organs that depend on Fgf10-Fgfr2 signaling to properly form. Our approach identifies Fgf10 targets that are common to multiple biological processes and provides insights into potential mechanisms by which Fgf signaling regulates epithelial cell behavior.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: (P01) HL47049

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;6;4834-41

  • Mouse brain organization revealed through direct genome-scale TF expression analysis.

    Gray PA, Fu H, Luo P, Zhao Q, Yu J, Ferrari A, Tenzen T, Yuk DI, Tsung EF, Cai Z, Alberta JA, Cheng LP, Liu Y, Stenman JM, Valerius MT, Billings N, Kim HA, Greenberg ME, McMahon AP, Rowitch DH, Stiles CD and Ma Q

    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    In the developing brain, transcription factors (TFs) direct the formation of a diverse array of neurons and glia. We identifed 1445 putative TFs in the mouse genome. We used in situ hybridization to map the expression of over 1000 of these TFs and TF-coregulator genes in the brains of developing mice. We found that 349 of these genes showed restricted expression patterns that were adequate to describe the anatomical organization of the brain. We provide a comprehensive inventory of murine TFs and their expression patterns in a searchable brain atlas database.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004;306;5705;2255-7

  • Systematic analysis and nomenclature of mammalian F-box proteins.

    Jin J, Cardozo T, Lovering RC, Elledge SJ, Pagano M and Harper JW

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA76584, R01 CA076584, R37 CA076584; NIA NIH HHS: AG11085, R01 AG011085; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM57587, R01 GM057587

    Genes & development 2004;18;21;2573-80

  • Construction of a multi-functional cDNA library specific for mouse pancreatic islets and its application to microarray.

    Nishimura M, Yokoi N, Miki T, Horikawa Y, Yoshioka H, Takeda J, Ohara O and Seino S

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

    We have constructed a high-quality and multi-applicable cDNA library specific for mouse pancreatic islets. This is the first pancreatic islet cDNA library created using a recombination-based method, which can readily be converted into other applications including yeast two-hybrid and mammalian expression libraries. Based on sequence data of the library, we constructed a sequence database specific for mouse pancreatic islets. Among the 8882 non-redundant clones, 5799 were classified into specific functional categories using a classification system designed by the Gene Ontology Consortium, 10% of which were "molecular function unknown" genes. We also developed cDNA microarray membranes with 8108 non-redundant clones. Analyses of expression profiles of three different cell lines and of MIN6 cells with or without overexpression of transcription factor NeuroD1 established the usefulness and applicability of our microarrays. The mouse pancreatic islet cDNA library, sequence database, set of clones, and microarrays developed in this study should be useful resources for studies of pancreatic islets and related diseases including diabetes mellitus.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2004;11;5;315-23

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: III. the complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Koseki H, Hiraoka S, Saga Y, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have conducted a human cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences (CDSs) in large cDNAs (> 4 kb) since 1994, and the number of newly identified genes, known as KIAA genes, already exceeds 2000. The ultimate goal of this project is to clarify the physiological functions of the proteins encoded by KIAA genes. To this end, the project has recently been expanded to include isolation and characterization of mouse KIAA-counterpart genes. We herein present the entire sequences and the chromosome loci of 500 mKIAA cDNA clones and 13 novel cDNA clones that were incidentally identified during this project. The average size of the 513 cDNA sequences reached 4.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 816 amino acid residues. By comparison of the predicted CDSs between mouse and human KIAAs, 12 mKIAA cDNA clones were assumed to be differently spliced isoforms of the human cDNA clones. The comparison of mouse and human sequences also revealed that four pairs of human KIAA cDNAs are derived from single genes. Notably, a homology search against the public database indicated that 4 out of 13 novel cDNA clones were homologous to the disease-related genes.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;4;167-80

  • An engineered 800 kilobase deletion of Uchl3 and Lmo7 on mouse chromosome 14 causes defects in viability, postnatal growth and degeneration of muscle and retina.

    Semenova E, Wang X, Jablonski MM, Levorse J and Tilghman SM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

    The Acrg minimal region is a 1.5-1.7 Mb domain defined by genetic complementation among deletions generated around Ednrb on chromosome 14 in mice. Mice homozygous for one of the deletions, Ednrb(s-1Acrg), exhibit embryonic lethality with defects associated with mesoderm development. We predicted that the region contains a single cluster of four genes that encode a TBC domain-containing protein (KIAA0603), a novel protein AK000009, the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) and an F-box/PDZ/LIM domain protein LMO7. A targeted internal deletion of Uchl3 (Uchl3(Delta3-7)) produced viable mice, eliminating this gene as a candidate for the embryonic lethality. To dissect the Acrg minimal region further, we utilized Cre-loxP-mediated chromosome engineering to generate a targeted 800 kb deletion (Lmo7(Delta800)) that removes the distal portion of the region. The deletion includes Uchl3, Lmo7 and an additional 500 kb downstream of the 3' end of Lmo7 where no genes are thought to reside. We found that approximately 40% of mice homozygous for this deletion die between birth and weaning, and are severely runted. The remaining homozygotes are viable, thus ruling out Lmo7 as a single gene candidate for the Ednrb(s-1Acrg) embryonic lethality. Both Uchl3(Delta3-7) and Lmo7(Delta800) mutants displayed retinal degeneration, muscular degeneration and growth retardation, but the severity of the muscular degeneration and growth retardation were enhanced in Lmo7(Delta800) homozygotes. We suggest that the increase in severity may reflect an interaction between Uchl3 and Lmo7 in the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;11;1301-12

  • Candidate genes required for embryonic development: a comparative analysis of distal mouse chromosome 14 and human chromosome 13q22.

    Kurihara LJ, Semenova E, Miller W, Ingram RS, Guan XJ and Tilghman SM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.

    Mice homozygous for the Ednrb(s-1Acrg) deletion arrest at embryonic day 8.5 from defects associated with mesoderm development. To determine the molecular basis of this phenotype, we initiated a positional cloning of the Acrg minimal region. This region was predicted to be gene-poor by several criteria. From comparative analysis with the syntenic human locus at 13q22 and gene prediction program analysis, we found a single cluster of four genes within the 1.4-to 2-Mb contig over the Acrg minimal region that is flanked by a gene desert. We also found 130 highly conserved nonexonic sequences that were distributed over the gene cluster and desert. The four genes encode the TBC (Tre-2, BUB2, CDC16) domain-containing protein KIAA0603, the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3), the F-box/PDZ/LIM domain protein LMO7,and a novel gene. On the basis of their expression profile during development, all four genes are candidates for the Ednrb(s-1Acrg) embryonic lethality. Because we determined that a mutant of Uchl3 was viable, three candidate genes remain within the region.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG02238

    Genomics 2002;79;2;154-61

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Large-scale cDNA analysis reveals phased gene expression patterns during preimplantation mouse development.

    Ko MS, Kitchen JR, Wang X, Threat TA, Wang X, Hasegawa A, Sun T, Grahovac MJ, Kargul GJ, Lim MK, Cui Y, Sano Y, Tanaka T, Liang Y, Mason S, Paonessa PD, Sauls AD, DePalma GE, Sharara R, Rowe LB, Eppig J, Morrell C and Doi H

    ERATO Doi Bioasymmetry Project, JST, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. kom@grc.nia.nih.gov

    Little is known about gene action in the preimplantation events that initiate mammalian development. Based on cDNA collections made from each stage from egg to blastocyst, 25438 3'-ESTs were derived, and represent 9718 genes, half of them novel. Thus, a considerable fraction of mammalian genes is dedicated to embryonic expression. This study reveals profound changes in gene expression that include the transient induction of transcripts at each stage. These results raise the possibility that development is driven by the action of a series of stage-specific expressed genes. The new genes, 798 of them placed on the mouse genetic map, provide entry points for analyses of human and mouse developmental disorders.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01HD32243

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2000;127;8;1737-49

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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