G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Eif4a2 (MGI)
Mus musculus
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2
G00002205 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000022884 (Ensembl mouse gene)
13682 (Entrez Gene)
900 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_013506 (Allen Brain Atlas)
13682 (Genepaint)
601102 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:106906 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P10630 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • BM-010
  • Ddx2b
  • Eif4

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Tagging genes with cassette-exchange sites.

    Cobellis G, Nicolaus G, Iovino M, Romito A, Marra E, Barbarisi M, Sardiello M, Di Giorgio FP, Iovino N, Zollo M, Ballabio A and Cortese R

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    In an effort to make transgenesis more flexible and reproducible, we developed a system based on novel 5' and 3' 'gene trap' vectors containing heterospecific Flp recognition target sites and the corresponding 'exchange' vectors allowing the insertion of any DNA sequence of interest into the trapped locus. Flp-recombinase-mediated cassette exchange was demonstrated to be highly efficient in our system, even in the absence of locus-specific selection. The feasibility of constructing a library of ES cell clones using our gene trap vectors was tested and a thousand insertion sites were characterized, following electroporation in ES cells, by RACE-PCR and sequencing. We validated the system in vivo for two trapped loci in transgenic mice and demonstrated that the reporter transgenes inserted into the trapped loci have an expression pattern identical to the endogenous genes. We believe that this system will facilitate in vivo studies of gene function and large-scale generation of mouse models of human diseases, caused by not only loss but also gain of function alleles.

    Funded by: Telethon: TGM03S01, TGM06S01

    Nucleic acids research 2005;33;4;e44

  • Neural progenitor genes. Germinal zone expression and analysis of genetic overlap in stem cell populations.

    Easterday MC, Dougherty JD, Jackson RL, Ou J, Nakano I, Paucar AA, Roobini B, Dianati M, Irvin DK, Weissman IL, Terskikh AV, Geschwind DH and Kornblum HI

    Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience, UCLA, School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    The identification of the genes regulating neural progenitor cell (NPC) functions is of great importance to developmental neuroscience and neural repair. Previously, we combined genetic subtraction and microarray analysis to identify genes enriched in neural progenitor cultures. Here, we apply a strategy to further stratify the neural progenitor genes. In situ hybridization demonstrates expression in the central nervous system germinal zones of 54 clones so identified, making them highly relevant for study in brain and neural progenitor development. Using microarray analysis we find 73 genes enriched in three neural stem cell (NSC)-containing populations generated under different conditions. We use the custom microarray to identify 38 "stemness" genes, with enriched expression in the three NSC conditions and present in both embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells. However, comparison of expression profiles from these stem cell populations indicates that while there is shared gene expression, the amount of genetic overlap is no more than what would be expected by chance, indicating that different stem cells have largely different gene expression patterns. Taken together, these studies identify many genes not previously associated with neural progenitor cell biology and also provide a rational scheme for stratification of microarray data for functional analysis.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH065756, MH60233

    Developmental biology 2003;264;2;309-22

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells.

    Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Rüther U and Nordheim A

    Institut für Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are morphogenetic signaling molecules essential for embryonic patterning. To obtain molecular insight into the influence of BMPs on morphogenesis, we searched for new genes directly activated by BMP signaling. In vitro cultured mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used, cultivated in chemically defined growth medium (CDM). CDM-cultured ES cells responded very selectively to stimulation by various mesoderm inducers (BMP2/4, activin A, and basic fibroblast growth factor). BMP2/4 rapidly induced transcript levels of the homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 and the proto-oncogene JunB, whereas c-jun transcripts displayed delayed albeit prolonged increase. Using differential display cDNA cloning, six direct BMP target genes were identified. These include Id3, which showed strong mRNA induction, and the moderately induced Cyr61, DEK, and eIF4AII genes, as well as a gene encoding a GC-binding protein. Besides Id3, also the Id1 and Id2 genes were activated by BMP4 in both ES cells and a range of different cell lines. Id genes encode negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In vivo we observed local ectopic expression of Id3 and Msx-2 mRNAs in Ft/+ embryos at overlapping regions of ectopic Bmp4 misexpression. We therefore propose that the Msx and Id genes are direct target genes of embryonic BMP4 signaling in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;28;19838-45

  • Transient expression of a translation initiation factor is conservatively associated with embryonic gene activation in murine and bovine embryos.

    De Sousa PA, Watson AJ and Schultz RM

    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London,Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1.

    In the present study the abundance of mRNAs for eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF-1A (formerly known as eIF-4C), -2alpha, -4A, -4E, and -5 was examined in in vivo-derived mouse embryos throughout preimplantation development using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Although the mRNA profile for each gene is unique, only mRNA for eIF-1A transiently increases during embryonic gene activation (EGA) at the 2-cell stage, and this was confirmed by an independent hybridization-based assay. In in vitro-developed bovine embryos, mRNA for eIF-1A was transiently detected at the 8-cell stage, when the major activation of the genome occurs in this species. As in the mouse, detection in 8-cell bovine embryos was sensitive to the transcriptional inhibitor alpha-amanitin. It was also observed at the same time relative to cleavage in embryos cultured in defined medium under a reduced oxygen environment, and in medium supplemented with serum and somatic cells in 5% CO2 in air. Neither the chronology of early cleavage divisions nor the yield of bovine blastocysts differed in these culture media. Our results suggest that transient expression of eIF-1A in the mouse and cow is a conserved pattern of gene expression associated with EGA in mammals.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 22681

    Biology of reproduction 1998;59;4;969-77

  • High-resolution recombinational map of mouse chromosome 16.

    Reeves RH, Rue EE, Citron MP and Cabin DE

    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. rreeves@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu

    Five intersubspecific backcrosses and an intercross were used to establish a sex-averaged recombinational map spanning 56 cM across most of mouse Chromosome 16 (Chr 16). A total of 123 markers were ordered using an interval mapping approach to identify 425 recombination sites in a collection of 1154 meioses from 1155 progeny generated in the six crosses. The markers include the 10 "classic" Chr 16 reference markers, 26 additional genes or transcripts including two phenotypic markers (Pit1dw and Kcnj6wv), and 87 simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs). One set of monozygotic twins was detected among the 304 meioses mapped to highest resolution. The reference markers and SSLPs allow the map to be well integrated with existing maps of Chr 16. The average distance between crossover sites is less than 500 kb for most chromosomes, making this collection of recombinant chromosomes useful as a binning and ordering resource for YAC-based physical map assembly on Chr 16.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00405

    Genomics 1997;43;2;202-8

  • Intracellular localization and unique conserved sequences of three small nucleolar RNAs.

    Selvamurugan N, Joost OH, Haas ES, Brown JW, Galvin NJ and Eliceiri GL

    Department of Pathology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63104-1028, USA.

    Three human small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), E1, E2 and E3, were reported earlier that have unique sequences, interact directly with unique segments of pre-rRNA in vivo and are encoded in introns of protein genes. In the present report, human and frog E1, E2 and E3 RNAs injected into the cytoplasm of frog oocytes migrated to the nucleus and specifically to the nucleolus. This indicates that the nucleolar and nuclear localization signals of these snoRNAs reside within their evolutionarily conserved segments. Homologs of these snoRNAs from several vertebrates were sequenced and this information was used to develop RNA secondary structure models. These snoRNAs have unique phylogenetically conserved sequences.

    Nucleic acids research 1997;25;8;1591-6

  • Differential expression of the murine eukaryotic translation initiation factor isogenes eIF4A(I) and eIF4A(II) is dependent upon cellular growth status.

    Williams-Hill DM, Duncan RF, Nielsen PJ and Tahara SM

    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, USC School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

    The murine translation initiation factor eIF4A is encoded by two genes: eIF4A(I), expressed in all mouse tissues, and eIF4A(II), a gene preferentially expressed in organs with low proliferative capacity. To investigate the hypothesis that regulation of the eIF4A isogenes is dependent upon cellular growth status, steady state expression of eIF4A(I) and eIF4A(II) mRNAs was quantitated in asynchronous cell populations and in cultures synchronized by nutrient starvation. Our data showed that changes in cell growth state were responsible for striking differences in eIF4A isogene-specific regulation. eIF4A(I) mRNA was 10-fold more abundant than eIF4A(II) in growing cells. In growth arrested cells eIF4A(I) mRNA levels remained unchanged, whereas eIF4A(II) mRNA levels increased approximately 3-fold. Following serum stimulation of growth arrested cells, eIF4A(I) mRNA levels increased 3- to 10-fold; conversely, eIF4A(II) mRNA levels decreased 2- to 3-fold. Thus, eIF4A(I) mRNA is synthesized and translated most efficiently in growing cells while eIF4A(II) mRNA synthesis and translation is associated preferentially with the growth-arrested (quiescent) state. This difference in expression patterns likely enables the cell to maintain required levels of this factor throughout its life cycle.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38512; NINDS NIH HHS: NS26991

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1997;338;1;111-20

  • The RNA world of the nucleolus: two major families of small RNAs defined by different box elements with related functions.

    Balakin AG, Smith L and Fournier MJ

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA.

    We have discovered that all known yeast and vertebrate small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), except for the MRP/7-2 RNA, fall into two major classes. One class is defined by conserved boxes C and D and the other by a novel element: a consensus ACA triplet positioned 3 nt before the 3' end of the RNA. A role for the ACA box is snoRNA stability has been established by mutational analysis of a yeast ACA snoRNA (snR 11). Full function of the box depends on the integrity of an adjacent upstream stem. All members of the yeast ACA family are associated with the GAR1 protein. Binding of this or another common small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particle protein is predicted to be a critical entry point to snoRNA posttranscriptional life, including precise formation of the snoRNA 3' end.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM19531

    Cell 1996;86;5;823-34

  • Isolation and mapping of the human EIF4A2 gene homologous to the murine protein synthesis initiation factor 4A-II gene Eif4a2.

    Sudo K, Takahashi E and Nakamura Y

    Department of Biochemistry, Cancer Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

    We report isolation of human cDNA highly homologous to murine Eif4a2, a gene for one of the protein-synthesis initiation factors involved in the binding of mRNA to the ribosome. This cDNA, which encodes a 407-amino-acid protein, belongs to a highly-conserved gene family, the DEAD-box gene family. The human homologue of Eif4a2 was expressed in all normal tissues examined, but in variable amounts, being highly expressed in skeletal muscle and ovary, and less abundantly in liver, kidney, and pancreas. Furthermore, we have localized the human EIF4A2 to chromosome 18p11.2 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1995;71;4;385-8

  • The functional genes for protein synthesis initiation factor 4AI and 4AII map to mouse chromosomes 11 and 16.

    Nielsen PJ, Rochelle JM and Seldin MF

    Max Planck Institut für Immunobiologie, Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00101

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;3;185-6

  • The mouse protein synthesis initiation factor 4A gene family includes two related functional genes which are differentially expressed.

    Nielsen PJ and Trachsel H

    Max-Planck-Institut für Immunbiologie, Freiburg, FRG.

    We have cloned and characterized a family of mouse genomic sequences hybridizing to mouse cDNA probes coding for eIF-4A, one of the protein synthesis initiation factors involved in the binding of mRNA to the ribosome. We estimate that there is a total of approximately 9-13 eIF-4A pseudogenes. We also found an eIF-4A intronless retroposon which, when compared to the cDNA, contains a single nucleotide difference. This possibly functional gene contains a mouse repetitive B1 element integrated in the promoter region. Furthermore, we have cloned two intron-containing eIF-4A genes (termed eIF-4AI and eIF-4AII). The eIF-4AII gene codes for a previously unknown form of eIF-4A. Northern blot hybridization with RNA from several mouse organs shows a variation in eIF-4AI expression within a factor of 7. In contrast, relative to liver, eIF-4AII expression is 20- to 30-times higher in brain and kidney, 10- to 17-fold higher in lung and heart, and is about equally abundant in liver, spleen and thymus. These data suggest that the relative efficiency of protein synthesis initiation for different mRNAs, as reflected by discrimination in messenger 5'-terminal cap recognition and binding to ribosomes, varies in different tissues.

    The EMBO journal 1988;7;7;2097-105

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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