G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Arhgef7 (MGI)
Mus musculus
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF7)
G00002143 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (11)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000021108 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000031511 (Ensembl mouse gene)
54126 (Entrez Gene)
560 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:1860493 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00357 (BGEM)
54126 (Genepaint)
arhgef7 (gensat)
605477 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1860493 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9ES28 (UniProt)

Synonyms (8)

  • Cool
  • PIX
  • Pak interacting exchange factor
  • betaPix
  • betaPix-b
  • betaPix-c
  • cool-1
  • p85SPR

Literature (33)

Pubmed - other

  • Phosphorylation of the cool-1/beta-Pix protein serves as a regulatory signal for the migration and invasive activity of Src-transformed cells.

    Feng Q, Baird D, Yoo S, Antonyak M and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    Previously we showed that Cool-1 (Cloned out of library-1)/beta-Pix (Pak-interactive exchange factor) is phosphorylated at a specific tyrosine residue (Tyr-442) in a Src-dependent manner and serves as a dual function guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)/signaling-effector for Cdc42 that is essential for transformation by Src. Here, we show that knocking-down Cool-1 or overexpressing a Cool-1 mutant that contains substitutions within its Dbl homology domain and is defective for GEF activity, inhibits Src-promoted cell migration. Similarly, the expression of a Cool-1 mutant containing a tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution at position 442, making it incapable of being phosphorylated in response to serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or Src, also causes a significant inhibition of the migration and invasive activity of cells expressing oncogenic Src. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation of Cool-1 at Tyr-442 weakens its ability to bind to one of its primary interaction-partners, Cat-1 (Cool-associated tyrosine phosphosubstrate-1)/Git-1 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor-1), thus making Cat more accessible for binding to paxillin. This enables cells to alternate between states where they contain large numbers of focal complexes (i.e. conditions favoring Cool-1-Cat interactions) versus reduced numbers of focal complexes (conditions favoring Cat-paxillin interactions). Overall, these findings show that the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of Cool-1 at Tyr-442 can serve as a key regulatory signal for focal complex assembly-disassembly, and consequently, for the migration and invasive activity of Src-transformed cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM047458, GM61762, R01 GM047458, R01 GM061762

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;24;18806-16

  • Stat3 promotes directional cell migration by regulating Rac1 activity via its activator betaPIX.

    Teng TS, Lin B, Manser E, Ng DC and Cao X

    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138673.

    Stat3 is a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, which is important for cytokine signaling as well as for a number of cellular processes including cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis and immune responses. In recent years, evidence has emerged suggesting that Stat3 also participates in cell invasion and motility. However, how Stat3 regulates these processes remains poorly understood. Here, we find that loss of Stat3 expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to an elevation of Rac1 activity, which promotes a random mode of migration by reducing directional persistence and formation of actin stress fibers. Through rescue experiments, we demonstrate that Stat3 can regulate the activation of Rac1 to mediate persistent directional migration and that this function is not dependent on Stat3 transcriptional activity. We find that Stat3 binds to betaPIX, a Rac1 activator, and that this interaction could represent a mechanism by which cytoplasmic Stat3 regulates Rac1 activity to modulate the organization of actin cytoskeleton and directional migration.

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 22;4150-9

  • The insulin receptor substrate of 53 kDa (IRSp53) limits hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Sawallisch C, Berhörster K, Disanza A, Mantoani S, Kintscher M, Stoenica L, Dityatev A, Sieber S, Kindler S, Morellini F, Schweizer M, Boeckers TM, Korte M, Scita G and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between the activation of Rac and Cdc42 GTPases and the formation of cellular protrusions; it affects cell shape by coupling membrane-deforming activity with the actin cytoskeleton. IRSp53 is highly expressed in neurons where it is also an abundant component of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Here we analyze the physiological function of this protein in the mouse brain by generating IRSp53-deficient mice. Neurons in the hippocampus of young and adult knock-out (KO) mice do not exhibit morphological abnormalities in vivo. Conversely, primary cultured neurons derived from IRSp53 KO mice display retarded dendritic development in vitro. On a molecular level, Eps8 cooperates with IRSp53 to enhance actin bundling and interacts with IRSp53 in developing neurons. However, postsynaptic Shank proteins which are expressed at high levels in mature neurons compete with Eps8 to block actin bundling. In electrophysiological experiments the removal of IRSp53 increases synaptic plasticity as measured by augmented long term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation. A primarily postsynaptic role of IRSp53 is underscored by the decreased size of the PSDs, which display increased levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits in IRSp53 KO animals. Our data suggest that the incorporation of IRSp53 into the PSD enables the protein to limit the number of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby affect synaptic plasticity rather than dendritic morphology. Consistent with altered synaptic plasticity, IRSp53-deficient mice exhibit cognitive deficits in the contextual fear-conditioning paradigm.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;14;9225-36

  • Identification of phosphorylation sites in betaPIX and PAK1.

    Mayhew MW, Jeffery ED, Sherman NE, Nelson K, Polefrone JM, Pratt SJ, Shabanowitz J, Parsons JT, Fox JW, Hunt DF and Horwitz AF

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM37537, R01 GM037537, U54 GM064346

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 22;3911-8

  • Role of phospholipase Cgamma1 in cell spreading requires association with a beta-Pix/GIT1-containing complex, leading to activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Jones NP and Katan M

    Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, United Kingdom.

    The significance of multiprotein signaling complexes in cell motility is becoming increasingly important. We have previously shown that phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) is critical for integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility (N. Jones et al., J. Cell Sci. 118:2695-2706, 2005). In the current study we show that, on a basement membrane-type matrix, PLCgamma1 associates with the adaptor protein GIT1 and the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine exchange factor beta-Pix; GIT1 and beta-Pix form tight complexes independently of PLCgamma1. The association of PLCgamma1 with the complex requires both GIT1 and beta-Pix and the specific array region (gammaSA) of PLCgamma1. Mutations of PLCgamma1 within the gammaSA region reveal that association with this complex is essential for the phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 and the progression to an elongated morphology after integrin engagement. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of either beta-Pix or GIT1 inhibited cell spreading in a fashion similar to that seen with siRNA against PLCgamma1. Furthermore, siRNA depletion of PLCgamma1, beta-Pix, or GIT1 inhibited Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, while constitutively active forms of Cdc42 or Rac1, but not RhoA, were able to rescue the elongation of these cells. Signaling of the PLCgamma1/GIT1/beta-Pix complex to Cdc42/Rac1 was found to involve the activation of calpains, calcium-dependent proteases. Therefore, we propose that the association of PLCgamma1 with complexes containing GIT1 and beta-Pix is essential for its role in integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility. As a component of this complex, PLCgamma1 is also involved in the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;16;5790-805

  • Induction of vascular permeability: beta PIX and GIT1 scaffold the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by PAK.

    Stockton R, Reutershan J, Scott D, Sanders J, Ley K and Schwartz MA

    Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Increased permeability of blood vessels is an important component of inflammation, but in some circumstances it contributes to tissue injury and organ failure. Previous work showed that p21-activated kinase (PAK) is a critical regulator of endothelial cell-cell junctions through effects on myosin light chain phosphorylation and cell contractility. We now show that blocking PAK function inhibits fluid leak in a mouse model of acute lung injury. In cultured endothelial cells, induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation by PAK is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). Erk in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung is activated in a PAK-dependent manner in several cell types, most prominently vascular endothelium. Activation of Erk requires the integrity of the complex between PAK, PIX, and GIT1. Several means of disrupting this complex inhibit stimulation of vascular permeability in vitro. A cell-permeant peptide that blocks binding of PAK to PIX inhibits LPS-induced fluid leak in the mouse lung injury model. We conclude that the PAK-PIX-GIT1 complex is critical for Erk-dependent myosin phosphorylation and vascular permeability.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 5T32 HL7284-27, HL73361, HL75092, P01 HL073361, R01 HL075092, T32 HL007284

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;6;2346-55

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • FAK potentiates Rac1 activation and localization to matrix adhesion sites: a role for betaPIX.

    Chang F, Lemmon CA, Park D and Romer LH

    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

    FAK, a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase, is activated and localized to focal adhesions upon cell attachment to extracellular matrix. FAK null cells spread poorly and exhibit altered focal adhesion turnover. Rac1 is a member of the Rho-family GTPases that promotes membrane ruffling, leading edge extension, and cell spreading. We investigated the activation and subcellular location of Rac1 in FAK null and FAK reexpressing fibroblasts. FAK reexpressers had a more robust pattern of Rac1 activation after cell adhesion to fibronectin than the FAK null cells. Translocation of Rac1 to focal adhesions was observed in FAK reexpressers, but seldom in FAK null cells. Experiments with constitutively active L61Rac1 and dominant negative N17Rac1 indicated that the activation state of Rac1 regulated its localization to focal adhesions. We demonstrated that FAK tyrosine-phosphorylated betaPIX and thereby increased its binding to Rac1. In addition, betaPIX facilitated the targeting of activated Rac1 to focal adhesions and the efficiency of cell spreading. These data indicate that FAK has a role in the activation and focal adhesion translocation of Rac1 through the tyrosine phosphorylation of betaPIX.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: F06 TW002341, F06TW02341; NIAID NIH HHS: AI061042, R21 AI061042; NIDCR NIH HHS: P60 DE013079, P60DE13079

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;1;253-64

  • A new interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX involved in PDGF-activated actin cytoskeleton reorganisation.

    Campa F, Machuy N, Klein A and Rudel T

    Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany.

    Members of the Rho family of GTPases are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. In particular, activated Rac1 stimulates membrane dorsal ruffle formation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Abl-interactor (Abi)-1 and betaPIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, localise at these Rac1-induced actin structures and play important roles in the induction of membrane dorsal ruffling in response to PDGF in fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate a novel interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX using the yeast two-hybrid system, in vitro pull-down assays, and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In vitro, the C-terminal fragment of betaPIX interacted with Abi-1, while in vivo the N-terminal fragment of betaPIX interacted with Abi-1. The biological function of this interaction was investigated in mouse fibroblasts in response to PDGF stimulation. Abi-1 and betaPIX co-localised in the cytoplasm and to membrane dorsal ruffles after PDGF treatment. We show that the co-expression of Abi-1 and truncated forms of betaPIX in mouse fibroblasts blocked PDGF-induced membrane dorsal ruffles. Together, these results show that the interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX is involved in the formation of growth factor-induced membrane dorsal ruffles.

    Cell research 2006;16;9;759-70

  • Cool-1 functions as an essential regulatory node for EGF receptor- and Src-mediated cell growth.

    Feng Q, Baird D, Peng X, Wang J, Ly T, Guan JL and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Cool-1 (cloned-out of library 1) has a key role in regulating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation. Here, we show that Cool-1 performs this function by functioning as both an upstream activator and downstream target for Cdc42. EGF-dependent phosphorylation of Cool-1 enables it to act as a nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 and to form a complex with the E3 ligase Cbl, thus regulating Cbl-catalysed EGFR degradation. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation is normally transient; however, Cool-1 phosphorylation is sustained in cells expressing v-Src and is essential for cellular transformation, as well as for v-Src-induced tumour formation in mice. These findings demonstrate that the regulated phosphorylation of Cool-1 is necessary to maintain the balance between normal signalling by EGFR and Src versus aberrant growth and transformation.

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;9;945-56

  • A locus for renal malformations including vesico-ureteric reflux on chromosome 13q33-34.

    Vats KR, Ishwad C, Singla I, Vats A, Ferrell R, Ellis D, Moritz M, Surti U, Jayakar P, Frederick DR and Vats AN

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

    Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), including vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR), are major causes of ESRD in childhood. Herein is reported evidence for a locus on 13q33q34 associated with CAKUT. Deletion mapping of chromosome 13q was performed in four children with CAKUT using 31 microsatellite markers on peripheral blood genomic DNA that was obtained from the patients and their parents. mRNA expression of the positional candidate genes was compared with sequences in electronic databases in silico and also studied in adult and fetal mouse kidneys using reverse transcription-PCR. The children (three girls; age range 5 to 17 yr) had varying severity of developmental delay and other organ system involvement. The spectrum of CAKUT included high-grade VUR (n = 2), renal dysplasia (n = 2), and hydronephrosis (n = 1). Both the children with VUR had evidence of renal failure with one of them developing ESRD. Deletion mapping identified a 7-Mb critical region flanked by markers D13S1311 and D13S285. There are 33 genes (12 known; 21 computer predicted) in this region. In silico expression studies showed matches for 14 of these genes in the kidneys and 10 in the bladder expressed sequenced tags databases. Mouse kidney studies showed that of the 24 genes examined, several had variable expression through the different stages of renal development, whereas five of the genes were not expressed at all. Herein is reported a new locus on chromosome 13q33q34 that can be associated with VUR with several genes showing mRNA expression patterns that suggest their potential for involvement in renal/urinary tract developmental anomalies.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 02854, DK 064933

    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2006;17;4;1158-67

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Crystal structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain of mouse betaPIX, p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factor.

    Li X, Liu X, Sun F, Gao J, Zhou H, Gao GF, Bartlam M and Rao Z

    Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    The mouse betaPIX-SH3 domain, residues 8-63 of P21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor, has been characterized by X-ray diffraction. Crystals belonging to space group P3(2)21 diffracted to 2.0 A and the structure was phased by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. The domain is a compact beta-barrel with an overall conformation similar to the general SH3 structure. The X-ray structure shows mouse betaPIX-SH3 domain binding the way in which the betaPIX characteristic amino acids do so for an unconventional ligand binding surface. This arrangement provides a rationale for the unusual ligand recognition motif exhibited by mouse betaPIX-SH3 domain. Comparison with another SH3/peptide complex shows that the recognition mode of the mouse betaPIX-SH3 domain should be very similar to the RXXK ligand binding mode. The unique large and planar hydrophobic pocket may contribute to the promiscuity of betaPIX-SH3 domain resulting in its multiple biological functions.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;339;1;407-14

  • p85 beta-PIX is required for cell motility through phosphorylations of focal adhesion kinase and p38 MAP kinase.

    Lee J, Jung ID, Chang WK, Park CG, Cho DY, Shin EY, Seo DW, Kim YK, Lee HW, Han JW and Lee HY

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Nonsan, 320-711, Republic of Korea.

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates diverse biological responses, including cell migration, through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Recently, we have shown that LPA stimulates p21-activated kinase (PAK) that is critical for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and cell motility. Here, we provide the direct evidence that p85 beta-PIX is required for cell motility of NIH-3T3 cells by LPA through FAK and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylations. LPA induced p85 beta-PIX binding to FAK in NIH-3T3 cells that was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, the similar inhibition of the complex formation was also observed, when the cells were transfected with either p85 beta-PIX mutant that cannot bind GIT or dominant negative mutants of Rac1 (N17Rac1) and PAK (PAK-PID). Transfection of the cells with specific p85 beta-PIX siRNA led to drastic inhibition of LPA-induced FAK phosphorylation, peripheral redistribution of p85 beta-PIX with FAK and GIT1, and cell motility. p85 beta-PIX was also required for p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation induced by LPA. Finally, dominant negative mutant of Rho (N19Rho)-transfected cells did not affect PAK activation, while the cells stably transfected with p85 beta-PIX siRNA or N17Rac1 showed the reduction of LPA-induced PAK activation. Taken together, the present data suggest that p85 beta-PIX, located downstream of Rac1, is a key regulator for the activations of FAK or p38 MAP kinase and plays a pivotal role in focal complex formation and cell motility induced by LPA.

    Experimental cell research 2005;307;2;315-28

  • A GIT1/PIX/Rac/PAK signaling module regulates spine morphogenesis and synapse formation through MLC.

    Zhang H, Webb DJ, Asmussen H, Niu S and Horwitz AF

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Three of seven recently identified genes mutated in nonsyndromic mental retardation are involved in Rho family signaling. Two of the gene products, alpha-p-21-activated kinase (PAK) interacting exchange factor (alphaPIX) and PAK3, form a complex with the synaptic adaptor protein G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1). Using an RNA interference approach, we show that GIT1 is critical for spine and synapse formation. We also show that Rac is locally activated in dendritic spines using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. This local activation of Rac is regulated by PIX, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor. PAK1 and PAK3 serve as downstream effectors of Rac in regulating spine and synapse formation. Active PAK promotes the formation of spines and dendritic protrusions, which correlates with an increase in the number of excitatory synapses. These effects are dependent on the kinase activity of PAK, and PAK functions through phosphorylating myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC). Activated MLC causes an increase in dendritic spine and synapse formation, whereas inhibiting myosin ATPase activity results in decreased spine and synapse formation. Finally, both activated PAK and activated MLC can rescue the defects of GIT1 knockdown, suggesting that PAK and MLC are downstream of GIT1 in regulating spine and synapse formation. Our results point to a signaling complex, consisting of GIT1, PIX, Rac, and PAK, that plays an essential role in the regulation of dendritic spine and synapse formation and provides a potential mechanism by which alphaPIX and PAK3 mutations affect cognitive functions in mental retardation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23244

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;13;3379-88

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • Proteomic analysis of in vivo phosphorylated synaptic proteins.

    Collins MO, Yu L, Coba MP, Husi H, Campuzano I, Blackstock WP, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    In the nervous system, protein phosphorylation is an essential feature of synaptic function. Although protein phosphorylation is known to be important for many synaptic processes and in disease, little is known about global phosphorylation of synaptic proteins. Heterogeneity and low abundance make protein phosphorylation analysis difficult, particularly for mammalian tissue samples. Using a new approach, combining both protein and peptide immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies, we have produced the first large scale map of the mouse synapse phosphoproteome. We report over 650 phosphorylation events corresponding to 331 sites (289 have been unambiguously assigned), 92% of which are novel. These represent 79 proteins, half of which are novel phosphoproteins, and include several highly phosphorylated proteins such as MAP1B (33 sites) and Bassoon (30 sites). An additional 149 candidate phosphoproteins were identified by profiling the composition of the protein immobilized metal affinity chromatography enrichment. All major synaptic protein classes were observed, including components of important pre- and postsynaptic complexes as well as low abundance signaling proteins. Bioinformatic and in vitro phosphorylation assays of peptide arrays suggest that a small number of kinases phosphorylate many proteins and that each substrate is phosphorylated by many kinases. These data substantially increase existing knowledge of synapse protein phosphorylation and support a model where the synapse phosphoproteome is functionally organized into a highly interconnected signaling network.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5972-82

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • betaPix-b(L), a novel isoform of betaPix, is generated by alternative translation.

    Rhee S, Yang SJ, Lee SJ and Park D

    School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.

    betaPix (Pak-interacting exchange factor) isoforms are recently identified guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases, Rac/Cdc42, that are key players in the regulation of actin dynamics. Here we show that a novel 105-kDa betaPix isoform, betaPix-bL, is generated by alternative translation of betaPix-b mRNA. Translation of betaPix-bL starts at an atypical initiation site, GTG, that is located 57 nucleotides downstream from the newly identified 5' end of betaPix-b cDNA. The expression of two isoforms, betaPix-b and betaPix-bL, from betaPix-b mRNA is controlled by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-driven mechanism. Comparing to betaPix-b, betaPix-bL contains additional 105 amino acids composed of a calponin homology (CH) domain and a serine-rich sequence in the N-terminus. The expression of betaPix-bL in rat brain is developmentally regulated and high in the embryonic stages, suggesting that the function of betaPix-bL is more heavily required during the early stages of brain development.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;318;2;415-21

  • Bioinformatics and cellular signaling.

    Papin J and Subramaniam S

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The understanding of cellular function requires an integrated analysis of context-specific, spatiotemporal data from diverse sources. Recent advances in describing the genomic and proteomic 'parts list' of the cell and deciphering the interrelationship of these parts are described, including genome-wide location analysis, standards for microarray data analysis, and two-hybrid and mass spectrometry approaches. This information is being collected and curated in databases such as the Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS) Molecule Pages, which will serve as vital tools for the reconstruction and analysis of cellular signaling networks.

    Current opinion in biotechnology 2004;15;1;78-81

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Merlin, the product of the Nf2 tumor suppressor gene, is an inhibitor of the p21-activated kinase, Pak1.

    Kissil JL, Wilker EW, Johnson KC, Eckman MS, Yaffe MB and Jacks T

    Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    The Nf2 tumor suppressor gene codes for merlin, a protein whose function has been elusive. We describe a novel interaction between merlin and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which is dynamic and facilitated upon increased cellular confluence. Merlin inhibits the activation of Pak1, as the loss of merlin expression results in the inappropriate activation of Pak1 under conditions associated with low basal activity. Conversely, the overexpression of merlin in cells that display a high basal activity of Pak1 resulted in the inhibition of Pak1 activation. This inhibitory function of merlin is mediated through its binding to the Pak1 PBD and by inhibiting Pak1 recruitment to focal adhesions. This link provides a possible mechanism for the effect of loss of merlin expression in tumorigenesis.

    Molecular cell 2003;12;4;841-9

  • Activated Cdc42 sequesters c-Cbl and prevents EGF receptor degradation.

    Wu WJ, Tu S and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Cdc42 is a Ras-related protein that has been implicated in the control of normal cell growth, and when improperly regulated, in cellular transformation and invasiveness. A variety of extracellular stimuli, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), activate Cdc42. Here, we show that activation of Cdc42 protects the EGF receptor from the negative regulatory activity of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase. Activated Cdc42 binds to p85Cool-1 (for cloned-out-of-library)/beta-Pix (for Pak-interactive exchange factor), a protein that directly associates with c-Cbl. This inhibits the binding of Cbl by the EGF receptor and thus prevents Cbl from catalyzing receptor ubiquitination. The role played by Cdc42 in regulating the timing of EGF receptor-Cbl interactions is underscored by the fact that constitutively active Cdc42(F28L), by persistently blocking the binding of Cbl to these receptors, leads to their aberrant accumulation and sustained EGF-stimulated ERK activation, thus resulting in cellular transformation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    Cell 2003;114;6;715-25

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: III. the complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Koseki H, Hiraoka S, Saga Y, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have conducted a human cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences (CDSs) in large cDNAs (> 4 kb) since 1994, and the number of newly identified genes, known as KIAA genes, already exceeds 2000. The ultimate goal of this project is to clarify the physiological functions of the proteins encoded by KIAA genes. To this end, the project has recently been expanded to include isolation and characterization of mouse KIAA-counterpart genes. We herein present the entire sequences and the chromosome loci of 500 mKIAA cDNA clones and 13 novel cDNA clones that were incidentally identified during this project. The average size of the 513 cDNA sequences reached 4.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 816 amino acid residues. By comparison of the predicted CDSs between mouse and human KIAAs, 12 mKIAA cDNA clones were assumed to be differently spliced isoforms of the human cDNA clones. The comparison of mouse and human sequences also revealed that four pairs of human KIAA cDNAs are derived from single genes. Notably, a homology search against the public database indicated that 4 out of 13 novel cDNA clones were homologous to the disease-related genes.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;4;167-80

  • Dynamic and coordinated expression profile of dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors in the developing mouse brain.

    Yoshizawa M, Sone M, Matsuo N, Nagase T, Ohara O, Nabeshima Y and Hoshino M

    Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, 606-8501 Kyoto, Japan.

    Dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Dbl-GEFs) act as activators of Rho-like small G proteins such as Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA. Recently, some GEFs have been suggested to play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Here, we report a comprehensive expression profile analysis of 20 Dbl-GEFs that have yet to be well investigated. Northern analyses of murine mRNAs from brains of E13, E17, P7 and adult mice revealed expression of 18 out of 20 GEFs in some or all stages. In addition, we found that three human GEFs were highly expressed in the brain. Examination of the spatial expression patterns of five GEFs in embryos or neonatal brain by in situ hybridization revealed distinct patterns for each GEF. Our study reveals the dynamic and coordinated expression profiles of the Dbl-GEFs and provides a basic framework for understanding the function of GEFs in neural development.

    Gene expression patterns : GEP 2003;3;3;375-81

  • The Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins interacts with and promotes synaptic accumulation of the beta PIX guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42.

    Park E, Na M, Choi J, Kim S, Lee JR, Yoon J, Park D, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The Shank/ProSAP family of multidomain proteins is known to play an important role in organizing synaptic multiprotein complexes. Here we report a novel interaction between Shank and beta PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rac1 and Cdc42 small GTPases. This interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of Shank and the C-terminal leucine zipper domain and the PDZ domain-binding motif at the extreme C terminus of beta PIX. Shank colocalizes with beta PIX at excitatory synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Shank forms a complex with beta PIX and beta PIX-associated signaling molecules including p21-associated kinase (PAK), an effector kinase of Rac1/Cdc42. Importantly, overexpression of Shank in cultured neurons promotes synaptic accumulation of beta PIX and PAK. Considering the involvement of Rac1 and PAK in spine dynamics, these results suggest that Shank recruits beta PIX and PAK to spines for the regulation of postsynaptic structure.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;21;19220-9

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Hic-5 interacts with GIT1 with a different binding mode from paxillin.

    Nishiya N, Shirai T, Suzuki W and Nose K

    Department of Microbiology, Showa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hatanodai Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

    Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family of adaptor molecules, is localized at focal adhesion and implicated in integrin-mediated signaling. Hic-5 and paxillin exhibit structural homology and share interacting factors, however, diverse functions are suggested for them. In this study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid screening to identify Hic-5 interacting factors using its LD3-4 region, which includes the Hic-5-specific amino acid sequence, as a bait. Through the screening, we identified GIT1, an Arf GTPase-activating protein, as a Hic-5 binding protein. The interaction of these two proteins was mediated by the LD3 motif of Hic-5 and the C-terminal region, which includes a paxillin-binding subdomain, of GIT1. Although GIT1 is known as a paxillin-binding protein, we only observed weak association of paxillin with GIT1 in the overexpression system. In contrast, Hic-5 firmly bound to GIT1 under the same conditions. In addition, the paxillin/GIT1 complex contained PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, whereas the Hic-5/GIT1 complex contained a smaller amount of PIX. These results suggested that paxillin and Hic-5 associate with GIT1 with different binding modes, and that the Hic-5 complex possesses static features compared with the paxillin complex, which contains both positive and negative regulators of GTPases involved in actin dynamics. Moreover, Hic-5-mediated inhibition of cell spreading was restored by co-expression of the C-terminal fragment of GIT1, which perturbs the interaction of Hic-5 with endogenous GIT1. Thus, it was demonstrated that Hic-5 and GIT1 interact functionally in addition to showing a physical association.

    Journal of biochemistry 2002;132;2;279-89

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mouse betaPix isoform.

    Kim T and Park D

    School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea.

    BetaPix, a Pak-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor is known to be involved in the regulation of Cdc42/Rac GTPases and Pak kinase activity. Currently, three 1Pix isoforms, betaPix-a, -b, and -c have been reported. In this study, the cDNA of a novel Pix splice variant was isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library. The cloned betaPix isoform, named betaPix-d, lacks leucine zipper domain that is present in other Pix isoforms, and has a 11 amino acid addition at carboxyl terminus and distinct 3'-UTR Analysis of the tissue distribution of betaPix-d using RT-PCR revealed that its message was present mainly in brain and testis but in lower levels in heart, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle and kidney. In situ hybridization studies with the 13Pix-d specific probes in the rat embryo show that betaPix-d isoform is expressed mainly in the central nervous system. Moreover, temporal expression pattern of the isoform is correlated with the active neurogenesis period in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum during rat brain development. These findings suggest that betaPix-d isoform may be developmentally regulated.

    Molecules and cells 2001;11;1;89-94

  • Molecular cloning of neuronally expressed mouse betaPix isoforms.

    Kim S, Kim T, Lee D, Park SH, Kim H and Park D

    School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.

    Pix, a Pak-interacting exchange factor, is known to be involved in the regulation of Cdc42/Rac GTPases and Pak kinase activity. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding two betaPix isoforms from mouse brain cDNA library. Both of the cloned genes, designated betaPix-b and betaPix-c (GenBank Accession Nos. AF247654 and AF247655, respectively), have a novel insert region consisting of 59 amino acid residues. In betaPix-c, 75 amino acid residues are deleted in the proline-rich region at the carboxyl-terminus of betaPix. In situ hybridization studies with insert region-specific probe in rat embryo show that insert region-containing isoforms are expressed mainly in the central nervous system. Moreover, temporal expression pattern of isoforms is correlated with the active neurogenesis period in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. These results strongly suggest that betaPix isoforms may play important roles in the cellular events required for brain development such as neuronal migration.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;272;3;721-5

  • A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that binds to an important regulatory region on the cool family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins.

    Bagrodia S, Bailey D, Lenard Z, Hart M, Guan JL, Premont RT, Taylor SJ and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-6401, USA.

    The p21-activated kinases (Pak) are major targets of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. We, and others, recently identified a family of proteins termed Cool/Pix, which interact with Pak3. In cells, p50(Cool-1) suppresses Pak activation by upstream activators; p85(Cool-1) has a permissive effect on Pak activation, and we now show that the closely related Cool-2 stimulates Pak kinase activity. To understand the differential regulation of Pak by Cool proteins, we screened for Cool-interacting proteins by affinity purification and microsequencing. This has led to the identification of two closely related proteins called Cat (Cool-associated, tyrosine phosphorylated), which contain a zinc finger followed by three ankyrin repeats. Cat-1 is identical to the recently identified binding partner for the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK or GRK-2), which was shown to have Arf-GAP activity. Cat-1 and Cat-2 both bind to the COOH-terminal region of p85(Cool-1) and p85(Cool-2) but do not bind to p50(Cool-1). Cat-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated in growing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and its tyrosine phosphorylation is increased following cell spreading on fibronectin, decreased in cells arrested in mitosis, and increased in the ensuing G(1) phase. Cat proteins are tyrosine-phosphorylated when co-expressed in cells with the focal adhesion kinase Fak and Src. These findings suggest that in addition to playing a role in Cool/Pak interactions, Cat proteins may serve as points of convergence between G protein-coupled receptors, integrins, Arf GTPases, cell cycle regulators, and Cdc42/Rac/Pak signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;32;22393-400

  • A novel regulator of p21-activated kinases.

    Bagrodia S, Taylor SJ, Jordon KA, Van Aelst L and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-6401, USA.

    Proteins of the p21-activated kinase (Pak) family have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal architecture, and apoptosis. Although the ability of Cdc42 and Rac GTPases to activate Pak is well established, relatively little else is known about Pak regulation or the identity of Pak cellular targets. Here we report the identification of two closely related Pak3-binding proteins, possibly arising from alternative splicing, designated p50 and p85(Cool-1) (cloned out of library). Both isoforms of Cool contain a Src homology 3 domain that directly mediates interaction with Pak3 and tandem Dbl homology and pleckstrin homology domains. Despite the presence of the Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology motif, a characteristic of Rho family activators, activation of Cdc42 or Rac by Cool is not detectable. Instead binding of p50(Cool-1), but not p85(Cool-1), to Pak3 represses its activation by upstream activators such as the Dbl oncoprotein, indicating a novel mechanism of regulation of Pak signaling.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;37;23633-6

  • Cloning of a SH3 domain-containing proline-rich protein, p85SPR, and its localization in focal adhesion.

    Oh WK, Yoo JC, Jo D, Song YH, Kim MG and Park D

    Department of Life Science, Kwang-Ju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea.

    A mouse thymus cDNA expression library was screened with monoclonal antibody (mAb), B16-5 which binds to common epitope in SH3 domains of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1) and Nck. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of one of several positive clones. The 4,172 bp cDNA clone (GenBank Accession No. U96634) encodes a SH3 domain-containing protein of 646 amino acids. Besides the SH3 domain, the predicted protein has a proline-rich region, nuclear localization signals, and leucine zipper motifs. The expressed protein in Sf9 insect cell exhibits a polypeptide of 85 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein is widely distributed in rat tissue with an especially high level of expression in brain and testis. Interestingly, the specific antibodies detected four related proteins of different size (75, 85, 90 and 105 kDa) in brain. In A431 cell, p85SPR is enriched at focal adhesion points indicating that the protein may interact with protein(s) in focal complexes.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;235;3;794-8

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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