G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000759
Gene symbol
Dynll1 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
dynein light chain LC8-type 1
Orthologue
G00002008 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000014648 (Vega mouse gene)
Gene
ENSMUSG00000009013 (Ensembl mouse gene)
56455 (Entrez Gene)
1179 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_019682 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g01144 (BGEM)
dynll1 (gensat)
Literature
601562 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1861457 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P63168 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • 8kDa LC
  • DLC8
  • Dnclc1
  • Pin

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Dynein light chain LC8 regulates syntaphilin-mediated mitochondrial docking in axons.

    Chen YM, Gerwin C and Sheng ZH

    Synaptic Function Section, The Porter Neuroscience Research Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3706, USA.

    Mitochondria in the cell bodies of neurons are transported down neuronal processes in response to changes in local energy and metabolic states. Because of their extreme polarity, neurons require specialized mechanisms to regulate mitochondrial transport and retention in axons. Our previous studies using syntaphilin (snph) knock-out mice provided evidence that SNPH targets to axonal mitochondria and controls their mobility through its static interaction with microtubules (MTs). However, the mechanisms regulating SNPH-mediated mitochondrial docking remain elusive. Here, we report an unexpected role for dynein light chain LC8. Using proteomic biochemical and cell biological assays combined with time-lapse imaging in live snph wild-type and mutant neurons, we reveal that LC8 regulates axonal mitochondrial mobility by binding to SNPH, thus enhancing the SNPH-MT docking interaction. Using mutagenesis assays, we mapped a seven-residue LC8-binding motif. Through this specific interaction, SNPH recruits LC8 to axonal mitochondria; such colocalization is abolished when neurons express SNPH mutants lacking the LC8-binding motif. Transient LC8 expression reduces mitochondrial mobility in snph (+/+) but not (-/-) neurons, suggesting that the observed effect of LC8 depends on the SNPH-mediated docking mechanism. In contrast, deleting the LC8-binding motif impairs the ability of SNPH to immobilize axonal mitochondria. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectrum analysis shows that LC8 stabilizes an alpha-helical coiled-coil within the MT-binding domain of SNPH against thermal unfolding. Thus, our study provides new mechanistic insights into controlling mitochondrial mobility through a dynamic interaction between the mitochondrial docking receptor and axonal cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;30;9429-38

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • PIN/LC8 is associated with cytosolic but not membrane-bound nNOS in the nitrergic varicosities of mice gut: implications for nitrergic neurotransmission.

    Chaudhury A, Rao YM and Goyal RK

    Center for Swallowing and Motility Disorders, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

    This investigation demonstrates the presence and binding of the protein LC8 (described as "protein inhibitor of nNOS" or PIN in some reports) to different components of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nitrergic varicosities of mice gut. Whole varicosity extracts showed three (320-, 250-, and 155-kDa) nNOS bands with anti-nNOS(1422-1433) antibody and a 10-kDa band with anti-LC8 antibody. The LC8 immunoprecipitate (IP) showed three nNOS bands, suggesting that LC8 was bound with all three forms of nNOS but dissociated from them during SDS-PAGE. Studies using LC8 IP and supernatant and probed with anti-CaM showed that LC8 was not associated with CaM-bound 320-kDa nNOS but was present in the CaM-lacking fraction. Probing these fractions with anti-serine847-P-nNOS showed that 320-kDa serine847-phosphorylated-nNOS consisted of LC8-bound and LC8-lacking components. Subsequent studies with varicosity membrane and cytosolic fractions separately showed that membrane contained CaM-bound and CaM-lacking, serine847-phosphorylated 320-kDa nNOS; both these fractions lacked LC8. On the other hand, the cytosolic fraction contained CaM-lacking, serine847-phosphorylated 320-kDa, 250-kDa, and 155-kDa nNOS bands that were all associated with LC8. These studies, along with in vitro nitric oxide assays, show that in gut nitrergic nerve varicosities 1) all cytosolic serine847-phosphorylated nNOS was catalytically inactive and bound with LC8, and 2) membrane-associated nNOS consisted of catalytically active, CaM-bound and catalytically inactive, CaM-lacking, serine847-phosphorylated nNOSalpha dimers, both of which lacked LC8. These results suggest that LC8 may dissociate from the 320-kDa nNOSalpha dimer upon binding to membrane, thus supporting the view that LC8 may transport nNOSalpha dimer to the varicosity membrane for participation in nitrergic neurotransmission.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-062867

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008;295;3;G442-51

  • Serine 88 phosphorylation of the 8-kDa dynein light chain 1 is a molecular switch for its dimerization status and functions.

    Song C, Wen W, Rayala SK, Chen M, Ma J, Zhang M and Kumar R

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Dynein light chain 1 (DLC1, also known as DYNLL1, LC8, and PIN), a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein, participates in a variety of essential intracellular events. Transition of DLC1 between dimer and monomer forms might play a crucial role in its function. However, the molecular mechanism(s) that control the transition remain unknown. DLC1 phosphorylation on Ser(88) by p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a signaling nodule, promotes mammalian cell survival by regulating its interaction with Bim and the stability of Bim. Here we discovered that phosphorylation of Ser(88), which juxtapose each other at the interface of the DLC dimer, disrupts DLC1 dimer formation and consequently impairs its interaction with Bim. Overexpression of a Ser(88) phosphorylation-inactive DLC1 mutant in mammary epithelium cells and in a transgenic animal model caused apoptosis and accelerated mammary gland involution, respectively, with increased Bim levels. Structural and biophysical studies suggested that phosphorylation-mimicking mutation leads to dissociation of the DLC1 dimer to a pure folded monomer. The phosphorylation-induced DLC1 monomer is incapable of binding to its substrate Bim. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism of DLC1 in which the Ser(88) phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch for the transition of DLC1 from dimer to monomer, thereby modulating its interaction with substrates and consequently regulating the functions of DLC1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80066, CA90970

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;7;4004-13

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature.

    Pfister KK, Fisher EM, Gibbons IR, Hays TS, Holzbaur EL, McIntosh JR, Porter ME, Schroer TA, Vaughan KT, Witman GB, King SM and Vallee RB

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. kkp9w@virginia.edu

    A variety of names has been used in the literature for the subunits of cytoplasmic dynein complexes. Thus, there is a strong need for a more definitive consensus statement on nomenclature. This is especially important for mammalian cytoplasmic dyneins, many subunits of which are encoded by multiple genes. We propose names for the mammalian cytoplasmic dynein subunit genes and proteins that reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the genes and the published studies clarifying the functions of the polypeptides. This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM030626, R01 GM060560, R01 GM060560-05

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;171;3;411-3

  • Transcriptome analysis in blastocyst hatching by cDNA microarray.

    Chen HW, Chen JJ, Yu SL, Li HN, Yang PC, Su CM, Au HK, Chang CW, Chien LW, Chen CS and Tzeng CR

    Institute and Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Background: Hatching is an important process for early embryo development, differentiation and implantation. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanisms. By integrating the technologies of RNA amplification and cDNA microarrays, it has become possible to study the gene expression profile at this critical stage.

    Methods: Pre-hatched and hatched ICR mouse embryos (25 blastocysts in each group were used in the triplicate experiments) were collected for RNA extraction, amplification, and microarray analysis (the mouse cDNA microarray, 6144 genes, including expressed sequence tags).

    Results: According to cDNA microarray data, we have identified 85 genes that were expressed at a higher level in hatched blastocyst than in pre-hatched blastocysts. In this study, 47 hatching-related candidate genes were verified via re-sequencing. Some of these genes have been selected and confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These hatching-specific genes were also expressed at a lower level in the delayed growth embryos (morula or blastocyst without hatching at day 6 post hCG). These genes included: cell adhesion and migration molecules [E-cadherin, neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), lectin, galactose binding, soluble 7 (Lgals7), vanin 3 and biglycan], epigenetic regulators (Dnmt1, and SIN3 yeast homolog A), stress response regulators (heme oxygenase 1) and immunoresponse regulators [interleukin (IL)-2-inducible T-cell kinase, IL-4R, interferon-gamma receptor 2, and neurotrophin]. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and NCAM showed strong and specific localization in hatched blastocyst.

    Conclusions: This work provides important information for studying the mechanisms of blastocyst hatching and implantation. These hatching-specific genes may have potential as new drug targets for controlling fertility.

    Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2005;20;9;2492-501

  • A screen for proteins that interact with PAX6: C-terminal mutations disrupt interaction with HOMER3, DNCL1 and TRIM11.

    Cooper ST and Hanson IM

    University of Edinburgh, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Sciences (Medical Genetics), Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU. simon.t.cooper@ed.ac.uk

    Background: The PAX6 protein is a transcriptional regulator with a key role in ocular and neurological development. Individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PAX6 gene have malformations of the eye and brain. Little is known about the interactions of PAX6 with other proteins, so we carried out a systematic screen for proteins that interact with PAX6.

    Results: We used bioinformatics techniques to characterise a highly conserved peptide at the C-terminus of the PAX6 protein. Yeast two-hybrid library screens were then carried out to identify brain-expressed proteins that interact with the C-terminal peptide and with the entire PAX6 proline-serine-threonine-rich domain. Three novel PAX6-interacting proteins were identified: the post-synaptic density (PSD) protein HOMER3, the dynein subunit DNCL1, and the tripartite motif protein TRIM11. Three C-terminal PAX6 mutations, previously identified in patients with eye malformations, all reduced or abolished the interactions.

    Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that PAX6 interacts with HOMER3, DNCL1 and TRIM11. We propose that the interaction of PAX6 with HOMER3 and DNCL1 is a mechanism by which synaptic activation could lead to changes in neuronal transcriptional activity, and that some of the neural anomalies in patients with PAX6 mutations could be explained by impaired protein-protein interactions.

    BMC genetics 2005;6;43

  • Dynein light chain 1 phosphorylation controls macropinocytosis.

    Yang Z, Vadlamudi RK and Kumar R

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Recent studies have identified dynein light chain-1 (DLC1), a component of the dynein motor, as a p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1)-interacting substrate with binding sites mapped to amino acids 61-89 of DLC1 and phosphorylation site at serine 88. Here we investigated the role of DLC1 phosphorylation by Pak1 upon the process of macropinocytosis. We found that Pak1 associates with dynein motor and that Pak1-DLC1 interaction starts at the initiation of pinosome formation and persists in early and late endosomes. Pak1 phosphorylation of DLC1 on Ser-88 controls vesicle formation and trafficking functions, as Ser-88 substitution for alanine prevents macropinocytosis. A peptide spanning the C-terminal 19-amino acid region of DLC1 efficiently blocked Ser-88 phosphorylation and macropinocytosis. These results suggest that the regulation of DLC1 by Pak1 is a novel mechanism by which a signaling kinase might influence macropinocytosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA80066, CA90970

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;1;654-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Constitutive association of the proapoptotic protein Bim with Bcl-2-related proteins on mitochondria in T cells.

    Zhu Y, Swanson BJ, Wang M, Hildeman DA, Schaefer BC, Liu X, Suzuki H, Mihara K, Kappler J and Marrack P

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

    Apoptosis in activated T cells in vivo requires the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim. We show here that, despite its ability to bind LC8, a component of the microtubule dynein motor complex, most of the Bim in both healthy and apoptotic T cells is associated with mitochondria, not microtubules. In healthy resting T cells Bim is bound to the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L). In activated T cells, levels of Bcl-2 fall, and Bim is associated more with Bcl-x(L) and less with Bcl-2. Our results indicate that, in T cells, Bim function is regulated by interaction with Bcl-2 family members on mitochondria rather than by sequestration to the microtubules.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-17134, AI-18785, AI-22295, AI-52225, P01 AI022295, R01 AI017134, R01 AI018785, R01 AI052225, R37 AI018785, R56 AI017134, R56 AI018785; NICHD NIH HHS: K12 HD000850, K12-HD00850-17

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;20;7681-6

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • Nuclear interaction of the dynein light chain LC8a with the TRPS1 transcription factor suppresses the transcriptional repression activity of TRPS1.

    Kaiser FJ, Tavassoli K, Van den Bemd GJ, Chang GT, Horsthemke B, Möröy T and Lüdecke HJ

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45122 Essen, Germany.

    The TRPS1 gene codes for a 1281 amino acids nuclear transcription factor with an unusual combination of different types of zinc finger motifs, including GATA-type DNA-binding and IKAROS-like zinc fingers. TRPS1 is a repressor of GATA-regulated genes and implicated in the human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndromes. We found that two distinct regions of TRPS1 can physically interact with the dynein light chain 8 protein, LC8a, that are at least 458 amino acids apart from each other. Region A covers 89 amino acids (635-723), spanning three potential C(2)H(2) zinc finger structures, and region B covers the 100 most C-terminal amino acids (1182-1281) containing the IKAROS-like motif. LC8a is known to interact with more than 10 different molecules, both proteins and nucleic acids. In most cases, LC8a was identified as a transport molecule in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we found that LC8a co-localizes with TRPS1 in dot-like structures in the cell nucleus. In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay we could show that the interaction of LC8a and TRPS1 lowers the binding of TRPS1 to the GATA consensus sequence. In addition, GATA-regulated reporter gene assay indicated that LC8a is able to suppress the transcriptional repression activity of TRPS1.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;11;1349-58

  • Protein inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor are expressed in the rat and mouse penile nerves and colocalize with penile neuronal NOS.

    Magee TR, Ferrini MG, Davila HH, Zeller CB, Vernet D, Sun J, Lalani R, Burnett AL, Rajfer J and González-Cadavid NF

    Department of Urology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    Nitrergic neurotransmission triggering penile erection is mediated by nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the cavernosal nerves of the penis by penile neuronal NO synthase (PnNOS). In the central nervous system, nNOS is activated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and, presumably, is inhibited by the protein inhibitor of NOS (PIN). The PnNOS and NMDAR are expressed in the penis, and PnNOS has been localized in penile nerves. Both proteins colocalize with PIN in the hypothalamus and the spinal cord involved in the control of erection. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between PnNOS, PIN, and NMDAR in the penis. It was found that in the rat, PIN was expressed in the pelvic ganglion and the cavernosal nerve, and penile PIN cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and expressed. Immunohistochemistry localized PIN to the cavernosal and dorsal nerve of the penis, whereas NMDAR was not detected in the latter. Dual-fluorescence labeling showed that PnNOS colocalized with PIN in both nerves but with NMDAR only in the cavernosal nerve. Aging did not affect the mRNA levels of PnNOS, nNOS, NMDAR, and PIN. Both PIN and NMDAR were detected in penile nerves of the wild-type and nNOS(-/-) mouse. The PIN protein did not inhibit or bind NOS in penile extracts, and in vivo, PIN cDNA reduced the erectile response to electrical field stimulation. In conclusion, PIN and NMDAR colocalize with PnNOS in penile nerves, but the functional significance of these protein interactions for penile erection remains to be elucidated.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: G12RR-03026; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01DK-53069

    Biology of reproduction 2003;68;2;478-88

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • MADM, a novel adaptor protein that mediates phosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding site of myeloid leukemia factor 1.

    Lim R, Winteringham LN, Williams JH, McCulloch RK, Ingley E, Tiao JY, Lalonde JP, Tsai S, Tilbrook PA, Sun Y, Wu X, Morris SW and Klinken SP

    Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Medical Research Foundation, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Rear 50 Murray Street, Perth, WA 6000, Australia.

    A yeast two-hybrid screen was conducted to identify binding partners of Mlf1, an oncoprotein recently identified in a translocation with nucleophosmin that causes acute myeloid leukemia. Two proteins isolated in this screen were 14-3-3zeta and a novel adaptor, Madm. Mlf1 contains a classic RSXSXP sequence for 14-3-3 binding and is associated with 14-3-3zeta via this phosphorylated motif. Madm co-immunoprecipitated with Mlf1 and co-localized in the cytoplasm. In addition, Madm recruited a serine kinase, which phosphorylated both Madm and Mlf1 including the RSXSXP motif. In contrast to wild-type Mlf1, the oncogenic fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-MLF1 did not bind 14-3-3zeta, had altered Madm binding, and localized exclusively in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of Madm in M1 myeloid cells suppressed cytokine-induced differentiation unlike Mlf1, which promotes maturation. Because the Mlf1 binding region of Madm and its own dimerization domain overlapped, the levels of Madm and Mlf1 may affect complex formation and regulate differentiation. In summary, this study has identified two partner proteins of Mlf1 that may influence its subcellular localization and biological function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 21765, CA 76301

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40997-1008

  • Structure of Tctex-1 and its interaction with cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain.

    Mok YK, Lo KW and Zhang M

    Department of Biochemistry, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

    The minus-ended microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein contains a number of low molecular weight light chains including the 14-kDa Tctex-1. The assembly of Tctex-1 in the dynein complex and its function are largely unknown. Using partially deuterated, (15)N,(13)C-labeled protein samples and transverse relaxation-optimized NMR spectroscopic techniques, the secondary structure and overall topology of Tctex-1 were determined based on the backbone nuclear Overhauser effect pattern and the chemical shift values of the protein. The data showed that Tctex-1 adopts a structure remarkably similar to that of the 8-kDa light chain of the motor complex (DLC8), although the two light chains share no amino acid sequence homology. We further demonstrated that Tctex-1 binds directly to the intermediate chain (DIC) of dynein. The Tctex-1 binding site on DIC was mapped to a 19-residue fragment immediately following the second alternative splicing site of DIC. Titration of Tctex-1 with a peptide derived from DIC, which contains a consensus sequence R/KR/KXXR/K found in various Tctex-1 target proteins, indicated that Tctex-1 binds to its targets in a manner similar to that of DLC8. The experimental results presented in this study suggest that Tctex-1 is likely to be a specific cargo adaptor for the dynein motor complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;17;14067-74

  • Dynein light chain interacts with NRF-1 and EWG, structurally and functionally related transcription factors from humans and drosophila.

    Herzig RP, Andersson U and Scarpulla RC

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 is a transcriptional activator that has been implicated in the nuclear control of respiratory chain expression. Yeast two-hybrid screens were performed to identify proteins that physically interact with nuclear respiratory factor-1. Saturation screening of both mouse embryo and mouse testis libraries yielded 14 independent clones, all of which represented two different isoforms of dynein light chain. In addition to using the two-hybrid method, the specificity of the nuclear respiratory factor-1/dynein light chain interaction was established by chemical crosslinking of the purified native proteins and by co-immunoprecipitation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and dynein light chain from mammalian cells. Both two-hybrid and chemical crosslinking assays demonstrated that binding of dynein light chain required the first 26 amino acids of nuclear respiratory factor-1. Although dynein light chain is associated with dynein, a cytoplasmic motor molecule, immunolocalizations showed substantial nuclear staining using several different anti-dynein light chain antibodies. Moreover, fluorescence overlays of confocal images established that nuclear respiratory factor-1 and dynein light chain displayed a very similar nuclear staining pattern. The significance of the nuclear respiratory factor-1/dynein light chain interaction was investigated further by determining whether a similar interaction was conserved between dynein light chain and the erect wing gene product of Drosophila, a protein related to nuclear respiratory factor-1 through its DNA binding domain. Here, we establish that the erect wing gene product can bind and trans-activate transcription through authentic nuclear respiratory factor-1 binding sites. Moreover, the erect wing gene product, like nuclear respiratory factor-1, interacted specifically with dynein light chain both in vitro and in transfected cells. Thus, the interaction with dynein light chain is conserved between transcription factors that are structurally and functionally similar between humans and Drosophila.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 Pt 23;4263-73

  • LIS1 regulates CNS lamination by interacting with mNudE, a central component of the centrosome.

    Feng Y, Olson EC, Stukenberg PT, Flanagan LA, Kirschner MW and Walsh CA

    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    LIS1, a microtubule-associated protein, is required for neuronal migration, but the precise mechanism of LIS1 function is unknown. We identified a LIS1 interacting protein encoded by a mouse homolog of NUDE, a nuclear distribution gene in A. nidulans and a multicopy suppressor of the LIS1 homolog, NUDF. mNudE is located in the centrosome or microtubule organizing center (MTOC), and interacts with six different centrosomal proteins. Overexpression of mNudE dissociates gamma-tubulin from the centrosome and disrupts microtubule organization. Missense mutations that disrupt LIS1 function block LIS1-mNudE binding. Moreover, misexpression of the LIS1 binding domain of mNudE in Xenopus embryos disrupts the architecture and lamination of the CNS. Thus, LIS1-mNudE interactions may regulate neuronal migration through dynamic reorganization of the MTOC.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: F32-NS 10730, P01-NS 39404, P01-NS 40043

    Neuron 2000;28;3;665-79

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Brain cytoplasmic and flagellar outer arm dyneins share a highly conserved Mr 8,000 light chain.

    King SM, Barbarese E, Dillman JF, Patel-King RS, Carson JH and Pfister KK

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06032-3305, USA.

    Sequence comparisons with the Mr 8,000 light chain from Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein revealed the presence of highly conserved homologues (up to 90% identity) in the expressed sequence tag data base (King, S. M. & Patel-King, R. S. (1995a) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 11445-11452). Several of these homologous sequences were derived from organisms and/or tissues that lack motile cilia/flagella, suggesting that these proteins may function in the cytoplasm. In Drosophila, lack of the homologous protein results in embryonic lethality (Dick, T., Ray, K., Salz, H. K. & Chia, W.(1996) Mol. Cell. Biol., 16, 1966-1977). Fractionation of mammalian brain homogenates reveals three distinct cytosolic pools of the homologous protein, one of which specifically copurifies with cytoplasmic dynein following both ATP-sensitive microtubule affinity/sucrose density gradient centrifugation and immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody specific for the 74-kDa intermediate chain (IC74). Quantitative densitometry indicates that there is one copy of the Mr 8,000 polypeptide per IC74. Dual channel confocal immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that the Mr 8,000 protein is significantly colocalized with cytoplasmic dynein but not with kinesin in punctate structures (many of which are associated with microtubules) within mammalian oligodendrocytes. Thus, it appears that flagellar outer arm and brain cytoplasmic dyneins share a highly conserved light chain polypeptide that, at least in Drosophila, is essential for viability.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 51293; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 15190, NS 19943; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;32;19358-66

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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