G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Palm (MGI)
Mus musculus
G00001835 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000035863 (Ensembl mouse gene)
18483 (Entrez Gene)
1029 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_023128 (Allen Brain Atlas)
18483 (Genepaint)
608134 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1261814 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9Z0P4 (UniProt)

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • A transposon in Comt generates mRNA variants and causes widespread expression and behavioral differences among mice.

    Li Z, Mulligan MK, Wang X, Miles MF, Lu L and Williams RW

    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Center for Integrative and Translational Genomics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

    Background: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme responsible for the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrine. COMT activity influences cognitive and emotional states in humans and aggression and drug responses in mice. This study identifies the key sequence variant that leads to differences in Comt mRNA and protein levels among mice, and that modulates synaptic function and pharmacological and behavioral traits.

    We examined Comt expression in multiple tissues in over 100 diverse strains and several genetic crosses. Differences in expression map back to Comt and are generated by a 230 nt insertion of a B2 short interspersed element (B2 SINE) in the proximal 3' UTR of Comt in C57BL/6J. This transposon introduces a premature polyadenylation signal and creates a short 3' UTR isoform. The B2 SINE is shared by a subset of strains, including C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, and AKR/J, but is absent in others, including DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, SJL/J, and wild subspecies. The short isoform is associated with increased protein expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus relative to the longer ancestral isoform. The Comt variant causes downstream differences in the expression of genes involved in synaptic function, and also modulates phenotypes such as dopamine D1 and D2 receptor binding and pharmacological responses to haloperidol.

    We have precisely defined the B2 SINE as the source of variation in Comt and demonstrated that a transposon in a 3' UTR can alter mRNA isoform use and modulate behavior. The recent fixation of the variant in a subset of strains may have contributed to the rapid divergence of inbred strains.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: P20 AA017828, R01 AA013678, U01 AA013499, U01 AA013513, U01 AA014425, U01 AA016662, U01 AA016667, U01AA014425, U01AA016667, U01AA13499, U24AA13513; NIDA NIH HHS: P20 DA021131, P20-DA 21131

    PloS one 2010;5;8;e12181

  • Palmitoylation stabilizes unliganded rod opsin.

    Maeda A, Okano K, Park PS, Lem J, Crouch RK, Maeda T and Palczewski K

    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-4965, USA.

    S-palmitoylation is a conserved feature in many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in a broad array of signaling processes. The prototypical GPCR, rhodopsin, is S-palmitoylated on two adjacent C-terminal Cys residues at its cytoplasmic surface. Surprisingly, absence of palmitoylation has only a modest effect on in vitro or in vivo signaling. Here, we report that palmitoylation-deficient (Palm(-/-)) mice carrying two Cys to Thr and Ser mutations in the opsin gene displayed profound light-induced retinal degeneration that first involved rod and then cone cells. After brief bright light exposure, their retinas exhibited two types of deposits containing nucleic acid and invasive phagocytic macrophages. When Palm(-/-) mice were crossed with Lrat(-/-) mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyl transferase to eliminate retinoid binding to opsin and thereby rendering the eye insensitive to light, rapid retinal degeneration occurred even in 3- to 4-week-old animals. This rapid degeneration suggests that nonpalmitoylated rod opsin is unstable. Treatment of 2-week-old Palm(-/-)Lrat(-/-) mice with an artificial chromophore precursor prevented this retinopathy. In contrast, elimination of signaling to G protein in Palm(-/-)Gnat1(-/-) mice had no effect, indicating that instability of unpalmitoylated opsin lacking chromophore rather than aberrant signal transduction resulted in retinal pathology. Together, these observations provide evidence for a structural role of rhodopsin S-palmitoylation that may apply to other GPCRs as well.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY004939, EY008061, EY008123, EY012008, EY018085, EY019478, K08 EY019031, K08 EY019880, K08 K08EY019880, K99 EY018085, K99 EY018085-01, K99 EY018085-02, P30 EY011373, P30 EY011373-149005, R00 EY018085, R00 EY018085-03, R00 EY018085-04, R00 EY018085-05, R01 EY004939, R01 EY008061, R01 EY008061-24, R01 EY008123, R01 EY009339, R01 EY009339-21, R01 EY012008, R01 EY019478

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;18;8428-33

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Paralemmin interacts with D3 dopamine receptors: implications for membrane localization and cAMP signaling.

    Basile M, Lin R, Kabbani N, Karpa K, Kilimann M, Simpson I and Kester M

    Department of Pharmacology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

    Paralemmin is a novel lipid-anchored protein, which is highly expressed in neuronal plasma membranes. In this study, we demonstrate that paralemmin specifically interacts with the third intracellular loop of the D3 dopamine receptor. Utilizing co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pulldown strategies, we demonstrate that paralemmin interacts exclusively with D3, but not D2 or D4 dopamine receptors or beta-adrenergic receptors. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated co-localization of paralemmin and D3 receptor in vivo in hippocampus and cerebellum and in vitro in glial and neuronal cultures. Deletion mutational analysis indicates that amino acids 154-230 of paralemmin strongly interacted with amino acids 211-227 and 281-330 of the third intracellular loop of D3 receptor. The consequences of these interactions were investigated by co-expression in HEK293 cells. Cell surface biotinylation experiments demonstrate that paralemmin decreased D3 receptor concentration at the plasma membrane. Consistent with this observation, paralemmin expression decreased dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, paralemmin also decreased basal, isoproterenol and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, suggesting a more general cellular function for paralemmin. Taken together, paralemmin has been implicated as a potent modulator of cellular cAMP signaling within the brain.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006;446;1;60-8

  • Palm is expressed in both developing and adult mouse lens and retina.

    Castellini M, Wolf LV, Chauhan BK, Galileo DS, Kilimann MW, Cvekl A and Duncan MK

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. mac146@jefferson.edu

    Background: Paralemmin (Palm) is a prenyl-palmitoyl anchored membrane protein that can drive membrane and process formation in neurons. Earlier studies have shown brain preferred Palm expression, although this protein is a major water insoluble protein in chicken lens fiber cells and the Palm gene may be regulated by Pax6.

    Methods: The expression profile of Palm protein in the embryonic, newborn and adult mouse eye as well as dissociated retinal neurons was determined by confocal immunofluorescence. The relative mRNA levels of Palm, Palmdelphin (PalmD) and paralemmin2 (Palm2) in the lens and retina were determined by real time rt-PCR.

    Results: In the lens, Palm is already expressed at 9.5 dpc in the lens placode, and this expression is maintained in the lens vesicle throughout the formation of the adult lens. Palm is largely absent from the optic vesicle but is detectable at 10.5 dpc in the optic cup. In the developing retina, Palm expression transiently upregulates during the formation of optic nerve as well as in the formation of both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In short term dissociated chick retinal cultures, Palm protein is easily detectable, but the levels appear to reduce sharply as the cultures age. Palm mRNA was found at much higher levels relative to Palm2 or PalmD in both the retina and lens.

    Conclusion: Palm is the major paralemmin family member expressed in the retina and lens and its expression in the retina transiently upregulates during active neurite outgrowth. The expression pattern of Palm in the eye is consistent with it being a Pax6 responsive gene. Since Palm is known to be able to drive membrane formation in brain neurons, it is possible that this molecule is crucial for the increase in membrane formation during lens fiber cell differentiation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR016472, P20 RR16472; NEI NIH HHS: EY012221, EY015279, EY12200, EY14237, R01 EY012200, R01 EY012221, R01 EY014237, R01 EY015279; NINDS NIH HHS: NS40317, R21 NS040317

    BMC ophthalmology 2005;5;14

  • Proteomic analysis of in vivo phosphorylated synaptic proteins.

    Collins MO, Yu L, Coba MP, Husi H, Campuzano I, Blackstock WP, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    In the nervous system, protein phosphorylation is an essential feature of synaptic function. Although protein phosphorylation is known to be important for many synaptic processes and in disease, little is known about global phosphorylation of synaptic proteins. Heterogeneity and low abundance make protein phosphorylation analysis difficult, particularly for mammalian tissue samples. Using a new approach, combining both protein and peptide immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies, we have produced the first large scale map of the mouse synapse phosphoproteome. We report over 650 phosphorylation events corresponding to 331 sites (289 have been unambiguously assigned), 92% of which are novel. These represent 79 proteins, half of which are novel phosphoproteins, and include several highly phosphorylated proteins such as MAP1B (33 sites) and Bassoon (30 sites). An additional 149 candidate phosphoproteins were identified by profiling the composition of the protein immobilized metal affinity chromatography enrichment. All major synaptic protein classes were observed, including components of important pre- and postsynaptic complexes as well as low abundance signaling proteins. Bioinformatic and in vitro phosphorylation assays of peptide arrays suggest that a small number of kinases phosphorylate many proteins and that each substrate is phosphorylated by many kinases. These data substantially increase existing knowledge of synapse protein phosphorylation and support a model where the synapse phosphoproteome is functionally organized into a highly interconnected signaling network.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5972-82

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: III. the complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Koseki H, Hiraoka S, Saga Y, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have conducted a human cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences (CDSs) in large cDNAs (> 4 kb) since 1994, and the number of newly identified genes, known as KIAA genes, already exceeds 2000. The ultimate goal of this project is to clarify the physiological functions of the proteins encoded by KIAA genes. To this end, the project has recently been expanded to include isolation and characterization of mouse KIAA-counterpart genes. We herein present the entire sequences and the chromosome loci of 500 mKIAA cDNA clones and 13 novel cDNA clones that were incidentally identified during this project. The average size of the 513 cDNA sequences reached 4.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 816 amino acid residues. By comparison of the predicted CDSs between mouse and human KIAAs, 12 mKIAA cDNA clones were assumed to be differently spliced isoforms of the human cDNA clones. The comparison of mouse and human sequences also revealed that four pairs of human KIAA cDNAs are derived from single genes. Notably, a homology search against the public database indicated that 4 out of 13 novel cDNA clones were homologous to the disease-related genes.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;4;167-80

  • PALML, a novel paralemmin-related gene mapping on human chromosome 1p21.

    Andreu N, Escarceller M, Feather S, Devriendt K, Wolf AS, Estivill X and Sumoy L

    Institut de Recerca Oncològica-IRO, Departament de Genètica Molecular, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Av. Gran Via s/n km 2,7, 08907 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

    We describe PALML, a novel gene encoding a 551 amino acid protein with similarity to paralemmin and the paralemmin-like amino terminal domain of AKAP2, a protein kinase A anchor protein. PALML mRNA is expressed in many tissues and is most abundant in cardiac and skeletal muscle, while absent from brain and blood. Exogenously expressed PALML fusion protein has a widespread cytoplasmic localization, and it is excluded from the nucleus. Human PALML maps on human chromosome 1p21 (between D1S2767 and D1S223). SSCP-HD analysis of exonic sequences in patients with VUR (familial non-syndromic vesicoureteral reflux syndrome) excluded mutations in the PALML gene from causing this disease. PALML, paralemmin and AKAP2 share the presence of a conserved coiled coil region that may mediate protein interactions with shared partners. Based on its resemblance to paralemmin and AKAP2, PALML is hypothesized to be involved in regulating intracellular signaling and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions.

    Gene 2001;278;1-2;33-40

  • Paralemmin, a prenyl-palmitoyl-anchored phosphoprotein abundant in neurons and implicated in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation.

    Kutzleb C, Sanders G, Yamamoto R, Wang X, Lichte B, Petrasch-Parwez E and Kilimann MW

    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    We report the identification and initial characterization of paralemmin, a putative new morphoregulatory protein associated with the plasma membrane. Paralemmin is highly expressed in the brain but also less abundantly in many other tissues and cell types. cDNAs from chicken, human, and mouse predict acidic proteins of 42 kD that display a pattern of sequence cassettes with high inter-species conservation separated by poorly conserved linker sequences. Prenylation and palmitoylation of a COOH-terminal cluster of three cysteine residues confers hydrophobicity and membrane association to paralemmin. Paralemmin is also phosphorylated, and its mRNA is differentially spliced in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Differential splicing, lipidation, and phosphorylation contribute to electrophoretic heterogeneity that results in an array of multiple bands on Western blots, most notably in brain. Paralemmin is associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membranes of postsynaptic specializations, axonal and dendritic processes and perikarya, and also appears to be associated with an intracellular vesicle pool. It does not line the neuronal plasmalemma continuously but in clusters and patches. Its molecular and morphological properties are reminiscent of GAP-43, CAP-23, and MARCKS, proteins implicated in plasma membrane dynamics. Overexpression in several cell lines shows that paralemmin concentrates at sites of plasma membrane activity such as filopodia and microspikes, and induces cell expansion and process formation. The lipidation motif is essential for this morphogenic activity. We propose a function for paralemmin in the control of cell shape, e.g., through an involvement in membrane flow or in membrane-cytoskeleton interaction.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;3;795-813

  • Structure of the human paralemmin gene (PALM), mapping to human chromosome 19p13.3 and mouse chromosome 10, and exclusion of coding mutations in grizzled, mocha, jittery, and hesitant mice.

    Burwinkel B, Miglierini G, Jenne DE, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Ring HZ, Francke U and Kilimann MW

    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.

    Paralemmin is a newly identified protein that is associated with the plasma membrane and with intracellular membranes through a lipid anchor. It is abundant in brain, is expressed at intermediate levels in the kidney and in endocrine cells, and occurs at low levels in many other tissues. As it is a candidate for genetic disorders that affect membrane functions, we have determined the structure of the human paralemmin gene, PALM, showing that it is organized into nine exons. Moreover, we have performed chromosomal assignments of the human and mouse paralemmin genes, localizing them to regions of homology at human 19p13.3 and the central mouse chromosome 10. Finally, mutation analysis using RNA from mice homozygous for the mutant genes grizzled (gr), mocha (mh), mocha 2J (mh2J), jittery (ji) and hesitant (ji(hes)), which map to this area, excluded mutations in their Palm coding sequences.

    Genomics 1998;49;3;462-6

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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