G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Epb4.1l3 (MGI)
Mus musculus
erythrocyte protein band 4.1-like 3
G00001827 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (9)

ENSMUSG00000024044 (Ensembl mouse gene)
13823 (Entrez Gene)
1011 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_013813 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g03115 (BGEM)
13823 (Genepaint)
605331 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:103008 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9WV92 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • 4.1B
  • DAL1P
  • NBL3

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • β8 integrin and band 4.1B cooperatively regulate morphogenesis of the embryonic heart.

    Jung Y, Kissil JL and McCarty JH

    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Morphogenesis of the heart is regulated by various cues, including growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The mechanisms by which cardiac cells properly integrate these cues to regulate growth, differentiation, and migration remain poorly understood. Here we have used genetic strategies in mice to identify αvβ8 integrin and its cytoskeletal adaptor protein, Band 4.1B, as essential regulators of cardiac morphogenesis. We demonstrate that approximately 60% of mouse embryos genetically null for β8 integrin and Band 4.1B display cardiovascular phenotypes and die by E11.5. This premature death is due, in part, to defective development of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT), with reduced expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMAα-actin) in OFT cells derived from the cardiac neural crest. These data are the first to identify cell adhesion and signaling pathways regulated by αvβ8 integrin and Band 4.1B as essential for normal formation and function of the heart during embryogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-16672

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 2011;240;1;271-7

  • Organization of myelinated axons by Caspr and Caspr2 requires the cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1B.

    Horresh I, Bar V, Kissil JL and Peles E

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

    Caspr and Caspr2 regulate the formation of distinct axonal domains around the nodes of Ranvier. Caspr is required for the generation of a membrane barrier at the paranodal junction (PNJ), whereas Caspr2 serves as a membrane scaffold that clusters Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal region (JXP). Both Caspr and Caspr2 interact with protein 4.1B, which may link the paranodal and juxtaparanodal adhesion complexes to the axonal cytoskeleton. To determine the role of protein 4.1B in the function of Caspr proteins, we examined the ability of transgenic Caspr and Caspr2 mutants lacking their 4.1-binding sequence (d4.1) to restore Kv1 channel clustering in Caspr- and Caspr2-null mice, respectively. We found that Caspr-d4.1 was localized to the PNJ and is able to recruit the paranodal adhesion complex components contactin and NF155 to this site. Nevertheless, in axons expressing Caspr-d4.1, Kv1 channels were often detected at paranodes, suggesting that the interaction of Caspr with protein 4.1B is necessary for the generation of an efficient membrane barrier at the PNJ. We also found that the Caspr2-d4.1 transgene did not accumulate at the JXP, even though it was targeted to the axon, demonstrating that the interaction with protein 4.1B is required for the accumulation of Caspr2 and Kv1 channels at the juxtaparanodal axonal membrane. In accordance, we show that Caspr2 and Kv1 channels are not clustered at the JXP in 4.1B-null mice. Our results thus underscore the functional importance of protein 4.1B in the organization of peripheral myelinated axons.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS50220, R01 NS050220, R01 NS050220-05

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2010;30;7;2480-9

  • Protein 4.1 expression in the developing hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Okumura K, Mochizuki E, Yokohama M, Yamakawa H, Shitara H, Mburu P, Yonekawa H, Brown SD and Kikkawa Y

    Department of Bioproduction, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196, Yasaka, Abashiri, Hokkaido 099-2493, Japan.

    Protein 4.1 (band 4.1 or 4.1R) was originally identified as an abundant protein of the human erythrocyte, in which it stabilizes the spectrin/actin cytoskeleton. Subsequently, several new family members, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, have been identified, which are expressed in many cell types, in particular at cell-cell junctions. We previously reported that 4.1R and 4.1N are expressed in the inner ear hair cells with specific localization patterns, and that 4.1R forms a complex with the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein p55 and two deafness gene products, myosin XV and whirlin. To determine the functions of the other family members, 4.1G and 4.1B, we observed their expression patterns in developing stereocilia in mice inner ear hair cells. 4.1G is expressed in the basal tapers of the stereocilia bundle in early postnatal stages. 4.1B was specifically and constantly expressed in the stereocilia tips during postnatal development. Additionally, we found that 4.1B is ablated in the hair cells of both myosin XV and whirlin mutant mice at all stages in hair cell development. These results suggest that 4.1 family members play important roles in the development and maintenance of the inner ear hair cells, and that 4.1B may be a member of the myosin XV-whirlin complex that is important for stereocilia maturation.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U142684172, MC_U142684175

    Brain research 2010;1307;53-62

  • Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1.

    Ohno N, Terada N, Komada M, Saitoh S, Costantini F, Pace V, Germann PG, Weber K, Yamakawa H, Ohara O and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy and Molecular Histology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

    Protein 4.1B is a membrane skeletal protein expressed in various organs, and is associated with tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) in vitro. Although involvement of 4.1B in the intercellular junctions and tumor-suppression was suggested, some controversial results posed questions to the general tumor-suppressive function of 4.1B and its relation to TSLC1 in vivo. In this study, the expression of 4.1B and its interaction with TSLC1 were examined in rodent adrenal gland, and the involvement of 4.1B in tumorigenesis and the effect of 4.1B deficiency on TSLC1 distribution were also investigated using rodent pheochromocytoma and 4.1B-knockout mice. Although plasmalemmal immunolocalization of 4.1B was shown in chromaffin cells of rodent adrenal medulla, expression of 4.1B was maintained in developed pheochromocytoma, and morphological abnormality or pheochromocytoma generation could not be found in 4.1B-deficient mice. Furthermore, molecular interaction and colocalization of 4.1B and TSLC1 were observed in mouse adrenal gland, but the immunolocalization of TSLC1 along chromaffin cell membranes was not affected in the 4.1B-deficient mice. These results suggest that the function of 4.1B as tumor suppressor might significantly differ among organs and species, and that plasmalemmal retention of TSLC1 would be maintained by molecules other than 4.1B interacting in rodent chromaffin cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5P01CA023767

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2009;1793;3;506-15

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • Interaction of membrane skeletal protein, protein 4.1B and p55, and sodium bicarbonate cotransporter1 in mouse renal S1-S2 proximal tubules.

    Terada N, Ohno N, Saitoh S, Seki G, Komada M, Suzuki T, Yamakawa H, Soleimani M and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy and Molecular Histology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo City, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan. nobuot@yamanashi.ac.jp

    Our recent studies demonstrated the localization of protein 4.1B, a member of the 4.1 skeletal membrane proteins, to the basolateral membranes of the S1-S2 renal proximal tubules. In the present studies, we investigated the presence of binding partners that could form a molecular complex with the 4.1B protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed the localization of p55, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase, and the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter1 (NBC1), to the basolateral membrane domain of S1-S2 in mouse renal proximal tubules. Using immunoprecipitation of kidney lysates with anti-p55 antibody, a positive band was blotted with anti-4.1B antibody. GST fusion proteins including the NBC1 and 4.1B regions were confirmed to bind with each other by electrophoresis after mixing. Both NBC1- and 4.1B-specific bands were detected in renal protein mixtures immunoprecipated by either anti-4.1B- or NBC1-specific antibodies. It is likely that NBC1, 4.1B, and p55 form a molecular complex in the basolateral membrane of the kidney S1-S2 proximal tubules. We propose that the 4.1B-containing membrane skeleton may play a role in regulating the Na(+) and HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in S1-S2 proximal tubules.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2007;55;12;1199-206

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Protein 4.1B suppresses prostate cancer progression and metastasis.

    Wong SY, Haack H, Kissil JL, Barry M, Bronson RT, Shen SS, Whittaker CA, Crowley D and Hynes RO

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

    Protein 4.1B is a 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain-containing protein whose expression is frequently lost in a variety of human tumors, including meningiomas, non-small-cell lung cancers, and breast carcinomas. However, its potential tumor-suppressive function under in vivo conditions remains to be validated. In a screen for genes involved with prostate cancer metastasis, we found that 4.1B expression is reduced in highly metastatic tumors. Down-regulation of 4.1B increased the metastatic propensity of poorly metastatic cells in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer. Furthermore, 4.1B-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility for developing aggressive, spontaneous prostate carcinomas. In both cases, enhanced tumor malignancy was associated with reduced apoptosis. Because expression of Protein 4.1B is frequently down-regulated in human clinical prostate cancer, as well as in a spectrum of other tumor types, these results suggest a more general role for Protein 4.1B as a negative regulator of cancer progression to metastatic disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 17007, R01 CA017007, U54 CA 112967, U54 CA112967

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007;104;31;12784-9

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Disruption of axo-glial junctions causes cytoskeletal disorganization and degeneration of Purkinje neuron axons.

    Garcia-Fresco GP, Sousa AD, Pillai AM, Moy SS, Crawley JN, Tessarollo L, Dupree JL and Bhat MA

    Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Axo-glial junctions (AGJs) play a critical role in the organization and maintenance of molecular domains in myelinated axons. Neurexin IV/Caspr1/paranodin (NCP1) is an important player in the formation of AGJs because it recruits a paranodal complex implicated in the tethering of glial proteins to the axonal membrane and cytoskeleton. Mice deficient in either the axonal protein NCP1 or the glial ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT) display disruptions in AGJs and severe ataxia. In this article, we correlate these two phenotypes and show that both NCP1 and CGT mutants develop large swellings accompanied by cytoskeletal disorganization and degeneration in the axons of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. We also show that alphaII spectrin is part of the paranodal complex and that, although not properly targeted, this complex is still formed in CGT mutants. Together, these findings establish a physiologically relevant link between AGJs and axonal cytoskeleton and raise the possibility that some neurodegenerative disorders arise from disruption of the AGJs.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA78437; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM63074, R01 GM063074

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;13;5137-42

  • Loss of the putative tumor suppressor band 4.1B/Dal1 gene is dispensable for normal development and does not predispose to cancer.

    Yi C, McCarty JH, Troutman SA, Eckman MS, Bronson RT and Kissil JL

    Molecular and Cellular Oncogenesis Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    The band 4.1 proteins are cytoskeletal proteins, harboring a conserved FERM domain highly homologous to the N-terminal FERM domain of ezrin, radixin, moesin, and merlin. Recently, a truncated form of the 4.1B protein, termed Dal-1, was identified in a screen as down regulated in adenocarcinoma of the lung and was mapped to chromosome 18p11.3, which is lost in 38% of primary non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors. Analysis of several meningiomas has shown that Dal-1 expression was lost in 76% of the tumors. To further elucidate the function of the 4.1B/Dal-1 gene in development and tumorigenesis we generated mice deficient for this allele. The 4.1B/Dal-1 null mice develop normally and are fertile. Rates of cellular proliferation and apoptosis in brain, mammary, and lung tissues from the 4.1B/Dal-1 null mice were indistinguishable from those seen with wild-type mice. Aging studies indicate that these mice do not have a propensity to develop tumors. Analysis of fibroblasts from these mice demonstrated that the growth characteristics and kinetics of these cells were not different from those of cells from the wild-type mice. These findings indicate that the 4.1B gene is not required for normal development and that 4.1B/Dal-1 does not function as a tumor suppressor gene.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL066105, P01HL 66105

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;22;10052-9

  • Protein 4.1B expression is induced in mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy and regulates their proliferation.

    Kuns R, Kissil JL, Newsham IF, Jacks T, Gutmann DH and Sherman LS

    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.

    4.1B is a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins that link transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. The 4.1B gene localizes to chromosome 18p11.3, which undergoes loss of heterozygosity in mammary tumors. Here, we examine the expression of 4.1B in murine mammary epithelium and find that 4.1B is dramatically upregulated in mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy when there is extensive cell proliferation. In contrast, 4.1B is not expressed in virgin, lactating, or involuting mammary epithelium. To examine the consequence of 4.1B loss on mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we analysed mammary glands in 4.1B-null mice. 4.1B loss results in a significant increase in mammary epithelial cell proliferation during pregnancy, but has no effect on mammary epithelial cell proliferation, in virgin or involuting mice. Furthermore, we show that 4.1B inhibits the proliferation of mammary epithelial cell lines by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, characterized by decreased cyclin A expression and reduced Rb phosphorylation, and accompanied by reduced erbB2 phosphorylation. This cell cycle arrest does not involve alterations in the activities of MAPK, JNK, or Akt. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that 4.1B regulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation during pregnancy and suggest that its loss may influence mammary carcinoma pathogenesis in multiparous women.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00163; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39550, NS41520

    Oncogene 2005;24;43;6502-15

  • Cardiac muscle cell cytoskeletal protein 4.1: analysis of transcripts and subcellular location--relevance to membrane integrity, microstructure, and possible role in heart failure.

    Taylor-Harris PM, Keating LA, Maggs AM, Phillips GW, Birks EJ, Franklin RC, Yacoub MH, Baines AJ and Pinder JC

    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.

    The spectrin-based cytoskeleton assembly has emerged as a major player in heart functioning; however, cardiac protein 4.1, a key constituent, is uncharacterized. Protein 4.1 evolved to protect cell membranes against mechanical stresses and to organize membrane microstructure. 4.1 Proteins are multifunctional and, among other activities, link integral/signaling proteins on the plasma and internal membranes with the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. Four genes, EPB41, EPB41L1, EPB41L2, and EPB41L3 encode proteins 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B, respectively. All are extensively spliced. Different isoforms are expressed according to tissue and developmental state, individual function being controlled through inclusion/exclusion of interactive domains. We have defined mouse and human cardiac 4.1 transcripts; other than 4. 1B in humans, all genes show activity. Cardiac transcripts constitutively include conserved FERM and C-terminal domains; both interact with membrane-bound signaling/transport/cell adhesion molecules. Variable splicing within and adjacent to the central spectrin/actin-binding domain enables regulation of cytoskeleton-binding activity. A novel heart-specific exon occurs in human 4.1G, but not in mouse. Immunofluorescence reveals 4.1 staining within mouse cardiomyocytes; thus, both at the plasma membrane and, interdigitated with sarcomeric myosin, across myofibrils in regions close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These are all regions to which spectrin locates. 4.1R in human heart shows similar distribution; however, there is limited plasma membrane staining. We conclude that cardiac 4.1s are highly regulated in their ability to crosslink plasma/integral cell membranes with the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. We speculate that over the repetitive cycles of heart muscle contraction and relaxation, 4.1s are likely to locate, support, and coordinate functioning of key membrane-bound macromolecular assemblies.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;3;137-51

  • Proteomic analysis of in vivo phosphorylated synaptic proteins.

    Collins MO, Yu L, Coba MP, Husi H, Campuzano I, Blackstock WP, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    In the nervous system, protein phosphorylation is an essential feature of synaptic function. Although protein phosphorylation is known to be important for many synaptic processes and in disease, little is known about global phosphorylation of synaptic proteins. Heterogeneity and low abundance make protein phosphorylation analysis difficult, particularly for mammalian tissue samples. Using a new approach, combining both protein and peptide immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies, we have produced the first large scale map of the mouse synapse phosphoproteome. We report over 650 phosphorylation events corresponding to 331 sites (289 have been unambiguously assigned), 92% of which are novel. These represent 79 proteins, half of which are novel phosphoproteins, and include several highly phosphorylated proteins such as MAP1B (33 sites) and Bassoon (30 sites). An additional 149 candidate phosphoproteins were identified by profiling the composition of the protein immobilized metal affinity chromatography enrichment. All major synaptic protein classes were observed, including components of important pre- and postsynaptic complexes as well as low abundance signaling proteins. Bioinformatic and in vitro phosphorylation assays of peptide arrays suggest that a small number of kinases phosphorylate many proteins and that each substrate is phosphorylated by many kinases. These data substantially increase existing knowledge of synapse protein phosphorylation and support a model where the synapse phosphoproteome is functionally organized into a highly interconnected signaling network.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5972-82

  • CNS myelin paranodes require Nkx6-2 homeoprotein transcriptional activity for normal structure.

    Southwood C, He C, Garbern J, Kamholz J, Arroyo E and Gow A

    Brookdale Center for Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, 10029, USA.

    Homeodomain proteins play critical roles during development in cell fate determination and proliferation, but few studies have defined gene regulatory networks for this class of transcription factors in differentiated cells. Using a lacZ-knock-in strategy to ablate Nkx6-2, we find that the Nkx6-2 promoter is active embryonically in neuroblasts and postnatally in oligodendrocytes. In addition to neurological deficits, we find widespread ultrastructural abnormalities in CNS white matter and aberrant expression of three genes encoding a paranodal microtubule destabilizing protein, stathmin 1, and the paranodal cell adhesion molecules neurofascin and contactin. The involvement of these downstream proteins in cytoskeletal function and cell adhesion reveals mechanisms whereby Nkx6-2 directly or indirectly regulates axon- glial interactions at myelin paranodes. Nkx6-2 does not appear to be the central regulator of axoglial junction assembly; nonetheless, our data constitute the first evidence of such a regulatory network and provide novel insights into the mechanism and effector molecules that are involved.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC006262, R01 DC006262

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2004;24;50;11215-25

  • Immunolocalization of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 during neoplastic transformation of mouse and human intestinal epithelium.

    Ohno N, Terada N, Murata S, Yamakawa H, Newsham IF, Katoh R, Ohara O and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Tamaho, 409-3898 Yamanashi, Japan. sohno@yamanashi.ac.jp

    Recently, we have reported that the protein 4.1B immunolocalization occurred only in matured columnar epithelial cells of normal rat intestines. This finding suggested that protein 4.1B expression could be examined for a possible change during neoplastic transformation of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we first present the distribution of mouse protein 4.1B in normal intestinal epithelial cells and tumor cells using the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mutant mouse model. A low level of protein 4.1B expression coincided with the phenotypic transition to carcinoma. To examine the protein 4.1B expression in human intestinal mucosa, we used another antibody against an isoform of the human protein 4.1B, DAL-1 (differentially expressed adenocarcinoma of the lung). Human DAL-1 was also expressed in matured epithelial cells in human colons, with a definite expression gradient along the crypt axis. In human colorectal cancer cells, however, DAL-1 expression was not detected. These results suggest that mouse protein 4.1B and human DAL-1 might have a striking analogy of functions, which may be integrally involved in epithelial proliferation. We propose that loss of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 expression might be a marker of intestinal tumors, indicative of a tumor suppressor function in the intestinal mucosa.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2004;122;6;579-86

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: IV. The complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, F-Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Koseki H, Hiraoka S, Saga Y, Seino S, Nishimura M, Kaisho T, Hoshino K, Kitamura H, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have been conducting a mouse cDNA project to predict protein-coding sequences of mouse homologues of human KIAA and FLJ genes since 2001. As an extension of these projects, we herein present the entire sequences of 500 mKIAA cDNA clones and 4 novel cDNA clones that were incidentally identified during this project. We have isolated cDNA clones from the size-fractionated mouse cDNA libraries derived from 7 tissues and 3 types of cultured cells. The average size of the 504 cDNA sequences reached 4.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 807 amino acid residues. We assigned the integrity of CDSs from the comparison with the corresponding human KIAA cDNA sequences. The comparison of mouse and human sequences revealed that two different human KIAA cDNAs are derived from single genes. Furthermore, 3 out of 4 proteins encoded in the novel cDNA clones showed moderate sequence similarity with human KIAA proteins, thus we could obtain new members of KIAA protein families through our mouse cDNA projects.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2004;11;3;205-18

  • Immunohistochemical study of protein 4.1B in the normal and W/W(v) mouse seminiferous epithelium.

    Terada N, Ohno N, Yamakawa H, Baba T, Fujii Y, Zea Z, Ohara O and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Tamaho, Japan. nobuot@yamanashi.ac.jp

    Cell-cell adhesion is crucial not only for mechanical adhesion but also for tissue morphogenesis. Protein 4.1B, a member of the protein 4.1 family named from an erythrocyte membrane protein, is a potential organizer of an adherens system. In adult mouse seminiferous tubules, protein 4.1B localized in the basal compartment, especially in the attaching region of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Protein 4.1B localization and appearance were not different in each spermatogenic stage. Developmentally, protein 4.1B was not detected at postnatal day 3 (P3), was diffusely localized at P15, and was found in the basal compartment during the third week. By double staining for protein 4.1B and F-actin, their localizations were shown to be different, indicating that protein 4.1B was localized in a region lower than the basal ectoplasmic specialization that formed the Sertoli-Sertoli junction. By electron microscopy, immunoreactive products were seen mainly on the membranes of Sertoli cells. In the W/W(v) mutant mouse, the seminiferous epithelium had few germ cells. Protein 4.1B and beta-catenin were not detected, although the basal ectoplasmic specialization was retained. These results indicate that protein 4.1B may be related to the adhesion between Sertoli cells and germ cells, especially the spermatogonium.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2004;52;6;769-77

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Protein 4.1B in mouse islets of Langerhans and beta-cell tumorigenesis.

    Terada N, Ohno N, Yamakawa H, Baba T, Fujii Y, Christofori G, Ohara O and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Tamaho, 409-3898 Yamanashi, Japan. nobuot@res.yamanashi-med.ac.jp

    Protein 4.1 family proteins are thought to interact with membrane proteins and membrane skeletons. Immunohistochemical studies by light and electron microscopy were performed on mouse pancreas with a specific antibody against protein 4.1B. Specific protein 4.1B immunolabeling was observed on endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans. Protein 4.1B localized along the plasma membranes facing adjacent cells. By immunoelectron microscopy, the immunolabeling of the cells was restricted to the cytoplasmic side just beneath their plasma membrane, including the membranes adjacent to neighboring cells, while the plasma membranes facing endothelial cells were not immunolabeled for protein 4.1B. The immunolocalization of E-cadherin was similar, if not identical, to that of protein 4.1B supporting the idea that protein 4.1B may be functionally interconnected with adhesion molecules. In a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic beta-cell carcinogenesis (Rip1Tag2), the loss of protein 4.1B expression coincided with the phenotypic transition from adenoma to carcinoma. Therefore, we propose a role of protein 4.1B as a connecting and/or signaling molecule between membrane architecture, cell adhesion, and tumor cell invasion in mouse pancreatic endocrine cells.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2003;120;4;277-83

  • Association of TAG-1 with Caspr2 is essential for the molecular organization of juxtaparanodal regions of myelinated fibers.

    Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi F, Watanabe K, Soliven B, Girault JA and Karagogeos D

    Department of Basic Science, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion 71110, Crete, Greece.

    Myelination results in a highly segregated distribution of axonal membrane proteins at nodes of Ranvier. Here, we show the role in this process of TAG-1, a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule. In the absence of TAG-1, axonal Caspr2 did not accumulate at juxtaparanodes, and the normal enrichment of shaker-type K+ channels in these regions was severely disrupted, in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In contrast, the localization of protein 4.1B, an axoplasmic partner of Caspr2, was only moderately altered. TAG-1, which is expressed in both neurons and glia, was able to associate in cis with Caspr2 and in trans with itself. Thus, a tripartite intercellular protein complex, comprised of these two proteins, appears critical for axo-glial contacts at juxtaparanodes. This complex is analogous to that described previously at paranodes, suggesting that similar molecules are crucial for different types of axo-glial interactions.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS039346, R01 NS39346-01

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;162;6;1161-72

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Comparison of mRNA and protein levels of four members of the protein 4.1 family: the type II brain 4.1/4.1B/KIAA0987 is the most predominant member of the protein 4.1 family in rat brain.

    Yamakawa H and Ohara O

    Laboratory of DNA Technology, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. yamakawa@kazusa.or.jp

    The human gene for the fourth member of the protein 4.1 family, KIAA0987, was recently identified by comprehensive cDNA analysis. To further characterize the corresponding gene and its product in rats, we cloned and sequenced rat KIAA0987 cDNA. RNA blot analyses revealed that the rat KIAA0987 gene was abundantly expressed only in the brain, kidney, and testis. Although we have previously reported that the third member of the protein 4.1 family, the KIAA0338 gene product, is predominantly expressed in rat brain, and thus was named brain 4.1, quantitative RNA blot analyses indicated that KIAA0987 should be called something other than brain 4.1 because the level of KIAA0987 mRNA was found to be of the same order as that of KIAA0338 mRNA. Our quantitative immunoblot analysis showed that the most predominant member of the protein 4.1 family at the protein level was the product of the KIAA0987 gene, not that of the KIAA0338 gene. Taking these results together, we consider it reasonable to name the KIAA0338 and KIAA0987 gene products 'type I brain 4.1' and 'type II brain 4.1,' respectively, because these two products were found to be more prominently produced in rat brain than the other two members of the protein 4.1 family, erythroid 4.1 and 4.1G.

    Gene 2000;248;1-2;137-45

  • Molecular and functional characterization of protein 4.1B, a novel member of the protein 4.1 family with high level, focal expression in brain.

    Parra M, Gascard P, Walensky LD, Gimm JA, Blackshaw S, Chan N, Takakuwa Y, Berger T, Lee G, Chasis JA, Snyder SH, Mohandas N and Conboy JG

    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    Brain-enriched isoforms of skeletal proteins in the spectrin and ankyrin gene families have been described. Here we characterize protein 4.1B, a novel homolog of erythrocyte protein 4.1R that is encoded by a distinct gene. In situ hybridization revealed high level, focal expression of 4.1B mRNA in select neuronal populations within the mouse brain, including Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, pyramidal cells in hippocampal regions CA1-3, thalamic nuclei, and olfactory bulb. Expression was also detected in adrenal gland, kidney, testis, and heart. 4.1B protein exhibits high homology to the membrane binding, spectrin-actin binding, and C-terminal domains of 4.1R, including motifs for interaction with NuMA and FKBP13. cDNA characterization and Western blot analysis revealed multiple spliceoforms of protein 4.1B, with functionally relevant heterogeneity in the spectrin-actin and NuMA binding domains. Regulated alternative splicing events led to expression of unique 4. 1B isoforms in brain and muscle; only the latter possessed a functional spectrin-actin binding domain. By immunofluorescence, 4. 1B was localized specifically at the plasma membrane in regions of cell-cell contact. Together these results indicate that 4.1B transcription is selectively regulated among neuronal populations and that alternative splicing regulates expression of 4.1B isoforms possessing critical functional domains typical of other protein 4.1 family members.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45182; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32094, P01 DK032094; NIMH NIH HHS: MH18501

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;5;3247-55

  • Four paralogous protein 4.1 genes map to distinct chromosomes in mouse and human.

    Peters LL, Weier HU, Walensky LD, Snyder SH, Parra M, Mohandas N and Conboy JG

    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, 04609, USA.

    Four highly conserved members of the skeletal protein 4.1 gene family encode a diverse array of protein isoforms via tissue-specific transcription and developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In addition to the prototypical red blood cell 4.1R (human gene symbol EPB41,) these include two homologues that are strongly expressed in the brain (4.1N, EPB41L1; and 4.1B, EPB41L3) and another that is widely expressed in many tissues (4.1G, EPB41L2). As part of a study on the structure and evolution of the 4.1 genes in human and mouse, we have now completed the chromosomal mapping of their respective loci by reporting the localization of mouse 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B, as well as human 4.1B. For the mouse 4.1 genes, Southern blot analysis of RFLPs in The Jackson Laboratory BSS interspecific backcross yielded the following assignments: 4.1N (Epb4.1l1,) chromosome 2; 4.1G (Epb4.1l2,) chromosome 10; and 4.1B (Epb4.1l3,) mouse chromosome 17. Human 4.1B was physically mapped to chromosome 18p11 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. All of the mouse genes mapped within or adjacent to regions of conserved synteny with corresponding human chromosomes. We conclude that a set of four paralogous 4.1 genes has been evolutionarily conserved in rodents and primates.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32094

    Genomics 1998;54;2;348-50

  • Analysis of cDNA sequences from mouse testis.

    Kerr SM, Vambrie S, McKay SJ and Cooke HJ

    Medical Research Council Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

    Few mammalian proteins involved in chromosome structure and function during meiosis have been characterized. As an approach to identify such proteins, cDNA clones expressed in mouse testis were analyzed by sequencing and Northern blotting. Various cDNA library screening methods were used to obtain the clones. First, hybridization with cDNA from testis or brain allowed selection of either negative or differentially expressed plaques. Second, positive plaques were identified by screening with polyclonal antisera to prepubertal testis nuclear proteins. Most clones were selected by negative hybridization to correspond to a low abundance class of mRNAs. A PCR-based solid-phase DNA sequencing protocol was used to rapidly obtain 306 single-pass cDNA sequences totaling more than 104 kb. Comparison with nucleic acid and protein databases showed that 56% of the clones have no significant match to any previously identified sequence. Northern blots indicate that many of these novel clones are testis-enriched in their expression. Further evidence that the screening strategies were appropriate is that a high proportion of the clones which do have a match encode testis-enriched or meiosis-specific genes, including the mouse homolog of a rat gene that encodes a synaptonemal complex protein.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;9;557-65

  • Structural diversity of band 4.1 superfamily members.

    Takeuchi K, Kawashima A, Nagafuchi A and Tsukita S

    Department of Information Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Aichi, Japan.

    Several proteins contain the domain homologous to the N-terminal half of band 4.1 protein, indicating the existence of a superfamily. The members of this 'band 4.1' superfamily are thought to play crucial roles in the regulation of cytoskeleton-plasma membrane interaction just beneath plasma membranes. We examined the structural diversity of this superfamily by means of the polymerase chain reaction using synthesized mixed primers. We thus identified many members of the band 4.1 superfamily that were expressed in mouse teratocarcinoma F9 cells and mouse brain tissue. In total, 15 cDNA clones were obtained; 8 were identical to the corresponding parts of cDNAs for the known members, while 7 appeared to encode novel proteins (NBL1-7: novel band 4.1-like proteins). Sequence analyses of these clones revealed that the band 4.1 superfamily can be subdivided into 5 gene families; band 4.1 protein, ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin/merlin/NBL6/NBL7+ ++), talin, PTPH1 (PTPH1/PTPMEG/NBL1-3), and NBL4 (NBL4/NBL5) families. The NBL4 family was first identified here, and the full-length cDNA encoding NBL4 was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a myristoylation site, as well as phosphorylation sites for A-kinase and tyrosine kinases in its N-terminal half, suggesting its involvement in the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cellular events just beneath the plasma membrane. In this study, we describe the initial characterization of these new members and discuss the evolution of the band 4.1 superfamily.

    Journal of cell science 1994;107 ( Pt 7);1921-8

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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