G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Mtap4 (MGI)
Mus musculus
microtubule-associated protein 4
G00001800 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

ENSMUSG00000032479 (Ensembl mouse gene)
17758 (Entrez Gene)
968 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_008633 (Allen Brain Atlas)
17758 (Genepaint)
157132 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:97178 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P27546 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • MAP 4
  • MAP4

Literature (26)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Basis for MAP4 dephosphorylation-related microtubule network densification in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy.

    Cheng G, Takahashi M, Shunmugavel A, Wallenborn JG, DePaoli-Roach AA, Gergs U, Neumann J, Kuppuswamy D, Menick DR and Cooper G

    Gazes Cardiac Research Institute, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29403, USA.

    Increased activity of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases types 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) during maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy contributes to cardiac dysfunction and eventual failure, partly through effects on calcium metabolism. A second maladaptive feature of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy that instead leads to heart failure by interfering with cardiac contraction and intracellular transport is a dense microtubule network stabilized by decoration with microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). In an earlier study we showed that the major determinant of MAP4-microtubule affinity, and thus microtubule network density and stability, is site-specific MAP4 dephosphorylation at Ser-924 and to a lesser extent at Ser-1056; this was found to be prominent in hypertrophied myocardium. Therefore, in seeking the etiology of this MAP4 dephosphorylation, we looked here at PP2A and PP1, as well as the upstream p21-activated kinase 1, in maladaptive pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. The activity of each was increased persistently during maladaptive hypertrophy, and overexpression of PP2A or PP1 in normal hearts reproduced both the microtubule network phenotype and the dephosphorylation of MAP4 Ser-924 and Ser-1056 seen in hypertrophy. Given the major microtubule-based abnormalities of contractile and transport function in maladaptive hypertrophy, these findings constitute a second important mechanism for phosphatase-dependent pathology in the hypertrophied and failing heart.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL094545, HL104287, HL48788, P01 HL048788, R01 HL094545, R21 HL104287

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;49;38125-40

  • Distinct neuronal localization of microtubule-associated protein 4 in the mammalian brain.

    Tokuraku K, Okuyama S, Matsushima K, Ikezu T and Kotani S

    Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Miyakonojo National College of Technology, 473-1 Yoshio-cho, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki 885-8567, Japan. tokuraku@miyakonojo-nct.ac.jp

    Although recent studies have suggested the role of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 4 in some neuron-specific events, there are no reports that directly observed its neuronal localization. Here we show the detailed expression of MAP4 in the mammalian brain. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of MAP4 in all neuronal tissues. The site-specific localization of MAP4 was observed in sagittal brain sections: MAP4 was rich in brain-specific cells, cerebellum Purkinje cells and hippocampus pyramidal cells. When primary cultures of cortical neurons were immunostained, MAP4 was detected in the cell bodies and processes with patchy staining pattern. These results suggested that MAP4 play some roles in the central nervous system, such as the dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization and regulation of the microtubule-dependent long-range transport.

    Neuroscience letters 2010;484;2;143-7

  • Proteomics analysis identifies phosphorylation-dependent alpha-synuclein protein interactions.

    McFarland MA, Ellis CE, Markey SP and Nussbaum RL

    National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20891, USA.

    Mutations and copy number variation in the SNCA gene encoding the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein have been linked to familial Parkinson disease (Thomas, B., and Beal, M. F. (2007) Parkinson's disease. Hum. Mol. Genet. 16, R183-R194). The carboxyl terminus of alpha-synuclein can be phosphorylated at tyrosine 125 and serine 129, although only a small fraction of the protein is phosphorylated under normal conditions (Okochi, M., Walter, J., Koyama, A., Nakajo, S., Baba, M., Iwatsubo, T., Meijer, L., Kahle, P. J., and Haass, C. (2000) Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 390-397). Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson disease, alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease, and is mostly phosphorylated at Ser-129 (Anderson, J. P., Walker, D. E., Goldstein, J. M., de Laat, R., Banducci, K., Caccavello, R. J., Barbour, R., Huang, J. P., Kling, K., Lee, M., Diep, L., Keim, P. S., Shen, X. F., Chataway, T., Schlossmacher, M. G., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., Sinha, S., Gai, W. P., and Chilcote, T. J. (2006) Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 29739-29752). Controversy exists over the extent to which phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein and/or the visible protein aggregation in Lewy bodies are steps in disease pathogenesis, are protective, or are neutral markers for the disease process. Here we used the combination of peptide pulldown assays and mass spectrometry to identify and compare protein-protein interactions of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein. We showed that non-phosphorylated alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus pulled down protein complexes that were highly enriched for mitochondrial electron transport proteins, whereas alpha-synuclein carboxyl terminus phosphorylated on either Ser-129 or Tyr-125 did not. Instead the set of proteins pulled down by phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was highly enriched in certain cytoskeletal proteins, in vesicular trafficking proteins, and in a small number of enzymes involved in protein serine phosphorylation. This targeted comparative proteomics approach for unbiased identification of protein-protein interactions suggests that there are functional consequences when alpha-synuclein is phosphorylated.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIMH NIH HHS: Z01 MH000279

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;11;2123-37

  • Pancreatic LKB1 deletion leads to acinar polarity defects and cystic neoplasms.

    Hezel AF, Gurumurthy S, Granot Z, Swisa A, Chu GC, Bailey G, Dor Y, Bardeesy N and Depinho RA

    MGH Cancer Center, Simches Research Building, CPZN 4216, 185 Cambridge St., Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    LKB1 is a key regulator of energy homeostasis through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and is functionally linked to vascular development, cell polarity, and tumor suppression. In humans, germ line LKB1 loss-of-function mutations cause Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), which is characterized by a predisposition to gastrointestinal neoplasms marked by a high risk of pancreatic cancer. To explore the developmental and physiological functions of Lkb1 in vivo, we examined the impact of conditional Lkb1 deletion in the pancreatic epithelium of the mouse. The Lkb1-deficient pancreas, although grossly normal at birth, demonstrates a defective acinar cell polarity, an abnormal cytoskeletal organization, a loss of tight junctions, and an inactivation of the AMPK/MARK/SAD family kinases. Rapid and progressive postnatal acinar cell degeneration and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia occur, culminating in marked pancreatic insufficiency and the development of pancreatic serous cystadenomas, a tumor type associated with PJS. Lkb1 deficiency also impacts the pancreas endocrine compartment, characterized by smaller and scattered islets and transient alterations in glucose control. These genetic studies provide in vivo evidence of a key role for LKB1 in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity that is vital for pancreatic acinar cell function and viability and for the suppression of neoplasia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K01 CA104647, K01CA104647, K08 CA122835, K08CA122835, P01 CA117969, P01 CA117969-01, P01CA117969-03, U01 CA084313, U01CA084313-09

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;7;2414-25

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor trafficking in adult cardiocytes by MAP4 decoration of microtubules.

    Cheng G, Qiao F, Gallien TN, Kuppuswamy D and Cooper G

    Gazes Cardiac Research Institute, Cardiology Division, Medical University of South Carolina, and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, South Carolina 29403, USA.

    Decreased beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) number occurs both in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and failure and in patients. beta-AR recycling is an important mechanism for the beta-AR resensitization that maintains a normal complement of cell surface beta-ARs. We have shown that 1) in severe pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, there is extensive microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) decoration of a dense microtubule network; and 2) MAP4 microtubule decoration inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptor recycling in neuroblastoma cells. We asked here whether MAP4 microtubule decoration inhibits beta-AR recycling in adult cardiocytes. [(3)H]CGP-12177 was used as a beta-AR ligand, and feline cardiocytes were isolated and infected with adenovirus containing MAP4 (AdMAP4) or beta-galactosidase (Adbeta-gal) cDNA. MAP4 decorated the microtubules extensively only in AdMAP4 cardiocytes. beta-AR agonist exposure reduced cell surface beta-AR number comparably in AdMAP4 and Adbeta-gal cardiocytes; however, after agonist withdrawal, the cell surface beta-AR number recovered to 78.4 +/- 2.9% of the pretreatment value in Adbeta-gal cardiocytes but only to 56.8 +/- 1.4% in AdMAP4 cardiocytes (P < 0.01). This result was confirmed in cardiocytes isolated from transgenic mice having cardiac-restricted MAP4 overexpression. In functional terms of cAMP generation, beta-AR agonist responsiveness of AdMAP4 cells was 47% less than that of Adbeta-gal cells. We conclude that MAP4 microtubule decoration interferes with beta-AR recycling and that this may be one mechanism for beta-AR downregulation in heart failure.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-48788

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2005;288;3;H1193-202

  • Proteomic analysis of in vivo phosphorylated synaptic proteins.

    Collins MO, Yu L, Coba MP, Husi H, Campuzano I, Blackstock WP, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Division of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.

    In the nervous system, protein phosphorylation is an essential feature of synaptic function. Although protein phosphorylation is known to be important for many synaptic processes and in disease, little is known about global phosphorylation of synaptic proteins. Heterogeneity and low abundance make protein phosphorylation analysis difficult, particularly for mammalian tissue samples. Using a new approach, combining both protein and peptide immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry data acquisition strategies, we have produced the first large scale map of the mouse synapse phosphoproteome. We report over 650 phosphorylation events corresponding to 331 sites (289 have been unambiguously assigned), 92% of which are novel. These represent 79 proteins, half of which are novel phosphoproteins, and include several highly phosphorylated proteins such as MAP1B (33 sites) and Bassoon (30 sites). An additional 149 candidate phosphoproteins were identified by profiling the composition of the protein immobilized metal affinity chromatography enrichment. All major synaptic protein classes were observed, including components of important pre- and postsynaptic complexes as well as low abundance signaling proteins. Bioinformatic and in vitro phosphorylation assays of peptide arrays suggest that a small number of kinases phosphorylate many proteins and that each substrate is phosphorylated by many kinases. These data substantially increase existing knowledge of synapse protein phosphorylation and support a model where the synapse phosphoproteome is functionally organized into a highly interconnected signaling network.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;5972-82

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Fine mapping of the circling (cir) gene on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 9.

    Cho KI, Lee JW, Kim KS, Lee EJ, Suh JG, Lee HJ, Kim HT, Hong SH, Chung WH, Chang KT, Hyun BH, Oh YS and Ryoo ZY

    Catholic Research Institutes of Medical Science, Catholic Medical College, 505 Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-701, Korea.

    Circling mice manifest profound deafness, head-tossing, and bi-directional circling behavior, which they inherit in autosomal recessive manner. Histologic examination of the inner ear reveals abnormalities of the region around the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion neurons, and outer hair cells. A genetic linkage map was constructed for an intraspecific backcross between cir and C57BL/6J mice. The cir gene was mapped to a region between D9Mit116/D9Mit15 and D9Mit38 on mouse chromosome (Chr) 9. Estimated distances between cir and D9Mit116, and between cir and D9Mit38 were 0.70 +/- 0.40 and 0.23 +/- 0.23 cM, respectively. Order of the markers was defined as follows: centromere - D9Mit182 - D9Mit51/D9Mit79/D9Mit310 - D9Mit212/D184 - D9Mit116/D9Mit15 - cir - D9Mit38 - D9Mit20 - D9Mit243 - D9Mit16 - D9Mit55/D9Mit125 - D9Mit281. On the basis of genetic mapping, we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig across the cir region. The cir gene is located between the lactotransferrin (ltf) and microtubule-associated protein (map4) genes. The distal portion of mouse Chr 9 encompassing the cir region is homologous with human chromosome 3p21, which contains the Deafness, form B: Autosomal Recessive Deafness (DFNB6) locus. Therefore, the circling mouse is a potential animal model for DFNB6 deafness in humans.

    Comparative medicine 2003;53;6;642-8

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Interacting QTLs for cholesterol gallstones and gallbladder mucin in AKR and SWR strains of mice.

    Wittenburg H, Lammert F, Wang DQ, Churchill GA, Li R, Bouchard G, Carey MC and Paigen B

    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

    We employed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in a backcross between gallstone-susceptible SWR/J and gallstone-resistant AKR/J inbred mice to identify additional susceptibility loci for cholesterol gallstone formation. After 12 wk of feeding the mice a lithogenic diet, we phenotyped 330 backcross progeny for gallstones, gallbladder mucin accumulation, liver weight, and body weight. Marker-based regression analysis revealed significant single QTLs associated with gallstone formation on chromosome 9 and the liver weight/body weight ratio on chromosomes 5 and X. A search for gene pairs detected significant gene-gene interactions for mucin accumulation between loci on chromosomes 5 and 11 and suggestive gene-gene interactions linked to gallstone formation between the QTL on chromosome 9 and loci on chromosomes 6 and 15. These findings uncover new QTLs for cholesterol gallstones, reveal independent loci for mucin accumulation, and demonstrate the importance of considering gene-gene interactions in cholesterol cholelithiasis. According to standard nomenclature, the gallstone QTL on chromosome 9 is named Lith5.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-34854, DK-36588, DK-51568, DK-52911, DK-54012

    Physiological genomics 2002;8;1;67-77

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • cDNA cloning, mapping and expression of the mouse propionyl CoA carboxylase beta (pccb), the gene for human type II propionic acidaemia.

    Schrick JJ and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45267, USA. jerry.lingrel@uc.edu

    Propionyl CoA carboxylase (PCC) is a mitochondrial, biotin-dependent enzyme involved in the catabolism of amino acids, odd-chained fatty acids and other metabolites. PCC is composed of two equal subunits, alpha and beta, which are encoded by two separate genes at two distinct human loci. Mutations of either gene in humans results in propionic acidemia (PA). To identify the mouse cDNA for the propionyl CoA carboxylase beta-subunit (pccb), we have screened the mouse EST database using the human sequence. The murine mRNA transcript is approximately 2.3 kb, nearly 500 bps larger than the human approximately 1.8 kb transcript. A PAC genomic DNA clone from the mouse was also isolated and used to generate probes and PCR primers for mapping the pccb locus in the mouse. Both the C57Bl/6JEi and Spret/Ei alleles for regions flanking the pccb gene were sequenced to identify RFLPs. The Jackson Laboratory BSS and BSB backcross panel DNAs were then analyzed using a DdeI polymorphism placing the pccb locus on mouse chromosome 9. Northern blots of adult tissue show that the pccb gene is broadly expressed in the mouse. The approximately 2.3 kb transcript is most abundantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and stomach tissues.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL41496

    Gene 2001;264;1;147-52

  • Perinatal lethality of microtubule-associated protein 1B-deficient mice expressing alternative isoforms of the protein at low levels.

    González-Billault C, Demandt E, Wandosell F, Torres M, Bonaldo P, Stoykova A, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Avila J and Sánchez MP

    Centro de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) has been implicated in axogenesis in cultured cells. To gain insight into the functions that MAP1B plays in vivo, we analyzed a strain of Map1B mutant mice generated by a gene trapping approach. Homozygous mice die on the first day after birth, probably due to a severe abnormal development of the nervous system. They present alterations in the structure of several brain regions. The normal Map1B gene yields different protein isoforms from alternatively spliced transcripts. The smaller isoforms were present in wild type, hetero-, and homozygous mice, but their expression was higher in the mutants than in the wild-type. Moreover, trace amounts of MAP1B protein were also observed in Map1B homozygous mutants, indicating an alternative splicing around the gene trap insertion. Thus, the Map1B gene trapped mutation reported in this work did not generated a null mutant, but a mouse with a drastic deficiency in MAP1B expression. Analyses of these mice indicate the presence of several neural defects and suggest the participation of MAP1B in neuronal migration.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2000;16;4;408-21

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Compensation for a gene trap mutation in the murine microtubule-associated protein 4 locus by alternative polyadenylation and alternative splicing.

    Voss AK, Thomas T and Gruss P

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. avoss@gwdg.de

    One of the features expected of the gene trap approach is the functional mutation of a gene, allowing its loss-of-function phenotype analysis. We have mutated the murine microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP-4) locus by inserting a splice-acceptor gene trap construct. Because the MAP-4 gene has been cloned, sufficient information is available to investigate the efficiency of the gene trap insertion in disrupting the protein-coding region. The fusion mRNA contains the first 905 bases of the MAP-4 mRNA and is expected to code for a truncated, nonfunctional MAP-4 protein missing, among others, the microtubule-binding domain. Activity of the lacZ marker gene of the gene trap construct was observed in all tissues throughout development and in all cells examined in adult animals. However, some cells and tissues showed higher levels of activity than others: for example, blood vessel endothelium, heart, aspects of the developing nervous system, surface ectoderm of embryonic day 11.5 embryos, and the ependymal layer and blood vessel endothelium in adult brain. MAP-4 binds to microtubules and is thought to modulate their stability. It is expressed differentially in different tissues as 5.5-kb, 6.5-kb, 8-kb, 9-kb, and 10-kb mRNA species from a single copy gene in mice. Northern hybridization with a 5', MAP-4-specific probe revealed a 3.3-kb splice variant, which has not been described previously, that was expressed as the most abundant MAP-4 mRNA species in the brain but not in other tissues. Mice homozygous for the reported gene trap insertion in the MAP-4 locus (MAP-4gt/gt) are viable and appear to be phenotypically normal. They exhibited normal levels of all MAP-4 mRNA species in brain and kidney, showing that the simian virus 40-polyadenylation signal of the gene trap construct was ignored and also showing compensation for the gene trap insertion by splicing around the gene trap construct.

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 1998;212;2;258-66

  • The gene for microtubule-associated protein 4 (Mtap4) maps to the distal region of mouse chromosome 9.

    Mangan ME and Olmsted JB

    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 22214

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;12;918-9

  • A muscle-specific variant of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) is required in myogenesis.

    Mangan ME and Olmsted JB

    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA.

    Microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) transcripts vary in different mouse tissues, with striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) expressing 8- and 9-kb transcripts preferentially to the more widely distributed 5.5- and 6.5-kb transcripts (West, R. W., Tenbarge, K. M. and Olmsted, J. B. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 21886-21896). Cloning of the sequence unique to the muscle transcripts demonstrated that these mRNAs vary from the more ubiquitous ones by a single 3.2-kb coding region insertion within the projection domain of MAP4. During differentiation of the myogenic cell line, C2C12, muscle-specific MAP4 transcripts appear within 24 hours of growth in differentiation medium, and a larger MAP4 isotype (350 X 10(3) Mr) accumulates to high levels by 48 hours of differentiation. In situ hybridization analyses of transcript distribution in mouse embryos demonstrated that muscle-specific transcripts appear early in myogenesis. To block the expression of the muscle-specific MAP4, stable lines of C2C12 were generated bearing an antisense construct with the muscle-specific MAP4 sequence. Myoblast growth was unaffected whereas myotube formation was severely perturbed. Fusion occurred in the absence of the muscle MAP4 isotype, but the multinucleate syncytia were short and apolar, microtubules were disorganized and normal anisotropic myofibrils were absent. The patterns of expression of the muscle-specific transcripts and the antisense experiments indicated that this unique structural form of MAP4 plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of muscle.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 5 T32 GM0712, GM 22214

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1996;122;3;771-81

  • Mouse microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) transcript diversity generated by alternative polyadenylation.

    Code RJ and Olmsted JB

    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627.

    Mouse microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) is a protein that co-locates with microtubules in vivo. It is encoded by a single-copy gene that expresses multiple transcripts in most cell types [West et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 21886-21896]. This report describes the identification of two distinct 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) for MAP4 transcripts. The 3'-UTRs of the transcripts are identical up to the site of polyadenylation of the shorter mRNA. The longer transcript contains an additional 775 nucleotides after the first polyadenylation site. Both poly(A) tails follow the canonical polyadenylation site motif, AAUAAA. These data show that two different UTRs arise as a result of alternative polyadenylation site usage. Northern blots of RNA from different tissues probed with coding sequence show hybridization to the common 5.5- and 6.5-kb transcripts, whereas blots probed with sequence unique to the longer 3'-UTR show hybridization only to the 6.5-kb band. Both transcripts are found within the same cell type. In addition, muscle contains additional transcripts of 8 and 9 kb, of which only the 9-kb transcript hybridizes to the longer 3'-UTR probe.

    Gene 1992;122;2;367-70

  • A model for microtubule-associated protein 4 structure. Domains defined by comparisons of human, mouse, and bovine sequences.

    West RR, Tenbarge KM and Olmsted JB

    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, New York 14627.

    cDNAs encoding human and mouse microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP 4) were isolated. MAP 4 is encoded by a single gene. Multiple MAP 4 mRNAs are transcribed that are differentially expressed among mouse tissues. Open reading frames for the human and mouse MAP 4 clones indicate three distinct regions consisting of related sequences with different motifs. Approximately 30% of the protein is tandem related repeats of approximately 14 amino acids. Another region contains clusters of serine and proline. Four 18-mer repeats characteristic of the microtubule-binding domains of MAP 2 and tau are located at the carboxyl-terminal portion of MAP 4. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that human and mouse MAP 4 are homologs of the bovine 190-kDa MAP/MAP U (Aizawa, H., Emori, Y., Murofushi, H., Kawasakai, H., Sakai, H., and Suzuki, K. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 13849-13855). Mouse and human MAP 4 and the bovine 190-kDa MAP are approximately 75% similar, indicating that these proteins are all members of the same class. Domains with extremely high conservation (greater than or equal to 88%) are: 1) the extreme amino terminus; 2) a proline-rich region between the KDM and S,P domains; 3) the microtubule-binding domain; and 4) the extreme carboxyl terminus.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 22214

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;32;21886-96

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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