G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000548
Gene symbol
Macf1 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1
Orthologue
G00001797 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (11)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000008977 (Vega mouse gene)
Gene
ENSMUSG00000028649 (Ensembl mouse gene)
11426 (Entrez Gene)
965 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:108559 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00275 (BGEM)
11426 (Genepaint)
macf1 (gensat)
Literature
608271 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:108559 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9QXZ0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • Acf7
  • Aclp7
  • trabeculin alpha

Literature (33)

Pubmed - other

  • Skin stem cells orchestrate directional migration by regulating microtubule-ACF7 connections through GSK3β.

    Wu X, Shen QT, Oristian DS, Lu CP, Zheng Q, Wang HW and Fuchs E

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.

    Homeostasis and wound healing rely on stem cells (SCs) whose activity and directed migration are often governed by Wnt signaling. In dissecting how this pathway integrates with the necessary downstream cytoskeletal dynamics, we discovered that GSK3β, a kinase inhibited by Wnt signaling, directly phosphorylates ACF7, a > 500 kDa microtubule-actin crosslinking protein abundant in hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs). We map ACF7's GSK3β sites to the microtubule-binding domain and show that phosphorylation uncouples ACF7 from microtubules. Phosphorylation-refractile ACF7 rescues overall microtubule architecture, but phosphorylation-constitutive mutants do not. Neither mutant rescues polarized movement, revealing that phospho-regulation must be dynamic. This circuitry is physiologically relevant and depends upon polarized GSK3β inhibition at the migrating front of SCs/progeny streaming from HFs during wound repair. Moreover, only ACF7 and not GSKβ-refractile-ACF7 restore polarized microtubule-growth and SC-migration to ACF7 null skin. Our findings provide insights into how this conserved spectraplakin integrates signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and polarized locomotion of somatic SCs.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR027883, R01 AR050452, R01 AR050452-09, R01-AR27883, R37 AR027883, R37 AR027883-30, R37 AR027883-30S1, R37 AR027883-31, R37 AR027883-32, R37 AR027883-33

    Cell 2011;144;3;341-52

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Nervous-tissue-specific elimination of microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1a results in multiple developmental defects in the mouse brain.

    Goryunov D, He CZ, Lin CS, Leung CL and Liem RK

    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY, NY 10032, USA.

    The microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is a ubiquitous cytoskeletal linker protein with multiple spliced isoforms expressed in different tissues. The MACF1a isoform contains microtubule and actin-binding regions and is expressed at high levels in the nervous system. Macf1-/- mice are early embryonic lethal and hence the role of MACF1 in the nervous system could not be determined. We have specifically knocked out MACF1a in the developing mouse nervous system using Cre/loxP technology. Mutant mice died within 24-36h after birth of apparent respiratory distress. Their brains displayed a disorganized cerebral cortex with a mixed layer structure, heterotopia in the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus, disorganized thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers, and aplastic anterior and hippocampal commissures. Embryonic neurons showed a defect in traversing the cortical plate. Our data suggest a critical role for MACF1 in neuronal migration that is dependent on its ability to interact with both microfilaments and microtubules.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS40784, NS47711, R01 NS040784, R01 NS040784-04, R01 NS047711, R01 NS047711-04

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2010;44;1;1-14

  • Large gradient high magnetic field affects the association of MACF1 with actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Qian AR, Hu LF, Gao X, Zhang W, Di SM, Tian ZC, Yang PF, Yin DC, Weng YY and Shang P

    Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences & Biotechnology, Institute of Special Environmental Biophysics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaan Xi Province, PR China.

    The intense inhomogeneous magnetic fields acting on the diamagnetic materials naturally present in cells can generate strong magnetic forces. We have developed a superconducting magnet platform with large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can produce three magnetic force fields of -1360, 0, and 1312 T(2)/m, and three corresponding apparent gravity levels, namely 0, 1, and 2-g for diamagnetic materials. In this study, the effects of different magnetic force fields on osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 and MC3T3-E1) viability, microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) expression and its association with cytoskeleton were investigated. Results showed that cell viability increased to different degrees after exposure to 0 or 1-g conditions for 24 h, but it decreased by about 30% under 2-g conditions compared with control conditions. An increase in MACF1 expression at the RNA or protein level was observed in osteoblast-like cells under the magnetic force field of -1360 T(2)/m (0-g) relative to 1312 T(2)/m (2-g). Under control conditions, anti-MACF1 staining was scattered in the cytoplasm and partially colocalized with actin filaments (AFs) or microtubules (MTs) in the majority of osteoblast-like cells. Under 0-g conditions, MACF1 labeling was concentrated at perinuclear region and colocalization was not apparent. The patterns of anti-MACF1 labeling on MTs varied with MTs' changing under LG-HMF environment. In conclusion, LG-HMF affects osteoblast-like cell viability, MACF1 distribution, expression, and its association with cytoskeleton to some extent.

    Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30;7;545-55

  • Mouse ACF7 and drosophila short stop modulate filopodia formation and microtubule organisation during neuronal growth.

    Sanchez-Soriano N, Travis M, Dajas-Bailador F, Gonçalves-Pimentel C, Whitmarsh AJ and Prokop A

    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.

    Spectraplakins are large actin-microtubule linker molecules implicated in various processes, including gastrulation, wound healing, skin blistering and neuronal degeneration. Expression data for the mammalian spectraplakin ACF7 and genetic analyses of the Drosophila spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) suggest an important role during neurogenesis. Using three parallel neuronal culture systems we demonstrate that, like Shot, ACF7 is essential for axon extension and describe, for the first time, their subcellular functions during axonal growth. Firstly, both ACF7 and Shot regulate the organisation of neuronal microtubules, a role dependent on both the F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains. This role in microtubule organisation is probably the key mechanism underlying the roles of Shot and ACF7 in growth cone advance. Secondly, we found a novel role for ACF7 and Shot in regulating the actin cytoskeleton through their ability to control the formation of filopodia. This function in F-actin regulation requires EF-hand motifs and interaction with the translational regulator Krasavietz/eIF5C, indicating that the underlying mechanisms are completely different from those used to control microtubules. Our data provide the basis for the first mechanistic explanation for the role of Shot and ACF7 in the developing nervous system and demonstrate their ability to coordinate the organisation of both actin and microtubule networks during axonal growth.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/C515998/1; Medical Research Council: G0400620; Wellcome Trust: 077748/Z/05/Z

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 14;2534-42

  • Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis for identification of mouse KIAA/FLJ genes differentially expressed in the embryonic dorsal spinal cord.

    Masuda T, Kai N, Sakuma C, Kobayashi K, Koga H and Yaginuma H

    Department of Anatomy, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan. tmasu@fmu.ac.jp

    During early development, centrally projecting dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons extend their axons toward the dorsal spinal cord. We previously reported that this projection is achieved by dorsal spinal cord-derived chemoattraction. However, the molecular nature of the chemotrophic cue is not yet fully understood. To identify novel genes differentially expressed in the dorsal spinal cord in the embryonic day 10.5 mouse, we used the Kazusa cDNA array system comprising approximately 1700 mouse KIAA/FLJ (mKIAA/mFLJ) cDNA clones and laser capture microdissection (LCM) in combination with PCR-based cDNA amplification. We observed that a certain population of genes showed significantly increased expression in the dorsal spinal cord. In situ hybridization analysis verified the expression of mRNAs of 6 genes (Hip1r, Nav2, Fstl5, Cacna1h, Bcr, and Bmper) in the cells that constitute the dorsal spinal cord. The dorsal spinal cord-specific genes identified in this study provide a basis for studying the molecular nature of the neural development including the axonal guidance of DRG neurons. These results also demonstrate that the combined use of LCM coupled with the Kazusa cDNA array technology will be useful for the identification of large proteins expressed in the restricted small regions of embryos.

    Brain research 2009;1249;61-7

  • ACF7 regulates cytoskeletal-focal adhesion dynamics and migration and has ATPase activity.

    Wu X, Kodama A and Fuchs E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.

    Coordinated interactions between microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeletons are involved in many polarized cellular processes. Spectraplakins are enormous (>500 kDa) proteins able to bind both MTs and actin filaments (F-actin) directly. To elucidate the physiological significance and functions of mammalian spectraplakin ACF7, we've conditionally targeted it in skin epidermis. Intriguingly, ACF7 deficiency compromises the targeting of microtubules along F-actin to focal adhesions (FAs), stabilizes FA-actin networks, and impairs epidermal migration. Exploring underlying mechanisms, we show that ACF7's binding domains for F-actin, MTs, and MT plus-end proteins are not sufficient to rescue the defects in FA-cytoskeletal dynamics and migration functions of ACF7 null keratinocytes. We've uncovered an intrinsic actin-regulated ATPase domain in ACF7 and demonstrate that it is both functional and essential for these roles. Our findings provide insight into the functions of this important cytoskeletal crosslinking protein in regulating dynamic interactions between MTs and F-actin to sustain directional cell movement.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR027883, R01 AR027883-29, R01-AR27883

    Cell 2008;135;1;137-48

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • The actin binding domain of ACF7 binds directly to the tetratricopeptide repeat domains of rapsyn.

    Antolik C, Catino DH, O'Neill AM, Resneck WG, Ursitti JA and Bloch RJ

    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Formation of the neuromuscular junction requires the release of agrin from the presynaptic terminal of motor neurons. Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on the postsynaptic sarcolemma is initiated by agrin-dependent activation of the muscle-specific kinase. While the postsynaptic scaffolding protein rapsyn is vital for high density AChR aggregation, little is known about the mechanism through which AChRs are immobilized on the postsynaptic membrane. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat skeletal muscle have suggested that AChRs are anchored to a membrane-associated cytoskeleton that contains spectrin-like proteins and is thus similar to that of the human erythrocyte [Bloch RJ, Bezakova G, Ursitti JA, Zhou D, Pumplin DW (1997) A membrane skeleton that clusters nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in muscle. Soc Gen Physiol Ser 52:177-195]. We are studying a protein of the spectrin superfamily, ACF7 (also known as MACF), as a postsynaptic cytoskeletal component of the neuromuscular junction. ACF7 has multiple cytoskeleton-binding domains, including an N-terminal actin-binding domain that, we postulate, may interact with rapsyn, the scaffolding protein that binds directly to AChRs. To test this hypothesis, we co-expressed fragments of these molecules in cultured fibroblasts and assessed their co-distribution and interaction using confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. We demonstrate that the actin-binding domain of ACF7 specifically interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat domains of rapsyn. Furthermore, we show using surface plasmon resonance and blot overlay that the actin-binding domain of ACF7 binds directly to rapsyn. These results suggest that, in mammalian skeletal muscle, AChRs are immobilized in the membrane through rapsyn-mediated anchoring to an ACF7-containing network that in turn is linked to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: T32 AR007592; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS017282, R01 NS17282

    Neuroscience 2007;145;1;56-65

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • The role of microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) in the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Chen HJ, Lin CM, Lin CS, Perez-Olle R, Leung CL and Liem RK

    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    MACF1 (microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1) is a multidomain protein that can associate with microfilaments and microtubules. We found that MACF1 was highly expressed in neuronal tissues and the foregut of embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) embryos and the head fold and primitive streak of E7.5 embryos. MACF1(-/-) mice died at the gastrulation stage and displayed developmental retardation at E7.5 with defects in the formation of the primitive streak, node, and mesoderm. This phenotype was similar to Wnt-3(-/-) and LRP5/6 double-knockout embryos. In the absence of Wnt, MACF1 associated with a complex that contained Axin, beta-catenin, GSK3beta, and APC. Upon Wnt stimulation, MACF1 appeared to be involved in the translocation and subsequent binding of the Axin complex to LRP6 at the cell membrane. Reduction of MACF1 with small interfering RNA decreased the amount of beta-catenin in the nucleus, and led to an inhibition of Wnt-induced TCF/beta-catenin-dependent transcriptional activation. Similar results were obtained with a dominant-negative MACF1 construct that contained the Axin-binding region. Reduction of MACF1 in Wnt-1-expressing P19 cells resulted in decreased T (Brachyury) gene expression, a DNA-binding transcription factor that is a direct target of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and required for mesoderm formation. These results suggest a new role of MACF1 in the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Genes & development 2006;20;14;1933-45

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1b: a novel plakin that localizes to the Golgi complex.

    Lin CM, Chen HJ, Leung CL, Parry DA and Liem RK

    Department of Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    MACF1 (microtubule actin crosslinking factor), also called ACF7 (actin crosslinking family 7) is a cytoskeletal linker protein that can associate with both actin filaments and microtubules. We have identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of MACF1. We named this isoform MACF1b and renamed the original isoform MACF1a. MACF1b is identical to MACF1a, except that it has a region containing plakin (or plectin) repeats in the middle of the molecule. MACF1b is ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues with especially high levels in the lung. We studied the subcellular localization of MACF1b proteins in mammalian cell lines. In two lung cell lines, MACF1b was chiefly localized to the Golgi complex. Upon treatments that disrupt the Golgi complex, MACF1b redistributed into the cytosol, but remained co-localized with the dispersed Golgi ministacks. MACF1b proteins can be detected in the enriched Golgi fraction by western blotting. The domain of MACF1b that targets it to the Golgi was found at the N-terminal part of the region that contains the plakin repeats. Reducing the level of MACF1 proteins by small-interfering RNA resulted in the dispersal of the Golgi complex.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS040784

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 16;3727-38

  • Tagging genes with cassette-exchange sites.

    Cobellis G, Nicolaus G, Iovino M, Romito A, Marra E, Barbarisi M, Sardiello M, Di Giorgio FP, Iovino N, Zollo M, Ballabio A and Cortese R

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    In an effort to make transgenesis more flexible and reproducible, we developed a system based on novel 5' and 3' 'gene trap' vectors containing heterospecific Flp recognition target sites and the corresponding 'exchange' vectors allowing the insertion of any DNA sequence of interest into the trapped locus. Flp-recombinase-mediated cassette exchange was demonstrated to be highly efficient in our system, even in the absence of locus-specific selection. The feasibility of constructing a library of ES cell clones using our gene trap vectors was tested and a thousand insertion sites were characterized, following electroporation in ES cells, by RACE-PCR and sequencing. We validated the system in vivo for two trapped loci in transgenic mice and demonstrated that the reporter transgenes inserted into the trapped loci have an expression pattern identical to the endogenous genes. We believe that this system will facilitate in vivo studies of gene function and large-scale generation of mouse models of human diseases, caused by not only loss but also gain of function alleles.

    Funded by: Telethon: TGM03S01, TGM06S01

    Nucleic acids research 2005;33;4;e44

  • Mouse brain organization revealed through direct genome-scale TF expression analysis.

    Gray PA, Fu H, Luo P, Zhao Q, Yu J, Ferrari A, Tenzen T, Yuk DI, Tsung EF, Cai Z, Alberta JA, Cheng LP, Liu Y, Stenman JM, Valerius MT, Billings N, Kim HA, Greenberg ME, McMahon AP, Rowitch DH, Stiles CD and Ma Q

    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    In the developing brain, transcription factors (TFs) direct the formation of a diverse array of neurons and glia. We identifed 1445 putative TFs in the mouse genome. We used in situ hybridization to map the expression of over 1000 of these TFs and TF-coregulator genes in the brains of developing mice. We found that 349 of these genes showed restricted expression patterns that were adequate to describe the anatomical organization of the brain. We provide a comprehensive inventory of murine TFs and their expression patterns in a searchable brain atlas database.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004;306;5705;2255-7

  • A neurogenomics approach to gene expression analysis in the developing brain.

    Jensen P, Magdaleno S, Lehman KM, Rice DS, Lavallie ER, Collins-Racie L, McCoy JM and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, United States.

    Secreted and transmembrane proteins provide critical functions in the signaling networks essential for neurogenesis. We used a genetic signal sequence gene trap approach to isolate 189 genes expressed during development in e16.5 whole head, e16.5 hippocampus and e14.5 cerebellum. Gene ontology programs were used to classify the genes into respective biological processes. Four major classes of biological processes known to be important during development were identified: cell communication, cell physiology processes, metabolism and morphogenesis. We used in situ hybridization to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression in the developing brain using this set of probes. The results demonstrate that gene expression patterns can highlight potential gene functions in specific brain regions. We propose that combining bioinformatics with the gene expression pattern is an effective strategy to identify genes that may play critical roles during brain development.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R37 NS36558

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2004;132;2;116-27

  • Gene structure and evolution of testicular haploid germ cell-specific genes, Oxct2a and Oxct2b.

    Onishi M, Yasunaga T, Tanaka H, Nishimune Y and Nozaki M

    Department of Science for Laboratory Animal Experimentation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    OXCT/SCOT is the rate-determining enzyme in ketolysis in mitochondria of many extrahepatic organs. Two testicular isoforms, Oxct2a and Oxct2b, are highly homologous and specifically expressed in haploid spermatids of the mouse. In this report, we analyzed the structure and evolution of Oxct2a and Oxct2b. Both Oxct2's are single-copy intronless genes, of which nucleotide sequences are conserved with Oxct, indicating that these genes are transposons generated from Oxct. A CpG island was found within both Oxct2's. Oxct2a and Oxct2b are located in the third introns of Bmp8a and Bmp8b, and they are positioned within a 240-kb region in a tail-to-tail orientation on chromosome 4. This structural feature was also conserved in a syntenic region of human 1p34.3. Structural similarity between mice and humans indicated that these two sets of genes were generated by a segmental gene duplication, which occurred before the primate-rodent split. Dot matrix and phylogenetic tree analyses demonstrated that multiple rounds of intrachromosomal gene conversion between the two loci occurred in each species independently.

    Genomics 2004;83;4;647-57

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • ACF7: an essential integrator of microtubule dynamics.

    Kodama A, Karakesisoglou I, Wong E, Vaezi A and Fuchs E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    ACF7 is a member of the spectraplakin family of cytoskeletal crosslinking proteins possessing actin and microtubule binding domains. Here, we show that ACF7 is an essential integrator of MT-actin dynamics. In endodermal cells, ACF7 binds along microtubules but concentrates at their distal ends and at cell borders when polarized. In ACF7's absence, microtubules still bind EB1 and CLIP170, but they no longer grow along polarized actin bundles, nor do they pause and tether to actin-rich cortical sites. The consequences are less stable, long microtubules with skewed cytoplasmic trajectories and altered dynamic instability. In response to wounding, ACF7 null cultures activate polarizing signals, but fail to maintain them and coordinate migration. Rescue of these defects requires ACF7's actin and microtubule binding domains. Thus, spectraplakins are important for controlling microtubule dynamics and reinforcing links between microtubules and polarized F-actin, so that cellular polarization and coordinated cell movements can be sustained.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR027883-28

    Cell 2003;115;3;343-54

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: II. The complete nucleotide sequences of 400 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Aizawa H, Yuasa S, Nakajima D, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have accumulated information of the coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, and the number of these genes exceeds 2000 at present. As an extension of this sequencing project, we recently have begun to accumulate mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs, because it would be useful to prepare a set of human and mouse homologous cDNA pairs for further functional analysis of the KIAA genes. We herein present the entire sequences of 400 mouse KIAA cDNA clones and 4 novel cDNA clones which were incidentally identified during this project. Most of clones entirely sequenced in this study were selected by computer-assisted analysis of terminal sequences of the cDNAs. The average size of the 404 cDNA sequences reached 5.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 868 amino acid residues. The results of sequence analyses of these clones showed that single mouse KIAA cDNAs bridged two different human KIAA cDNAs in some cases, which indicated that these two human KIAA cDNAs were derived from single genes although they had been supposed to originate from different genes. Furthermore, we successfully mapped all the mouse KIAA cDNAs along the genome using a recently published mouse genome draft sequence.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;1;35-48

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Expression of the mouse Macf2 gene during inner ear development.

    Leonova EV and Lomax MI

    Department of Otolaryngology/Head-Neck Surgery, Kresge Hearing Research Institute, The University of Michigan, 1150 W Medical Center Dr 9301E MSRB III, Box 0648, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0648, USA.

    Plakins, a family of linker proteins that connect cytoskeletal elements to cellular junctions and the extracellular matrix, are primarily responsible for the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. They include desmoplakin, envoplakin, plectin, dystonin/BPAG1, and Kakapo. Mutations in plakins cause several skin, muscular and neurological disorders. Macrophins are a recently discovered subfamily of plakins with binding domains for actin, intermediate filaments and microtubules. Characteristic features of macrophins include variable actin binding domains, a central rod domain containing both plectin and spectrin repeats, and a C-terminus containing EF hands and GAS2/GAR22 domain. We have examined expression of mouse Macf2, encoding macrophin-2, in adult tissues and in the developing, neonatal, and mature inner ear by in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis identified three large tissue-specific Macf2 transcripts: a 16-kb mRNA in skeletal muscle and heart, a 15-kb mRNA in brain, and a 9-kb mRNA in RNA from ovary plus uterus. In situ hybridization of the developing mouse inner ear indicated that Macf2 is expressed in the otocyst at day 12.5, in the sensory epithelium by embryonic day 16.5, and in both inner and outer hair cells by day 16.5. Macf2 is expressed in the bodies of both sensory and motor neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, including the auditory pathway. The Macf2 protein could be involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal connections to cellular junctions and play an important structural role in organs, such as the inner ear, that are subjected to strong mechanical forces.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: P01 DC02567, T32 DC00011

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2002;105;1-2;67-78

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • Acf7 (MACF) is an actin and microtubule linker protein whose expression predominates in neural, muscle, and lung development.

    Bernier G, Pool M, Kilcup M, Alfoldi J, De Repentigny Y and Kothary R

    Centre for Molecular Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Several proteins belonging to the plakin family of cytoskeletal linker proteins have recently been identified, including dystonin/Bpag1 and plectin. These proteins are unique in their abilities to form bridges between different cytoskeletal elements through specialized modular domains. We have previously reported the cloning and partial characterization of Acf7, a novel member of the plakin family. More recently, the full-length cDNA for mouse Acf7 has been reported. Acf7 has a hybrid composition, with extended homology to dystonin/Bpag1 and plectin in the N-terminal half, and to dystrophin in the central and C-terminal half. Recent studies have demonstrated that Acf7 has functional actin and microtubule binding domains. Here, we describe the developmental expression profile for mouse Acf7. RNA in situ hybridization experiments revealed Acf7 transcripts in the dermomyotome and neural fold of day 8.5 mouse embryos. Later in development, Acf7 expression was predominant in neural and muscle tissues and was strongly up-regulated just before birth in type II alveolar cells of the lung. Altogether, our results suggest that Acf7 functions as a versatile cytoskeletal linker protein and plays an important role in neural, muscle, and lung development.

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 2000;219;2;216-25

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular junctions.

    Karakesisoglou I, Yang Y and Fuchs E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    Plakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins initially thought to interact exclusively with intermediate filaments (IFs), but recently were found to associate additionally with actin and microtubule networks. Here, we report on ACF7, a mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila kakapo plakin genetically involved in epidermal-muscle adhesion and neuromuscular junctions. While ACF7/kakapo is divergent from other plakins in its IF-binding domain, it has at least one actin (K(d) = 0.35 microM) and one microtubule (K(d) approximately 6 microM) binding domain. Similar to its fly counterpart, ACF7 is expressed in the epidermis. In well spread epidermal keratinocytes, ACF7 discontinuously decorates the cytoskeleton at the cell periphery, including microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) that are aligned in parallel converging at focal contacts. Upon calcium induction of intercellular adhesion, ACF7 and the cytoskeleton reorganize at cell-cell borders but with different kinetics from adherens junctions and desmosomes. Treatments with cytoskeletal depolymerizing drugs reveal that ACF7's cytoskeletal association is dependent upon the microtubule network, but ACF7 also appears to stabilize actin at sites where microtubules and microfilaments meet. We posit that ACF7 may function in microtubule dynamics to facilitate actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and to couple the microtubule network to cellular junctions. These attributes provide a clear explanation for the kakapo mutant phenotype in flies.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR027883, R01-AR27883

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;149;1;195-208

  • Ermap, a gene coding for a novel erythroid specific adhesion/receptor membrane protein.

    Ye TZ, Gordon CT, Lai YH, Fujiwara Y, Peters LL, Perkins AC and Chui DH

    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Ermap (erythroid membrane-associated protein), a gene coding for a novel transmembrane protein produced exclusively in erythroid cells, is described. It is mapped to murine Chromosome 4, 57 cM distal to the centromere. The initial cDNA clone was isolated from a day 9 murine embryonic erythroid cell cDNA library. The predicted peptide sequence suggests that ERMAP is a transmembrane protein with two extracellular immunoglobulin folds, as well as a highly conserved B30.2 domain and several phosphorylation consensus sequences in the cytoplasmic region. ERMAP shares a high homology throughout the entire peptide with butyrophilin, a glycoprotein essential for milk lipid droplet formation and release. A GFP-ERMAP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic vesicles in transiently transfected 293T cells. Northern blot analysis and in-situ hybridization demonstrated that Ermap expression was restricted to fetal and adult erythroid tissues. ERMAP is likely a novel adhesion/receptor molecule specific for erythroid cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321

    Gene 2000;242;1-2;337-45

  • Microtubule actin cross-linking factor (MACF): a hybrid of dystonin and dystrophin that can interact with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons.

    Leung CL, Sun D, Zheng M, Knowles DR and Liem RK

    Department of Pathology and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    We cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of mouse actin cross-linking family 7 (mACF7) by sequential rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR. The completed mACF7 cDNA is 17 kb and codes for a 608-kD protein. The closest relative of mACF7 is the Drosophila protein Kakapo, which shares similar architecture with mACF7. mACF7 contains a putative actin-binding domain and a plakin-like domain that are highly homologous to dystonin (BPAG1-n) at its NH(2) terminus. However, unlike dystonin, mACF7 does not contain a coiled-coil rod domain; instead, the rod domain of mACF7 is made up of 23 dystrophin-like spectrin repeats. At its COOH terminus, mACF7 contains two putative EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and a segment homologous to the growth arrest-specific protein, Gas2. In this paper, we demonstrate that the NH(2)-terminal actin-binding domain of mACF7 is functional both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, we found that the COOH-terminal domain of mACF7 interacts with and stabilizes microtubules. In transfected cells full-length mACF7 can associate not only with actin but also with microtubules. Hence, we suggest a modified name: MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor). The properties of MACF are consistent with the observation that mutations in kakapo cause disorganization of microtubules in epidermal muscle attachment cells and some sensory neurons.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG00189, T32 AG000189; NINDS NIH HHS: NS15182, R01 NS015182

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;147;6;1275-86

  • A novel member of murine Polycomb-group proteins, Sex comb on midleg homolog protein, is highly conserved, and interacts with RAE28/mph1 in vitro.

    Tomotsune D, Takihara Y, Berger J, Duhl D, Joo S, Kyba M, Shirai M, Ohta H, Matsuda Y, Honda BM, Simon J, Shimada K, Brock HW and Randazzo F

    Department of Medical Genetics, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

    The Polycomb group of (PcG) genes were originally described in Drosophila, but many PcG genes have mammalian homologs. Genetic studies in flies and mice show that mutations in PcG genes cause posterior transformations caused by failure to maintain repression of homeotic loci, suggesting that PcG proteins have conserved functions. The Drosophila gene Sex comb on midleg (Scm) encodes an unusual PcG protein that shares motifs with the PcG protein polyhomeotic, and with a Drosophila tumor suppressor, lethal(3)malignant brain tumor (l(3)mbt). Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases were searched to recover putative mammalian Scm homologs, which were used to screen murine cDNA libraries. The recovered cDNA encodes two mbt repeats and the SPM domain that characterize Scm, but lacks the cysteine clusters and the serine/threonine-rich region found at the amino terminus of Scm. Accordingly, we have named the gene Sex comb on midleg homolog 1 (Scmh1). Like their Drosophila counterparts, Scmh1 and the mammalian polyhomeotic homolog RAE28/mph1 interact in vitro via their SPM domains. We analyzed the expression of Scmh1 and rae28/mph1 using northern analysis of embryos and adult tissues, and in situ hybridization to embryos. The expression of Scmh1 and rae28/mph1 is well correlated in most tissues of embryos. However, in adults, Scmh1 expression was detected in most tissues, whereas mph1/rae28 expression was restricted to the gonads. Scmh1 is strongly induced by retinoic acid in F9 and P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Scmh1 maps to 4D1-D2.1 in mice. These data suggest that Scmh1 will have an important role in regulation of homeotic genes in embryogenesis and that the interaction with RAE28/mph1 is important in vivo.

    Differentiation; research in biological diversity 1999;65;4;229-39

  • Conserved chromosomal location and genomic structure of human and mouse fatty-acid amide hydrolase genes and evaluation of clasper as a candidate neurological mutation.

    Wan M, Cravatt BF, Ring HZ, Zhang X and Francke U

    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305, USA.

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a membrane-bound enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty acid amides, such as oleamide and anandamide, and is expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. To evaluate FAAH genes as candidates for neurogenetic diseases in humans and mice, we have mapped the loci in both species and have determined their intron-exon structures. The human FAAH gene was mapped to region 1p34-p35, closely linked to D1S197 and D1S443, by using PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrid (SCH) and radiation hybrid mapping panels. Analysis of an SCH mapping panel and a mouse interspecific backcross panel has localized the Faah gene to the conserved syntenic region on mouse chromosome 4, close to the neurological mutation clasper. Faah gene rearrangements were excluded by Southern blot analysis of clasper DNA. No sequence abnormality was detected in PCR products containing the 15 exons and splice junctions of the mouse Faah gene. FAAH protein levels were normal in clasper mouse tissues as determined by enzyme activity assays and Western blotting.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD24234; NIMH NIH HHS: P01 MH58542; NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS10447

    Genomics 1998;54;3;408-14

  • Cloning and characterization of mouse ACF7, a novel member of the dystonin subfamily of actin binding proteins.

    Bernier G, Mathieu M, De Repentigny Y, Vidal SM and Kothary R

    Institut du cancer de Montréal, Centre de Recherche L.-C. Simard, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    We have recently cloned the gene responsible for the mouse neurological disorder dystonia musculorum. The predicted product of this gene, dystonin (Dst), is a neural isoform of bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (Bpag1) with an N-terminal actin binding domain. Here we report on the cloning and characterization of mouse ACF7. Sequence analysis revealed extended homology of mACF7 with both the actin binding domain (ABD) and the Bpag1 portions of dystonin. Moreover, mACF7 and Dst display similar isoform diversity and encode similar sized transcripts in the nervous system. Phylogenetic analysis of mACF7 and dystonin ABD sequences suggests a recent evolutionary origin and that these proteins form a separate novel subfamily within the beta-spectrin superfamily of actin binding proteins. Given the implication of several actin binding proteins in genetic disorders, it is important to know the pattern of mACF7 expression. mACF7 transcripts are detected principally in lung, brain, spinal cord, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and skin. Intriguingly, mACF7 expression in lung is strongly induced just before birth and is restricted to type II alveolar cells. To determine whether spontaneous mutants that may be defective in mACF7 exist, we have mapped the mACF7 gene to mouse chromosome 4.

    Genomics 1996;38;1;19-29

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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