G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Ldha (MGI)
Mus musculus
lactate dehydrogenase A
G00001664 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000016500 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000063229 (Ensembl mouse gene)
16828 (Entrez Gene)
114 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_010699 (Allen Brain Atlas)
16828 (Genepaint)
150000 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:96759 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P06151 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • LDH-A
  • Ldh-1
  • Ldh1
  • l7R2
  • lactate dehydrogenase-A

Literature (70)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • The planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and glomerular maturation.

    Yates LL, Papakrivopoulou J, Long DA, Goggolidou P, Connolly JO, Woolf AS and Dean CH

    Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK.

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, incorporating non-canonical Wnt signalling, controls embryonic convergent (CE) extension, polarized cell division and ciliary orientation. It also limits diameters of differentiating renal tubules, with mutation of certain components of the pathway causing cystic kidneys. Mutations in mouse Vangl genes encoding core PCP proteins cause neural tube defects (NTDs) and Vangl2 mutations also impair branching of embryonic mouse lung airways. Embryonic metanephric kidneys also undergo branching morphogenesis and Vangl2 is known to be expressed in ureteric bud/collecting duct and metanephric mesenchymal/nephron lineages. These observations led us to investigate metanephroi in Vangl2 mutant mice, Loop-tail (Lp). Although ureteric bud formation is normal in Vangl2(Lp/Lp) embryos, subsequent in vivo and in vitro branching morphogenesis is impaired. Null mutant kidneys are short, consistent with a CE defect. Differentiating glomerular epithelia express several PCP genes (Vangl1/2, Celsr1, Scrib, Mpk1/2 and Fat4) and glomeruli in Vangl2(Lp/Lp) fetuses are smaller and contain less prominent capillary loops than wild-type littermates. Furthermore, Vangl2(Lp/+) kidneys had modest reduction in glomerular numbers postnatally. Vangl2(Lp/Lp) metanephroi contained occasional dilated tubules but no overt cystic phenotype. These data show for the first time that a PCP gene is required for normal morphogenesis of both the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme-derived structures. It has long been recognized that certain individuals with NTDs are born with malformed kidneys, and recent studies have discovered VANGL mutations in some NTD patients. On the basis of our mutant mouse study, we suggest that PCP pathway mutations should be sought when NTD and renal malformation co-exist.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 2010;19;23;4663-76

  • High brain lactate is a hallmark of aging and caused by a shift in the lactate dehydrogenase A/B ratio.

    Ross JM, Öberg J, Brené S, Coppotelli G, Terzioglu M, Pernold K, Goiny M, Sitnikov R, Kehr J, Trifunovic A, Larsson NG, Hoffer BJ and Olson L

    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. rossja@nida.nih.gov

    At present, there are few means to track symptomatic stages of CNS aging. Thus, although metabolic changes are implicated in mtDNA mutation-driven aging, the manifestations remain unclear. Here, we used normally aging and prematurely aging mtDNA mutator mice to establish a molecular link between mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal metabolism in the aging process. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC, we found that brain lactate levels were increased twofold in both normally and prematurely aging mice during aging. To correlate the striking increase in lactate with tissue pathology, we investigated the respiratory chain enzymes and detected mitochondrial failure in key brain areas from both normally and prematurely aging mice. We used in situ hybridization to show that increased brain lactate levels were caused by a shift in transcriptional activities of the lactate dehydrogenases to promote pyruvate to lactate conversion. Separation of the five tetrameric lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes revealed an increase of those dominated by the Ldh-A product and a decrease of those rich in the Ldh-B product, which, in turn, increases pyruvate to lactate conversion. Spectrophotometric assays measuring LDH activity from the pyruvate and lactate sides of the reaction showed a higher pyruvate → lactate activity in the brain. We argue for the use of lactate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a noninvasive strategy for monitoring this hallmark of the aging process. The mtDNA mutator mouse allows us to conclude that the increased LDH-A/LDH-B ratio causes high brain lactate levels, which, in turn, are predictive of aging phenotypes.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG04418, P01 AG004418; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS070825

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;46;20087-92

  • Hearts of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase-2 hypomorphic mice show protection against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Hyvärinen J, Hassinen IE, Sormunen R, Mäki JM, Kivirikko KI, Koivunen P and Myllyharju J

    Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has a pivotal role in oxygen homeostasis and cardioprotection mediated by ischemic preconditioning. Its stability is regulated by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs), the inhibition of which is regarded as a promising strategy for treating diseases such as anemia and ischemia. We generated a viable Hif-p4h-2 hypomorph mouse line (Hif-p4h-2(gt/gt)) that expresses decreased amounts of wild-type Hif-p4h-2 mRNA: 8% in the heart; 15% in the skeletal muscle; 34-47% in the kidney, spleen, lung, and bladder; 60% in the brain; and 85% in the liver. These mice have no polycythemia and show no signs of the dilated cardiomyopathy or hyperactive angiogenesis observed in mice with broad spectrum conditional Hif-p4h-2 inactivation. We focused here on the effects of chronic Hif-p4h-2 deficiency in the heart. Hif-1 and Hif-2 were stabilized, and the mRNA levels of glucose transporter-1, several enzymes of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, angiopoietin-2, and adrenomedullin were increased in the Hif-p4h-2(gt/gt) hearts. When isolated Hif-p4h-2(gt/gt) hearts were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, the recovery of mechanical function and coronary flow rate was significantly better than in wild type, while cumulative release of lactate dehydrogenase reflecting the infarct size was reduced. The preischemic amount of lactate was increased, and the ischemic versus preischemic [CrP]/[Cr] and [ATP] remained at higher levels in Hif-p4h-2(gt/gt) hearts, indicating enhanced glycolysis and an improved cellular energy state. Our data suggest that chronic stabilization of Hif-1alpha and Hif-2alpha by genetic knockdown of Hif-p4h-2 promotes cardioprotection by induction of many genes involved in glucose metabolism, cardiac function, and blood pressure.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;18;13646-57

  • [Effects of cocaine on activities of ATPase, LDH and SDH in mouse splenocytes].

    Sun WP, Lu YX, Zhang XY, Tang WW and Huang QY

    Department of Forensic Pathology, Taishan Medical College, Taian 271000, China. wenpingsun@163.com

    Objective: To examine the effects of cocaine on the activities of ATPase, LDH and SDH in cultured mouse splenocytes in vitro.

    Methods: The ATPase, LDH and SDH activities in mouse splenocytes were detected at day 7 after continuous culturing the mouse cells exposed to cocaine hydrochloride in final concentration of 10, 20 and 100 microg/mL in vitro.

    Results: The activities of ATPase, LDH and SDH in mouse splenocytes exposed to cocaine hydrochloride in final concentration of 10, 20 and 100 microg/mL were significantly decreased after continuous culturing for 7 days.

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that cocaine could inhibit the activities of ATPase, LDH and SDH in cultured splenocytes in vitro.

    Fa yi xue za zhi 2010;26;2;81-3

  • Identification and physiological activity of survival factor released from cardiomyocytes during ischaemia and reperfusion.

    Mizukami Y, Ono K, Du CK, Aki T, Hatano N, Okamoto Y, Ikeda Y, Ito H, Hamano K and Morimoto S

    Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan. mizukami@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    Aims: We carried out a screening of survival factors released from cells exposed to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion (sI/R) using the embryonic rat heart-derived cell line, H9c2 cells, and examined the physiological role of the identified factor.

    The culture medium supernatant of H9c2 cells exposed to sI/R was separated by column chromatography and the fractions examined for survival activity. The protein with survival activity was identified by mass spectrometry, and its physiological role was examined in the models of ischaemia. Cell survival activity was detected in at least three fractions of the cell supernatant collected during sI/R and subjected to a series of column chromatographic steps. Among the proteins measured by mass spectrometry and western blotting, a p36 protein identified as a glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase muscle subunit (M-LDH), showed strong survival activity. H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular calcium overload in H9c2 cells and irregular Ca(2+) transients in adult rat cardiomyocytes were both found to be inhibited by pretreatment with M-LDH. M-LDH also lowered the frequency and amplitude of early afterdepolarizations induced by H(2)O(2) in adult rat cardiomyocytes and suppressed the ischaemia-reperfusion-induced reduction of cardiac output from mouse working heart preparations. M-LDH was found to increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays a role in H9c2 cell survival.

    Conclusion: M-LDH released from cardiomyocytes after hypoxia and reoxygenation has a role in protecting the heart from oxidative stress-induced injury through an intracellular signal transduction pathway involving ERK1/2.

    Cardiovascular research 2008;79;4;589-99

  • A mitochondrial protein compendium elucidates complex I disease biology.

    Pagliarini DJ, Calvo SE, Chang B, Sheth SA, Vafai SB, Ong SE, Walford GA, Sugiana C, Boneh A, Chen WK, Hill DE, Vidal M, Evans JG, Thorburn DR, Carr SA and Mootha VK

    Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

    Mitochondria are complex organelles whose dysfunction underlies a broad spectrum of human diseases. Identifying all of the proteins resident in this organelle and understanding how they integrate into pathways represent major challenges in cell biology. Toward this goal, we performed mass spectrometry, GFP tagging, and machine learning to create a mitochondrial compendium of 1098 genes and their protein expression across 14 mouse tissues. We link poorly characterized proteins in this inventory to known mitochondrial pathways by virtue of shared evolutionary history. Using this approach, we predict 19 proteins to be important for the function of complex I (CI) of the electron transport chain. We validate a subset of these predictions using RNAi, including C8orf38, which we further show harbors an inherited mutation in a lethal, infantile CI deficiency. Our results have important implications for understanding CI function and pathogenesis and, more generally, illustrate how our compendium can serve as a foundation for systematic investigations of mitochondria.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK43351, DK57521, P30 DK043351, P30 DK057521; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM077465, R01 GM077465, R01 GM077465-04

    Cell 2008;134;1;112-23

  • Beta-agonists enhance the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) expression in serum and ventricular myocytes of mice.

    Kaundal M, Katoch SS and Sharma S

    Department of Biosciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla-171005, India.

    Beta-agonists have skeletal muscle specific protein anabolic effects and are also known to cause cardiac hypertrophy. Changed total LDH and its isozymic patterns are conveniently employed for the detection of different pathophysiological states of the tissues. The purpose of this study is to confirm total LDH and its isozymic expression in ventricular tissue and serum in mice following oral administration of single but higher dose of isoproterenol (Iso) and clenbuterol (Cl) (100 mg/kg body wt. and 20 mg/kg body wt., respectively), after 4, 8 and 20 hours of drug administration. Mice heart witnessed increased total LDH levels with time. Serum on the other hand showed decline in total LDH concentrations at the initial points of the drug treatment. No doubt, total LDH expression increased towards 20th h post-drug treatment but this increase is mainly due to anaerobic isozymes, i.e. LDH4 and LDH5. The findings of the present study suggest that tissue damage is definitely caused by two beta-agonists after giving single dose for shorter time span (20 hours) and the impact of the damage varies from drug to drug. Increase in total LDH in serum is not due to release from heart but from some other tissues having anaerobic metabolism.

    Acta physiologica Hungarica 2007;94;3;249-59

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • M-LDH serves as a regulatory subunit of the cytosolic substrate-channelling complex in vivo.

    Jovanović S, Jovanović A and Crawford RM

    Maternal and Child Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK.

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDPK-A) regulates the alpha1 isoform of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK alpha1) selectively, independent of [AMP] and surrounding [ATP], by a process termed substrate channelling. Here, we show, using a range of empirically validated biochemical techniques, that the muscle form (M-LDH or LDH-A) and the heart form (H-LDH or LDH-B) of lactate dehydrogenase are physically associated with the liver cytosolic substrate-channelling complex such that M-LDH associates with NDPK-A, AMPK alpha1 and casein kinase 2 (CK2), whereas H-LDH associates with local NDPK-B. We find that the species of LDH bound to the substrate-channelling complex regulates the in vivo enzymatic activities of both AMPK and CK2, and has a downstream effect on the phospho-status of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a key regulator of cellular fat metabolism known to be a part of the cytosolic substrate-channelling complex in vivo. We hypothesise that the regulatory presence of LDH in the complex couples the substrate-channelling mechanism to both the glycolytic and redox states of the cell, allowing for efficient sensing of cell metabolic status, interfacing with the substrate-channelling complex and regulating the enzymatic activities of AMPK and CK2, two critical protein kinases.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;371;2;349-61

  • Multiple glycolytic enzymes are tightly bound to the fibrous sheath of mouse spermatozoa.

    Krisfalusi M, Miki K, Magyar PL and O'Brien DA

    Laboratory for Reproductive Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, NC 27599, USA.

    The fibrous sheath is a cytoskeletal structure located in the principal piece of mammalian sperm flagella. Previous studies showed that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS), a germ cell-specific glycolytic isozyme that is required for sperm motility, is tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. To determine if other glycolytic enzymes are also bound to this cytoskeletal structure, we isolated highly purified fibrous sheath preparations from mouse epididymal sperm using a sequential extraction procedure. The isolated fibrous sheaths retain typical ultrastructural features and exhibit little contamination by axonemal or outer dense fiber proteins in Western blot analyses. Proteomic analysis using peptide-mass fingerprinting and MS/MS peptide fragment ion matching identified GAPDHS and two additional glycolytic enzyme subunits, the A isoform of aldolase 1 (ALDOA) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), in isolated fibrous sheaths. The presence of glycolytic enzymes in the fibrous sheath was also examined by Western blotting. In addition to GAPDHS, ALDOA, and LDHA, this method determined that pyruvate kinase is also tightly bound to the fibrous sheath. These data support a role for the fibrous sheath as a scaffold for anchoring multiple glycolytic enzymes along the length of the flagellum to provide a localized source of ATP that is essential for sperm motility.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: U01 HD045982, U01 HD45982, U54 HD035041, U54 HD35041

    Biology of reproduction 2006;75;2;270-8

  • Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance.

    Fantin VR, St-Pierre J and Leder P

    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Alterations in cellular metabolism are among the most consistent hallmarks of cancer. Herein we have investigated the relationship between increased aerobic lactate production and mitochondrial physiology in tumor cells. To diminish the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) levels were knocked down by means of LDH-A short hairpin RNAs. Reduction in LDH-A activity resulted in stimulation of mitochondrial respiration and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. It also compromised the ability of these tumor cells to proliferate under hypoxia. The tumorigenicity of the LDH-A-deficient cells was severely diminished, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with the human ortholog LDH-A protein. These results demonstrate that LDH-A plays a key role in tumor maintenance.

    Cancer cell 2006;9;6;425-34

  • Identification of mutations from phenotype-driven ENU mutagenesis in mouse chromosome 7.

    Culiat CT, Klebig ML, Liu Z, Monroe H, Stanford B, Desai J, Tandan S, Hughes L, Kerley MK, Carpenter DA, Johnson DK, Rinchik EM and Li Q

    Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6445, USA. culiatct@ornl.gov

    We have used the new high-throughput mutation-scanning technique temperature-gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) for the identification of point mutations induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in the mouse genome. TGCE detects the presence of heteroduplex molecules formed between a wild-type gene segment and the corresponding homologous segment containing an induced mutation or a naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Partially denatured heteroduplex molecules are resolved from homoduplexes by virtue of their differential mobilities during capillary electrophoresis conducted in a finely controlled temperature gradient. Simultaneous heteroduplex analysis of 96 amplicons ranging from 150 to 600 bp in size is achieved in approximately 45 min without the need for predetermining the melting profile of each fragment. Initially, we exploited known mouse mutations to develop TGCE protocols for analyzing unpurified PCR samples amplified from crude tail-DNA preparations. TGCE was then applied to the rapid identification of three new ENU-induced mutations recovered from regional mutagenesis screens of a segment of mouse Chromosome 7. Enzyme assays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) methods validated these new mutations. Our data demonstrate that rapid mutation scanning with TGCE, followed by sequence verification only of detected positives, is an efficient approach to the identification of point mutations in the mouse genome.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;8;555-66

  • PML interacts with Myc, and Myc target gene expression is altered in PML-null fibroblasts.

    Cairo S, De Falco F, Pizzo M, Salomoni P, Pandolfi PP and Meroni G

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    c-myc is a well-known proto-oncogene encoding for a transcription factor that needs to be tightly regulated in order to preserve cell homeostasis. The Promyelocytic Leukaemia gene product PML plays an important role in cell growth and survival, and resides in discrete subnuclear structures called Nuclear Bodies (NB). We performed comparative analysis of the expression of 40 Myc target genes and of Myc binding to their regulatory regions both in wild-type and PML knockout cells. We demonstrate that if PML is absent, despite Myc binding to the DNA regulatory sequences is unchanged, the expression profile of several Myc target genes is altered. PML is largely involved in gene regulation, via recruitment of several transcription factors and cofactors to the NB. Consistently, we show that Myc partially localizes to the NB and physically interacts with PML, and that this localization depends on Myc expression levels. As deregulation occurs to both activated and repressed Myc target genes, we propose that PML influences Myc transcriptional activity through a mechanism that involves the control of Myc post-translational modifications.

    Funded by: Telethon: TGM03Z05, TGM06S01

    Oncogene 2005;24;13;2195-203

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Modulation of gene expression by hypoxia in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells: A transcriptomic and proteomic study.

    Scheurer SB, Rybak JN, Rösli C, Neri D and Elia G

    Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

    Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of many human pathologies, including cancer. The sustained proliferation rate of tumor cells leads to alterations of the tumor microenvironment, that progressively becomes more acidic, nutrient-deprived, and hypoxic. The reduced partial pressure of oxygen triggers the onset of an adaptive response, aimed at increasing the local oxygen concentration by several complementary actions. Although directly exposed to the blood stream, endothelial cells lining the vascular lumen in tumors also can be exposed to hypoxia and therefore can contribute to the onset of the adaptive response that leads to tumor angiogenesis. Aiming at getting a detailed insight into the oxygen-dependent regulation of the transcriptional program of vascular endothelial cells and at identifying new relevant markers that may be used as targets for therapeutic intervention in tumor angiogenesis, we have performed a broad-range transcriptomic analysis, using the Affymetrix HG-U133A Gene Chips, of mRNA expression levels in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), exposed in vitro to hypoxia for different time periods. The transcriptomic analysis was complemented by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA levels and alternative splicing for some selected extracellular matrix protein genes, and by a proteomic analysis, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and tandem mass spectrometry for protein separation and identification, of hypoxic and normoxic HUVEC whole-cell lysates and subcellular fractions. Our analysis confirmed previous findings on genes whose expression is regulated by oxygen concentration but also identified new genes (e.g., CXCR4, claudin 3, CD24, tetranectin, Del-1, procollagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 and 2) which are transcriptionally upregulated in hypoxic conditions.

    Proteomics 2004;4;6;1737-60

  • Bioinformatics and cellular signaling.

    Papin J and Subramaniam S

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The understanding of cellular function requires an integrated analysis of context-specific, spatiotemporal data from diverse sources. Recent advances in describing the genomic and proteomic 'parts list' of the cell and deciphering the interrelationship of these parts are described, including genome-wide location analysis, standards for microarray data analysis, and two-hybrid and mass spectrometry approaches. This information is being collected and curated in databases such as the Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS) Molecule Pages, which will serve as vital tools for the reconstruction and analysis of cellular signaling networks.

    Current opinion in biotechnology 2004;15;1;78-81

  • GenePaint.org: an atlas of gene expression patterns in the mouse embryo.

    Visel A, Thaller C and Eichele G

    Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 7, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.

    High-throughput instruments were recently developed to determine gene expression patterns on tissue sections by RNA in situ hybridization. The resulting images of gene expression patterns, chiefly of E14.5 mouse embryos, are accessible to the public at http://www.genepaint.org. This relational database is searchable for gene identifiers and RNA probe sequences. Moreover, patterns and intensity of expression in approximately 100 different embryonic tissues are annotated and can be searched using a standardized catalog of anatomical structures. A virtual microscope tool, the Zoom Image Server, was implemented in GenePaint.org and permits interactive zooming and panning across approximately 15,000 high-resolution images.

    Nucleic acids research 2004;32;Database issue;D552-6

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Abundance of repetitive sequence elements in the mouse testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase-C gene.

    Olsson PG, Tsujioka H, Narisawa S, Goldberg E and Millán JL

    Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical Genetics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

    We have cloned and sequenced the entire mouse ldhc gene and mapped it physically in relation to the somatic ldha gene. The 2 genes were found to be oriented in head-to-tail fashion with about a 6-kilobase (kb) distance between the 3' end of ldha and the 5' end of ldhc. The ldhc gene is composed of 43% repetitive elements compared to only 16% in the ldha gene. Despite the close physical distance of mouse ldha and ldhc, the 2 genes have a very different content of repetitive elements, and this most likely reflects different levels of selective pressure.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD05863

    Journal of andrology 2003;24;6;918-20

  • Local regulation of fat metabolism in peripheral nerves.

    Verheijen MH, Chrast R, Burrola P and Lemke G

    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    We comprehensively analyzed gene expression during peripheral nerve development by performing microarray analyses of premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating mouse sciatic nerves, and we generated a database of candidate genes to be tested in mapped peripheral neuropathies. Unexpectedly, we identified a large cluster of genes that are (1) maximally expressed only in the mature nerve, after myelination is complete, and (2) tied to the metabolism of storage (energy) lipids. Many of these late-onset genes are expressed by adipocytes, which we find constitute the bulk of the epineurial compartment of the adult nerve. However, several such genes, including SREBP-1, SREBP-2, and Lpin1, are also expressed in the endoneurium. We find that Lpin1 null mutations lead to lipoatrophy of the epineurium, and to the dysregulation of a battery of genes required for the regulation of storage lipid metabolism in both the endoneurium and peri/epineurium. Together with the observation that these mutations also result in peripheral neuropathy, our findings demonstrate a crucial role for local storage lipid metabolism in mature peripheral nerve function, and have important implications for the understanding and treatment of peripheral neuropathies that are commonly associated with metabolic diseases such as lipodystrophy and diabetes.

    Genes & development 2003;17;19;2450-64

  • Lactate dehydrogenase is an AU-rich element-binding protein that directly interacts with AUF1.

    Pioli PA, Hamilton BJ, Connolly JE, Brewer G and Rigby WF

    Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.

    Post-transcriptional pathways provide a major means of regulating eukaryotic gene expression. Reiterations of the AU-rich element (ARE) within the 3'-untranslated region of many cytokine and proto-oncogene mRNAs serve as signals for rapid degradation and translational repression. The identification of this cis-acting stability determinant has fueled the search for ARE-binding proteins (AUBP) that function as trans-acting factors that transduce this function. Previous work identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 as a major AUBP capable of binding the ARE of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) RNA in the context of a full-length mRNA. We report here that functional studies failed to indicate a role for hnRNP A1 in ARE-dependent mRNA turnover. In an effort to identify other functionally relevant AUBP, the major GM-CSF ARE-specific binding protein in cells lacking hnRNP A1 was purified from CB3 mouse erythroleukemia cells. Microsequencing identified this protein as the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) M. RNA binding by LDH was shown to occur in the NAD(+)-binding region (Rossmann fold). Polysome gradient analysis demonstrates that LDH is found in the translationally active fraction. Polysomal localization of LDH was dependent on RNA binding. Moreover, polysomal LDH exists in a complex with AUF1 and hsp-70, which has been implicated previously in the regulation of mRNA turnover. The interaction between LDH and AUF1 is direct as it can be demonstrated in vitro with purified proteins. Collectively these data implicate a role for LDH in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA52443; PHS HHS: R01 A134928

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;38;35738-45

  • M-LDH serves as a sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel subunit essential for cell protection against ischemia.

    Crawford RM, Budas GR, Jovanović S, Ranki HJ, Wilson TJ, Davies AM and Jovanović A

    Tayside Institute of Child Health, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in the heart are normally closed by high intracellular ATP, but are activated during ischemia to promote cellular survival. These channels are heteromultimers composed of Kir6.2 subunit, an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel core, and SUR2A, a regulatory subunit implicated in ligand-dependent regulation of channel gating. Here, we have shown that the muscle form (M-LDH), but not heart form (H-LDH), of lactate dehydrogenase is directly physically associated with the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel by interacting with the Kir6.2 subunit via its N-terminus and with the SUR2A subunit via its C-terminus. The species of LDH bound to the channel regulated the channel activity despite millimolar concentration of intracellular ATP. The presence of M-LDH in the channel protein complex was required for opening of K(ATP) channels during ischemia and ischemia-resistant cellular phenotype. We conclude that M-LDH is an integral part of the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel protein complex in vivo, where, by virtue of its catalytic activity, it couples the metabolic status of the cell with the K(ATP) channels activity that is essential for cell protection against ischemia.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: C15048; British Heart Foundation: PG/02/091/14227; Wellcome Trust: 059528/Z/99/Z/JMW/CP/JF

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;15;3936-48

  • Intrinsic and extrinsic pathway signaling during neuronal apoptosis: lessons from the analysis of mutant mice.

    Putcha GV, Harris CA, Moulder KL, Easton RM, Thompson CB and Johnson EM

    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    Trophic factor deprivation (TFD)-induced apoptosis in sympathetic neurons requires macromolecular synthesis-dependent BAX translocation, cytochrome c (cyt c) release, and caspase activation. Here, we report the contributions of other intrinsic and extrinsic pathway signals to these processes. Sympathetic neurons expressed all antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins examined, yet expressed only certain BH3-only and multidomain proapoptotic BCL-2 family members. All coexpressed proapoptotic proteins did not, however, exhibit functional redundancy or compensatory expression, at least in the Bax-/-, Bak-/-, Bim-/-, Bid-/-, and Bad-/- neurons examined. Although the subcellular distribution or posttranslational modification of certain BCL-2 proteins changed with TFD, neither transcriptional nor posttranslational mechanisms regulated the expression or subcellular localization of BID, BAD, or BAK in this paradigm. Despite modest induction of Fas and FasL expression, Fas-mediated signaling did not contribute to TFD-induced apoptosis in sympathetic neurons. Similar findings were obtained with K+ withdrawal-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons, a model for activity-dependent neuronal survival in the CNS. Thus, expression alone does not guarantee functional redundancy (or compensation) among BCL-2 family members, and, at least in some cells, extrinsic pathway signaling and certain BH3-only proteins (i.e., BID and BAD) do not contribute to BAX-dependent cyt c release or apoptosis caused by TFD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: R37 AG012947, R37AG12947; NINDS NIH HHS: R01NS38651

    The Journal of cell biology 2002;157;3;441-53

  • Functional annotation of mammalian genomic DNA sequence by chemical mutagenesis: a fine-structure genetic mutation map of a 1- to 2-cM segment of mouse chromosome 7 corresponding to human chromosome 11p14-p15.

    Rinchik EM, Carpenter DA and Johnson DK

    Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8077, USA. rinchikem@ornl.gov

    Eleven independent, recessive, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that map to a approximately 1- to 2-cM region of mouse chromosome (Chr) 7 homologous to human Chr 11p14-p15 were recovered from a screen of 1,218 gametes. These mutations were initially identified in a hemizygous state opposite a large p-locus deletion and subsequently were mapped to finer genomic intervals by crosses to a panel of smaller p deletions. The 11 mutations also were classified into seven complementation groups by pairwise crosses. Four complementation groups were defined by seven prenatally lethal mutations, including a group (l7R3) comprised of two alleles of obvious differing severity. Two allelic mutations (at the psrt locus) result in a severe seizure and runting syndrome, but one mutation (at the fit2 locus) results in a more benign runting phenotype. This experiment has added seven loci, defined by phenotypes of presumed point mutations, to the genetic map of a small (1-2 cM) region of mouse Chr 7 and will facilitate the task of functional annotation of DNA sequence and transcription maps both in the mouse and the corresponding human 11p14-p15 homology region.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG 00370

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;2;844-9

  • Lack of pericytes leads to endothelial hyperplasia and abnormal vascular morphogenesis.

    Hellström M, Gerhardt H, Kalén M, Li X, Eriksson U, Wolburg H and Betsholtz C

    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Göteborg University, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

    The association of pericytes (PCs) to newly formed blood vessels has been suggested to regulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, and vascular branching. Here, we addressed these issues using PDGF-B-- and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta)--deficient mice as in vivo models of brain angiogenesis in the absence of PCs. Quantitative morphological analysis showed that these mutants have normal microvessel density, length, and number of branch points. However, absence of PCs correlates with endothelial hyperplasia, increased capillary diameter, abnormal EC shape and ultrastructure, changed cellular distribution of certain junctional proteins, and morphological signs of increased transendothelial permeability. Brain endothelial hyperplasia was observed already at embryonic day (E) 11.5 and persisted throughout development. From E 13.5, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other genes responsive to metabolic stress became upregulated, suggesting that the abnormal microvessel architecture has systemic metabolic consequences. VEGF-A upregulation correlated temporally with the occurrence of vascular abnormalities in the placenta and dilation of the heart. Thus, although PC deficiency appears to have direct effects on EC number before E 13.5, the subsequent increased VEGF-A levels may further abrogate microvessel architecture, promote vascular permeability, and contribute to formation of the edematous phenotype observed in late gestation PDGF-B and PDGFR-beta knock out embryos.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;153;3;543-53

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Enzyme-activity mutants in Mus musculus. I. Phenotypic description and genetic characterization of ethylnitrosourea-induced mutations.

    Pretsch W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Mammalian Genetics, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. pretsch@gsf.de

    The specific activity of erythrocyte enzymes was measured to detect gene mutations in F(1)-offspring of male mice treatment with different doses (80, 160, or 250 mg/kg body weight) of ethylnitrosourea (ENU). Altogether 13,230 offspring were screened for 10 enzyme activities. Mutants with reduced activity as well as mutants with enhanced activity were found. Of the 36 independently observed mutations, 20 were homozygous lethal. Genetic and biochemical characterizations were routinely performed. These mutants provide insight into the mechanism of ENU mutagenesis and can serve as models for structure-function studies of the corresponding enzymes.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2000;11;7;537-42

  • Screen for genes regulated during early kidney morphogenesis.

    Leimeister C, Bach A, Woolf AS and Gessler M

    Department of Physiological Chemistry I, Theodor-Boveri-Institute (Biocenter), University of Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Kidney development starts with the reciprocal induction of mesenchymal and ureteric bud cells which leads to condensation, epithelialization, and nephron formation in the mesenchyme. To identify changes in gene expression during these processes, we compared differential display polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiles of uninduced and induced mesenchymal cells. In vitro kidney development in the form of the transfilter organ culture system was used to generate homogeneous cell populations for this type of comparison. Here we describe the isolation of known and novel genetags from this screening. Among the known genes the ufo receptor tyrosine kinase, sFRP2, and the groucho related gene (grg) were verified as being upregulated upon induction. With four of eight novel genes tested, Northern blot analysis proved to be sensitive enough to confirm differential expression. To improve sensitivity and gain additional spatial information, in situ hybridization was performed. Expression analysis of two differential display PCR products, designated C0-5 and M2-4, demonstrated the cell-specific and dynamic expression of these novel genetags in the developing kidney and other tissues. C0-5 transcripts were expressed in the ureteric bud, S-shaped bodies, and in the collecting system. Signals for M2-4, a gene not detectable by Northern blot analysis, were only found in condensing mesenchymal cells and early differentiation stages, but not in the collecting ducts. The large fraction of novel genetags from the present screening that have not yet been analyzed provides a rich resource to clone genetic networks regulating early nephrogenesis.

    Developmental genetics 1999;24;3-4;273-83

  • Transgenic mice demonstrate a testis-specific promoter for lactate dehydrogenase, LDHC.

    Li S, Zhou W, Doglio L and Goldberg E

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

    The mammalian genome encodes a family of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes. Two of these, ldha and ldhb, are expressed ubiquitously. The ldhc gene is active only in the germinal epithelium during spermatogenesis. In our analysis of ldhc gene regulation, we found that a 60-base pair promoter sequence was sufficient for testis-specific expression in an in vitro transcription assay. To confirm these findings, a genomic fragment containing 100 base pairs overlapping the transcription start site was isolated and linked to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. We report that this genomic fragment drives testis-specific expression in transgenic mice. We conclude that transcription of the transgene and possibly of the endogenous ldhc gene is restricted to leptotene/pachytene primary spermatocytes.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD05863

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;47;31191-4

  • Genome-wide mapping of unselected transcripts from extraembryonic tissue of 7.5-day mouse embryos reveals enrichment in the t-complex and under-representation on the X chromosome.

    Ko MS, Threat TA, Wang X, Horton JH, Cui Y, Wang X, Pryor E, Paris J, Wells-Smith J, Kitchen JR, Rowe LB, Eppig J, Satoh T, Brant L, Fujiwara H, Yotsumoto S and Nakashima H

    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics and Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 5047 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. msko@cmb.biosci.wayne.edu

    Mammalian embryos can only survive if they attach to the uterus (implantation) and establish proper maternal-fetal interactions. To understand this complex implantation pathway, we have initiated genomic analysis with a systematic study of the cohort of genes expressed in extraembryonic cells that are derived from the conceptus and play a major role in this process. A total of 2103 cDNAs from the extraembryonic portion of 7.5-day post-conception mouse embryos yielded 3186 expressed sequence tags, approximately 40% of which were novel to the sequence databases. Furthermore, when 155 of the cDNA clones with no homology to previously detected genes were genetically mapped, apparent clustering of these expressed genes was detected in subregions of chromosomes 2, 7, 9 and 17, with 6.5% of the observed genes localized in the t-complex region of chromosome 17, which represents only approximately 1.5% of the mouse genome. In contrast, X-linked genes were under-represented. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the mapped genes demonstrated that one third of the genes were expressed solely in extraembryonic tissue and an additional one third of the genes were expressed predominantly in the extraembryonic tissues. The over-representation of extraembryonic-expressed genes in dosage-sensitive autosomal imprinted regions and under-representation on the dosage-compensated X chromosome may reflect a need for tight quantitative control of expression during development.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00941; NICHD NIH HHS: HD32243

    Human molecular genetics 1998;7;12;1967-78

  • Isolation of genes identified in mouse renal proximal tubule by comparing different gene expression profiles.

    Takenaka M, Imai E, Kaneko T, Ito T, Moriyama T, Yamauchi A, Hori M, Kawamoto S and Okubo K

    First Department of Medicine, Osaka University School of Medicine, Japan.

    An expression profile is a list based on a large scale sequencing of 1000 cDNA clones, showing the expressed genes and the abundance of their transcripts in a given cell or tissue (Okubo K et al: Nature Genet 2:173, 1992). We constructed an expression profile of mouse renal proximal tubules (PT) carefully isolated by microdissection in order to characterize its gene expression. Altogether 1000 clones were analyzed; there were 646 types of transcripts in PT, among which 196 were identical or homologous to the previously reported genes. The most abundant transcript was kidney-androgen regulated protein. By comparing the expression profile of PT with those obtained from other sources, several genes were identified only in PT. They included known transcripts and transcripts that were not homologous to the known genes. Three (GS4001, 3991, and 4059) of the non-homologous genes were analyzed by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization, and GS4001 and 4059 were predominantly expressed in the kidney, whereas GS3991 was detected in the liver as well as in the kidney. The sequence analysis of the full-size cDNAs demonstrated that GS4001 was a new member of aspartic proteinases and GS4059 was a novel gene. It also revealed that GS3991 was a mouse homologue of SA gene known to be expressed in PT. The expression profile of mouse PT and its comparison with those of other tissues and cells provide an alternate way of isolating genes predominantly expressed in PT, and also provides probes to study the molecular mechanisms of gene expression in the kidney.

    Kidney international 1998;53;3;562-72

  • Molecular, genetic and biochemical characterization of lactate dehydrogenase-A enzyme activity mutations in Mus musculus.

    Pretsch W, Chatterjee B, Favor J, Merkle S and Sandulache R

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute for Mammalian Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany.

    Four independent heterozygous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mutations with approximately 60% of wild-type enzyme activity in whole blood have been recovered. The mutant line Ldh1a2Neu proved to be homozygous lethal, whereas for the three lines Ldh1a7Neu, Ldh1a11Neu, and Ldh1a12Neu homozygous mutants with about 20% residual activity occurred in the progeny of heterozygous inter se matings. However, the number of homozygous mutants was less than expected, suggesting an increased lethality of these animals. Various physicochemical and kinetic properties of LDH are altered. Exons of the Ldh1 gene were PCR amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular lesion in the mutant alleles. Ldh1a2Neu carried an A/T-->G/C transition in codon 112 (in exon 3), resulting in an Asn-->Asp substitution; Asn112 is part of the helix alpha D, which is involved in the coenzyme-binding domain. Ldh1a7Neu contained an A/T-->C/G transversion within the codon for residue 194 in exon 4, causing an Asp-->Ala substitution, which may affect the arrangement of the substrate-binding site. Three base substituions were discovered for the mutation Ldh1a11Neu in exon 7: the transition C/G-->T/A, a silent mutation, and two transversions C/G-->A/T and C/G-->G/C, both missense mutations, which led to the amino acid replacements A1a319-->Glu and Thr321-->Ser, respectively, located in the alpha H helix structure of the COOH tail of LDHA. We suggest that the mutation in the result of a gene conversion event between Ldh1a wild-type gene and the pseudogene Ldhl-ps. The alteration Ile-->Thr of codon 241 in exon 6 caused by the base pair change T/A-->C/G was identified in the mutation Ldh1a12Neu; Ile241 is included in the helix alpha 2G, a structure that is indirectly involved in coenzyme binding. Each of the sequence alterations has a potential impact on the structure of the LDHA protein, which is consistent with the decreased LDH activity and biochemical and physiological alterations.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1998;9;2;144-9

  • Changes in LDH isozyme pattern in uterine fluid of mice during early pregnancy.

    Rathour NP, Singh PP and Singh VN

    University Department of Zoology, T.M. Bhagalpur University, India.

    The total LDH activity in the uterine fluid of mice shows a rising trend from the first day after mating (DAM-1) to the seventh day after mating (DAM-7). This suggests that LDH activity increases as gestation progresses. During early pregnancy, M-isozymes of LDH show a predominance from DAM-1 to DAM-3 in the uterine luminal fluid of mice, while H-isozyme shows a rising level from DAM-5 (implantation day) and attains a maximum level at DAM-7 (the post-implantation period). Such shift of M-isozymes into H-isozymes of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) during pre-implantation (DAM-3) to post-implantation (DAM-7) period changes the uterine luminal environment from anaerobic to aerobic condition which is more conducive for the normal development, implantation and survival of the growing blastocyst.

    Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme 1997;29;9;462-4

  • In situ hybridization mapping of LDHA and IGF2 to cattle chromosome 29.

    Schmutz SM, Moker JS, Gallagher DS, Kappes SM and Womack JE

    Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;6;473

  • Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse.

    Russell LB, Montgomery CS, Cacheiro NL and Johnson DK

    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831-8077, USA. russelllb@bioaxl.bio.ornl.gov

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare "escapers" from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp 1 = Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, pm and px, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements.

    Genetics 1995;141;4;1547-62

  • Molecular analysis of 36 mutations at the mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus.

    Johnson DK, Stubbs LJ, Culiat CT, Montgomery CS, Russell LB and Rinchik EM

    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831-8077, USA. johnsondk@bioaxl.bio.ornl.gov

    Thirty-six radiation- or chemically induced homozygous-lethal mutations at the p locus in mouse chromosome 7 have been analyzed at 17 loci defined by molecular probes to determine the types of lesions, numbers of p-region markers deleted or rearranged, regions of overlap of deletion mutations, and genetic distances between loci. A linear deletion map of the [Myod1, Ldh3]-[Snrpn, Znf127] region has been constructed from the molecular analyses of the p-locus deletions. The utility of these deletions as tools for the isolation and characterization of the genes specifying the neurological, reproductive, and developmental phenotypes genetically mapped to this region will grow as more detailed molecular analyses continue.

    Genetics 1995;141;4;1563-71

  • Posttranscriptional regulation of primate Ldhc mRNA by its AUUUA-like elements.

    Salehi-Ashtiani K and Goldberg E

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

    The Ldhc locus encodes the testis-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase in mammals. In our efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in expression of Ldhc, we recognized the possibility that this gene could be post-transcriptionally regulated in certain species as the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Ldhc in primates, but not rodents, contains a number of AU-rich motifs and is conserved. To determine whether the primate Ldhc mRNA is posttranscriptionally regulated, comparison of baboon and mouse Ldhc mRNA stability was made in a cell-free system. The results indicated that the baboon mRNA is labile, while that of mouse, which does not contain the AU-rich motifs, is highly stable. Consistent with these results, the steady state level of primate Ldhc was found to be 8 to 12 fold lower than that of the mouse. We show that in a transformed murine germ cell line, the human Ldhc mRNA is moderately unstable, and removal of its 3'-UTR leads to stabilization of the mRNA. Mutations disrupting the AU-rich motifs of human Ldhc result in stabilization of the mRNA in vitro. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that stability of the primate Ldhc transcript is regulated by dispersed AU-rich elements found in its 3'-UTR. Because AU-rich motifs similar to these are found in many mRNAs, these findings may have broad implications.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-05863

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1995;9;12;1782-90

  • Molecular analysis of four lactate dehydrogenase-A mutants in the mouse.

    Sandulache R, Pretsch W, Chatterjee B, Gimbel W, Graw J and Favor J

    Institut für Säugetiergenetik, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

    Four electrophoretic and/or enzyme-activity variants of murine LDH-A subunit (Ldhla-m1Neu, Ldhla-m5Neu, Ldhla-m6Neu, Ldhla-m9Neu), induced by procarbazine hydrochloride or ethylnitrosourea (ENU), were analyzed at the DNA level. The exons of the Ldhl gene from homozygous mutants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Three mutations resulted from nucleotide substitutions in exon 5: the transitions A-->G at codons 216 (Ldhla-m5Neu) and 225 (Ldhla-m6Neu), and the transversion G-->C (Ldhla-m1Neu) at codon 222. The mutations resulted in the replacements of Glu by Gly (Ldhla-m5Neu), Gln by Arg (Ldhla-m6Neu) and Asp by His (Ldhla-m1Neu). The fourth base substitution, the transition T-->C (Ldhla-m9Neu), has been found at the GT donor splice site following the first exon; this mutation affected the efficiency of transcription. All ENU-induced mutations were A/T-->G/C transitions. The mutation events could be correlated with the biochemical and physiological alterations observed in affected mice.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;12;777-80

  • Clustering of six human 11p15 gene homologs within a 500-kb interval of proximal mouse chromosome 7.

    Stubbs L, Rinchik EM, Goldberg E, Rudy B, Handel MA and Johnson D

    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831-8077.

    Homologs of genes mapping to human chromosome 11p15 are located in three distinct, widely separated regions of mouse chromosome 7 (Mmu7). To date, six genes have been localized to the most proximal HSA11p15/Mmu7 homology region, including Ldh3 (encoding lactate dehydrogenase C), Ldh1 (lactate dehydrogenase A), Myod1 (myogenic differentiation factor-1), Tph (tryptophan hydroxylase), Saa1 (serum amyloid-A-1), and Kcnc1 (encoding a Shaw-type voltage-gated potassium channel). To define the overall size and organization of this region of Mmu7, we have established a long-range physical map including the murine Ldh1, Ldh3, Saa, Tph, Kcnc1, and Myod1 genes. Our results demonstrate that these six genes are physically clustered and are distributed throughout a 500-kb interval located just proximal of the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus. These data, together with recent mapping studies within the related region of HSA11p15, demonstrate that gene content and organization within this proximal homology segment have been highly conserved throughout evolution.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD05863; NINDS NIH HHS: NS30989

    Genomics 1994;24;2;324-32

  • Organization of the region encompassing the human serum amyloid A (SAA) gene family on chromosome 11p15.1.

    Sellar GC, Oghene K, Boyle S, Bickmore WA and Whitehead AS

    Department of Genetics, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Ireland.

    The four members of the human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) gene family are clustered on human chromosome 11p15.1. Three genes are differentially expressed and encode small apolipoproteins of M(r) 12-19 kDa: SAA1 and SAA2 encode the acute phase SAAs (A-SAAs), and SAA4 encodes the constitutively expressed SAA (C-SAA). A fourth locus, SAA3, is a pseudogene. The human SAA gene family encompasses approximately 150 kb contained on a 900-kb yeast artificial chromosome contig. SAA1 and SAA2 are 15-20 kb apart and are arranged in divergent transcriptional orientations. SAA4 is 9 kb downstream of SAA2 and in the same orientation. SAA3 is 110 kb downstream of SAA4, and its relative orientation could not be determined. All genes known to be in the same human and mouse syntenic linkage group as SAA were mapped within the contig. Interphase FISH was used to orientate the region relative to the centromere: cen-LDHC-LDHA-SAA1-SAA2-SAA4-SAA3-TP H-D11S18- KCNC1-MYOD1-pter.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Genomics 1994;23;2;492-5

  • Genetic mapping of 40 cDNA clones on the mouse genome by PCR.

    Ko MS, Wang X, Horton JH, Hagen MD, Takahashi N, Maezaki Y and Nadeau JH

    Center for Molecular Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202.

    We recently proposed a new PCR-based genetic marker assay for the mouse genome that exploits sequence differences in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of cDNAs between different mouse strains, called "biallelic polymorphic expressed sequence tags (bESTs)." The specific use of 3'-UTR has several advantages: (1) frequent sequence polymorphism between different mouse strains, (2) most commonly uninterrupted by introns, (3) usually unique sequence even among closely related gene family members. In this paper, we identify additional genetic loci defined by bEST and determine their location on the mouse genetic map by using interspecific backcross mapping panels between C57BL/6J and Mus spretus. Of 136 markers tested, 86 produced unique PCR products from C57BL/6J and M. spretus genomic DNAs. We then sequenced these 86 PCR products from C57BL/6J and M. spretus and found that 59 markers have sequence polymorphisms. Of these, we mapped 36 by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PCR products and 4 by length polymorphism (LP) of the PCR products. We discuss the possibility of a large-scale application of this method for cDNA mapping.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00189

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1994;5;6;349-55

  • A mutation affecting the lactate dehydrogenase locus Ldh-1 in the mouse. II. Mechanism of the LDH-A deficiency associated with hemolytic anemia.

    Pretsch W, Merkle S, Favor J and Werner T

    GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut für Säugetiergenetik, Neuherberg, Germany.

    A procarbazine hydrochloride-induced mutation at the Ldh-1 structural locus encoding the A subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was used to study the molecular and metabolic basis of severe hemolytic anemia due to LDH-A deficiency in the mouse. The mutant allele designated Ldh-1a-m1Neu codes for an enzyme that as homotetramer differs from the wild-type enzyme by a marked instability, acidic shift of the pH profile, increased Km for pyruvate and altered inhibition by high concentrations of this substrate. Except for the latter, all these altered properties of the mutant protein contribute to the diminished LDH activity in heterozygous and homozygous mutant individuals. Impaired energy metabolism of erythrocytes indicated by a relatively low ATP concentration is suggested to result in cell death at the end of the reticulocyte stage leading to the expression of hemolytic anemia with extreme reticulocytosis and hyperbilirubinemia. Despite the severe anemia, affected homozygous mutants exhibit approximately normal body weight and do not show noticeable impairment of viability or fertility. To date no such condition is observed in man. This discrepancy is likely due to the fact that in human erythrocytes both LDH-A and LDH-B subunits are expressed such that homozygotes for a LDH-A or LDH-B deficiency would not result in a comparably extreme LDH activity deficiency.

    Genetics 1993;135;1;161-70

  • Hereditary lactate dehydrogenase A-subunit deficiency as cause of early postimplantation death of homozygotes in Mus musculus.

    Merkle S, Favor J, Graw J, Hornhardt S and Pretsch W

    Institut für Säugetiergenetik, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.

    Two ethylnitrosourea-induced heterozygous mouse mutants with approximately 58 and 50% of wild-type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a gamma-ray-induced heterozygous mutant with 50% of wild-type LDH activity in blood, liver and spleen (expressing predominantly the Ldh-1 gene) were recovered in mutagenicity experiments following spermatogonial treatment. Physiological and genetic studies revealed no indications for differences in fertility as well as hematological or other physiological traits between heterozygotes of each mutant line and wild types. This suggests that neither the mutations in the heterozygous state per se nor the resulting approximate 42 to 50% LDH deficiency affect metabolism and fitness. Physicochemical and immunological studies clearly demonstrated that the two mutations with 50% deficiency in heterozygotes result from null alleles of the Ldh-1 structural locus, generating neither enzyme activity nor immunological cross-reacting material. In contrast, the heterozygous mutant with approximately 58% of normal blood LDH activity was shown to be due to a Ldh-1 allele creating protein subunits, which in random assortment with wild-type subunits in vivo exhibit a reduced specific activity and further alterations of kinetic and physicochemical characteristics. All the mutations in the homozygous state were found to be lethal at an early postimplantation stage of embryonic development, probably due to a block of glycolysis with the corresponding loss of the main source of metabolic energy during this ontogenetic stage. The distinct physiological consequences of the total absence of a functioning LDH-A subunit in mice and humans are discussed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Genetics 1992;131;2;413-21

  • Characterization of two electrophoretic lactate dehydrogenase-A mutants in Mus musculus.

    Merkle S and Pretsch W

    GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Institut für Säugetiergenetik, Neuherberg, Germany.

    Two lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mutations were recovered independently among offspring of ethylnitrosourea-treated male mice by screening for alterations of isoelectric focusing pattern in liver homogenates. Investigations of physicochemical and kinetic properties of the mutant enzymes indicated that the mutant traits resulted from point mutations at the Ldh-1 structural locus. Therefore, the new alleles were designated Ldh-1a-m5Neu and Ldh-1a-m6Neu, respectively. Both mutant alleles code for proteins which exhibit an altered stability to heat, in addition to changes in isoelectric focusing pattern and a reduction in anodal electrophoretic mobility. While LDH-Aa-m5Neu proteins are markedly less heat stable, LDH-Aa-m6Neu proteins are more heat stable than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, a small elevation of Km for pyruvate, a slightly reduced inhibition by high pyruvate concentrations, and a slight acidic shift of the pH activity profile distinguish LDH-Aa-m6Neu from both wild-type and LDH-Aa-m5Neu enzymes. Significant alterations of LDH activity were detected in some tissues from LDH-Aa-m5Neu individuals but not in those from LDH-Aa-m6Neu animals. Erythrocytes and blood of LDH-Aa-m5Neu mutants revealed activity levels which were reduced by approximately 6 and 13% compared with those of wild types in heterozygous and homozygous individuals, respectively. In addition, an elevation of approximately 6% in LDH activity was found in skeletal muscle in homozygous mutants. Consistent with the unaltered or only slightly altered LDH activity in tissues, the genetic as well as the physiological characterization yielded no easily detectable effects from either mutation on metabolism or fitness of the affected individuals.

    Biochemical genetics 1992;30;1-2;49-59

  • The gene map of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and comparative mapping with mouse and man.

    Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Klinga K, Hanson C and Islam MQ

    Department of Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

    The current status of the rat gene map is presented. Mapping information is now available for a total of 214 loci and the number of mapped genes is increasing steadily. The corresponding number of loci quoted at HGM10 was 128. Genes have been assigned to 20 of the 22 chromosomes in the rat. Some aspects of comparative mapping with mouse and man are also discussed. It was found that there is a good correlation between the morphological homologies detectable in rat and mouse chromosomes, on the one hand, and homology at the gene level on the other. For 10 rat synteny groups all the genes so far mapped are syntenic also in the mouse. For the remaining rat synteny groups it appears that the majority of the genes will be syntenic on specific (homologous) mouse chromosomes, with only a few genes dispersed to other members of the mouse karyotype. Furthermore, the data indicate that mouse chromosome 1 genetically corresponds to two rat chromosomes, viz., 9 and 13, equalizing the difference in chromosome number between the two species. Further mappings will show whether the genetic homology will prove to be as extensive as these preliminary results indicate. As might be expected from evolutionary considerations, rat synteny groups are much more dispersed in the human genome. It is clear, however, that many groups of genes have remained syntenic during the period since man and rat shared a common ancestor. One further point was noted. In two cases groups of genes were syntenic in the mouse but dispersed to two chromosomes in rat and man, whereas in a third case a group of genes was syntenic in the rat but dispersed to two chromosomes in mouse and man. This finding argues in favor of the notion that the original gene groups were on separate ancestral chromosomes, which have fused in one rodent species but remained separate in the other and in man.

    Genomics 1991;10;3;699-718

  • Additional microsatellite markers for mouse genome mapping.

    Hearne CM, McAleer MA, Love JM, Aitman TJ, Cornall RJ, Ghosh S, Knight AM, Prins JB and Todd JA

    Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK.

    Mouse sequence information from the EMBL and GenBank databases, published sequences and genomic clones have been analyzed for simple repetitive elements or microsatellites. Each microsatellite has been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a single locus marker. PCR primers were designed from unique sequence flanking each repeat. Size variation of PCR products less than 750 base pairs (bp) between mouse strains has been determined using ethidium bromide-stained acrylamide or agarose gels. A further 74 newly characterized microsatellites are presented in this paper, bringing to 185 the total we have analyzed. Of these, 157/185 (85%) have more than one allele, 143/178 (80%) vary in length between C57BL/6J and Mus spretus, and 82/168 (49%) vary between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J. Microsatellites provide informative single locus probes for linkage analysis in the construction of a genetic map of the mouse genome.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1991;1;4;273-82

  • Developmental regulation of expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) multigene family during mouse spermatogenesis.

    Thomas K, Del Mazo J, Eversole P, Bellvé A, Hiraoka Y, Li SS and Simon M

    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Expression of the Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) genes during various stages of spermatogenesis was studied by using a combination of Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridization techniques. These studies have indicated that developmentally programmed expression of all three functional LDH genes occurs during differentiation of germ cells. The LDH/C (ldh-3) gene was expressed exclusively during meiosis and spermiogenesis, beginning in leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes and continuing through to the elongated spermatids. LDH/C (ldh-3) gene expression was accompanied by transient expression of the LDH/A (ldh-1) gene in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. The LDH/B (ldh-2) gene was expressed mainly in Sertoli and spermatogonial cells. By using somatic cell hybrids, the LDH/C (ldh-3) gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 7, establishing that it is syntenic with the LDH/A (ldh-1) gene locus. Experimental observations made in this study provide new insight into the order and sequence of events involved in the regulation of gene expression of the LDH gene family during spermatogenesis.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 21825, R 01 HD 05077

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1990;109;2;483-93

  • Eight independent Ldh-1 mutations of the mouse recovered in mutagenicity experiments: biochemical characteristics and chromosomal localization.

    Pretsch W

    Eight mouse mutants with altered charge or activity of lactate dehydrogenase-1 have been detected in offspring derived from mutagen-treated spermatogonia. Using two chromosome-7 marker genes pooled recombination frequencies are estimated as c-14.4 +/- 0.8-p-6.9 +/- 0.6-Ldh-1.

    Genetical research 1989;53;2;101-4

  • Chromosomal and regional localization of the genes for UMPH2, APRT, PEPD, PEPS, PSP, and PGP in mink: comparison with man and mouse.

    Pack SD, Zhdanova NS, Sukoyan MA and Serov OL

    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Siberian Department, Novosibirsk.

    Segregation of mink biochemical markers uridine 5'-monophosphate phosphohydrolase-2 (UMPH2), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP), peptidases D (PEPD) and S (PEPS), as well as mink chromosomes, was investigated in a set of mink x mouse hybrid clones. The results obtained allowed us to make the following mink gene assignments: UMPH2, chromosome 8; PEPD and APRT, chromosome 7; PEPS, chromosome 6; and PSP and PGP, chromosome 14. The latter two genes are the first known markers for mink chromosome 14. For regional mapping, UMPH2 was analyzed in mouse cell clones transformed by means of mink metaphase chromosomes (Gradov et al., 1985) and also in mink x mouse hybrid clones carrying fragments of mink chromosome 8 of different sizes. Based on the data obtained, the gene for UMPH2 was assigned to the region 8pter----p26 of mink chromosome 8. The present data is compared with that previously established for man and mouse with reference to the conservation of syntenic gene groups and G-band homoeologies of chromosomes in mammals.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1989;50;2-3;127-31

  • Analysis of recombination in the centromere region of mouse chromosome 7 using ovarian teratoma and backcross methods.

    Eppig JT and Eicher EM

    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609.

    Recombination near the centromere of mouse chromosome 7 was studied using data obtained from ovarian teratomas and backcrosses. The recombination percentage for the centromere-Gpi-1 (glucose phosphate isomerase-1) interval was 13.4 +/- 2.6 using the ovarian teratoma mapping method. In a backcross using the Robertsonian translocation Rb(7.18)9Lub (Rb9) as the centromeric marker, the centromere-Gpi-1 recombination percentage was 4.5 +/- 1.3, demonstrating that Rb9 suppresses recombination near the centromere of chromosome 7. The recombination percentage for the Gpi-1-Ldh-1 (lactate dehydrogenase-1) interval was estimated on the LT/Sv mouse genetic background to be 19.0 +/- 2.9 using the ovarian teratoma mapping method, a value comparable to the 15.5 +/- 4.8 reported earlier. On the same genetic background in a backcross segregating for Rb9, the Gpi-1-Ldh-1 recombination percentage was 7.1 +/- 1.6. Another backcross, without the Rb9 translocation but utilizing a different genetic background, produced a recombination percentage for the Gpi-1-Ldh-1 interval of 10.7 +/- 1.5, a value similar to that obtained in the Rb-containing cross. These results suggest that either the recombination suppression in the centromere area caused by Rb9 does not extend to the Gpi-1-Ldh-1 genetic region or, if it does, that the differing genetic backgrounds of these two crosses influence recombination. No recombinants were detected among 410 offspring produced from a backcross mating segregating for Ldh-1 and ru-2 (ruby-eye-2). Thus, the gene order of Ldh-1 and ru-2 on chromosome 7 remains uncertain.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20919

    The Journal of heredity 1988;79;6;425-9

  • Human tyrosinase gene, mapped to chromosome 11 (q14----q21), defines second region of homology with mouse chromosome 7.

    Barton DE, Kwon BS and Francke U

    Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    The enzyme tyrosinase (monophenol,L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC catalyzes the first two steps in the conversion of tyrosine to melanin, the major pigment found in melanocytes. Some forms of oculocutaneous albinism, characterized by the absence of melanin in skin and eyes and by a deficiency of tyrosinase activity, may result from mutations in the tyrosinase structural gene. A recently isolated human tyrosinase cDNA was used to map the human tyrosinase locus (TYR) to chromosome 11, region q14----q21, by Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA and by in situ chromosomal hybridization. A second site of tyrosinase-related sequences was detected on the short arm of chromosome 11 near the centromere (p11.2----cen). Furthermore, we have confirmed the localization of the tyrosinase gene in the mouse at or near the c locus on chromosome 7. Comparison of the genetic maps of human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 7 leads to hypotheses regarding the evolution of human chromosome 11.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26105

    Genomics 1988;3;1;17-24

  • Mechanisms of compensation of hemolytic anemia in a lactate dehydrogenase mouse mutant.

    Kremer JP, Datta T, Pretsch W, Charles DJ and Dörmer P

    Hemopoiesis was studied in homozygous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mutant mice not showing noticeable impairment in viability and fertility but afflicted with a severe hemolytic anemia. In order to investigate the mechanisms of erythropoietic compensation, the numbers of multipotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S), myeloid (GM-CFC), and early and late erythroid progenitors (BFU-E and CFU-E) in femur and spleen were determined, and the total body content of each cell type was computed. While the total CFU-S and GM-CFC numbers showed only slight deviations from normal, the total BFU-E pool was 1.4 and the CFU-E pool 18 times enlarged. No difference in cell cycle status could be detected in these compartments by means of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) suicide in vitro. However, splenic erythroblasts of homozygous LDH mutants had a shorter DNA synthesis time and a higher labeling index compared to the wild type mice. It is concluded that the hemolysis is compensated at a lower level of red blood cell count primarily by an increase in the total number of late erythroid progenitors resulting from roughly four extra divisions, and secondarily by an increase in the flux through the recognizable erythroblast compartments, predominantly a space-saving mechanism.

    Experimental hematology 1987;15;6;664-70

  • Complete nucleotide sequence of the mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A functional gene: comparison of the exon-intron organization of dehydrogenase genes.

    Fukasawa KM and Li SS

    The complete sequence of 12,851 nucleotides of the mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) gene has been determined. It includes eight exons, seven introns, promoter and regulatory regions. The B1 repetitive elements present in intron III and VI are oriented in opposite orientation, and they share 72% sequence homology. The exon-intron organization of mouse LDH-A gene is compared with the organizations of other dehydrogenase genes, and the molecular evolution of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding domains is discussed.

    Genetics 1987;116;1;99-105

  • Linear dose-response relationship of erythrocyte enzyme-activity mutations in offspring of ethylnitrosourea-treated mice.

    Charles DJ and Pretsch W

    The specific activity of 10 erythrocyte enzymes was measured to detect gene mutations in F1 offspring of male mice treated with 3 different doses of ethylnitrosourea (ENU). After administration of ENU or of the solvent (controls), the (101/El X C3H/El)F1 hybrid males were mated to untreated T-stock females. No enzyme-activity mutant was found in 3610 F1 offspring of the control group. After treatment of postspermatogonial germ-cell stages, 1 mutant in 1125 F1 offspring of males treated with 160 mg ENU/kg body weight, and 2 mutants in 1319 F1 offspring of a 250-mg/kg group were observed. After treatment of spermatogonia, 9 enzyme-activity mutants in 4247 F1 offspring of males treated with 80 mg ENU/kg body weight, 15 mutants in 3396 F1 offspring of a 160-mg/kg group, and 9 mutants in 1402 F1 offspring of a 250-mg/kg group were detected. The mutation frequencies in spermatogonia were significantly different from that of the controls (P less than 0.01). The dose-response curve was found to be linear. The frequencies of enzyme-activity mutations are comparable to those of recessive specific-locus mutations determined in the same experiments. Enzyme-activity mutants with reduced activity as well as mutants with enhanced activity were found. Genetic and biochemical characterization of enzyme-activity mutants was routinely performed. In inter se crossings of heterozygotes, no offspring expressing a third phenotype other than the wild type and the heterozygote were found in approximately half of the mutation studies. The recovered mouse mutants might be used as animal models to study corresponding genetic diseases in humans.

    Mutation research 1987;176;1;81-91

  • Chromosomal mapping of beta-globin and albino loci in the domestic cat. A conserved mammalian chromosome group.

    O'Brien SJ, Haskins ME, Winkler CA, Nash WG and Patterson DF

    Siamese cats are homozygous for the recessive cs allele of the color (albino) locus. The c locus is shown here by backcross analysis to be linked to the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) locus in the cat at a distance of approximately eight centiMorgans. The HBB locus and, by inference, the c locus were assigned to feline chromosome D1, by analysis of genomic DNAs from a panel of rodent X cat somatic cell hybrids with a molecular clone of the human beta-globin locus. Evolutionary conservation of the synthetic homology of feline chromosome D1 and human chromosome 11 is extensive. Comparison of high resolution G-trypsin-banded preparations of the two chromosomes permitted cytological alignment of the long arm of the conserved chromosomes providing that a minimum of one paracentric inversion is hypothesized. The placement of the albino locus on conserved syntenic groups of several markers (HBB, HRAS, LDHA) in both cat and mouse strongly indicates the conservative placement of the as yet unmapped human albino locus in the homologous syntenic group on human chromosome 11p.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR 02512; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 32592

    The Journal of heredity 1986;77;6;374-8

  • Nucleotide sequence of the putative regulatory region of mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A gene.

    Fukasawa KM and Li SS

    The nucleotide sequence of approx. 3 kilobases including the regulatory region, a non-coding exon and the first protein-coding exon from mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) gene has been determined. The putative initiation sites of transcription and translation were deduced by comparing the nucleotide sequence of mouse LDH-A gene with those of a mouse LDH-A processed pseudogene and the LDH-A full-length cDNAs from rat and human. The tentative TATA and CAAT boxes, and the hexanucleotides CCGCCC have been identified. The sequence of AAATCTTGCTCAA of mouse LDH-A gene has also been found to show striking homology to the cyclic AMP-responsive sequences of eukaryotic genes regulated by cyclic AMP. It has been reported previously that the protein-coding sequence of mouse LDH-A gene is interrupted by six introns and the 3' untranslated sequence of 485 nucleotides is not interrupted [Li, Tiano, Fukasawa, Yagi, Shimiza, Sharief, Nakashima & Pan (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 149, 215-225]. An additional intron of 1653 base-pairs was found in the 5' untranslated sequence of 101 nucleotides at 24 nucleotides upstream to the translation start site. Thus, mouse LDH-A gene containing seven introns spans approx. 11 kilobases and its length of mature mRNA is 1582 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail.

    The Biochemical journal 1986;235;2;435-9

  • Gene map of the cow: conservation of linkage with mouse and man.

    Womack JE and Moll YD

    Cattle-hamster hybrid somatic cells segregating cattle chromosomes have been analyzed by cellulose-acetate electrophoresis for 28 enzyme gene products including the previously unassigned loci for GAPD, ITPA, ADA, ACO1, GDH, GUK, CAT, and GLO1. These 28 loci are organized into 21 independent syntenic groups bringing the composite bovine gene map to 35 loci on 24 syntenic groups. Thirty-two homologous genes now have been mapped in humans, mice, and cattle. Conservation of cattle and human linkage groups is evidenced by only three linkage discordancies among these 32 loci as contrasted to nine discordancies among the same loci in the human and mouse maps.

    The Journal of heredity 1986;77;1;2-7

  • Protein structure and gene organization of mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme.

    Li SS, Tiano HF, Fukasawa KM, Yagi K, Shimizu M, Sharief FS, Nakashima Y and Pan YE

    The complete covalent structure of the 331 amino acids of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A4 isozyme has been determined by sequence analyses of both the protein and the genomic DNA. The mouse LDH-A gene spans a length of at least 7000 bases from the translation initiation codon ATG to the end of the 3' untranslated region, and it contains six introns that interrupt the protein-coding sequence. The relationships between the exon-intron organization of LDH-A gene and the structural-functional domains of the protein are discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1985;149;2;215-25

  • Isolation and characterization of a cDNA and a pseudogene for mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A isozyme.

    Akai K, Yagi K, Tiano HF, Pan YC, Shimizu M, Fong K, Jungmann RA and Li SS

    A mouse lactate dehydrogenase-A cDNA was isolated and it was shown to contain the 393bp of the protein-coding sequence and 488bp of the 3' untranslated region. The amino acid sequence deduced from its open reading frame provided independent evidence for the sequence of residues 201-331 of mouse LDH-A subunit (muscle). This cDNA clone was used as a probe to isolate a mouse genomic clone containing a truncated, processed LDH-A pseudogene. This pseudogene showed 81.6% homology at 713 positions compared with the LDH-A cDNA sequence. The divergence of this pseudogene was estimated to have occurred 39 million years ago.

    The International journal of biochemistry 1985;17;5;645-8

  • A new pyruvate kinase mutation with hyperactivity in the mouse.

    Charles DJ and Pretsch W

    A mouse mutant with pyruvate kinase (PK) hyperactivity has been found in offspring of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated male mice. The activity alteration was detected in the blood and could also be found in the liver but not in the muscle, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, or brain. Heterozygous mice have erythrocyte PK activity enhanced up to about 160% and homozygotes up to about 240%, compared to homozygous wild types. The mutation is codominantly expressed. The heterozygous and homozygous mutants are viable and fully fertile and do not show symptoms of erythrocytosis. The mutation does not affect the heat stability, the electrophoretic mobility, or the Km (for phosphoenolpyruvate) of the PK molecule. It is suggested that the regulatory locus of PK-1 is affected by this mutation. The observations support also the theory of one structural locus for the erythrocyte and liver isozymes.

    Biochemical genetics 1984;22;11-12;1103-17

  • Biochemical diversity and evolution in the genus Mus.

    Bonhomme F, Catalan J, Britton-Davidian J, Chapman VM, Moriwaki K, Nevo E and Thaler L

    Thirteen biochemical groups of wild mice from Europe, Asia, and Africa belonging to the genus Mus are analyzed at 22-42 protein loci. Phylogenetic trees are proposed and patterns of biochemical evolution are discussed, as well as the possible contribution of wild mice to the genetic diversity of laboratory stocks.

    Biochemical genetics 1984;22;3-4;275-303

  • Genetic mapping in mammals: chromosome map of domestic cat.

    O'Brien SJ and Nash WG

    A genetic map of 31 biochemical loci located on 17 feline syntenic (linkage) groups has been derived by somatic cell genetic analysis of cat-rodent hybrids. Most of these syntenic groups have been assigned to one of the 19 feline chromosomes. Comparative linkage analysis of the feline biochemical loci and homologous human loci revealed considerable conservation of linkage associations between the primates and the Felidae (order Carnivora). Many of these same linkage groups have not been conserved in the murine genome. The genetic and evolutionary implications of comparative mapping analysis among mammalian species are discussed.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1982;216;4543;257-65

  • Confirmational, provisional, and/or regional assignment of 15 enzyme loci onto Chinese hamster autosomes 1, 2, and 7.

    Stallings RL and Siciliano MJ

    PEG-mediated fusion between mouse Cl1d cells and primary Chinese hamster spleen cells produced interspecific hybrids which slowly and nonrandomly segregated Chinese hamster chromosomes. Cytogenetic and isozyme analysis (31 loci) of HAT and BrdU selected hybrid clones and subclones and of members of a hybrid clone panel retaining different combinations of Chinese hamster chromosomes enabled provisional assignment of the following enzyme loci on Chinese hamster chromosomes: thymidine kinase, galactokinase, and acid phosphatase-1 to chromosome 7; galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase to chromosome 2; and adenosine kinase, esterase D, glutathione reductase, glyoxalase, nucleoside phosphorylase, peptidases B and S, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) 2 to chromosome 1. Assignments of PGM1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and enolase 1 to chromosome 2 were confirmed, and a chromosome 2 deletion (q23-q33) enabled the provisional assignment of PGM1 to that region. The assignments provide markers for the study of the genetic consequences of chromosomal rearrangements in Chinese hamster cell lines and support the concept of conservation of mammalian autosomal linkage groups.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-09299; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES-01287

    Somatic cell genetics 1981;7;6;683-98

  • A mutation affecting the lactate dehydrogenase locus Ldh-1 in the mouse-I. Genetical and electrophoretical characterization.

    Charles DJ and Pretsch W

    (101/El x C3H/el)F1 male mice were infected intraperitoneally with the mutagen procarbazine hydrochloride and immediately caged with untreated test-stock females. Crude liver extracts from the offspring were subjected to polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing, and the gels were stained for six enzymes. In the experimental group (mutagen treated spermatogonial germ-cell stage), a dominant inherited banding alteration of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pattern was detected. By crossing the heterozygous mutants, homozygotes were obtained that showed much less gel staining intensity. The mutation is codominantly expressed with 100% penetrance. The banding alteration was also observed in muscle, kidney, heart, blood, brain, testis, spleen, and lung. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed with all the tissues examined. The mutation causes the intensity of the band corresponding to LDH-A (primary molecular form in muscle) to decrease from that of the wild type, while the intensity of the bands corresponding to LDH-B (primary molecular form in heart) remains constant. It is concluded that the mutation affects the locus coding for LDH of the muscle type. Ldh-1c is proposed as the allele symbol.

    Biochemical genetics 1981;19;3-4;301-9

  • Conservation of autosomal gene synteny groups in mouse and man.

    Lalley PA, Minna JD and Francke U

    Nature 1978;274;5667;160-3

  • Assignment of the gene for lactic dehydrogenase A to mouse chromosome 7 using mouse-human hybrids.

    O'Brien D, Linnenbach A and Croce CM

    We have studied somatic cell hybrids between either mouse peritoneal macrophages or spleen cells and HT-1080-6TG human fibrosarcoma cells for the expression of mouse lactic dehydrogenase A (LDH-A). The hybrids were also studied for the expression of mouse glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI-1), the gene for which has been assigned to chromosome 7. Concordant segregation of the expression of mouse GPI-1 and LDH-1 was observed in 61 independent hybrid clones. These results indicate that the gene coding for LDH-A is located on mouse chromosome 7.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;21;1-2;72-6

  • Comparative gene mapping in man and mouse: assignment of the genes for lactate dehydrogenase-A, peptidase-D, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 to mouse chromosome 7.

    Lalley PA, Francke U and Minna JD

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;577-80

  • Human times mouse hybrid cells segregating mouse chromosomes and isozymes.

    Minna JD and Coon HG

    Nature 1974;252;5482;401-4

  • Allelically-determined isozyme polymorphisms in laboratory populations of mice.

    Ruddle FH and Roderick TH

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1968;151;1;531-9

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000007 G2C Mus musculus Mouse NRC Mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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