G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000340
Gene symbol
Dnm2 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
dynamin 2
Orthologue
G00001589 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000033335 (Ensembl mouse gene)
13430 (Entrez Gene)
694 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:109547 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00206 (BGEM)
13430 (Genepaint)
dnm2 (gensat)
Literature
602378 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:109547 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
P39054 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Dyn2

Literature (35)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Dynamin2- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-regulated invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Wang Z, Humphrey C, Frilot N, Wang G, Nie Z, Moniri NH and Daaka Y

    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    Invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contributes to antibiotic-resistant and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), but this process is incompletely understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the large guanosine triphosphatase dynamin2 and its partner, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS [eNOS]), mediate bacterial entry. Overexpression of dynamin2 or treatment with the NO donor S-nitrosothiols increases, whereas targeted reduction of endogenous dynamin2 or eNOS expression with ribonucleic acid interference impairs, bacterial invasion. Exposure of mouse bladder to small molecule NOS inhibitors abrogates infection of the uroepithelium by E. coli, and, concordantly, bacteria more efficiently invade uroepithelia isolated from wild-type compared with eNOS(-/-) mice. E. coli internalization promotes rapid phosphorylation of host cell eNOS and NO generation, and dynamin2 S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification required for the bacterial entry, also increases during E. coli invasion. These findings suggest that UPEC escape urinary flushing and immune cell surveillance by means of eNOS-dependent dynamin2 S-nitrosylation and invasion of host cells to cause recurrent UTIs.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI079014, AI65927, R01 AI079014, R21 AI065927

    The Journal of cell biology 2011;192;1;101-10

  • A centronuclear myopathy-dynamin 2 mutation impairs skeletal muscle structure and function in mice.

    Durieux AC, Vignaud A, Prudhon B, Viou MT, Beuvin M, Vassilopoulos S, Fraysse B, Ferry A, Lainé J, Romero NB, Guicheney P and Bitoun M

    Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, IFR14, Paris F-75013, France.

    Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (AD-CNM) is due to mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2) involved in endocytosis and intracellular membrane trafficking. To understand the pathomechanisms resulting from a DNM2 mutation, we generated a knock-in mouse model expressing the most frequent AD-CNM mutation (KI-Dnm2(R465W)). Heterozygous (HTZ) mice developed a myopathy showing a specific spatial and temporal muscle involvement. In the primarily and prominently affected tibialis anterior muscle, impairment of the contractile properties was evidenced at weaning and was progressively associated with atrophy and histopathological abnormalities mainly affecting mitochondria and reticular network. Expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-proteosome and autophagy pathways was up-regulated during DNM2-induced atrophy. In isolated muscle fibers from wild-type and HTZ mice, Dnm2 localized in regions of intense membrane trafficking (I-band and perinuclear region), emphasizing the pathophysiological hypothesis in which DNM2-dependent trafficking would be altered. In addition, HTZ fibers showed an increased calcium concentration as well as an intracellular Dnm2 and dysferlin accumulation. A similar dysferlin retention, never reported so far in congenital myopathies, was also demonstrated in biopsies from DNM2-CNM patients and can be considered as a new marker to orientate direct genetic testing. Homozygous (HMZ) mice died during the first hours of life. Impairment of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, demonstrated in HMZ embryonic fibroblasts, could be the cause of lethality. Overall, this first mouse model of DNM2-related myopathy shows the crucial role of DNM2 in muscle homeostasis and will be a precious tool to study DNM2 functions in muscle, pathomechanisms of DNM2-CNM and developing therapeutic strategies.

    Human molecular genetics 2010;19;24;4820-36

  • Endocytosis of murine norovirus 1 into murine macrophages is dependent on dynamin II and cholesterol.

    Perry JW and Wobus CE

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 5622 Medical Sciences Bldg. II, 1150 West Medical Center Dr., University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA.

    Although noroviruses cause the vast majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans, little is known about their life cycle, including viral entry. Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only norovirus to date that efficiently infects cells in culture. To elucidate the productive route of infection for MNV-1 into murine macrophages, we used a neutral red (NR) infectious center assay and pharmacological inhibitors in combination with dominant-negative (DN) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs to show that clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis did not play a role in entry. In addition, we showed that phagocytosis or macropinocytosis, flotillin-1, and GRAF1 are not required for the major route of MNV-1 uptake. However, MNV-1 genome release occurred within 1 h, and endocytosis was significantly inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drugs nystatin and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore, and the dominant-negative dynamin II mutant K44A. Therefore, we conclude that the productive route of MNV-1 entry into murine macrophages is rapid and requires host cholesterol and dynamin II.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI080611, T32 AI 007528, T32 AI007528; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM 07544, T32 GM007544

    Journal of virology 2010;84;12;6163-76

  • SRC-mediated phosphorylation of dynamin and cortactin regulates the "constitutive" endocytosis of transferrin.

    Cao H, Chen J, Krueger EW and McNiven MA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    The mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of transferrin are poorly defined and generally viewed as a constitutive process that occurs continuously without regulatory constraints. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endocytosis of the transferrin receptor is a regulated process that requires activated Src kinase and, subsequently, phosphorylation of two important components of the endocytic machinery, namely, the large GTPase dynamin 2 (Dyn2) and its associated actin-binding protein, cortactin (Cort). To our knowledge these findings are among the first to implicate an Src-mediated endocytic cascade in what was previously presumed to be a nonregulated internalization process.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK084567, P30DK84567, R01 DK044650, R01-DK44650, R37 DK044650, R37 DK044650-19

    Molecular and cellular biology 2010;30;3;781-92

  • Dynamin 2 and c-Abl are novel regulators of hyperoxia-mediated NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species production in caveolin-enriched microdomains of the endothelium.

    Singleton PA, Pendyala S, Gorshkova IA, Mambetsariev N, Moitra J, Garcia JG and Natarajan V

    Department of Medicine, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. psinglet@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly by the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins, plays a major role in the pathophysiology associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. We examined potential regulators of ROS production and discovered that hyperoxia treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells induced recruitment of the vesicular regulator, dynamin 2, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, and the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47(phox), to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). Silencing caveolin-1 (which blocks CEM formation) and/or c-Abl expression with small interference RNA inhibited hyperoxia-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and association of dynamin 2 with p47(phox) and ROS production. In addition, treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with dynamin 2 small interfering RNA or the dynamin GTPase inhibitor, Dynasore, attenuated hyperoxia-mediated ROS production and p47(phox) recruitment to CEMs. Using purified recombinant proteins, we observed that c-Abl tyrosine-phosphorylated dynamin 2, and this phosphorylation increased p47(phox)/dynamin 2 association (change in the dissociation constant (K(d)) from 85.8 to 6.9 nm). Furthermore, exposure of mice to hyperoxia increased ROS production, c-Abl activation, dynamin 2 association with p47(phox), and pulmonary leak, events that were attenuated in the caveolin-1 knock-out mouse confirming a role for CEMs in ROS generation. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces c-Abl-mediated dynamin 2 phosphorylation required for recruitment of p47(phox) to CEMs and subsequent ROS production in lung endothelium.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01 HL058064, P01-HL 58064, R01 HL 085553, R01 HL085553, R01 HL095723, R01-HL 095723

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;50;34964-75

  • Coordinated actions of actin and BAR proteins upstream of dynamin at endocytic clathrin-coated pits.

    Ferguson SM, Ferguson S, Raimondi A, Paradise S, Shen H, Mesaki K, Ferguson A, Destaing O, Ko G, Takasaki J, Cremona O, O' Toole E and De Camilli P

    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

    The GTPase dynamin, a key player in endocytic membrane fission, interacts with numerous proteins that regulate actin dynamics and generate/sense membrane curvature. To determine the functional relationship between these proteins and dynamin, we have analyzed endocytic intermediates that accumulate in cells that lack dynamin (derived from dynamin 1 and 2 double conditional knockout mice). In these cells, actin-nucleating proteins, actin, and BAR domain proteins accumulate at the base of arrested endocytic clathrin-coated pits, where they support the growth of dynamic long tubular necks. These results, which we show reflect the sequence of events in wild-type cells, demonstrate a concerted action of these proteins prior to, and independent of, dynamin and emphasize similarities between clathrin-mediated endocytosis in yeast and higher eukaryotes. Our data also demonstrate that the relationship between dynamin and actin is intimately connected to dynamin's endocytic role and that dynamin terminates a powerful actin- and BAR protein-dependent tubulating activity.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; NCI NIH HHS: CA46128, P01 CA046128, P01 CA046128-20; NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR000592, RR-000592; NIDA NIH HHS: DA018343, P30 DA018343, P30 DA018343-06; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45735, P30 DK045735, P30 DK045735-119008; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36251, R01 NS036251, R01 NS036251-10, R01 NS036251-11, R01 NS036251-12, R01 NS036251-13, R37 NS036251; Telethon: GGP05141

    Developmental cell 2009;17;6;811-22

  • Neurobeachin, a protein implicated in membrane protein traffic and autism, is required for the formation and functioning of central synapses.

    Medrihan L, Rohlmann A, Fairless R, Andrae J, Döring M, Missler M, Zhang W and Kilimann MW

    Center for Physiology, Georg-August University and DFG-Research Center of Molecular Physiology of the Brain, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany.

    The development of neuronal networks in the brain requires the differentiation of functional synapses. Neurobeachin (Nbea) was identified as a putative regulator of membrane protein trafficking associated with tubulovesicular endomembranes and postsynaptic plasma membranes. Nbea is essential for evoked transmission at neuromuscular junctions, but its role in the central nervous system has not been characterized. Here, we have studied central synapses of a newly generated gene-trap knockout (KO) mouse line at embryonic day 18, because null-mutant mice are paralysed and die perinatally. Although the overall brain architecture was normal, we identified major abnormalities of synaptic function in mutant animals. In acute slices from the brainstem, both spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents were clearly reduced and failure rates of evoked inhibitory responses were markedly increased. In addition, the frequency of miniature excitatory and both the frequency and amplitudes of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were severely diminished in KO mice, indicating a perturbation of both action potential-dependent and -independent transmitter release. Moreover, Nbea appears to be important for the formation and composition of central synapses because the area density of mature asymmetric contacts in the fetal brainstem was reduced to 30% of wild-type levels, and the expression levels of a subset of synaptic marker proteins were smaller than in littermate controls. Our data demonstrate for the first time a function of Nbea at central synapses that may be based on its presumed role in targeting membrane proteins to synaptic contacts, and are consistent with the 'excitatory-inhibitory imbalance' model of autism where Nbea gene rearrangements have been detected in some patients.

    The Journal of physiology 2009;587;Pt 21;5095-106

  • An intramolecular signaling element that modulates dynamin function in vitro and in vivo.

    Chappie JS, Acharya S, Liu YW, Leonard M, Pucadyil TJ and Schmid SL

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Dynamin exhibits a high basal rate of GTP hydrolysis that is enhanced by self-assembly on a lipid template. Dynamin's GTPase effector domain (GED) is required for this stimulation, though its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Recent structural work has suggested that GED may physically dock with the GTPase domain to exert its stimulatory effects. To examine how these interactions activate dynamin, we engineered a minimal GTPase-GED fusion protein (GG) that reconstitutes dynamin's basal GTPase activity and utilized it to define the structural framework that mediates GED's association with the GTPase domain. Chemical cross-linking of GG and mutagenesis of full-length dynamin establishes that the GTPase-GED interface is comprised of the N- and C-terminal helices of the GTPase domain and the C-terminus of GED. We further show that this interface is essential for structural stability in full-length dynamin. Finally, we identify mutations in this interface that disrupt assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis and dynamin-catalyzed membrane fission in vitro and impair the late stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in vivo. These data suggest that the components of the GTPase-GED interface act as an intramolecular signaling module, which we term the bundle signaling element, that can modulate dynamin function in vitro and in vivo.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR017573, P41 RR17573; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM042455, R01 GM042455; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH081419, MH061345, MH081419, R01 MH061345, R37 MH061345

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;15;3561-71

  • Dynamin reduces Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation and SRC binding in osteoclasts.

    Bruzzaniti A, Neff L, Sandoval A, Du L, Horne WC and Baron R

    Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 W. Michigan St., DS241, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5186, USA. abruzzan@iupui.edu

    Signaling via the Pyk2-Src-Cbl complex downstream of integrins contributes to the assembly, organization, and dynamics of podosomes, which are the transient adhesion complexes of highly motile cells such as osteoclasts and dendritic cells. We previously demonstrated that the GTPase dynamin is associated with podosomes, regulates actin flux in podosomes, and promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts. We report here that dynamin associates with Pyk2, independent of dynamin's GTPase activity, and reduces Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation in a GTPase-dependent manner, leading to decreased Src binding to Pyk2. Overexpressing dynamin decreased the macrophage colony-stimulating factor- and adhesion-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 in osteoclastlike cells, suggesting that dynamin is likely to regulate Src-Pyk2 binding downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors with important cellular consequences. Furthermore, catalytically active Src promotes dynamin-Pyk2 association, and mutating specific Src-phosphorylated tyrosine residues in dynamin blunts the dynamin-induced decrease in Pyk2 phosphorylation. Thus, since Src binds to Pyk2 through its interaction with phospho-Y402, our results suggest that Src activates a negative-feedback loop downstream of integrin engagement and other stimuli by promoting both the binding of dynamin to Pyk2-containing complexes and the dynamin-dependent decrease in Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation, ultimately leading to the dissociation of Src from Pyk2.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: 2P30 AR 46032-08, AR-42927, AR-54450, P30 AR046032, R01 AR042927, R01 AR054450

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;13;3644-56

  • Involvement of dynamin-2 in formation of discoid vesicles in urinary bladder umbrella cells.

    Terada N, Ohno N, Saitoh S, Saitoh Y, Fujii Y, Kondo T, Katoh R, Chan C, Abraham SN and Ohno S

    Department of Anatomy and Molecular Histology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo-city, Yamanashi, 409-3898, Japan. nobuot@yamanashi.ac.jp

    Umbrella cells (UCs) of the epithelium of the urinary bladder have the capacity to control bladder volume by regulating exocytosis/endocytosis of their intracellular discoid vesicles (DVs). Dynamin (Dyn) is a GTPase that promotes endocytic processes through scission of cell membranes. We have examined whether Dyn2, the most abundant Dyn form, is expressed in UCs and contributes to their endocytic actions. A specific antibody against Dyn2 was used to localize Dyn2 in human and rodent UCs by immunohistochemistry. To clarify the functional roles of Dyn2, mouse bladders were treated with a Dyn-GTPase inhibitor, dynasore, and its effects on their UC structure were assessed. Since uropathogenic Escherichia coli can be encased into UCs during infection, we used immunohistochemistry to determine whether bacteria-encasing compartments in the infected UCs were also enriched with Dyn2. Light microscopy showed that Dyn2 was abundantly expressed in UCs, especially near the apical cytoplasmic regions. By immunoelectron microscopy, Dyn2 was found on and around DV membranes in UCs. Ultrastructural analysis with a quick-freezing and deep-etching method confirmed these findings and revealed the existence of distinct Dyn2-bound microfilaments in close association with DV membranes. Dynasore treatment of bladders markedly reduced the number of DVs in UCs. In infected UCs, E. coli was encased in compartments enriched in Dyn2. Therefore, Dyn2 is highly enriched in UCs and mostly associated with membranes of DVs and microfilaments in the UCs. Pretreatment of bladders with dynasore inhibits E. coli invasion of UCs. Dyn2 thus contributes to the structural integrity of DVs and to the endocytic activity of UCs.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK077159

    Cell and tissue research 2009;337;1;91-102

  • Dynamin 2 is required for actin assembly in phagocytosis in Sertoli cells.

    Otsuka A, Abe T, Watanabe M, Yagisawa H, Takei K and Yamada H

    Department of Neuroscience, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    Dynamin 2 has been reported to be implicated in phagocytosis. However, the mode of action of dynamin is poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether dynamin 2 participates in actin assembly during phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. In the presence of dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, phagocytosis was reduced by 60-70% in Sertoli cells and macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Sertoli cells treated with dynasore were unable to form phagocytic cups. In addition, dysfunction of dynamin 2 reduced both actin polymerization and recruitment of actin and dynamin 2 to phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]-containing liposomes. The formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles of Sertoli cells was decreased by 60-70% by sequestering PI(4,5)P(2) either by expression of PH domain of PLCdelta or treatment with neomycin. These results strongly suggest that dynamin 2 is involved in actin dynamics and the formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles during phagocytosis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;378;3;478-82

  • Isoform and splice-variant specific functions of dynamin-2 revealed by analysis of conditional knock-out cells.

    Liu YW, Surka MC, Schroeter T, Lukiyanchuk V and Schmid SL

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Dynamin (Dyn) is a multifunctional GTPase implicated in several cellular events, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, cell signaling, and cytokinesis. The mammalian genome encodes three isoforms, Dyn1, Dyn2, and Dyn3, and several splice variants of each, leading to the suggestion that distinct isoforms and/or distinct splice variants might mediate distinct cellular functions. We generated a conditional Dyn2 KO cell line and performed knockout and reconstitution experiments to explore the isoform- and splice variant specific cellular functions of ubiquitously expressed Dyn2. We find that Dyn2 is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), p75 export from the Golgi, and PDGF-stimulated macropinocytosis and cytokinesis, but not for other endocytic pathways. Surprisingly, CME and p75 exocytosis were efficiently rescued by reintroduction of Dyn2, but not Dyn1, suggesting that these two isoforms function differentially in vesicular trafficking in nonneuronal cells. Both isoforms rescued macropinocytosis and cytokinesis, suggesting that dynamin function in these processes might be mechanistically distinct from its role in CME. Although all four Dyn2 splice variants could equally restore CME, Dyn2ba and -bb were more effective at restoring p75 exocytosis. This splice variant specificity correlated with their differential targeting to the Golgi. These studies reveal isoform and splice-variant specific functions for Dyn2.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM42455, R01 GM042455; NIMH NIH HHS: MH61345, R01 MH061345, R37 MH061345

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;12;5347-59

  • Dynamin 2 mediates fluid-phase micropinocytosis in epithelial cells.

    Cao H, Chen J, Awoniyi M, Henley JR and McNiven MA

    Mayo Clinic, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Miles and Shirley Fiterman Center for Digestive Diseases, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    It is well-known that dynamin 2 (Dyn2) participates in clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis; however, the role of Dyn2 in coat-independent endocytic processes remains controversial. Here we demonstrate a role for specific spliced variants of Dyn2 in the micropinocytosis of fluid in epithelial cells, independent of coat-mediated endocytic pathways. A general inhibition of Dyn2 was first performed using either microinjection of anti-dynamin antibodies or Dyn2-siRNA treatment. Both of these methods resulted in reduced uptake of transferrin, a marker for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and, under unstimulated conditions, reduced the uptake of the fluid-phase markers dextran and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By contrast, cells treated similarly but stimulated with serum or EGF internalized substantial amounts of dextran or HRP, indicating that Dyn2 is not required for stimulated fluid uptake via macropinocytosis. We next tested whether a specific spliced variant might selectively affect fluid-phase endocytosis. Mutation of specific Dyn2 spliced variants resulted in a differential attenuation of transferrin and dextran internalization. Furthermore, the reduction in fluid uptake in Dyn2-siRNA-treated cells was only rescued upon re-expression of select spliced variants. These findings suggest that Dyn2 function is required for the coat-independent internalization of fluid through endocytic pathways distinct from macropinocytosis and, in addition, implicate different Dyn2 spliced variants in specific endocytic functions.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44650

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 23;4167-77

  • CD44 regulates hepatocyte growth factor-mediated vascular integrity. Role of c-Met, Tiam1/Rac1, dynamin 2, and cortactin.

    Singleton PA, Salgia R, Moreno-Vinasco L, Moitra J, Sammani S, Mirzapoiazova T and Garcia JG

    Department of Medicine, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    The preservation of vascular endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity is critical to normal vessel homeostasis, with barrier dysfunction being a feature of inflammation, tumor angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and acute lung injury. Therefore, agents that preserve or restore vascular integrity have important therapeutic implications. In this study, we explored the regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated enhancement of EC barrier function via CD44 isoforms. We observed that HGF promoted c-Met association with CD44v10 and recruitment of c-Met into caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEM) containing CD44s (standard form). Treatment of EC with CD44v10-blocking antibodies inhibited HGF-mediated c-Met phosphorylation and c-Met recruitment to CEM. Silencing CD44 expression (small interfering RNA) attenuated HGF-induced recruitment of c-Met, Tiam1 (a Rac1 exchange factor), cortactin (an actin cytoskeletal regulator), and dynamin 2 (a vesicular regulator) to CEM as well as HGF-induced trans-EC electrical resistance. In addition, silencing Tiam1 or dynamin 2 reduced HGF-induced Rac1 activation, cortactin recruitment to CEM, and EC barrier regulation. We observed that both HGF- and high molecular weight hyaluronan (CD44 ligand)-mediated protection from lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability was significantly reduced in CD44 knock-out mice, thus validating these in vitro findings in an in vivo murine model of inflammatory lung injury. Taken together, these results suggest that CD44 is an important regulator of HGF/c-Met-mediated in vitro and in vivo barrier enhancement, a process with essential involvement of Tiam1, Rac1, dynamin 2, and cortactin.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: F32 HL68472, HL58064

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;42;30643-57

  • Myoferlin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 stability and function.

    Bernatchez PN, Acevedo L, Fernandez-Hernando C, Murata T, Chalouni C, Kim J, Erdjument-Bromage H, Shah V, Gratton JP, McNally EM, Tempst P and Sessa WC

    Department of Pharmacology and Vascular Biology & Transplantation Program, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536, USA.

    Myoferlin and dysferlin are members of the ferlin family of membrane proteins. Recent studies have shown that mutation or genetic disruption of myoferlin or dysferlin promotes muscular dystrophy-related phenotypes in mice, which are the result of impaired plasma membrane integrity. However, no biological functions have been ascribed to myoferlin in non-muscle tissues. Herein, using a proteomic analysis of endothelial cell (EC) caveolae/lipid raft microdomains we identified myoferlin in these domains and show that myoferlin is highly expressed in ECs and vascular tissues. The loss of myoferlin results in lack of proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide (NO) release in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Western blotting and surface biotinylation experiments show that loss of myoferlin reduces the expression level and autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in native ECs. In a reconstituted cell system, transfection of myoferlin increases VEGFR-2 membrane expression and autophosphorylation in response to VEGF. In vivo, VEGFR-2 levels and VEGF-induced permeability are impaired in myoferlin-deficient mice. Mechanistically, myoferlin forms a complex with dynamin-2 and VEGFR-2, which prevents CBL-dependent VEGFR-2 polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. These data are the first to report novel biological activities for myoferlin and reveal the role of membrane integrity to VEGF signaling.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL64793, N01-HV-28186, P01 HL 70295, R01 HL 57665, R01 HL61371

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;42;30745-53

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Dynamin 2 associates with complexins and is found in the acrosomal region of mammalian sperm.

    Zhao L, Shi X, Li L and Miller DJ

    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

    Previous data showed that complexin I, a SNARE regulatory protein, is localized in and/or around the acrosome and is necessary for the acrosome reaction in sperm. To understand how complexin I regulates the acrosome reaction, we used complexin-GST pulldown assays to identify interacting proteins. We showed that both complexins I and II bound mouse sperm dynamin 2. Dynamin 2 is a 100 kDa GTPase essential to many aspects of endocytosis but its potential role in exocytosis is unknown. Dynamin 2 is expressed in rat testis and widely expressed in other tissues; however, the function of dynamin 2 in germ cells is uncertain. Dynamin 2 protein was detected in mouse testis and was most abundant in or around the developing acrosome of spermatids. In addition, dynamin 2 was co-localized with complexin I in the acrosomal region of mammalian sperm. Its co-localization and interaction with complexin I suggest that dynamin 2 may play a role during acrosome formation and/or acrosomal exocytosis.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD38311

    Molecular reproduction and development 2007;74;6;750-7

  • Implication of amphiphysin 1 and dynamin 2 in tubulobulbar complex formation and spermatid release.

    Kusumi N, Watanabe M, Yamada H, Li SA, Kashiwakura Y, Matsukawa T, Nagai A, Nasu Y, Kumon H and Takei K

    Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

    Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) are composed of several tubular invaginations formed at the plasma membrane of testicular Sertoli cells. TBCs are transiently formed at the contact region with spermatids at spermatogenic stage VII in rat and mouse, and such TBC formation is prerequisite for spermatid release. Since the characteristic structure of TBCs suggests that the molecules implicated in endocytosis could be involved in TBC formation, we here investigated the localization and physiological roles of endocytic proteins, amphiphysin 1 and dynamin 2, at TBCs. We demonstrated by immunofluorescence that the endocytic proteins were concentrated at TBCs, where they colocalized with cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin and vinculin. Immunoelectron microscopy disclosed that both amphiphysin 1 and dynamin 2 were localized on TBC membrane. Next, we histologically examined the testis from amphiphysin 1 deficient {Amph(-/-)} mice. Morphometric analysis revealed that the number of TBCs was significantly reduced in Amph(-/-). The ratio of stage VIII seminiferous tubules was increased, and the ratio of stage IX was conversely decreased in Amph(-/-). Moreover, unreleased spermatids in stage VIII seminiferous tubules were increased in Amph(-/-), indicating that spermatid release and the following transition from stage VIII to IX was prolonged in Amph(-/-) mice. These results suggest that amphiphysin 1 and dynamin 2 are involved in TBC formation and spermatid release at Sertoli cells.

    Cell structure and function 2007;32;2;101-13

  • New p63 targets in keratinocytes identified by a genome-wide approach.

    Viganò MA, Lamartine J, Testoni B, Merico D, Alotto D, Castagnoli C, Robert A, Candi E, Melino G, Gidrol X and Mantovani R

    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari e Biotecnologie, Universita' di Milano, Milano, Italy. alessandra.vigano@guest.unimi.it

    p63 is a developmentally regulated transcription factor related to p53. It is involved in the development of ectodermal tissues, including limb, skin and in general, multilayered epithelia. The DeltaNp63alpha isoform is thought to play a 'master' role in the asymmetric division of epithelial cells. It is also involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, phenotypically characterized by ectodermal dysplasia. Our understanding of transcriptional networks controlled by p63 is limited, owing to the low number of bona fide targets. To screen for new targets, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation from keratinocytes (KCs) coupled to the microarray technology, using both CpG islands and promoter arrays. The former revealed 96 loci, the latter yielded 85 additional genes. We tested 40 of these targets in several functional assays, including: (i) in vivo binding by p63 in primary KCs; (ii) expression analysis in differentiating HaCaT cells and in cells overexpressing DeltaNp63alpha; (iii) promoter transactivation and (iv) immunostaining in normal tissues, confirming their regulation by p63. We discovered several new specific targets whose functional categorization links p63 to cell growth and differentiation.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U132670600; Telethon: GGP02379

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;21;5105-16

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • TTP specifically regulates the internalization of the transferrin receptor.

    Tosoni D, Puri C, Confalonieri S, Salcini AE, De Camilli P, Tacchetti C and Di Fiore PP

    IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

    Different plasma membrane receptors are internalized through saturable/noncompetitive pathways, suggesting cargo-specific regulation. Here, we report that TTP (SH3BP4), a SH3-containing protein, specifically regulates the internalization of the transferrin receptor (TfR). TTP interacts with endocytic proteins, including clathrin, dynamin, and the TfR, and localizes selectively to TfR-containing coated-pits (CCP) and -vesicles (CCV). Overexpression of TTP specifically inhibits TfR internalization, and causes the formation of morphologically aberrant CCP, which are probably fission impaired. This effect is mediated by the SH3 of TTP, which can bind to dynamin, and it is rescued by overexpression of dynamin. Functional ablation of TTP causes a reduction in TfR internalization, and reduced cargo loading and size of TfR-CCV. Tyrosine phosphorylation of either TTP or dynamin prevents their interaction, pointing to a possible mechanism of exclusion of TTP from some CCP. Thus, TTP might represent one of the long sought for molecules that allow cargo-specific control of clathrin endocytosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46128

    Cell 2005;123;5;875-88

  • Differential appearance of dynamin in constitutive and regulated exo-endocytosis: a single-cell multiplex RT-PCR study.

    Grabs D and Bergmann M

    Department of Medicine/Anatomy, University Fribourg, Rte A. Gockel 1, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. detlev.grabs@unifr.ch

    Neurons in the central nervous system establish, via their axons and dendrites, an extended network that allows synaptic transmission. During developmental maturation and process outgrowth, membrane turnover is necessary for the enlargement and subsequent growth of axons and dendrites from the perikarya to the target cell (constitutive exocytosis/endocytosis). After targeting and synapse formation, small synaptic vesicles are needed for the quantal release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal with subsequent recycling by regulated exocytosis/endocytosis. An investigation of the onset of the appearance of mRNA and protein in dissociated cultures of neurons from mouse hippocampus or from chick retina has shown an early abundance of proteins involved in exocytosis, such as syntaxin 1, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1, whereas dynamin 1, a protein necessary for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, can be detected only after neurons have established contacts with neighboring cells. The results reveal that constitutive membrane incorporation and regulated synaptic transmitter release is mediated by the same neuronal proteins. Moreover, the data exclude that dynamin 1 takes part in constitutive recycling before synapse formation, but dynamin 2 is present at this stage. Thus, dynamin 2 may be the constitutive counterpart of dynamin 1 in growing neurons. Synapse establishment is linked to an upregulation of dynamin 1 and thereby represents the beginning of the regulated recycling of membranes back into the presynaptic terminal.

    Cell and tissue research 2005;322;2;237-44

  • Dynamin II interacts with syndecan-4, a regulator of focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation.

    Yoo J, Jeong MJ, Cho HJ, Oh ES and Han MY

    Department of Microbiology/Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea.

    Dynamin is a large mechanochemical GTPase that has been implicated in vesicle formation in multiple cellular compartments. It is believed that dynamin interacts with a variety of cellular proteins to constrict membranes. To identify potential intracellular proteins that interact with the PH domain of dynamin II, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen in which the PH domain of dynamin II was used as bait. The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4 that acts in conjunction with integrins to promote the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions was isolated as a binding partner for the PH domain of dynamin II. In vitro binding assays, immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the association of dynamin II with syndecan-4. Most dramatic finding of our study is that the cytoplasmic distribution of dynamin II and syndecan-4 changes in fibroblasts that have been stimulated to form the focal adhesions and stress fibers with LPA. In quiescent cells, dynamin II is evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and colocalizes with syndecan-4 near the nucleus. Upon treatment with LPA to induce focal adhesions and stress-fiber formation, dynamin II becomes markedly associated with syndecan-4 at focal adhesion sites. We further established the colocalization of syndecan-4 and dynamin with paxillin and actin as marker proteins for focal adhesions and stress fibers, respectively. All of these results suggest that the interaction between dynamin II and syndecan-4 is important in mediating focal adhesion and stress-fiber formation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;328;2;424-31

  • Dynamin 2 regulates T cell activation by controlling actin polymerization at the immunological synapse.

    Gomez TS, Hamann MJ, McCarney S, Savoy DN, Lubking CM, Heldebrant MP, Labno CM, McKean DJ, McNiven MA, Burkhardt JK and Billadeau DD

    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Actin reorganization at the immunological synapse is required for the amplification and generation of a functional immune response. Using small interfering RNA, we show here that dynamin 2 (Dyn2), a large GTPase involved in receptor-mediated internalization, did not alter antibody-mediated T cell receptor internalization but considerably affected T cell receptor-stimulated T cell activation by regulating multiple biochemical signaling pathways and the accumulation of F-actin at the immunological synapse. Moreover, Dyn2 interacted directly with the Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1, and this interaction was required for T cell activation. These data identify a functionally important interaction between Dyn2 and Vav1 that regulates actin reorganization and multiple signaling pathways in T lymphocytes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA47752; NIAID NIH HHS: AI44959

    Nature immunology 2005;6;3;261-70

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Bioinformatics and cellular signaling.

    Papin J and Subramaniam S

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The understanding of cellular function requires an integrated analysis of context-specific, spatiotemporal data from diverse sources. Recent advances in describing the genomic and proteomic 'parts list' of the cell and deciphering the interrelationship of these parts are described, including genome-wide location analysis, standards for microarray data analysis, and two-hybrid and mass spectrometry approaches. This information is being collected and curated in databases such as the Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS) Molecule Pages, which will serve as vital tools for the reconstruction and analysis of cellular signaling networks.

    Current opinion in biotechnology 2004;15;1;78-81

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • The large GTPase dynamin regulates actin comet formation and movement in living cells.

    Orth JD, Krueger EW, Cao H and McNiven MA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1721 Guggenheim Building, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    The large GTPase dynamin (Dyn2) has been demonstrated by us and others to interact with several different actin-binding proteins. To define how Dyn2 might participate in actin dynamics in livings cells we have expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Dyn2 in cultured cells and observed labeling of comet-like vesicles and macropinosomes. The comet structures progressed with a constant velocity and were reminiscent of actin comets associated with motile vesicles in cells expressing type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases. Based on these observations we sought to determine whether Dyn2 is an integral component of actin comets. Cells expressing type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase and Dyn2-GFP revealed a prominent colocalization of Dyn2 and actin in comet structures. Interestingly, comet formation and motility were normal in cells expressing wild-type Dyn2-GFP but altered markedly in Dyn2 mutant-expressing cells. Dyn2K44A-GFP mutant cells displayed a significant reduction in comet number, length, velocity, and efficiency of movement. In contrast, comets in cells expressing Dyn2DeltaPRD-GFP appeared dark and did not incorporate the mutant Dyn2 protein, indicating that the proline-rich domain (PRD) is required for Dyn2 recruitment. Further, these comets were significantly longer and slower than those in control cells. These findings demonstrate a role for Dyn2 in actin-based vesicle motility.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;1;167-72

  • The inhibitory gamma subunit of the type 6 retinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase is a novel intermediate regulating p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    Wan KF, Sambi BS, Frame M, Tate R and Pyne NJ

    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 ONR, United Kingdom.

    The inhibitory gamma subunits of the retinal rod and cone photoreceptor type 6 retinal cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase (PDEgamma) are expressed in non-retinal tissues. Here, we show that PDEgamma interacts with the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 signaling system to regulate the epidermal growth factor- and thrombin-dependent stimulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. This is based upon several lines of evidence. First, the transfection of cells with an antisense rod PDEgamma plasmid construct, which reduced endogenous rod PDEgamma expression, ablated the epidermal growth factor- and thrombin-dependent stimulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Second, the transfection of cells with recombinant rod or cone PDEgamma and/or G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 increased the stimulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase by epidermal growth factor or thrombin. In contrast, a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 phosphorylation-resistant rod PDEgamma mutant failed to increase the epidermal growth factor- or thrombin-dependent stimulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and, in fact, functioned as a dominant negative. Thrombin also stimulated the association of endogenous rod PDEgamma with dynamin II, which was increased in cells transfected with rod PDEgamma or G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Dynamin II plays a critical role in regulating endocytosis of receptor signal complexes required for activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Therefore, PDEgamma may have an important role in promoting endocytosis of receptor signal complexes leading to the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that PDEgamma is an entirely novel intermediate regulating mitogenic signaling from both receptor tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;41;37802-8

  • Regulated interactions between dynamin and the actin-binding protein cortactin modulate cell shape.

    McNiven MA, Kim L, Krueger EW, Orth JD, Cao H and Wong TW

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Basic Research in Digestive Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    The dynamin family of large GTPases has been implicated in the formation of nascent vesicles in both the endocytic and secretory pathways. It is believed that dynamin interacts with a variety of cellular proteins to constrict membranes. The actin cytoskeleton has also been implicated in altering membrane shape and form during cell migration, endocytosis, and secretion and has been postulated to work synergistically with dynamin and coat proteins in several of these important processes. We have observed that the cytoplasmic distribution of dynamin changes dramatically in fibroblasts that have been stimulated to undergo migration with a motagen/hormone. In quiescent cells, dynamin 2 (Dyn 2) associates predominantly with clathrin-coated vesicles at the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Upon treatment with PDGF to induce cell migration, dynamin becomes markedly associated with membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. Biochemical and morphological studies using antibodies and GFP-tagged dynamin demonstrate an interaction with cortactin. Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that contains a well defined SH3 domain. Using a variety of biochemical methods we demonstrate that the cortactin-SH3 domain associates with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin. Functional studies that express wild-type and mutant forms of dynamin and/or cortactin in living cells support these in vitro observations and demonstrate that an increased expression of cortactin leads to a significant recruitment of endogenous or expressed dynamin into the cell ruffle. Further, expression of a cortactin protein lacking the interactive SH3 domain (CortDeltaSH3) significantly reduces dynamin localization to the ruffle. Accordingly, transfected cells expressing Dyn 2 lacking the PRD (Dyn 2(aa)DeltaPRD) sequester little of this protein to the cortactin-rich ruffle. Interestingly, these mutant cells are viable, but display dramatic alterations in morphology. This change in shape appears to be due, in part, to a striking increase in the number of actin stress fibers. These findings provide the first demonstration that dynamin can interact with the actin cytoskeleton to regulate actin reorganization and subsequently cell shape.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;1;187-98

  • Expression and localisation of dynamin and syntaxin during neural development and neuromuscular synapse formation.

    Noakes PG, Chin D, Kim SS, Liang S and Phillips WD

    Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Queensland, 4072 Brisbane, Australia.

    The expression and subcellular localisation of dynamin and syntaxin were examined during the periods of motor neuron development and neuromuscular synaptogenesis in the mouse embryo. Both dynamin and syntaxin could be detected by immunoblotting in the spinal cord at embryonic day 10 (E10; 2 days before axon outgrowth) and at all subsequent ages examined. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified low levels of all three carboxy-terminal splicing forms of dynamin I in spinal cord from as early as E10. During the period of maturation of spinal neurons, from E10 to the first postnatal day (P0), the short carboxy-terminal splicing form of dynamin I (dynamin I*b) was up-regulated, as was dynamin III, relative to dynamin II mRNA. Syntaxin immunostaining became colocalized with the synaptic vesicle protein, SV2, at neuromuscular synapses within 12 hours of the commencement of synapse formation and throughout subsequent development. In contrast, dynamin, which is important for activity-dependent synaptic vesicle recycling and, thus, sustained neurotransmission, could not be detected at most newly formed synapses until several days after synapse formation. The delayed appearance of dynamin at the synapse, thus, heralds the neonatal development of robust synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 1999;410;4;531-40

  • Dynamin genes Dnm1 and Dnm2 are located on proximal mouse chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively.

    Klocke R, Augustin A, Ronsiek M, Stief A, van der Putten H and Jockusch H

    Developmental Biology Unit W7, University of Bielefeld, Germany.

    Dynamins, microtubule-binding GTPases, are encoded by at least three genes in mammals. Two distinct gene-specific cDNAs were used to analyze the segregation of dynamin genes Dnm1 and Dnm2 in a mouse interspecies backcross. The nervous system-expressed gene Dnm1 was localized to Chr 2 between the genes for vimentin and nebulin, within a chromosomal region of conserved synteny to human chromosome 9q, consistent with the localization of the human dynamin-1 gene by FISH (see accompanying paper by Newman-Smith et al., 1997, Genomics 41:286-289). The ubiquitously expressed Dnm2 gene was found to be closely linked to the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene, Icam1, in a region with homologies to human chromosomes 19p, 8q, and 11q. Potential relations of both loci to disease genes are discussed.

    Genomics 1997;41;2;290-2

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000005 G2C Mus musculus Mouse mGluR5 Mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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