G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Olfm1 (MGI)
Mus musculus
olfactomedin 1
G00001543 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (11)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000011625 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000026833 (Ensembl mouse gene)
56177 (Entrez Gene)
630 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_019498 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00848 (BGEM)
56177 (Genepaint)
olfm1 (gensat)
605366 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1860437 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
O88998 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • Noelin 1
  • Noelin 2
  • Pancortin 1-4

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Single-cell gene profiling defines differential progenitor subclasses in mammalian neurogenesis.

    Kawaguchi A, Ikawa T, Kasukawa T, Ueda HR, Kurimoto K, Saitou M and Matsuzaki F

    Laboratory for Cell Asymmetry, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe Institute, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan. akawa@cdb.riken.jp

    Cellular diversity of the brain is largely attributed to the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of progenitor cells. In mammalian cerebral development, it has been difficult to determine how heterogeneous the neural progenitor cells are, owing to dynamic changes in their nuclear position and gene expression. To address this issue, we systematically analyzed the cDNA profiles of a large number of single progenitor cells at the mid-embryonic stage in mouse. By cluster analysis and in situ hybridization, we have identified a set of genes that distinguishes between the apical and basal progenitors. Despite their relatively homogeneous global gene expression profiles, the apical progenitors exhibit highly variable expression patterns of Notch signaling components, raising the possibility that this causes the heterogeneous division patterns of these cells. Furthermore, we successfully captured the nascent state of basal progenitor cells. These cells are generated shortly after birth from the division of the apical progenitors, and show strong expression of the major Notch ligand delta-like 1, which soon fades away as the cells migrate in the ventricular zone. We also demonstrated that attenuation of Notch signals immediately induces differentiation of apical progenitors into nascent basal progenitors. Thus, a Notch-dependent feedback loop is likely to be in operation to maintain both progenitor populations.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2008;135;18;3113-24

  • Pancortin-2 interacts with WAVE1 and Bcl-xL in a mitochondria-associated protein complex that mediates ischemic neuronal death.

    Cheng A, Arumugam TV, Liu D, Khatri RG, Mustafa K, Kwak S, Ling HP, Gonzales C, Xin O, Jo DG, Guo Z, Mark RJ and Mattson MP

    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    The actin-modulating protein Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein verprolin homologous-1 (WAVE1) and a novel CNS-specific protein, pancortin, are highly enriched in adult cerebral cortex, but their functions are unknown. Here we show that WAVE1 and pancortin-2 interact in a novel cell death cascade in adult, but not embryonic, cerebral cortical neurons. Focal ischemic stroke induces the formation of a protein complex that includes pancortin-2, WAVE1, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. The three-protein complex is associated with mitochondria resulting in increased association of Bax with mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and neuronal apoptosis. In pancortin null mice generated using a Cre-loxP system, ischemia-induced WAVE1-Bcl-xL interaction is diminished, and cortical neurons in these mice are protected against ischemic injury. Thus, pancortin-2 is a mediator of ischemia-induced apoptosis of neurons in the adult cerebral cortex and functions in a novel mitochondrial/actin-associated protein complex that sequesters Bcl-xL.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;7;1519-28

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Expression and characterization of disulfide bond use of oligomerized A2-Pancortins: extracellular matrix constituents in the developing brain.

    Ando K, Nagano T, Nakamura A, Konno D, Yagi H and Sato M

    Division of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Department of Morphological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki, Matsuoka, Fukui, 910-1193 Japan.

    The region-specific characteristics of the extracellular matrix are crucial for diverse functions in the brain. Pancortins/neuron-specific olfactomedin-related glycoproteins are components of the extracellular matrix. They comprise four alternatively spliced variants, Pancortin-1 to -4, which share a common portion, the B part, in the middle of their structure, have two pairs of alternatively spliced 5' regions, A1 and A2, and 3' regions, C1 and C2. Here we demonstrate that in mice, Pancortin-3 (A2-B-C1) and Pancortin-4 (A2-B-C2), which we have grouped together the A2-Pancortins, were transcribed early during the development of the brain in a region specific manner and were expressed very stably in vivo. They are N-glycosylated and secreted. Furthermore, we examined their ontogenetical expression profiles in the developing thalamus using antiserum against the common B region, since transient expressions of their mRNAs were notable there. In the developing thalami, they lasted long in oligomerized form even after the transcription of their mRNAs decreased to an undetectable level. Further analyses revealed that cysteine residues that are located in the common B part are important for homo- and hetero-oligomer formation of A2-Pancortins. When we substituted cysteine residues 45 and 47 with serine residues in that common B part, oligomerization of the A2-Pancortins was highly disturbed.

    Neuroscience 2005;133;4;947-57

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Characterizing embryonic gene expression patterns in the mouse using nonredundant sequence-based selection.

    Sousa-Nunes R, Rana AA, Kettleborough R, Brickman JM, Clements M, Forrest A, Grimmond S, Avner P, Smith JC, Dunwoodie SL and Beddington RS

    Division of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom.

    This article investigates the expression patterns of 160 genes that are expressed during early mouse development. The cDNAs were isolated from 7.5 d postcoitum (dpc) endoderm, a region that comprises visceral endoderm (VE), definitive endoderm, and the node-tissues that are required for the initial steps of axial specification and tissue patterning in the mouse. To avoid examining the same gene more than once, and to exclude potentially ubiquitously expressed housekeeping genes, cDNA sequence was derived from 1978 clones of the Endoderm library. These yielded 1440 distinct cDNAs, of which 123 proved to be novel in the mouse. In situ hybridization analysis was carried out on 160 of the cDNAs, and of these, 29 (18%) proved to have restricted expression patterns.

    Genome research 2003;13;12;2609-20

  • Neural expression of mouse Noelin-1/2 and comparison with other vertebrates.

    Moreno TA and Bronner-Fraser M

    Division of Biology, 139-74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

    Noelins are secreted glycoproteins with important developmental functions in frogs and birds. Here, we present the expression pattern of the mouse homolog of Noelin-1/2 at E8-10 of development and compare this pattern to other vertebrates. Expression was observed in the neural plate and neural crest, as well as in the cranial ganglia. Later, expression is prominent in brain tissue and in the zone of polarizing activity in the limb.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS42287

    Mechanisms of development 2002;119;1;121-5

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Characterization and differential expression of a human gene family of olfactomedin-related proteins.

    Kulkarni NH, Karavanich CA, Atchley WR and Anholt RR

    Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7617, USA.

    Olfactomedin-related proteins are secreted glycoproteins with conserved C-terminal motifs. Olfactomedin was originally identified as the major component of the mucus layer that surrounds the chemosensory dendrites of olfactory neurons. Homologues were subsequently found also in other tissues, including the brain and in species ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens. Most importantly, the TIGR/myocilin protein, expressed in the eye and associated with the pathogenesis of glaucoma, is an olfactomedin-related protein. The prevalence of olfactomedin-related proteins among species and their identification in different tissues prompted us to investigate whether a gene family exists within a species, specifically Homo sapiens. A GenBank search indeed revealed an entire human gene family of olfactomedin-related proteins with at least five members, designated hOlfA through hOlfD and the TIGR/myocilin protein. hOlfA corresponds to the rat neuronal AMZ protein. Phylogenetic analyses of 18 olfactomedin-related sequences resolved four distinct subfamilies. Among the human proteins, hOlfA and hOlfC, both expressed in brain, are most closely related. Northern blot analyses of 16 human tissues demonstrated highly specific expression patterns: hOlfA is expressed in brain, hOlfB in pancreas and prostate, hOlfC in cerebellum, hOlfD in colon, small intestine and prostate and TIGR/myocilin in heart and skeletal muscle. The link between TIGR/myocilin and ocular hypertension and the expression of several of these proteins in mucus-lined tissues suggest that they play an important role in regulating physical properties of the extracellular environment. Future studies can now assess whether other members of this gene family, like TIGR/myocilin, are also associated with human disease processes.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC-02485; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-45344

    Genetical research 2000;76;1;41-50

  • A2-Pancortins (Pancortin-3 and -4) are the dominant pancortins during neocortical development.

    Nagano T, Nakamura A, Konno D, Kurata M, Yagi H and Sato M

    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka, Fukui, Japan.

    We have identified a novel mouse gene named pancortin that is expressed dominantly in the mature cerebral cortex. This gene produces four different species of proteins, Pancortin-1-4, sharing a common region in the middle of their structure with two variations at the N-terminal (A1 or A2 part) and C-terminal (C1 or C2 part) sides, respectively. In the present study, we showed that expression of mRNAs for A2-Pancortins (Pancortin species that contain the A2 part, i.e., Pancortin-3 and -4) is more dominant than that of mRNAs for A1-Pancortins (Pancortin species that contain the A1 part, i.e., Pancortin-1 and -2) in the prenatal mouse cerebral neocortex. Using western blot analysis, we found that substantial amounts of both A2-Pancortins were present in the prenatal cerebral neocortex and P19 cells after inducing neuronal differentiation. A2-Pancortins were still present in the cerebral neocortex of the adult, although their mRNAs were hardly detected. In contrast, the amount of A1-Pancortins did not increase after the third postnatal week in spite of their intense gene expression. Furthermore, we showed that recombinant Pancortin-3, one of the A2-Pancortins, was a secreted protein, in contrast to Pancortin-1 (one of the A1-Pancortins). These results suggest that A2-Pancortins are extracellular proteins essential for neuronal differentiation and that their molecular behavior is distinct from that of A1-Pancortins.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;75;1;1-8

  • Molecular evolution of olfactomedin.

    Karavanich CA and Anholt RR

    Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7617, USA.

    Olfactomedin is a secreted polymeric glycoprotein of unknown function, originally discovered at the mucociliary surface of the amphibian olfactory neuroepithelium and subsequently found throughout the mammalian brain. As a first step toward elucidating the function of olfactomedin, its phylogenetic history was examined to identify conserved structural motifs. Such conserved motifs may have functional significance and provide targets for future mutagenesis studies aimed at establishing the function of this protein. Previous studies revealed 33% amino acid sequence identity between rat and frog olfactomedins in their carboxyl terminal segments. Further analysis, however, reveals more extensive homologies throughout the molecule. Despite significant sequence divergence, cysteines essential for homopolymer formation such as the CXC motif near the amino terminus are conserved, as is the characteristic glycosylation pattern, suggesting that these posttranslational modifications are essential for function. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of a region of 53 amino acids of fish, frog, rat, mouse, and human olfactomedins indicates that an ancestral olfactomedin gene arose before the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates and evolved independently in teleost, amphibian, and mammalian lineages. Indeed, a distant olfactomedin homolog was identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the amino acid sequence of this invertebrate protein is longer and highly divergent compared with its vertebrate homologs, the protein from C. elegans shows remarkable similarities in terms of conserved motifs and posttranslational modification sites. Six universally conserved motifs were identified, and five of these are clustered in the carboxyl terminal half of the protein. Sequence comparisons indicate that evolution of the N-terminal half of the molecule involved extensive insertions and deletions; the C-terminal segment evolved mostly through point mutations, at least during vertebrate evolution. The widespread occurrence of olfactomedin among vertebrates and invertebrates underscores the notion that this protein has a function of universal importance. Furthermore, extensive modification of its N-terminal half and the acquisition of a C-terminal SDEL endoplasmic-reticulum-targeting sequence may have enabled olfactomedin to adopt new functions in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC-02485

    Molecular biology and evolution 1998;15;6;718-26

  • Differentially expressed olfactomedin-related glycoproteins (Pancortins) in the brain.

    Nagano T, Nakamura A, Mori Y, Maeda M, Takami T, Shiosaka S, Takagi H and Sato M

    First Department of Anatomy, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-54 Asahimachi Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 545, Japan.

    Messenger RNA differential display is conducted to search for genes that are expressed in a region-specific pattern in the rodent brain. Eleven novel gene fragments are isolated. One of these genes which we call pancortin, based on its predominant mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex of the adult, is studied. These pancortin cDNA clones are grouped into four different types of cDNA, designated as pancortin-1 to -4. All pancortin cDNAs share a common sequence in the middle of their structure, having two alternative sequences at both 5'- and 3'-ends, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequence shows that all pancortins have sequences of hydrophobic amino acids at N-terminus and no obvious membrane spanning regions. In situ hybridization histochemistry using oligonucleotide probes specific for 5'- and 3'-end variable parts has revealed that these four pancortin mRNAs are expressed differentially in the adult rodent brain. Robust expression of pancortin-1 and -2 mRNA is observed in the cerebral cortex (including the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb). However, little of pancortin-3 and -4 mRNA is observed there. In the cortex, some neurons are stained by an antibody raised against Pancortin. Immuno-electron microscopic study has revealed that Pancortin-like immunoreactive products are localized mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum and not in the Golgi apparatus indicating that Pancortins are the endoplasmic reticulum-anchored proteins. Our results suggest that each Pancortin is differentially regulated and may perform different functions in the brain.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1998;53;1-2;13-23

  • Isolation of novel tissue-specific genes from cDNA libraries representing the individual tissue constituents of the gastrulating mouse embryo.

    Harrison SM, Dunwoodie SL, Arkell RM, Lehrach H and Beddington RS

    National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.

    A total of 5 conventional, directionally cloned plasmid cDNA libraries have been constructed from the entire embryonic region of the mid-gastrulation mouse embryo and from its four principal tissue constituents (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm and primitive streak). These libraries have been validated with respect to the number of independent clones, insert-size and appropriate representation of diagnostic marker genes. Subtractive hybridisation has been used to remove clones common to the Endoderm and Mesoderm cDNA libraries resulting in an Endoderm minus Mesoderm subtracted library. Probe prepared from this subtracted library has been hybridised to a grid containing approximately 18,500 Embryonic Region library clones. Three novel clones have been recovered as well as expected genes already known to be highly expressed in the primitive endoderm lineage at this stage of development. In situ hybridisation to early postimplantation embryos has revealed the expression patterns of these novel genes. One is highly expressed exclusively in visceral endoderm, one is expressed in ectodermal and endodermal tissues, and the third proves to be an early marker of prospective and differentiated surface ectoderm as well as being expressed in endoderm and its derivatives.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1995;121;8;2479-89

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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