G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000190
Gene symbol
Yes1 (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
Yamaguchi sarcoma viral (v-yes) oncogene homolog 1
Orthologue
G00001439 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

Gene
ENSMUSG00000014932 (Ensembl mouse gene)
22612 (Entrez Gene)
350 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_009535 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g01463 (BGEM)
22612 (Genepaint)
yes1 (gensat)
Literature
164880 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:99147 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q04736 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Yes

Alleles (1)

Literature (47)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Protein tyrosine kinase 6 directly phosphorylates AKT and promotes AKT activation in response to epidermal growth factor.

    Zheng Y, Peng M, Wang Z, Asara JM and Tyner AL

    University of Illinois, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) is a nonmyristoylated Src-related intracellular tyrosine kinase. Although not expressed in the normal mammary gland, PTK6 is expressed in a majority of human breast tumors examined, and it has been linked to ErbB receptor signaling and AKT activation. Here we demonstrate that AKT is a direct substrate of PTK6 and that AKT tyrosine residues 315 and 326 are phosphorylated by PTK6. Association of PTK6 with AKT occurs through the SH3 domain of PTK6 and is enhanced through SH2 domain-mediated interactions following tyrosine phosphorylation of AKT. Using Src, Yes, and Fyn null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (SYF cells), we show that PTK6 phosphorylates AKT in a Src family kinase-independent manner. Introduction of PTK6 into SYF cells sensitized these cells to physiological levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and increased AKT activation. Stable introduction of active PTK6 into SYF cells also resulted in increased proliferation. Knockdown of PTK6 in the BPH-1 human prostate epithelial cell line led to decreased AKT activation in response to EGF. Our data indicate that in addition to promoting growth factor receptor-mediated activation of AKT, PTK6 can directly activate AKT to promote oncogenic signaling.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK068503, DK44525, R01 DK044525, R01 DK068503

    Molecular and cellular biology 2010;30;17;4280-92

  • Entry of Neisseria meningitidis into mammalian cells requires the Src family protein tyrosine kinases.

    Slanina H, König A, Hebling S, Hauck CR, Frosch M and Schubert-Unkmeir A

    Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.

    Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis and septicemia, is able to attach to and invade a variety of cell types. In a previous study we showed that entry of N. meningitidis into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is mediated by fibronectin bound to the outer membrane protein Opc, which forms a molecular bridge to alpha 5 beta 1-integrins. This interaction results in cytoskeletal remodeling and uptake of the bacteria. In this study we identified and characterized the intracellular signals involved in integrin-initiated uptake of N. meningitidis. We determined that the Src protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are activated in response to contact with N. meningitidis. Inhibition of Src PTK activity by the general tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein and the specific Src inhibitor PP2 reduced Opc-mediated invasion of HBMEC and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells up to 90%. Moreover, overexpression of the cellular Src antagonist C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) also significantly reduced N. meningitidis invasion. Src PTK-deficient fibroblasts were impaired in the ability to internalize N. meningitidis and showed reduced phosphorylation of the cytoskeleton and decreased development of stress fibers. These data indicate that the Src family PTKs, particularly the Src protein, along with other proteins, are important signal proteins that are responsible for the transfer of signals from activated integrins to the cytoskeleton and thus mediate the endocytosis of N. meningitidis into brain endothelial cells.

    Infection and immunity 2010;78;5;1905-14

  • Anthrax toxin triggers the activation of src-like kinases to mediate its own uptake.

    Abrami L, Kunz B and van der Goot FG

    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    AB-type toxins, like other bacterial toxins, are notably opportunistic molecules. They rely on target cell receptors to reach the appropriate location within the target cell where translocation of their enzymatic subunits occurs. The anthrax toxin, however, times its own uptake, suggesting that toxin binding triggers specific signaling events. Here we show that the anthrax toxin triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of its own receptors, capillary morphogenesis gene 2 and tumor endothelial marker 8, which are not endowed with intrinsic kinase activity. This is required for efficient toxin uptake because endocytosis of the mutant receptor lacking the cytoplasmic tyrosine residues is strongly delayed. Phosphorylation of the receptors was dependent on src-like kinases, which where activated upon toxin binding. Importantly, src-dependent phosphorylation of the receptor was required for its subsequent ubiquitination, which in turn was required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Consistently, we found that uptake of the anthrax toxin and processing of the lethal factor substrate MEK1 are inhibited by silencing of src and fyn, as well as in src and fyn knockout cells.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;4;1420-4

  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha complexes with the IGF-I receptor and undergoes IGF-I-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation that mediates cell migration.

    Chen SC, Khanna RS, Bessette DC, Samayawardhena LA and Pallen CJ

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTPalpha) is a widely expressed receptor-type phosphatase that functions in multiple signaling systems. The actions of PTPalpha can be regulated by its phosphorylation on serine and tyrosine residues, although little is known about the conditions that promote PTPalpha phosphorylation. In this study, we tested the ability of several extracellular factors to stimulate PTPalpha tyrosine phosphorylation. The growth factors IGF-I and acidic FGF induced the highest increase in PTPalpha phosphorylation at tyrosine 789, followed by PMA and lysophosphatidic acid, while EGF had little effect. Further investigation of IGF-I-induced PTPalpha tyrosine phosphorylation demonstrated that this occurs through a novel Src family kinase-independent mechanism that does not require focal adhesion kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or MEK. We also show that PTPalpha physically interacts with the IGF-I receptor. In contrast to IGF-I-induced PTPalpha phosphorylation, this association does not require IGF-I. The interaction of PTPalpha and the IGF-I receptor is independent of PTPalpha catalytic activity, and expression of exogenous PTPalpha does not promote IGF-I receptor tyrosine dephosphorylation, indicating that PTPalpha does not act as an IGF-I receptor phosphatase. However, PTPalpha mediates IGF-I signaling, because IGF-I-stimulated fibroblast migration was reduced by approximately 50% in cells lacking PTPalpha or in cells with mutant PTPalpha lacking the tyrosine 789 phosphorylation site. Our results suggest that PTPalpha tyrosine phosphorylation can occur in response to diverse stimuli and can be mediated by various tyrosine kinases. In the case of IGF-I, we propose that IGF-I-induced tyrosine 789 phosphorylation of PTPalpha, possibly catalyzed by the PTPalpha-associated IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase, is required for efficient cell migration in response to this growth factor.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2009;297;1;C133-9

  • SRC family kinases are required for limb trajectory selection by spinal motor axons.

    Kao TJ, Palmesino E and Kania A

    Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada.

    Signal relay by guidance receptors at the axonal growth cone is a process essential for the assembly of a functional nervous system. We investigated the in vivo function of Src family kinases (SFKs) as growth cone guidance signaling intermediates in the context of spinal lateral motor column (LMC) motor axon projection toward the ventral or dorsal limb mesenchyme. Using in situ mRNA detection we determined that Src and Fyn are expressed in LMC motor neurons of chick and mouse embryos at the time of limb trajectory selection. Inhibition of SFK activity by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) overexpression in chick LMC axons using in ovo electroporation resulted in LMC axons selecting the inappropriate dorsoventral trajectory within the limb mesenchyme, with medial LMC axon projecting into the dorsal and ventral limb nerve with apparently random incidence. We also detected LMC axon trajectory choice errors in Src mutant mice demonstrating a nonredundant role for Src in motor axon guidance in agreement with gain and loss of Src function in chick LMC neurons which led to the redirection of LMC axons. Finally, Csk-mediated SFK inhibition attenuated the retargeting of LMC axons caused by EphA or EphB over-expression, implying the participation of SFKs in Eph-mediated LMC motor axon guidance. In summary, our findings demonstrate that SFKs are essential for motor axon guidance and suggest that they play an important role in relaying ephrin:Eph signals that mediate the selection of motor axon trajectory in the limb.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;17;5690-700

  • Endocytosis of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 is regulated by Fyn kinase.

    Riento K, Frick M, Schafer I and Nichols BJ

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.

    Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 co-assemble into plasma membrane microdomains that are involved in the endocytosis of molecules such as glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins. Previous studies suggest that budding of flotillin microdomains from the plasma membrane is a tightly regulated process. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of flotillins is regulated by the Src family kinase Fyn. The Src kinase inhibitor PP2 prevents EGF-induced flotillin internalisation, and EGF-induced internalisation does not occur in SYF cells lacking Src, Yes and Fyn. Expression of Fyn, but not Src or Yes, restores EGF-induced internalisation in SYF cells. Expression of an active form of Fyn but not other Src kinases is sufficient to induce redistribution of flotillins from the plasma membrane to late endosomes and lysosomes. Using two partial Fyn constructs that form a functional kinase upon addition of rapamycin to cells, we show that flotillin internalisation from the plasma membrane occurs shortly after Fyn activation. Tyr160 in flotillin-1 and Tyr163 in flotillin-2 are directly phosphorylated by Fyn, and mutation of these residues to phenylalanine prevents Fyn-induced flotillin internalisation. Uptake of the GPI-linked protein CD59 is reduced by expression of the phenylalanine-mutated flotillins. These data establish uptake of flotillin microdomains as a tyrosine-kinase-regulated endocytic process.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U105178778

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 7;912-8

  • JAK2, but not Src family kinases, is required for STAT, ERK, and Akt signaling in response to growth hormone in preadipocytes and hepatoma cells.

    Jin H, Lanning NJ and Carter-Su C

    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5622, USA.

    Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a tyrosine kinase that associates with the GH receptor and is activated by GH, has been implicated as a key mediator of GH signaling. Several published reports suggest that members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases may also participate in GH signaling. We therefore investigated the extent to which JAK2 and Src family kinases mediate GH activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) 1, 3, and 5a/b, ERKs 1 and 2, and Akt, in the highly GH-responsive cell lines 3T3-F442A preadipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells. GH activation of Src family kinases was not detected in either cell line. Further, blocking basal activity of Src kinases with the Src inhibitors PP1 and PP2 did not inhibit GH activation of STATs 1, 3, or 5a/b, or ERKs 1 and 2. When levels of JAK2 were depressed by short hairpin RNA in 3T3-F442A and H4IIE cells, GH-stimulated activation of STATs 1, 3, and 5a/b, ERKs 1 and 2, and Akt were significantly reduced; however, basal activity of Src family kinases was unaffected. These results were supported genetically by experiments showing that GH robustly activates JAK2, STATs 3 and 5a/b, ERKs 1 and 2, and Akt in murine embryonic fibroblasts derived from Src/Yes/ Fyn triple-knockout embryos that lack known Src kinases. These results strongly suggest that JAK2, but not Src family kinases, is critical for transducing these GH signals in 3T3-F442A and H4IIE cells.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: T32 HD007505, T32-HD007505; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK077915, K01-DK077915, R01 DK034171, R01-DK34171, R37 DK034171; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM007315

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2008;22;8;1825-41

  • Retinal vascular permeability suppression by topical application of a novel VEGFR2/Src kinase inhibitor in mice and rabbits.

    Scheppke L, Aguilar E, Gariano RF, Jacobson R, Hood J, Doukas J, Cao J, Noronha G, Yee S, Weis S, Martin MB, Soll R, Cheresh DA and Friedlander M

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Retinal and choroidal vascular diseases, with their associated abnormalities in vascular permeability, account for the majority of patients with vision loss in industrialized nations. VEGF is upregulated in ischemic retinopathies such as diabetes and is known to dramatically alter vascular permeability in a number of nonocular tissues via Src kinase-regulated signaling pathways. VEGF antagonists are currently in clinical use for treating the new blood vessels and retinal edema associated with neovascular eye diseases, but such therapies require repeated intraocular injections. We have found that vascular leakage following intravitreal administration of VEGF in mice was abolished by systemic or topical delivery of what we believe is a novel VEGFR2/Src kinase inhibitor; this was confirmed in rabbits. The relevance of Src inhibition to VEGF-associated alterations in vascular permeability was further substantiated by genetic studies in which VEGF injection or laser-induced vascular permeability failed to augment retinal vascular permeability in Src-/- and Yes-/- mice (Src and Yes are ubiquitously expressed Src kinase family members; Src-/- and Yes-/- mice lacking expression of these kinases show no vascular leak in response to VEGF). These findings establish a role for Src kinase in VEGF-mediated retinal vascular permeability and establish a potentially safe and painless topically applied therapeutic option for treating vision loss due to neovascular-associated retinal edema.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 014174, EY11254, R01 EY011254, R24 EY014174

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2008;118;6;2337-46

  • Semaphorin 3A suppresses VEGF-mediated angiogenesis yet acts as a vascular permeability factor.

    Acevedo LM, Barillas S, Weis SM, Göthert JR and Cheresh DA

    Department of Pathology and Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California-San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a known inhibitor of axonal sprouting, also alters vascular patterning. Here we show that Sema3A selectively interferes with VEGF- but not bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Consistent with this, Sema3A disrupted VEGF- but not bFGF-mediated endothelial cell signaling to FAK and Src, key mediators of integrin and growth factor signaling; however, signaling to ERK by either growth factor was unperturbed. Since VEGF is also a vascular permeability (VP) factor, we examined the role of Sema3A on VEGF-mediated VP in mice. Surprisingly, Sema3A not only stimulated VEGF-mediated VP but also potently induced VP in the absence of VEGF. Sema3A-mediated VP was inhibited either in adult mice expressing a conditional deletion of endothelial neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) or in wild-type mice systemically treated with a function-blocking Nrp-1 antibody. While both Sema3A- and VEGF-induced VP was Nrp-1 dependent, they use distinct downstream effectors since VEGF- but not Sema3A-induced VP required Src kinase signaling. These findings define a novel role for Sema3A both as a selective inhibitor of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and a potent inducer of VP.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 50286, R01 CA050286, R37 CA050286; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 057900, P01 HL057900

    Blood 2008;111;5;2674-80

  • TGF-beta1-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells requires pp60(c-src)/EGFR(Y845) and Rho/ROCK signaling.

    Samarakoon R, Higgins SP, Higgins CE and Higgins PJ

    Albany Medical College, Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, MC-165, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    TGF-beta1 and its target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are major causative factors in the pathology of tissue fibrosis and vascular disease. The increasing complexity of TGF-beta1 action in the cardiovascular system requires analysis of specific TGF-beta1-initiated signaling events that impact PAI-1 transcriptional regulation in a physiologically-relevant cell system. TGF-beta1-induced PAI-1 expression in both primary cultures and in an established line (R22) of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was completely blocked by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity or adenoviral delivery of a kinase-dead EGFR(K721A) construct. TGF-beta1-stimulated PAI-1 expression, moreover, was preceded by EGFR phosphorylation on Y845 (a src kinase target residue) and required pp60(c-src) activity. Infection of VSMC with an adenovirus encoding the EGFR(Y845F) mutant or transfection with a dominant-negative pp60(c-src) (DN-Src) expression vector effectively decreased TGF-beta1-stimulated, but not PDGF-induced, PAI-1 expression implicating the pp60(c-src) phosphorylation site EGFR(Y845) in the inductive response. Consistent with these findings, TGF-beta1 failed to induce PAI-1 synthesis in src kinase-deficient (SYF(-/-/-)) fibroblasts and reexpression of a wild-type pp60(c-src) construct in SYF(-/-/-) cells rescued the PAI-1 response to TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1-induced EGFR activation, but not SMAD2 activation, moreover, was virtually undetectable in SYK(-/-/-) fibroblasts in comparison to wild type (SYK(+/+/+)) counterparts, confirming an upstream signaling role of src family kinases in EGFR(Y845) phosphorylation. Genetic EGFR deficiency or infection of VSMCs with EGFR(K721A) virtually ablated TGF-beta1-stimulated ERK1/2 activation as well as PAI-1 expression but not SMAD2 phosphorylation. Transient transfection of a dominant-negative RhoA (DN-RhoA) expression construct or pretreatment of VSMC with C3 transferase (a Rho inhibitor) or Y-27632 (an inhibitor of p160ROCK, a downstream effector of Rho) also dramatically attenuated the TGF-beta1-initiated PAI-1 inductive response. In contrast to EGFR pathway blockade, interference with Rho/ROCK signaling effectively inhibited TGF-betaR-mediated SMAD2 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. TGF-beta1-stimulated SMAD2 activation, moreover, was not sufficient to induce PAI-1 expression in the absence of EGFR signaling both in VSMC and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, two distinct pathways involving the EGFR/pp60(c-src)/MEK-ERK pathway and Rho/ROCK-dependent SMAD2 activation are required for TGF-beta1-induced PAI-1 expression in VSMC. The identification of such novel interactions between two TGF-beta1-activated signaling networks that specifically impact PAI-1 transcription in VSMC may provide therapeutically-relevant targets to manage the pathophysiology of PAI-1-associated cardiovascular/fibrotic diseases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL07194, T32 HL007194; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM57242, R01 GM057242, R01 GM057242-09A1, R01 GM057242-10

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2008;44;3;527-38

  • Yes and PI3K bind CD95 to signal invasion of glioblastoma.

    Kleber S, Sancho-Martinez I, Wiestler B, Beisel A, Gieffers C, Hill O, Thiemann M, Mueller W, Sykora J, Kuhn A, Schreglmann N, Letellier E, Zuliani C, Klussmann S, Teodorczyk M, Gröne HJ, Ganten TM, Sültmann H, Tüttenberg J, von Deimling A, Regnier-Vigouroux A, Herold-Mende C and Martin-Villalba A

    Molecular Neurobiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), INF 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Invasion of surrounding brain tissue by isolated tumor cells represents one of the main obstacles to a curative therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. Here we unravel a mechanism regulating glioma infiltration. Tumor interaction with the surrounding brain tissue induces CD95 Ligand expression. Binding of CD95 Ligand to CD95 on glioblastoma cells recruits the Src family member Yes and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD95, which signal invasion via the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta pathway and subsequent expression of matrix metalloproteinases. In a murine syngeneic model of intracranial GBM, neutralization of CD95 activity dramatically reduced the number of invading cells. Our results uncover CD95 as an activator of PI3K and, most importantly, as a crucial trigger of basal invasion of glioblastoma in vivo.

    Cancer cell 2008;13;3;235-48

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • The membrane targeting and spatial activation of Src, Yes and Fyn is influenced by palmitoylation and distinct RhoB/RhoD endosome requirements.

    Sandilands E, Brunton VG and Frame MC

    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Beatson Laboratories, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK.

    Src activation is a tightly regulated process which requires RhoB endosome-associated actin assembly and transit to the cell periphery. We show here that although two other ubiquitous Src family kinases (SFKs) Yes and Fyn also require intact actin filaments for peripheral membrane targeting, they display distinct spatial activation and endosomal requirements. Unlike Src, both Yes and Fyn are constitutively membrane-localized to some extent, and Fyn is present in RhoD-positive endosomes whereas Yes does not visibly colocalize with either of the endosomal markers RhoB or RhoD. By modulating amino acid acceptor sites for palmitoylation in Src, Yes and Fyn, we show that Src S3C/S6C, which is palmitoylated (unlike wild-type Src) behaves in a manner more similar to Fyn, by predominantly colocalizing with RhoD endosomes, and the targeting of both Fyn and Src S3C/S6C is inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of RhoD. Moreover, Fyn C3S/C6S, which is no longer palmitoylated, behaves much more like Src by colocalizing with RhoB endosomes and by requiring RhoB for activation and membrane translocation. These data imply that distinct modes of spatial activation and membrane delivery, at least partly under the control of specific acylation attachment sequences and endosome sub-type requirements, define distinct properties of the three ubiquitously expressed SFKs.

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 15;2555-64

  • Localized activation of Src-family protein kinases in the mouse egg.

    McGinnis LK, Albertini DF and Kinsey WH

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

    Recent studies in species that fertilize externally have demonstrated that fertilization triggers localized activation of Src-family protein kinases in the egg cortex. However, the requirement for Src-family kinases in activation of the mammalian egg is different from lower species and the objective of this study was to characterize changes in the distribution and activity of Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) during zygotic development in the mouse. Immunofluorescence analysis of mouse oocytes and zygotes with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that fertilization stimulated accumulation of P-Tyr-containing proteins in the egg cortex and that their abundance was elevated in the region overlying the MII spindle. In addition, the poles of the MII spindle exhibited elevated P-Tyr levels. As polar body extrusion progressed, P-Tyr-containing proteins were especially concentrated in the region of cortex adjacent to the maternal chromatin and the forming polar body. In contrast, P-Tyr labeling of the spindle poles eventually disappeared as meiosis II progressed to anaphase II. In approximately 24% of cases, the fertilizing sperm nucleus was associated with increased P-Tyr labeling in the overlying cortex and oolemma. To determine whether Src-family protein tyrosine kinases could be responsible for the observed changes in the distribution of P-Tyr containing proteins, an antibody to the activated form of Src-family PTKs was used to localize activated Src, Fyn or Yes. Activated Src-family kinases were found to be strongly associated with the meiotic spindle at all stages of meiosis II; however, no concentration of labeling was evident at the egg cortex. The absence of cortical Src-family PTK activity continued until the blastocyst stage when strong cortical activity became evident. At the pronuclear stage, activated Src-family PTKs became concentrated around the pronuclei in close association with the nuclear envelope. This pattern was unique to the earliest stages of development and disappeared by the eight cell stage. Functional studies using chemical inhibitors and a dominant-negative Fyn construct demonstrated that Src-family PTKs play an essential role in completion of meiosis II following fertilization and progression from the pronuclear stage into mitosis. These data suggest that while Src-family PTKs are not required for fertilization-induced calcium oscillations, they do play a critical role in development of the zygote. Furthermore, activation of these kinases in the mouse egg is limited to distinct regions and occurs at specific times after fertilization.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: S10 RR019279, S10 RR019279-01; NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD014846, R01 HD014846-26; PHS HHS: 14846, 42076

    Developmental biology 2007;306;1;241-54

  • ANG II-induced cell proliferation is dually mediated by c-Src/Yes/Fyn-regulated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm and PKCzeta-controlled ERK1/2 activity within the nucleus.

    Godeny MD and Sayeski PP

    Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

    High-affinity binding of angiotensin II (ANG II) to the ANG II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) results in the activation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). However, the precise mechanism of ANG II-induced ERK1/2 activation has not been fully characterized. Here, we investigated the signaling events leading to ANG II-induced ERK1/2 activation using a c-Src/Yes/Fyn tyrosine kinase-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line stably transfected with the AT(1)R (SYF/AT(1)). ERK1/2 activation was reduced by approximately 50% within these cells compared with wild-type controls (WT/AT(1)). The remaining approximately 50% of intracellular ERK1/2 activation was dependent upon heterotrimeric G protein and protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta) activation. Therefore, ANG II-induced ERK1/2 activation occurs via two independent mechanisms. We next investigated whether a loss of either c-Src/Yes/Fyn or PKCzeta signaling affected ERK1/2 nuclear translocation and cell proliferation in response to ANG II. ANG II-induced cell proliferation was markedly reduced in SYF/AT(1) cells compared with WT/AT(1) cells (P < 0.01), but interestingly, ERK2 nuclear translocation was normal. ANG II-induced nuclear translocation of ERK2 was blocked via pretreatment of WT/AT(1) cells with a PKCzeta pseudosubstrate. ANG II-induced cell proliferation was significantly reduced in PKCzeta pseudosubstrate-treated WT/AT(1) cells (P < 0.01) and was completely blocked in SYF/AT(1) cells treated with this same compound. Thus ANG II-induced cell proliferation appears to be regulated by both ERK1/2-driven nuclear and cytoplasmic events. In response to ANG II, the ability of ERK1/2 to remain within the cytoplasm or translocate into the nucleus is controlled by c-Src/Yes/Fyn or heterotrimeric G protein/PKCzeta signaling, respectively.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01-HL-67277; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01-DK-60471

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2006;291;6;C1297-307

  • Tbx5-dependent rheostatic control of cardiac gene expression and morphogenesis.

    Mori AD, Zhu Y, Vahora I, Nieman B, Koshiba-Takeuchi K, Davidson L, Pizard A, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Chen XJ, Henkelman RM and Bruneau BG

    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8.

    Dominant mutations in the T-box transcription factor gene TBX5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), an inherited human disease characterized by upper limb malformations and congenital heart defects (CHDs) of variable severity. We hypothesize that minor alterations in the dosage of Tbx5 directly influences severity of CHDs. Using a mouse allelic series, we show a sensitive inverse correlation between Tbx5 dosage and abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and gene expression. The CHDs found in mice harbouring a hypomorphic allele of Tbx5 (Tbx5(lox/+) mice) are less pronounced than those found in Tbx5 haploinsufficient mice (Tbx5(del/+)), and homozygous hypomorphic (Tbx5(lox/lox)) embryos have noticeably more advanced cardiac development than Tbx5 null (Tbx5(del/del)) embryos. Examination of target gene expression across the allelic series uncovers very fine sensitivity across the range of Tbx5 dosages, in which some genes respond dramatically differently to only 15% differences in Tbx5 mRNA levels. This analysis was expanded to a genome-wide level, which uncovered a Tbx5 dosage-sensitive genetic program involving a network of cardiac transcription factors, developmentally important cell-cell signaling molecules, and ion channel proteins. These results indicate an exquisite sensitivity of the developing heart to Tbx5 dosage and provide significant insight into the transcriptional and cellular mechanisms that are disrupted in CHDs.

    Developmental biology 2006;297;2;566-86

  • The docking protein Cas links tyrosine phosphorylation signaling to elongation of cerebellar granule cell axons.

    Huang J, Sakai R and Furuichi T

    Laboratory for Molecular Neurogenesis, Riken Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, USA.

    Crk-associated substrate (Cas) is a tyrosine-phosphorylated docking protein that is indispensable for the regulation of the actin cytoskeletal organization and cell migration in fibroblasts. The function of Cas in neurons, however, is poorly understood. Here we report that Cas is dominantly enriched in the brain, especially the cerebellum, of postnatal mice. During cerebellar development, Cas is highly tyrosine phosphorylated and is concentrated in the neurites and growth cones of granule cells. Cas coimmunoprecipitates with Src family protein tyrosine kinases, Crk, and cell adhesion molecules and colocalizes with these proteins in granule cells. The axon extension of granule cells is inhibited by either RNA interference knockdown of Cas or overexpression of the Cas mutant lacking the YDxP motifs, which are tyrosine phosphorylated and thereby interact with Crk. These findings demonstrate that Cas acts as a key scaffold that links the proteins associated with tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways to the granule cell axon elongation.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;7;3187-96

  • FAK-dependent regulation of myofibroblast differentiation.

    Greenberg RS, Bernstein AM, Benezra M, Gelman IH, Taliana L and Masur SK

    Department of Ophthalmology, Box 1183, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave Levy Pl., New York, New York 10029-6574, USA. roseanne.greenberg@mssm.edu

    Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts both participate in wound healing. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts, whereas fibroblast growth factor and heparin (FGF/h) induce myofibroblasts to "de-differentiate" into fibroblasts. TGFbeta induces expression of smooth muscle alpha actin (SMalphaA) and incorporation into in stress fibers, a phenotype of differentiated myofibroblasts. Additionally, TGFbeta induces the expression of fibronectin and fibronectin integrins. Fibronectin-generated signals contribute to the TGFbeta-mediated myofibroblast differentiation. Because fibronectin signals are transmitted through focal adhesion kinase (FAK), it was predicted that FAK would be essential to TGFbeta-mediated myofibroblast differentiation. To determine whether the FAK signaling pathway is required for myofibroblast differentiation, we used two approaches to decrease FAK in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs): 1) FAK +/+ MEFs, in which FAK protein expression was greatly decreased by short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and 2) FAK -/- MEFs, which lack FAK. In both cases, the majority of cells were myofibroblasts, expressing SMalphaA in stress fibers even after treatment with FGF/h. Furthermore, both the surface expression of FGFRs and FGF signaling were greatly reduced in FAK -/- [corrected]MEFs. We conclude that FAK does not contribute to TGFbeta-dependent myofibroblast differentiation. Instead, FAK was necessary for FGF/h signaling in down-regulating expression of SMalphaA, which is synonymous with myofibroblast differentiation. FAK activation could contribute to regulating myofibroblast differentiation, thereby ameliorating fibrosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1-R24-CA095823; NEI NIH HHS: F32 EY07049, P30 EY001867, R01 EY009414, R01 EY017030, R01 EY09414

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2006;20;7;1006-8

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Requirement of SRC-family tyrosine kinases in fat accumulation.

    Sun Y, Ma YC, Huang J, Chen KY, McGarrigle DK and Huang XY

    Department of Physiology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Src-family tyrosine kinases mediate many receptor signals to various biological responses. Here we investigate the requirement of Src-family tyrosine kinases in adipogenesis. The biochemical mechanism by which insulin induces adipogenesis, converting fibroblast cells to adipocytes, is not clear. We show that fibroblast cells deficient of three ubiquitously expressed Src-family members (Src, Yes, and Fyn), SYF cells, are refractory to hormonally induced fat accumulation. The defect is rescued by reintroduction of c-Src into SYF cells. Furthermore, Src-family tyrosine kinases are required in the early steps of insulin signaling; it is responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation of adaptor protein c-Cbl. Deficiency of c-Cbl blocked adipogenesis. These genetic and biochemical data clearly demonstrate that Src-family tyrosine kinases serve as a critical signal relay, via phosphorylation of c-Cbl, for fat accumulation, and provide potential new strategies for treating obesity.

    Biochemistry 2005;44;44;14455-62

  • Absence of Fyn and Src causes a reeler-like phenotype.

    Kuo G, Arnaud L, Kronstad-O'Brien P and Cooper JA

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family regulate the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and motility of many cell types, but their roles in brain development are unclear. Biochemical and in vitro experiments implicate Src and Fyn in the Reelin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1, which controls the positioning of radially migrating neurons in many brain regions. However, genetic evidence that either Src or Fyn mediates Reelin-dependent migrations in vivo has been lacking. Here, we report that, although Src is dispensable and although the absence of Fyn causes an intermediate phenotype, the combined absence of Src and Fyn almost abolishes tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and causes defects in the fetal cortex and cerebellum very similar to those of dab1 mutants of the same age. Neurogenesis is not detectably affected, but the layering of neurons in the cortex is inverted, and the formation of the Purkinje plate is impaired. This implies that Src and Fyn are needed for Reelin-dependent events during brain development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA41072

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;37;8578-86

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Translational upregulation of yes accompanies eIF4E-mediated oncogenic transformation.

    Defatta RJ and De Benedetti A

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, USA.

    Overexpression of the translation initiation factor eIF4E results in transformation of normal fibroblasts as a single-hit oncogene. This implies that eIF4E must affect several pathways leading to transformation. The oncogenic potential of eIF4E is probably realized by elevating the translational efficiency of some oncogene and growth-promotion transcripts that are normally repressed by their 5'UTR (untranslated region). To address this possibility, we have cloned mRNAs whose polysomal representation increases upon overexpression of eIF4E. Among these mRNAs, we now report the isolation of a clone corresponding to the src-like kinase yes. The yes mRNA contains a long 5'UTR with characteristic features of a typical translationally repressed transcript. This was confirmed by analysis of the distribution of yes mRNA after sedimentation in sucrose gradients. Increased utilization of yes mRNA resulted in elevated expression of the protein product in cells transformed with eIF4E, and suggested that overexpression of Yes could contribute to eIF4E-mediated transformation. To test this, we monitored the malignant properties of MM3MG-4E cells after treatment with PP2, a specific inhibitor of src kinases. Growth in soft agar and saturation densities were significantly reduced after treatment with PP2, but treatment of mice harboring MM3MG-4E tumors with PP2 did not affect tumor growth. However, transformation of yes-null fibroblasts by eIF4E was significantly impaired.

    International journal of oncology 2003;23;6;1709-13

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of Disabled-1 is essential for Reelin-stimulated activation of Akt and Src family kinases.

    Ballif BA, Arnaud L and Cooper JA

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. bballif@fhcrc.org

    Reelin is a large secreted signaling protein that is essential for proper positioning of migratory neurons during mammalian brain development. The Reelin signal is transduced into the cell by the lipoprotein receptors VLDLR and ApoER2, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of the associated intracellular adaptor protein Disabled-1 (Dab1). Tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 is essential for responding to Reelin, as knock-in mice expressing a form of Dab1 that cannot be phosphorylated on tyrosine are indistinguishable from mice lacking Reelin, Reelin-receptors or Dab1. Molecular events dependent on Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation are unknown. However, Reelin has recently been shown to activate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI 3-K)-dependent kinase, Akt, as well as Src family kinases in wild type but not Dab1-/- primary embryonic neuronal cultures. Using pharmacological inhibitors and mice harboring mutant alleles of Dab1, we show here that tyrosine phosphorylation, but not the carboxyl-terminal region, of Dab1 is required for Reelin-induced activation of Akt and Src family kinases. Additionally, although Fyn is an important regulator of Dab1, Fyn deficiency does not prevent acute Reelin-induced Akt activation. Finally, whereas a number of growth factors propagate signals simultaneously through PI 3-K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, we find Reelin does not engage the canonical MAPK cascade. These results define the first molecular events strictly dependent on Reelin-induced Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and suggest that propagation of the Reelin signal is mediated by Akt, substrates of Src family kinases and/or unidentified molecules that share with these a common molecular link to phosphorylated Dab1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA41072, T32 CA09657-11

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2003;117;2;152-9

  • Fyn binds to and phosphorylates the kidney slit diaphragm component Nephrin.

    Verma R, Wharram B, Kovari I, Kunkel R, Nihalani D, Wary KK, Wiggins RC, Killen P and Holzman LB

    Department of Veterans Affairs, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA.

    Recent investigations have focused on characterizing the molecular components of the podocyte intercellular junction, because several of these components, including Nephrin, are functionally necessary for development of normal podocyte structure and filter integrity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the Nephrin-associated protein complex is a signaling nexus. As such, Nephrin-dependent signaling might be mediated in part through Nephrin phosphorylation. Described are biochemical and mouse genetics experiments demonstrating that membrane-associated Nephrin is tyrosine-phosphorylated by the Src family kinase Fyn. Nephrin fractionated in detergent-resistant glomerular membrane fractions with Fyn and Yes. Fyn directly bound Nephrin via its SH3 domain, and Fyn directly phosphorylated Nephrin. Glomeruli in which Fyn, Yes, or Fyn and Yes were genetically deleted in mice were characterized to explore the relationship between these kinases and Nephrin. Fyn deletion resulted in coarsening of podocyte foot processes and marked attenuation of Nephrin phosphorylation in isolated glomerular detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Yes deletion had no identifiable effect on podocyte morphology but dramatically increased Nephrin phosphorylating activity. Similar to Fyn deletion, simultaneous deletion of Fyn and Yes reduced Nephrin phosphorylating activity. These results demonstrate that endogenous Fyn catalyzes Nephrin phosphorylation in podocyte detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Although Yes appears to effect the regulation of Nephrin phosphorylation, the mechanism by which this occurs requires investigation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;23;20716-23

  • Fyn tyrosine kinase is a critical regulator of disabled-1 during brain development.

    Arnaud L, Ballif BA, Förster E and Cooper JA

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, 98109, Seattle, WA, USA.

    Background: Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an intracellular adaptor protein that regulates migrations of various classes of neurons during mammalian brain development. Dab1 function depends on its tyrosine phosphorylation, which is stimulated by Reelin, an extracellular signaling molecule. Reelin increases the stoichiometry of Dab1 phosphorylation and downregulates Dab1 protein levels. Reelin binds to various cell surface receptors, including two members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family that also bind to Dab1. Mutations in Dab1, its phosphorylation sites, Reelin, or the Reelin receptors cause a common phenotype. However, the molecular mechanism whereby Reelin regulates Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation is poorly understood.

    Results: We found that Reelin-induced Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation in neuron cultures is inhibited by acute treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of Src family, but not Abl family, kinases. In addition, Reelin stimulates Src family kinases by a mechanism involving Dab1. We analyzed the Dab1 protein level and tyrosine phosphorylation stoichiometry by using brain samples and cultured neurons that were obtained from mouse embryos carrying mutations in Src family tyrosine kinases. We found that fyn is required for proper Dab1 levels and phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. When fyn copy number is reduced, src, but not yes, becomes important, reflecting a partial redundancy between fyn and src.

    Conclusions: Reelin activates Fyn to phosphorylate and downregulate Dab1 during brain development. The results were unexpected because Fyn deficiency does not cause the same developmental phenotype as Dab1 or Reelin deficiency. This suggests additional complexity in the Reelin signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA41072, T32 CA09657-11

    Current biology : CB 2003;13;1;9-17

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • beta -Arrestin-mediated recruitment of the Src family kinase Yes mediates endothelin-1-stimulated glucose transport.

    Imamura T, Huang J, Dalle S, Ugi S, Usui I, Luttrell LM, Miller WE, Lefkowitz RJ and Olefsky JM

    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0673, USA.

    The insulin and the endothelin type A (ETA) receptor both can couple into the heterotrimeric G protein alpha(q/11) (Galpha(q/11)), leading to Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, and subsequent stimulation of glucose transport. In this study, we assessed the potential role of Src kinase in ET-1 signaling to glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Src kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked ET-1-induced Src kinase activity, Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation, and glucose transport stimulation. To determine which Src family kinase member was involved, we microinjected anti-c-Src, -c-Fyn, or -c-Yes antibody into these cells and found that only anti-c-Yes antibody blocked GLUT4 translocation (70% decreased). Overexpression or microinjection of a dominant negative mutant (K298M) of Src kinase also inhibited ET-1-induced Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation. In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that beta-arrestin 1 associated with the ETA receptor in an agonist-dependent manner and that beta-arrestin 1 recruited Src kinase to a molecular complex that included the ETA receptor. Microinjection of beta-arrestin 1 antibody inhibited ET-1- but not insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. In conclusion, 1) the Src kinase Yes can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Galpha(q/11) in response to ET-1 stimulation, and 2) beta-arrestin 1 and Src kinase form a molecular complex with the ETA receptor to mediate ET-1 signaling to Galpha(q/11) with subsequent glucose transport stimulation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-33651

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;47;43663-7

  • Src, Fyn, and Yes are not required for neuromuscular synapse formation but are necessary for stabilization of agrin-induced clusters of acetylcholine receptors.

    Smith CL, Mittaud P, Prescott ED, Fuhrer C and Burden SJ

    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical School, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    Mice deficient in src and fyn or src and yes move and breathe poorly and die perinatally, consistent with defects in neuromuscular function. Src and Fyn are associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in muscle cells, and Src and Yes can act downstream of ErbB2, suggesting roles for Src family kinases in signaling pathways regulating neuromuscular synapse formation. We studied neuromuscular synapses in src(-/-); fyn(-/-) and src(-/-); yes(-/-) mutant mice and found that muscle development, motor axon pathfinding, clustering of postsynaptic proteins, and synapse-specific transcription are normal in these double mutants, showing that these pairs of kinases are not required for early steps in synapse formation. We generated muscle cell lines lacking src and fyn and found that neural agrin and laminin-1 induced normal clustering of AChRs and that agrin induced normal tyrosine phosphorylation of the AChR beta subunit in the absence of Src and Fyn. Another Src family member, most likely Yes, was associated with AChRs and phosphorylated by agrin in myotubes lacking Src and Fyn, indicating that Yes may compensate for the loss of Src and Fyn. Nevertheless, PP1 and PP2, inhibitors of Src-class kinases, did not inhibit agrin signaling, suggesting that Src class kinase activity is dispensable for agrin-induced clustering and tyrosine phosphorylation of AChRs. AChR clusters, however, were less stable in myotubes lacking Src and Fyn but not in PP1- or PP2-treated wild-type cells. These data show that the stabilization of agrin-induced AChR clusters requires Src and Fyn and suggest that the adaptor activities, rather than the kinase activities, of these kinases are essential for this stabilization.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS27963, NS36193, R01 NS036193, R01 NS036193-04

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;9;3151-60

  • A unique role for Fyn in CNS myelination.

    Sperber BR, Boyle-Walsh EA, Engleka MJ, Gadue P, Peterson AC, Stein PL, Scherer SS and McMorris FA

    The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    We analyzed the role of Fyn tyrosine kinase in CNS myelination by using fyn(-/-) null mutant mice, which express no Fyn protein. We found a severe myelin deficit in forebrain at all ages from 14 d to 1 year. The deficit was maximal at 1 month of age and was similar regardless of mouse strain background or whether it was determined by bulk isolation of myelin or by quantitation of myelin basic protein. To determine the cellular basis of the myelin deficit, we counted oligodendrocytes in tissue sections of mice expressing oligodendrocyte-targeted beta-galactosidase, and we used light and electron microscopy to examine the number and morphology of myelinated fibers and size of myelinated CNS structures. All of these parameters were reduced in fyn(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, there were regional differences in the myelin deficit; in contrast to forebrain, fyn(-/-) cervical spinal cord exhibited no reduction in myelin content, number of oligodendrocytes, or number of myelinated fibers, nor was myelination delayed developmentally. We found that oligodendrocytes express Src, but there was no significant reduction of myelin content in null mutants lacking the Fyn-related kinases Src, Yes, or Lyn. Finally, we investigated the molecular features of Fyn that are required for myelination and found that a single amino acid substitution, which abolishes the tyrosine kinase activity of Fyn, resulted in a myelin deficit as great as that observed in the complete absence of Fyn protein. These results demonstrate that Fyn plays a unique role in myelination, one that requires its kinase activity.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09171, CA72806, CA73796; NINDS NIH HHS: NS34528

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;6;2039-47

  • Meltrin alpha cytoplasmic domain interacts with SH3 domains of Src and Grb2 and is phosphorylated by v-Src.

    Suzuki A, Kadota N, Hara T, Nakagami Y, Izumi T, Takenawa T, Sabe H and Endo T

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Japan.

    Meltrin alpha/ADAM12 is a member of the ADAM/MDC family proteins characterized by the presence of metalloprotease and disintegrin domains. This protein also contains a single transmembrane domain and a relatively long cytoplasmic domain containing several proline-rich sequences. These sequences are compatible with the consensus sequences for binding the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. To determine whether the proline-rich sequences interact with SH3 domains in several proteins, binding of recombinant SH3 domains to the meltrin alpha cytoplasmic domain was analysed by pull-down assays. The SH3 domains of Src and Yes bound strongly, but that of Abl or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 subunit did not. Full-length Grb2/Ash bound strongly, whereas its N-terminal SH3 domain alone did less strongly. Src and Grb2 in bovine brain extracts also bound to meltrin alpha cytoplasmic domain on affinity resin. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody to meltrin alpha resulted in coprecipitation of Src and Grb2 with meltrin alpha in cell extracts, suggesting that Src and Grb2 are associated in vivo with meltrin alpha cytoplasmic domain. This notion was also supported by the findings that exogenously expressed meltrin cytoplasmic domain coexisted with Src and Grb2 on the membrane ruffles. The C-terminal Tyr901 of meltrin alpha was phosphorylated both in vitro and in cultured cells by v-Src. These results may imply that meltrin alpha cytoplasmic domain is involved in a signal transduction for some biological function through the interaction with SH3-containing proteins.

    Oncogene 2000;19;51;5842-50

  • The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome.

    Robinson DR, Wu YM and Lin SF

    Department of Biological Chemistry, UC Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California, CA 95817, USA.

    As the sequencing of the human genome is completed by the Human Genome Project, the analysis of this rich source of information will illuminate many areas in medicine and biology. The protein tyrosine kinases are a large multigene family with particular relevance to many human diseases, including cancer. A search of the human genome for tyrosine kinase coding elements identified several novel genes and enabled the creation of a nonredundant catalog of tyrosine kinase genes. Ninety unique kinase genes can be identified in the human genome, along with five pseudogenes. Of the 90 tyrosine kinases, 58 are receptor type, distributed into 20 subfamilies. The 32 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases can be placed in 10 subfamilies. Additionally, mouse orthologs can be identified for nearly all the human tyrosine kinases. The completion of the human tyrosine kinase family tree provides a framework for further advances in biomedical science.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R0I CA82073

    Oncogene 2000;19;49;5548-57

  • Selective requirement for Src kinases during VEGF-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability.

    Eliceiri BP, Paul R, Schwartzberg PL, Hood JD, Leng J and Cheresh DA

    Department of Immunology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Src kinase activity was found to protect endothelial cells from apoptosis during vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-, but not basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-, mediated angiogenesis in chick embryos and mice. In fact, retroviral targeting of kinase-deleted Src to tumor-associated blood vessels suppressed angiogenesis and the growth of a VEGF-producing tumor. Although mice lacking individual Src family kinases (SFKs) showed normal angiogenesis, mice deficient in pp60c-src or pp62c-yes showed no VEGF-induced vascular permeability (VP), yet fyn-/- mice displayed normal VP. In contrast, inflammation-mediated VP appeared normal in Src-deficient mice. Therefore, VEGF-, but not bFGF-, mediated angiogenesis requires SFK activity in general, whereas the VP activity of VEGF specifically depends on the SFKs, Src, or Yes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1T32CA75924, CA50286; NHLBI NIH HHS: 1F32HL09435; ...

    Molecular cell 1999;4;6;915-24

  • The SRC family protein tyrosine kinase p62yes controls polymeric IgA transcytosis in vivo.

    Luton F, Vergés M, Vaerman JP, Sudol M and Mostov KE

    Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0452, USA.

    Transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin A (pIgA) across epithelial cells is mediated by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Binding of pIgA to pIgR stimulates transcytosis of the pIgA-pIgR complex via a signal transduction pathway that is dependent on a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) of the SRC family. Here we identify the PTK as p62yes. We demonstrate the specific physical and functional association of the pIgR with p62yes in rodent liver. Analysis of p62yes knockout mice revealed a dramatic reduction in the association of tyrosine kinase activity with the pIgR and in transcytosis of pIgA. We conclude that p62yes controls pIgA transcytosis in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA01605, CA45757; NIAID NIH HHS: R01AI36953

    Molecular cell 1999;4;4;627-32

  • Src family kinases are required for integrin but not PDGFR signal transduction.

    Klinghoffer RA, Sachsenmaier C, Cooper JA and Soriano P

    Program in Developmental Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North-Mailstop C3-168, PO Box 19204, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.

    Src family kinases (SFKs) have been implicated as important regulators of ligand-induced cellular responses including proliferation, survival, adhesion and migration. Analysis of SFK function has been impeded by extensive redundancy between family members. We have generated mouse embryos harboring functional null mutations of the ubiquitously expressed SFKs Src, Yes and Fyn. This triple mutation leads to severe developmental defects and lethality by E9.5. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype, SYF cells (deficient for Src, Yes and Fyn) were derived and tested for their ability to respond to growth factors or plating on extracellular matrix. Our studies reveal that while Src, Yes and Fyn are largely dispensable for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced signaling, they are absolutely required to mediate specific functions regulated by extracellular matrix proteins. Fibronectin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins, including the focal adhesion kinase FAK, was nearly eliminated in the absence of Src, Yes and Fyn. Furthermore, consistent with previous reports demonstrating the importance of FAK for cell migration, SYF cells displayed reduced motility in vitro. These results demonstrate that SFK activity is essential during embryogenesis and suggest that defects observed in SYF triple mutant embryos may be linked to deficiencies in signaling by extracellular matrix-coupled receptors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA54786; NICHD NIH HHS: HD08412, HD24875

    The EMBO journal 1999;18;9;2459-71

  • Cellular functions regulated by Src family kinases.

    Thomas SM and Brugge JS

    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. sthomas@bidmc.harvard.edu

    Src family protein tyrosine kinases are activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors and participate in signaling pathways that control a diverse spectrum of receptor-induced biological activities. While several of these kinases have evolved to play distinct roles in specific receptor pathways, there is considerable redundancy in the functions of these kinases, both with respect to the receptor pathways that activate these kinases and the downstream effectors that mediate their biological activities. This chapter reviews the evidence implicating Src family kinases in specific receptor pathways and describes the mechanisms leading to their activation, the targets that interact with these kinases, and the biological events that they regulate.

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 1997;13;513-609

  • Chromosomal localization of mouse Cenpa gene.

    Fowler KJ, Newson AJ, MacDonald AC, Kalitsis P, Lyu MS, Kozak CA and Choo KH

    The Murdoch Institute for Research into Birth Defects, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. fowlerk@cryptic.rch.unimelb.edu.au

    Using a previously isolated mouse centromere protein A (Cenpa) probe, we have localized the gene to the proximal region of mouse Chromosome 5, between the known Il6 and Yes1 loci near [Adra2C-D5H4S43-Hdh]. Comparison of this localization with that of human CENPA, which maps to chromosome 2, is consistent with the presence of a new region of conserved synteny between the two species.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1997;79;3-4;298-301

  • Seven genes from human chromosome 18 map to chromosome 24 in the bovine.

    Larsen NJ, Womack JE and Kirkpatrick BW

    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.

    Bovine sequence tagged sites (STSs) were developed for seven genes and used for synteny mapping with a hybrid bovine x rodent cell line panel. The genes were thymidylate synthase (TYMS), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (ADCYAP1), and melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) from the short arm of human chromosome (HSA) 18 and N-cadherin (CDH2), transthyretin (TTR), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) from the long arm of HSA 18. Primers for these genes were designed with human, ovine, or bovine sequences aligned with a sequence from a second species. The bovine PCR product was cloned, and the fragment was sequenced to verify that the homologous gene was indeed amplified. A second set of bovine-specific PCR primers were developed for each gene from these sequences. These STSs were used for synteny mapping, and all seven genes were syntenic with markers of bovine chromosome (BTA) 24. The concordance with BTA 24 was at least 96.5% for all genes.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1996;73;3;184-6

  • Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a phosphoprotein, Efs, which contains a Src homology 3 domain and associates with Fyn.

    Ishino M, Ohba T, Sasaki H and Sasaki T

    Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains mediate protein-protein interactions in intracellular signaling by protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs). We have isolated cDNA clones from mouse embryo cDNA expression library that encode a new signaling protein which we call Efs (Embryonal Fyn-associated Substrate). The deduced amino acid sequence of 560 residues in length revealed one SH3 domain at its amino-terminal region, two proline-rich motifs with the consensus sequences of binding to Src-family SH3s, and a cluster of YXXP motifs that are possibly tyrosine-phosphorylated to serve as ligands binding to SH2 domains. Structure and alignment of these characteristics sequences are homologous to those of p130Cas, but Efs and p130Cas are different proteins. Expression of the Efs gene was higher in placenta, embryo and brain than in other adult tissues. Transfection of COS-7 cells with a plasmid encoding an epitope-tagged Efs resulted in the expression of a 83 kDa protein. The epitope-tagged Efs was hyperphosphorylated when cotransfected with a vector expressing Fyn. In an in vitro kinase assay with the PCC4 cell lysate, Efs became phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and coprecipitated with p59fyn and p62yes; the result suggests that Efs is a physiological substrate of these PTKs.

    Oncogene 1995;11;11;2331-8

  • Proline-rich sequences that bind to Src homology 3 domains with individual specificities.

    Alexandropoulos K, Cheng G and Baltimore D

    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.

    To study the binding specificity of Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, we have screened a mouse embryonic expression library for peptide fragments that interact with them. Several clones were identified that express fragments of proteins which, through proline-rich binding sites, exhibit differential binding specificity to various SH3 domains. Src-SH3-specific binding uses a sequence of 7 aa of the consensus RPLPXXP, in which the N-terminal arginine is very important. The SH3 domains of the Src-related kinases Fyn, Lyn, and Hck bind to this sequence with the same affinity as that of the Src SH3. In contrast, a quite different proline-rich sequence from the Btk protein kinase binds to the Fyn, Lyn, and Hck SH3 domains, but not to the Src SH3. Specific binding of the Abl SH3 requires a longer, more proline-rich sequence but no arginine. One clone that binds to both Src and Abl SH3 domains through a common site exhibits reversed binding orientation, in that an arginine indispensable for binding to all tested SH3 domains occurs at the C terminus. Another clone contains overlapping yet distinct Src and Abl SH3 binding sites. Binding to the SH3 domains is mediated by a common PXXP amino acid sequence motif present on all ligands, and specificity comes about from other interactions, often ones involving arginine. The rules governing in vivo usage of particular sites by particular SH3 domains are not clear, but one binding orientation may be more specific than another.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 7F32 CA60458-02, 7R01 CA51462-07

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;8;3110-4

  • Combined deficiencies of Src, Fyn, and Yes tyrosine kinases in mutant mice.

    Stein PL, Vogel H and Soriano P

    Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104.

    Three members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, src, fyn, and yes, are broadly expressed throughout mouse development. Mutations in the c-src and fyn genes were shown previously to lead to restricted nonoverlapping phenotypes only in a subset of cells in which these kinases are expressed. In this work we show that a mutation in the yes gene does not lead to an overt phenotype. Except for brain, the level or distribution of related kinases is not altered in major tissues. To gain further insight into the possibility that these kinases compensate for each other, animals deficient in multiple src-kinases were generated. Whereas most of the src/fyn or src/yes double mutants die perinatally, a substantial proportion of fyn/yes double mutants are viable but undergo degenerative renal changes leading to diffuse segmental glomerulosclerosis. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that, at least in some cells, these kinases are able to compensate for the loss of the other related kinases.

    Genes & development 1994;8;17;1999-2007

  • Protein tyrosine kinases transcribed in a murine thymic medullary epithelial cell line.

    Hébert B, Bergeron J, Tijssen P and Potworowski EF

    Centre de recherche en immunologie, Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Québec, Canada.

    Medullary epithelial cells of the thymus can be activated by contact with thymocytes. We identified a number of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that could be responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation observed in a murine thymic medullary epithelial cell line (E-5) following complex formation with thymocytes. Degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides (oligos) derived from the amino acid (aa) sequence motifs of PTK catalytic domains were used as oligo primers for PCR amplification to determine the PTK genes which are normally transcribed in the E-5 cell line. Amplicons were cloned, sequenced and the deduced aa sequences were compared to known PTK sequences. Among the 13 distinct PTK catalytic domains identified in E-5 cells, two were novel: they were encoded by eteck, a member of the eph sub-family of PTKs, and thy, a member of the src sub-family of PTKs.

    Gene 1994;143;2;257-60

  • Activation of the c-Src tyrosine kinase is required for the induction of mammary tumors in transgenic mice.

    Guy CT, Muthuswamy SK, Cardiff RD, Soriano P and Muller WJ

    Institute for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Transgenic mice expressing the polyomavirus (PyV) middle T oncogene in the mammary epithelium develop multifocal mammary tumors that metastasize with high frequency. The potent transforming activity of PyV middle T antigen can, in part, be attributed to its ability to associate with and to activate a number of c-Src family tyrosine kinases (c-Src, c-Yes, and Fyn). As a first step toward assessing the role of individual c-Src family tyrosine kinases in PyV middle T antigen-induced mammary tumorigenesis, we have crossed transgenic mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)/PyV middle T antigen fusion gene with mice bearing a disrupted c-src proto-oncogene. In contrast to the rapid tumor progression seen in the original MMTV/PyV middle T antigen strains, mice expressing the transgene in the absence of functional c-Src rarely developed mammary tumors. After long latency, these mice did eventually develop abnormal hyperplastic mammary tissue. This growth disturbance was correlated with elevated expression of the PyV middle T antigen and the activation of the PyV middle T antigen-associated c-Yes tyrosine kinase. However, transgenic mice expressing the PyV middle T antigen in the mammary epithelium of wild-type or Yes-deficient mice developed multifocal mammary tumors with comparable kinetics. Taken together, these findings suggest that c-Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for PyV middle T antigen-induced mammary tumorigenesis and also illustrate an in vivo genetic approach to the dissection of mitogenic signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA-S4285

    Genes & development 1994;8;1;23-32

  • Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding the murine c-yes tyrosine protein kinase.

    Klages S, Adam D, Eiseman E, Fargnoli J, Dymecki SM, Desiderio SV and Bolen JB

    Department of Molecular Biology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543.

    The cellular yes (c-yes) gene is a member of the class of proto-oncogenes that encode non-receptor tyrosine protein kinases. In this report we describe the isolation of cDNAs that encode the murine c-yes gene product and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the murine c-yes cDNA clones. The reading frame encodes a protein of 541 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 60.63 kDa that is reactive with anti-Yes antisera and possesses protein kinase activity.

    Oncogene 1993;8;3;713-9

  • Specific expression of a tyrosine kinase gene, blk, in B lymphoid cells.

    Dymecki SM, Niederhuber JE and Desiderio SV

    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    Several pathways of transmembrane signaling in lymphocytes involve protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. With the exception of p56lck, a tyrosine kinase specific to T lymphoid cells that associates with the T cell transmembrane proteins CD4 and CD8, the kinases that function in these pathways are unknown. A murine lymphocyte complementary DNA that represents a new member of the src family has now been isolated and characterized. This complementary DNA, termed blk (for B lymphoid kinase), specifies a polypeptide of 55 kilodaltons that is related to, but distinct from, previously identified retroviral or cellular tyrosine kinases. The protein encoded by blk exhibits tyrosine kinase activity when expressed in bacterial cells. In the mouse and among cell lines, blk is specifically expressed in the B cell lineage. The tyrosine kinase encoded by blk may function in a signal transduction pathway that is restricted to B lymphoid cells.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1990;247;4940;332-6

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
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EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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