G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Raf1 (MGI)
Mus musculus
v-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1
G00001434 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000020697 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000000441 (Ensembl mouse gene)
110157 (Entrez Gene)
48 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_029780 (Allen Brain Atlas)
110157 (Genepaint)
164760 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:97847 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q99N57 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • Craf1
  • Raf-1
  • c-Raf
  • sarcoma 3611 oncogene
  • v-Raf

Literature (171)

Pubmed - other

  • MEK-ERK pathway modulation ameliorates disease phenotypes in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome associated with the Raf1(L613V) mutation.

    Wu X, Simpson J, Hong JH, Kim KH, Thavarajah NK, Backx PH, Neel BG and Araki T

    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden death in children and young adults. Abnormalities in several signaling pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of HCM, but the role of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway has been controversial. Noonan syndrome (NS) is one of several autosomal-dominant conditions known as RASopathies, which are caused by mutations in different components of this pathway. Germline mutations in RAF1 (which encodes the serine-threonine kinase RAF1) account for approximately 3%-5% of cases of NS. Unlike other NS alleles, RAF1 mutations that confer increased kinase activity are highly associated with HCM. To explore the pathogenesis of such mutations, we generated knockin mice expressing the NS-associated Raf1(L613V) mutation. Like NS patients, mice heterozygous for this mutation (referred to herein as L613V/+ mice) had short stature, craniofacial dysmorphia, and hematologic abnormalities. Valvuloseptal development was normal, but L613V/+ mice exhibited eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and aberrant cardiac fetal gene expression, and decompensated following pressure overload. Agonist-evoked MEK-ERK activation was enhanced in multiple cell types, and postnatal MEK inhibition normalized the growth, facial, and cardiac defects in L613V/+ mice. These data show that different NS genes have intrinsically distinct pathological effects, demonstrate that enhanced MEK-ERK activity is critical for causing HCM and other RAF1-mutant NS phenotypes, and suggest a mutation-specific approach to the treatment of RASopathies.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 106526, 153103; NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA049152-24, R37CA49152; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL083273

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2011;121;3;1009-25

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Nek10 mediates G2/M cell cycle arrest and MEK autoactivation in response to UV irradiation.

    Moniz LS and Stambolic V

    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada.

    Appropriate cell cycle checkpoint control is essential for the maintenance of cell and organismal homeostasis. Members of the Nek (NIMA-related kinase) family of serine/threonine protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of the cell cycle. We explored the cellular functions of Nek10, a novel member of the Nek family, and demonstrate a role for Nek10 in the cellular UV response. Nek10 was required for the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling upon UV irradiation but not in response to mitogens, such as epidermal growth factor stimulation. Nek10 physically associated with Raf-1 and MEK1 in a Raf-1-dependent manner, and the formation of this complex was necessary for Nek10-mediated MEK1 activation. Nek10 did not affect the kinase activity of Raf-1 but instead promoted the autophosphorylation-dependent activation of MEK1. The appropriate maintenance of the G(2)/M checkpoint following UV irradiation required Nek10 expression and ERK1/2 activation. Taken together, our results uncover a role for Nek10 in the cellular response to UV irradiation.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: COP 107970

    Molecular and cellular biology 2011;31;1;30-42

  • BRAF inactivation drives aneuploidy by deregulating CRAF.

    Kamata T, Hussain J, Giblett S, Hayward R, Marais R and Pritchard C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

    Aspartate-594 is the third most common BRAF residue mutated in human cancer. Mutants of this residue are kinase inactive, and the mechanism(s) by which they contribute to cancer has remained perplexing. Using a conditional knock-in mouse model, we show that the (D594A)Braf mutant does not drive tumor development per se but is able to induce aneuploidy in murine splenocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts and contributes to immortalization through the propagation of aneuploid cells. (D594A)Braf lacks kinase activity but induces the related gene product Craf as well as the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway. Here, we show that the aneuploid phenotype is dependent on Craf. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not attenuate the emergence of aneuploidy but prevented the growth of aneuploid cells. These results provide a previously unidentified link between Craf and chromosomal stability, with important implications for our understanding of the development of cancers with driver mutations that hyperactivate Craf.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK: A6969, C1362/A6969

    Cancer research 2010;70;21;8475-86

  • EGF regulates survivin stability through the Raf-1/ERK pathway in insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells.

    Wang H, Gambosova K, Cooper ZA, Holloway MP, Kassai A, Izquierdo D, Cleveland K, Boney CM and Altura RA

    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

    Background: Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These mitogens signal through several downstream pathways (AKT, ERK, STAT3, and JNK) to regulate the survival and proliferation of β-cells. Survivin, an oncofetal protein with both pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties, is a known transcriptional target of both IGF-1 and EGF in cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the effects of the β-cell mitogens IGF-1 and EGF on survivin regulation in the established pancreatic β-cell model cell lines, MIN6 and INS-1 and in primary mouse islets.

    Results: In pancreatic β-cells, treatment with glucose, insulin, or EGF increased survivin protein levels at early time points. By contrast, no significant effects on survivin were observed following IGF-1 treatment. EGF-stimulated increases in survivin protein were abrogated in the presence of downstream inhibitors of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway. EGF had no significant effect on survivin transcription however it prolonged the half-life of the survivin protein and stabilized survivin protein levels by inhibiting surviving ubiquitination.

    Conclusions: This study defines a novel mechanism of survivin regulation by EGF through the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway in pancreatic β-cells, via prolongation of survivin protein half-life and inhibition of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. This mechanism may be important for regulating β-cell expansion after birth.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R25 HL088992; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK078300-01

    BMC molecular biology 2010;11;66

  • Targets of Raf in tumorigenesis.

    Niault TS and Baccarini M

    Center for Molecular Biology, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Doktor-Bohr-Gasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    Some 25 years ago, Raf was discovered as the transforming principle shared by a murine sarcoma and an avian carcinoma virus. Thus, Raf and tumorigenesis have been connected from the very beginning. Ten years later, the work of many groups instated Raf as the link between Ras, the oncogene most frequently mutated in human cancers, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK/ERK) module, which with its manifold substrates can contribute to different aspects of carcinogenesis. Finally, the discovery of activating B-Raf mutations in a subset of human cancers, notably melanomas, conclusively established Raf as a major player in tumor development. Recent studies in animal models now show that endogenous C-Raf is essential for the development and maintenance of Ras-induced epidermal tumors. Surprisingly, the role of C-Raf in this case is not that of an mitogen-activated protein kinase activator, but rather that of an endogenous inhibitor of Rho signaling, expanding the range of tumor-related Raf targets. This review focuses on old and new targets of Raf in tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: P 19530

    Carcinogenesis 2010;31;7;1165-74

  • Protein kinase C epsilon regulation of translocator protein (18 kDa) Tspo gene expression is mediated through a MAPK pathway targeting STAT3 and c-Jun transcription factors.

    Batarseh A, Li J and Papadopoulos V

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

    Translocator protein TSPO is an 18 kDa protein implicated in numerous cell functions and is highly expressed in secretory and glandular tissues, especially in steroidogenic cells. TSPO expression is altered in pathological conditions such as certain cancers and neurological diseases. In search of the factors regulating Tspo expression, we recently showed that high levels of TSPO in steroidogenic cells may be due to high constitutive expression of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon), while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) activation of PKCepsilon drives inducible TSPO expression in nonsteroidogenic cells, likely through activator protein 1 (AP1). In this study, we aimed to identify the signal transduction pathway through which PKCepsilon regulates Tspo gene expression. The MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126, but not NFkappaB inhibitors, reduced basal Tspo promoter activity in TSPO-rich steroidogenic cells (MA-10 Leydig), as well as basal and PMA-induced Tspo promoter levels in TSPO-poor nonsteroidogenic cells (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts). AP1 and signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) have binding sites in the Tspo promoter and are downstream targets of PKCepsilon and MAPK (Raf-1-ERK1/2) pathways. PKCepsilon overexpression induced STAT3 phosphorylation in NIH-3T3 cells, while PKCepsilon knockdown reduced STAT3 and c-Jun phosphorylation in Leydig cells. MEK1/2, ERK2, c-Jun, and STAT3 knockdown reduced Tspo mRNA and protein levels in Leydig cells. Additionally, Raf-1 reduced Tspo mRNA levels in the same cells. MEK1/2, c-Jun, and STAT3 knockdown also reduced basal as well as PMA-induced Tspo mRNA levels in NIH-3T3 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that PKCepsilon regulates Tspo gene expression through a MAPK (Raf-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway, acting at least in part through c-Jun and STAT3 transcription factors.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: R01 ES007747-15, R01 ES007747-16, R01 ES07747

    Biochemistry 2010;49;23;4766-78

  • Neutrophil-dominant psoriasis-like skin inflammation induced by epidermal-specific expression of Raf in mice.

    Tarutani M, Imai Y, Yasuda K, Tsutsui H, Nakanishi K and Yamanishi K

    Department of Dermatology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan. tarutani@kochi-u.ac.jp

    Background: Raf is one of the downstream effectors of Ras GTPases. The induction of Raf in the epidermis causes the proliferation of keratinocytes and epidermal hyperplasia. However, skin inflammation accompanying Ras-induced epidermal reactions has not been fully delineated.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize inflammatory reactions induced by epidermal-specific Raf expression and to elucidate its role in skin inflammation.

    Methods: K14-Raf:ER transgenic mice, in which the 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT)-responsive mutant estrogen receptor (ER) ligand binding domain-Raf fusion gene was expressed under control of the keratin 14 promoter, were used to characterize inflammatory reactions induced by Raf expression in the epidermis.

    Results: A single topical application of 4OHT induced the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 and elicited neutrophil-dominant inflammatory infiltrates in the skin. The Raf expression also rapidly induced the production of several cytokines and chemokines, including VEGF and CXCL1, by keratinocytes and in mouse skin in vivo. Furthermore, CD4-positive cells from regional lymph nodes had the potential to differentiate into IFN gamma- and IL17-producing cells. Treatment with an anti-Gr-1 antibody diminished the Raf-induced cutaneous inflammation and partially reversed the epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis.

    Conclusion: Activation of the Raf signaling pathway is involved in the epidermal hyperplasia and the neutrophil-dominant cutaneous inflammatory reactions which are characteristics of psoriasis.

    Journal of dermatological science 2010;58;1;28-35

  • Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF.

    Heidorn SJ, Milagre C, Whittaker S, Nourry A, Niculescu-Duvas I, Dhomen N, Hussain J, Reis-Filho JS, Springer CJ, Pritchard C and Marais R

    The Institute of Cancer Research, Signal Transduction Team, Section of Cell and Molecular Biology, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK.

    We describe a mechanism of tumorigenesis mediated by kinase-dead BRAF in the presence of oncogenic RAS. We show that drugs that selectively inhibit BRAF drive RAS-dependent BRAF binding to CRAF, CRAF activation, and MEK-ERK signaling. This does not occur when oncogenic BRAF is inhibited, demonstrating that BRAF inhibition per se does not drive pathway activation; it only occurs when BRAF is inhibited in the presence of oncogenic RAS. Kinase-dead BRAF mimics the effects of the BRAF-selective drugs and kinase-dead Braf and oncogenic Ras cooperate to induce melanoma in mice. Our data reveal another paradigm of BRAF-mediated signaling that promotes tumor progression. They highlight the importance of understanding pathway signaling in clinical practice and of genotyping tumors prior to administering BRAF-selective drugs, to identify patients who are likely to respond and also to identify patients who may experience adverse effects.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK: 13083, C107/A10433; Wellcome Trust: 080333/Z/06/Z

    Cell 2010;140;2;209-21

  • From autoinhibition to inhibition in trans: the Raf-1 regulatory domain inhibits Rok-alpha kinase activity.

    Niault T, Sobczak I, Meissl K, Weitsman G, Piazzolla D, Maurer G, Kern F, Ehrenreiter K, Hamerl M, Moarefi I, Leung T, Carugo O, Ng T and Baccarini M

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Center for Molecular Biology, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    The activity of Raf-1 and Rok-alpha kinases is regulated by intramolecular binding of the regulatory region to the kinase domain. Autoinhibition is relieved upon binding to the small guanosine triphosphatases Ras and Rho. Downstream of Ras, Raf-1 promotes migration and tumorigenesis by antagonizing Rok-alpha, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we show that Rok-alpha inhibition by Raf-1 relies on an intermolecular interaction between the Rok-alpha kinase domain and the cysteine-rich Raf-1 regulatory domain (Raf-1reg), which is similar to Rok-alpha's own autoinhibitory region. Thus, Raf-1 mediates Rok-alpha inhibition in trans, which is a new concept in kinase regulation. This mechanism is physiologically relevant because Raf-1reg is sufficient to rescue all Rok-alpha-dependent defects of Raf-1-deficient cells. Downstream of Ras and Rho, the Raf-1-Rok-alpha interaction represents a novel paradigm of pathway cross talk that contributes to tumorigenesis and cell motility.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: P 19530

    The Journal of cell biology 2009;187;3;335-42

  • Mutation of the Rb1 pathway leads to overexpression of mTor, constitutive phosphorylation of Akt on serine 473, resistance to anoikis, and a block in c-Raf activation.

    El-Naggar S, Liu Y and Dean DC

    James Brown Cancer Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

    Atk can be activated by two independent phosphorylation events. Growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of threonine 308 (Akt-308) by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent PDK1 leads to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) complex 1 (TORC1) and stimulation of protein synthesis. Phosphorylation on serine 473 (Akt-473) is catalyzed by mTor in a second complex (TORC2), and Akt-473 phosphorylates Foxo3a to inhibit apoptosis. Accumulation of both phosphorylated forms of Akt is frequent in cancer, and TORC2 activity is required for progression to prostate cancer with Pten mutation. Here, we link Akt-473 to the Rb1 pathway and show that mTor is overexpressed with loss of the Rb1 family pathway. This leads to constitutive Akt-473 and, in turn, phosphorylation of Foxo3a and resistance to cell adhesion-dependent apoptosis (anoikis). Additionally, Akt-473 accumulation blocks c-Raf activation, thereby preventing downstream Erk activation. This block cannot be overcome by constitutively active Ras, and it also prevents induction of the Arf tumor suppressor by Ras. These studies link inactivation of the Rb1 pathway, a hallmark of cancer, to accumulation of Akt-473, resistance to anoikis, and a block in c-Raf/Erk activation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR018733; NEI NIH HHS: EY015636

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;21;5710-7

  • Cancer genomics identifies regulatory gene networks associated with the transition from dysplasia to advanced lung adenocarcinomas induced by c-Raf-1.

    Rohrbeck A and Borlak J

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity. To improve an understanding of molecular causes of disease a transgenic mouse model was investigated where targeted expression of the serine threonine kinase c-Raf to respiratory epithelium induced initially dysplasia and subsequently adenocarcinomas. This enables dissection of genetic events associated with precancerous and cancerous lesions.

    By laser microdissection cancer cell populations were harvested and subjected to whole genome expression analyses. Overall 473 and 541 genes were significantly regulated, when cancer versus transgenic and non-transgenic cells were compared, giving rise to three distinct and one common regulatory gene network. At advanced stages of tumor growth predominately repression of gene expression was observed, but genes previously shown to be up-regulated in dysplasia were also up-regulated in solid tumors. Regulation of developmental programs as well as epithelial mesenchymal and mesenchymal endothelial transition was a hall mark of adenocarcinomas. Additionally, genes coding for cell adhesion, i.e. the integrins and the tight and gap junction proteins were repressed, whereas ligands for receptor tyrosine kinase such as epi- and amphiregulin were up-regulated. Notably, Vegfr- 2 and its ligand Vegfd, as well as Notch and Wnt signalling cascades were regulated as were glycosylases that influence cellular recognition. Other regulated signalling molecules included guanine exchange factors that play a role in an activation of the MAP kinases while several tumor suppressors i.e. Mcc, Hey1, Fat3, Armcx1 and Reck were significantly repressed. Finally, probable molecular switches forcing dysplastic cells into malignantly transformed cells could be identified.

    This study provides insight into molecular pertubations allowing dysplasia to progress further to adenocarcinoma induced by exaggerted c-Raf kinase activity.

    PloS one 2009;4;10;e7315

  • Raf-1 addiction in Ras-induced skin carcinogenesis.

    Ehrenreiter K, Kern F, Velamoor V, Meissl K, Galabova-Kovacs G, Sibilia M and Baccarini M

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    Ras activation is common to many human cancers and promotes cell proliferation and survival by initiating multiple signaling cascades. Accordingly, Ras-transformed cells are generally considered too resourceful to become addicted to a single effector. In contrast to this tenet, we now demonstrate an absolute, cell autonomous requirement for Raf-1 in the development and maintenance of Ras-induced skin epidermis tumors. Mechanistically, Raf-1 functions as an endogenous inhibitor dimming the activity of the Rho-dependent kinase Rok-alpha in the context of a Ras-induced Raf-1:Rok-alpha complex. Raf-1-induced Rok-alpha inhibition allows the phosphorylation of STAT3 and Myc expression and promotes dedifferentiation in Ras-induced tumors. These data link the Raf-1:Rok-alpha complex to STAT3/Myc activation and delineate a pathway crucial for cell fate decision in Ras-induced tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: P 19530-B09

    Cancer cell 2009;16;2;149-60

  • Molecular characterization of lung dysplasia induced by c-Raf-1.

    Rohrbeck A, Müller VS and Borlak J

    Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

    Background: Lung cancer is a multistage process with poor prognosis and high morbidity. Importantly, the genetics of dysplasia, a facultative cancer, at the edge of malignant transformation is unknown.

    We employed laser microdissection to harvest c-Raf1- induced dysplastic as opposed to transgenic but otherwise morphologically unaltered epithelium and compared findings to non-transgenic lung. We then employed microarrays to search genome wide for gene regulatory networks. A total of 120 and 287 genes were significantly regulated, respectively. Dysplasia was exclusive associated with up-regulation of genes coding for cell growth and proliferation, cell-to-cell signalling and interaction, lipid metabolism, development, and cancer. Likewise, when dysplasia was compared with non-transgenic cells up-regulation of cancer associated genes, tight junction proteins, xenobiotic defence and developmental regulators was observed. Further, in a comparison of the data sets of dysplasia vs transgenic and dysplasia vs non-transgenic 114 genes were regulated in common. We additionally confirmed regulation of some genes by immunohistochemistry and therefore demonstrate good concordance between gene regulation and coded protein.

    Conclusion: Our study identified transcriptional networks at successive stages of tumor-development, i.e. from histological unaltered but transgenic lungs to nuclear atypia. Our SP-C/c-raf transgenic mouse model revealed interesting and novel candidate genes and pathways that provide clues on the mechanism forcing respiratory epithelium into dysplasia and subsequently cancer, some of which might also be useful in the molecular imaging and flagging of early stages of disease.

    PloS one 2009;4;5;e5637

  • Integrated modulation of phorbol ester-induced Raf activation in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Han S and Meier KE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6534, United States.

    The EL4 murine lymphoma cell line exists in variant phenotypes that differ with respect to responses to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA1). Previous work showed that "PMA-sensitive" cells, characterized by a high magnitude of PMA-induced Erk activation, express RasGRP, a phorbol ester receptor that directly activates Ras. In "PMA-resistant" and "intermediate" EL4 cell lines, PMA induces Erk activation to lesser extents, but with a greater response in intermediate cells. In the current study, these cell lines were used to examine mechanisms of Raf-1 modulation. Phospho-specific antibodies were utilized to define patterns and kinetics of Raf-1 phosphorylation on several sites. Further studies showed that Akt is constitutively activated to a greater extent in PMA-resistant than in PMA-sensitive cells, and also to a greater extent in resistant than intermediate cells. Akt negatively regulates Raf-1 activation (Ser259), partially explaining the difference between resistant and intermediate cells. Erk activation exerts negative feedback on Raf-1 (Ser289/296/301), thus resulting in earlier termination of the signal in cells with a higher level of Erk activation. RKIP, a Raf inhibitory protein, is expressed at higher levels in resistant cells than in sensitive or intermediate cells. Knockdown of RKIP increases Erk activation and also negative feedback. In conclusion, this study delineates Raf-1 phosphorylation events occurring in response to PMA in cell lines with different extents of Erk activation. Variations in the levels of expression and activation of multiple signaling proteins work in an integrated fashion to modulate the extent and duration of Erk activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA094144-01, R01 CA094144-01A2, R01 CA094144-02, R01 CA094144-03, R01 CA094144-04, R01 CA094144-05

    Cellular signalling 2009;21;5;793-800

  • Regulation of growth and survival of activated T cells by cell-transducing inhibitors of Ras.

    Malik NM, Gilroy DW and Kabouridis PS

    Biochemical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom.

    We describe the development of cell-penetrating inhibitors of Ras and study their ability to inhibit T cell activation. The inhibitors transduced T cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner and interacted with endogenous Ras. Anti-CD3/CD28-activated cells when treated with the inhibitors, exhibited a notable reduction in cell size, diminished proliferative capacity, and were more prone to apoptosis. Similarly, lymphocytes activated by antigen in vivo, exhibited accelerated apoptosis when treated with the inhibitors ex vivo. Our data reveal a pro-survival role for Ras in activated primary T cells and describe a new methodology for regulating its activity.

    Funded by: Arthritis Research UK: 16018; Wellcome Trust: 087520

    FEBS letters 2009;583;1;61-9

  • Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is required for growth of RAF driven non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Becker M, Korn C, Sienerth AR, Voswinckel R, Luetkenhaus K, Ceteci F and Rapp UR

    Bayerisches Krebsforschungszentrum, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Background: We have previously described a RAF oncogene driven transgenic mouse model for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we examine whether tumor initiation and growth requires the stem cell self-renewal factor Bmi1.

    In order to evaluate Bmi1 function in NSCLC two founder lines that differ in incidence and latency of tumor formation were compared. Ablation of Bmi1 expression in both lines had a dramatically decreased tumor growth. As the line with shorter latency matched the life span of Bmi1 knock out mice, these mice were chosen for further study. The absence of Bmi1 did not decrease the number of tumor initiation in these mice as only the size and not the number of tumors decreased. Reduction in tumor growth resulted from an increase in cell death and decrease in cell cycle progression that corresponded with up-regulation of the p16(INK4a) and p19(ARF).

    Significance: The data identifies Bmi1 as an important factor for expansion but not initiation of RAF driven NSCLC.

    PloS one 2009;4;1;e4230

  • Role of phosphatidic acid in the coupling of the ERK cascade.

    Kraft CA, Garrido JL, Fluharty E, Leiva-Vega L and Romero G

    Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

    The production of phosphatidic acid plays a crucial role in the activation of the ERK cascade. This role was linked to the binding of phosphatidate to a specific polybasic site within the kinase domain of Raf-1. Here we show that phosphatidate promotes ERK phosphorylation in intact cells but does not activate Raf in vitro. The kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) contains a sequence homologous to the phosphatidate binding site of Raf-1. Direct binding of phosphatidate to synthetic peptides derived from the sequences of the binding domains of Raf-1 and KSR was demonstrated by spectroscopic techniques. The specificity of these interactions was confirmed using synthetic lipids and mutated peptides in which the core of the phosphatidic acid binding domain was disrupted. Insulin and exogenous dioleoyl phosphatidate induced a rapid translocation of a mouse KSR1-EGFP construct to the plasma membrane of HIRcB cells. Mutation of two arginines located in the core of the putative phosphatidate binding site abolished dioleoyl phosphatidate- and insulin-induced translocation of KSR1. Overexpression of the mutant KSR1 in HIRcB cells inhibited insulin-dependent MEK and ERK phosphorylation. The addition of dioleoyl phosphatidate or insulin increased the co-localization of KSR1 and H-Ras and promoted the formation of plasma membrane patches enriched in both proteins and phosphatidic acid. These results, in conjunction with our previous work, suggest the formation of phosphatidate-enriched membrane microdomains that contain all components of the ERK cascade. We propose that these domains act as molecular scaffolds in the coupling of signaling events.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK-54782; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32-GM-54813

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;52;36636-45

  • PAK1 is a novel MEK-independent raf target controlling expression of the IAP survivin in M-CSF-mediated osteoclast survival.

    Bradley EW, Ruan MM and Oursler MJ

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    As activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is a critical component of M-CSF-promoted osteoclast survival, determining specific mechanism by which M-CSF activates this signal transduction pathway is paramount towards advancing treatment of pathological conditions resulting in increased bone turnover. The p21 activated kinase PAK1 modulates activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by either directly activating Raf or priming MEK for activation by Raf. Therefore a role for PAK1 in M-CSF-mediated activation of the MEK/ERK pathway controlling osteoclast survival was assessed. Here we show that PAK1 is activated by M-CSF in a Ras-dependent mechanism that promotes osteoclast survival. Surprisingly, PAK1 did not modulate Raf activation or Raf-mediated MEK activation. M-CSF mediated activation of Raf was required for PAK1 activation and osteoclast survival promoted by PAK1. This survival response was MEK-independent as expression of constitutively active MEK did not rescue osteoclasts from apoptosis induced by blocking PAK1 function. Functionally, PAK1 promoted osteoclast survival by modulating expression of the IAP family member Survivin. M-CSF therefore functions to promote PAK1 activation as a novel MEK-independent Raf target to control Survivin-mediated osteoclast survival.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE14680, R01 DE014680

    Journal of cellular physiology 2008;217;3;752-8

  • Mouse and human phenotypes indicate a critical conserved role for ERK2 signaling in neural crest development.

    Newbern J, Zhong J, Wickramasinghe RS, Li X, Wu Y, Samuels I, Cherosky N, Karlo JC, O'Loughlin B, Wikenheiser J, Gargesha M, Doughman YQ, Charron J, Ginty DD, Watanabe M, Saitta SC, Snider WD and Landreth GE

    Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Disrupted ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) MAPK signaling has been associated with several developmental syndromes in humans; however, mutations in ERK1 or ERK2 have not been described. We demonstrate haplo-insufficient ERK2 expression in patients with a novel approximately 1 Mb micro-deletion in distal 22q11.2, a region that includes ERK2. These patients exhibit conotruncal and craniofacial anomalies that arise from perturbation of neural crest development and exhibit defects comparable to the DiGeorge syndrome spectrum. Remarkably, these defects are replicated in mice by conditional inactivation of ERK2 in the developing neural crest. Inactivation of upstream elements of the ERK cascade (B-Raf and C-Raf, MEK1 and MEK2) or a downstream effector, the transcription factor serum response factor resulted in analogous developmental defects. Our findings demonstrate that mammalian neural crest development is critically dependent on a RAF/MEK/ERK/serum response factor signaling pathway and suggest that the craniofacial and cardiac outflow tract defects observed in patients with a distal 22q11.2 micro-deletion are explained by deficiencies in neural crest autonomous ERK2 signaling.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL074731, HL080637, P50 HL074731, R21 HL080637; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH074241, F31-MH074241; NINDS NIH HHS: F32 NS061591, NS031768, NS34814, R01 NS031768, R01 NS034814, R37 NS034814

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;44;17115-20

  • TNFR1 promotes tumor necrosis factor-mediated mouse colon epithelial cell survival through RAF activation of NF-kappaB.

    Edelblum KL, Goettel JA, Koyama T, McElroy SJ, Yan F and Polk DB

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0696, USA.

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; however, the exact role of TNF signaling in the colon epithelium remains unclear. We demonstrate that TNF activation of TNF receptor (R)1 stimulates both pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in the colon epithelium; however, TNFR1 protects against colon epithelial cell apoptosis following TNF exposure. To investigate anti-apoptotic signaling pathways downstream of TNFR1, we generated an intestinal epithelium-specific Raf knock-out mouse and identified Raf kinase as a key regulator of colon epithelial cell survival in response to TNF. Surprisingly, Raf promotes NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation, independent of MEK signaling, to support cell survival. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel pathway in which Raf promotes colon epithelial cell survival through NF-kappaB downstream of TNFR1 activation. Thus, further understanding of colon epithelial cell-specific TNFR signaling may result in the identification of new targets for inflammatory bowel disease treatment and define novel mediators of colitis-associated cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA68485; NEI NIH HHS: EY08126; NICHD NIH HHS: HD15052; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20593, DK56008, DK58404, DK59637, DK66176; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32GM008554

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;43;29485-94

  • CRAF autophosphorylation of serine 621 is required to prevent its proteasome-mediated degradation.

    Noble C, Mercer K, Hussain J, Carragher L, Giblett S, Hayward R, Patterson C, Marais R and Pritchard CA

    Department of Biochemistry, Henry Wellcome Building, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.

    The CRAF protein kinase regulates proliferative, differentiation, and survival signals from activated RAS proteins to downstream effectors, most often by inducing MEK/ERK activation. A well-established model of CRAF regulation involves RAS-mediated translocation of CRAF to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by a series of events including phosphorylation. Here we have discovered a new mode of regulation that occurs prior to this step. By creating a kinase-defective version of CRAF in mice or by use of the RAF inhibitor sorafenib, we show that CRAF must first undergo autophosphorylation of serine 621 (S621). Autophosphorylation occurs in cis, does not involve MEK/ERK activation, and is essential to ensure the correct folding and stability of the protein. In the absence of S621 phosphorylation, CRAF is degraded by the proteasome by mechanisms that do not uniquely rely on the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK: A6969

    Molecular cell 2008;31;6;862-72

  • Raf protects against colitis by promoting mouse colon epithelial cell survival through NF-kappaB.

    Edelblum KL, Washington MK, Koyama T, Robine S, Baccarini M and Polk DB

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    Raf-1 kinase is a key regulator of a number of cellular processes, which promote the maintenance of a healthy colon epithelium. This study addresses the role of Raf in epithelial cell survival in response to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced injury and inflammation.

    Methods: Inducible intestinal epithelium-specific Raf knockout mice were generated and subjected to acute colitis followed by a short recovery period. Colon sections were analyzed by in situ oligo ligation or immunostaining for Ki67, phospho-extracellular signal regulated kinase, and nuclear factor-kappaB p65. Western blot analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assays were performed on Raf small interfering RNA-transfected young adult mouse colon cells following DSS treatment.

    Results: We report that Raf protects against epithelial injury and inflammation and promotes recovery from acute DSS-induced colitis by both MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Raf induces novel cell survival responses through activating nuclear factor-kappaB in a MEK-independent manner.

    Conclusions: These novel findings indicate a protective role for Raf in colon epithelium following ulcerative damage through inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting proliferation with important implications for responses such as inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA68485; NEI NIH HHS: EY08126; NICHD NIH HHS: HD15052; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20593, DK56008, DK58404, DK59637, DK66176, P30 DK058404, P30 DK058404-06, R01 DK054993, R01 DK054993-05, R01 DK056008, R01 DK056008-09, R01 DK066176, R01 DK066176-04; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32GM008554

    Gastroenterology 2008;135;2;539-51

  • C-RAF activation promotes BAD poly-ubiquitylation and turn-over by the proteasome.

    Fueller J, Becker M, Sienerth AR, Fischer A, Hotz C and Galmiche A

    Institut für Medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung (MSZ), University of Würzburg, Versbacher Strasse 5, D-97078, Würzburg, Germany.

    BAD, a member of the BCL2 family, exhibits an original mode of regulation by phosphorylation. In the present report, we examine the role of the kinase C-RAF in this process. We show that the inducible activation of C-RAF promotes the rapid phosphorylation of BAD on Serine-112 (Ser-75 in the human protein), through a cascade involving the kinases MEK and RSK. Our findings reveal a new aspect of the regulation of BAD protein and its control by the RAF pathway: we find that C-RAF activation promotes BAD poly-ubiquitylation in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion, and increases the turn-over of this protein through proteasomal degradation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;370;4;552-6

  • Isoform-specific interaction of C-RAF with mitochondria.

    Galmiche A, Fueller J, Santel A, Krohne G, Wittig I, Doye A, Rolando M, Flatau G, Lemichez E and Rapp UR

    Institut für Medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. antoine.galmiche@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de

    The proteins of the RAF family (A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF) are serine/threonine kinases that play important roles in development, mature cell regulation, and cancer. Although it is widely held that their localization on membranes is an important aspect of their function, there are few data that address this aspect of their mode of action. Here, we report that each member of the RAF family exhibits a specific distribution at the level of cellular membranes and that C-RAF is the only isoform that directly targets mitochondria. We found that the RAF kinases exhibit intrinsic differences in terms of mitochondrial affinity and that C-RAF is the only isoform that binds this organelle efficiently. This affinity is conferred by the C-RAF amino-terminal domain and does not depend on the presence of RAS GTPases on the surface of mitochondria. Finally, we analyzed the consequences of C-RAF activation on mitochondria and observed that this event dramatically changes their morphology and their subcellular distribution. Our observations indicate that: (i) RAF kinases exhibit different localizations at the level of cellular membranes; (ii) C-RAF is the only isoform that directly binds mitochondria; and (iii) through its functional coupling with MEK, C-RAF regulates the shape and the cellular distribution of mitochondria.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;21;14857-66

  • A small molecule disruptor of Rb/Raf-1 interaction inhibits cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice.

    Kinkade R, Dasgupta P, Carie A, Pernazza D, Carless M, Pillai S, Lawrence N, Sebti SM and Chellappan S

    Drug Discovery Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.

    Although it is well established that cyclin-dependent kinases phosphorylate and inactivate Rb, the Raf-1 kinase physically interacts with Rb and initiates the phosphorylation cascade early in the cell cycle. We have identified an orally active small molecule, Rb/Raf-1 disruptor 251 (RRD-251), that potently and selectively disrupts the Rb/Raf-1 but not Rb/E2F, Rb/prohibitin, Rb/cyclin E, and Rb/HDAC binding. The selective inhibition of Rb/Raf-1 binding suppressed the ability of Rb to recruit Raf-1 to proliferative promoters and inhibited E2F1-dependent transcriptional activity. RRD-251 inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cells and knockdown of Rb with short hairpin RNA or forced expression of E2F1 rescued cells from RRD-251-mediated growth arrest. P.o. treatment of mice resulted in significant tumor growth suppression only in tumors with functional Rb, and this was accompanied by inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of proliferation, decreased phosphorylated Rb levels, and inhibition of Rb/Raf-1 but not Rb/E2F1 binding in vivo. Thus, selective targeting of Rb/Raf-1 interaction seems to be a promising approach for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA118210, CA63136, P01 CA118210, P01 CA118210-03, R01 CA063136

    Cancer research 2008;68;10;3810-8

  • Insulin stimulates primary beta-cell proliferation via Raf-1 kinase.

    Beith JL, Alejandro EU and Johnson JD

    Laboratory of Molecular Signalling in Diabetes, Diabetes Research Group, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3.

    A relative decrease in beta-cell mass is key in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and in the failure of transplanted islet grafts. It is now clear that beta-cell duplication plays a dominant role in the regulation of adult beta-cell mass. Therefore, knowledge of the endogenous regulators of beta-cell replication is critical for understanding the physiological control of beta-cell mass and for harnessing this process therapeutically. We have shown that concentrations of insulin known to exist in vivo act directly on beta-cells to promote survival. Whether insulin stimulates adult beta-cell proliferation remains unclear. We tested this hypothesis using dispersed primary mouse islet cells double labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and insulin antisera. Treating cells with 200-pm insulin significantly increased proliferation from a baseline rate of 0.15% per day. Elevating glucose from 5-15 mm did not significantly increase beta-cell replication. beta-Cell proliferation was inhibited by somatostatin as well as inhibitors of insulin signaling. Interestingly, inhibiting Raf-1 kinase blocked proliferation stimulated by low, but not high (superphysiological), insulin doses. Insulin-stimulated mouse insulinoma cell proliferation was dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Raf-1/MAPK kinase pathways. Overexpression of Raf-1 was sufficient to increase proliferation in the absence of insulin, whereas a dominant-negative Raf-1 reduced proliferation in the presence of 200-pm insulin. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that insulin, at levels that have been measured in vivo, can directly stimulate beta-cell proliferation and that Raf-1 kinase is involved in this process. These findings have significant implications for the understanding of the regulation of beta-cell mass in both the hyperinsulinemic and insulin-deficient states that occur in the various forms of diabetes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: F31 DK079346-02, F31DK079346

    Endocrinology 2008;149;5;2251-60

  • Survival signaling by C-RAF: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ are critical targets.

    Kuznetsov AV, Smigelskaite J, Doblander C, Janakiraman M, Hermann M, Wurm M, Scheidl SF, Sucher R, Deutschmann A and Troppmair J

    Daniel Swarovski Research Laboratory, Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, Innrain 66, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

    Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. Here we provide evidence for the first time that RAF controls cell survival by maintaining permissive levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+). Interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal from 32D cells resulted in ROS production, which was suppressed by activated C-RAF. Oncogenic C-RAF decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells following treatment with staurosporine or the oxidative stress-inducing agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, it was also the case that in parental 32D cells growing in the presence of IL-3, inhibition of RAF signaling resulted in elevated mitochondrial ROS and Ca(2+) levels. Cell death is preceded by a ROS-dependent increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+), which was absent from cells expressing transforming C-RAF. Prevention of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload after IL-3 deprivation increased cell viability. MEK was essential for the mitochondrial effects of RAF. In summary, our data show that survival control by C-RAF involves controlling ROS production, which otherwise perturbs mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;7;2304-13

  • Inhibition of Raf-1 alters multiple downstream pathways to induce pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis.

    Alejandro EU and Johnson JD

    Laboratory of Molecular Signaling in Diabetes, Diabetes Research Group, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

    The serine threonine kinase Raf-1 plays a protective role in many cell types, but its function in pancreatic beta-cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether primary beta-cells possess Raf-1 and tested the hypothesis that Raf-1 is critical for beta-cell survival. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence, we identified Raf-1 in human islets, mouse islets, and in the MIN6 beta-cell line. Blocking Raf-1 activity using a specific Raf-1 inhibitor or dominant-negative Raf-1 mutants led to a time- and dose-dependent increase in cell death, assessed by real-time imaging of propidium iodide incorporation, TUNEL, PCR-enhanced DNA laddering, and Caspase-3 cleavage. Although the rapid increase in apoptotic cell death was associated with decreased Erk phosphorylation, studies with two Mek inhibitors suggested that the classical Erk-dependent pathway could explain only part of the cell death observed after inhibition of Raf-1. An alternative Erk-independent pathway downstream of Raf-1 kinase involving the pro-apoptotic protein Bad has recently been characterized in other tissues. Inhibiting Raf-1 in beta-cells led to a striking loss of Bad phosphorylation at serine 112 and an increase in the protein levels of both Bad and Bax. Together, our data strongly suggest that Raf-1 signaling plays an important role regulating beta-cell survival, via both Erk-dependent and Bad-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, acutely inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Akt had more modest effects on beta-cell death. These studies identify Raf-1 as a critical anti-apoptotic kinase in pancreatic beta-cells and contribute to our understanding of survival signaling in this cell type.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: F31 DK079346, F31 DK079346-01, F31DK079346

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;4;2407-17

  • A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

    Provot S, Nachtrab G, Paruch J, Chen AP, Silva A and Kronenberg HM

    Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Medical School, Endocrine Unit, 50 Blossom Street, Thier 1101, Boston, MA 02114-2696, USA.

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone-PTHrP receptor increase chondrocyte proliferation and delay chondrocyte maturation in endochondral bone development at least partly through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Because data suggest that the ability of cAMP to stimulate cell proliferation involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase B-Raf, we hypothesized that B-Raf might mediate the proliferative action of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Though B-Raf is expressed in proliferative chondrocytes, its conditional removal from cartilage did not affect chondrocyte proliferation and maturation or PTHrP-induced chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP-delayed maturation. Similar results were obtained by conditionally removing B-Raf from osteoblasts. Because A-raf and B-raf are expressed similarly in cartilage, we speculated that they may fulfill redundant functions in this tissue. Surprisingly, mice with chondrocytes deficient in both A-Raf and B-Raf exhibited normal endochondral bone development. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected primarily in hypertrophic chondrocytes, where C-raf is expressed, and the suppression of ERK activation in these cells by PTHrP or a MEK inhibitor coincided with a delay in chondrocyte maturation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B-Raf and A-Raf are dispensable for endochondral bone development and they indicate that the main role of ERK in cartilage is to stimulate not cell proliferation, but rather chondrocyte maturation.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR046238, R01 AR046238; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK56246, P01 DK056246

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;1;344-57

  • Rafs constitute a nodal point in the regulation of embryonic endothelial progenitor cell growth and differentiation.

    Bidzhekov K, Hautmann M, Semisch M, Weber C, Engelmann B and Hatzopoulos AK

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology and Tumor Genetics, Munich, Germany.

    Mouse embryonic endothelial progenitor cells (eEPCs) acquire a mature phenotype after treatment with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suggesting an involvement of Raf serine/threonine kinases in the differentiation process. To test this idea, we investigated the role of B-Raf and C-Raf in proliferation and differentiation of eEPCs by expressing fusion proteins consisting of the kinase domains from Raf molecules and the hormone binding site of the estrogen receptor (ER), or its variant, the tamoxifen receptor. Our findings show that both B- and C-Raf kinase domains, when lacking adjacent regulatory parts, are equally effective in inducing eEPC differentiation. In contrast, the C-Raf kinase domain is a more potent stimulator of eEPC proliferation than B-Raf. In a complimentary approach, we used siRNA silencing to knockdown endogenously expressed B-Raf and C-Raf in eEPCs. In this experimental setting, we found that eEPCs lacking B-Raf failed to differentiate, whereas loss-of C-Raf function primarily slowed cell growth without impairing cAMP-induced differentiation. These findings were further corroborated in B-Raf null eEPCs, isolated from the corresponding knockout embryos, which failed to differentiate in vitro. Thus, gain- and loss-of-function experiments point to distinct roles of B-Raf and C-Raf in regulating growth and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells, which may harbour therapeutic implications.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL083958

    Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 2007;11;6;1395-407

  • Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG.

    Feng L, Xie X, Ding Q, Luo X, He J, Fan F, Liu W, Wang Z and Chen Y

    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi). RKTG is a seven-transmembrane protein localized at the Golgi apparatus. RKTG expression inhibits EGF-stimulated ERK and RSK phosphorylation, blocks NGF-mediated PC12 cell differentiation, and antagonizes Ras- and Raf-1-stimulated Elk-1 transactivation. Through interaction with Raf-1, RKTG changes the localization of Raf-1 from cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus, blocks EGF-stimulated Raf-1 membrane translocation, and reduces the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras and MEK1. In RKTG-null mice, the basal ERK phosphorylation level is increased in the brain and liver. In RKTG-deleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts, EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation is enhanced. Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007;104;36;14348-53

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Grb10 and active Raf-1 kinase promote Bad-dependent cell survival.

    Kebache S, Ash J, Annis MG, Hagan J, Huber M, Hassard J, Stewart CL, Whiteway M and Nantel A

    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council, Montreal (PQ), Canada.

    The proapoptotic protein Bad is a key player in cell survival decisions, and is regulated post-translationally by several signaling networks. We expressed Bad in mouse embryonic fibroblasts to sensitize them to apoptosis, and tested cell lines derived from knock-out mice to establish the significance of the interaction between the adaptor protein Grb10 and the Raf-1 protein kinase in anti-apoptotic signaling pathways targeting Bad. When compared with wild-type cells, both Grb10 and Raf-1-deficient cells exhibit greatly enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis in response to Bad expression. Structure-function analysis demonstrates that, in this cellular model, the SH2, proline-rich, and pleckstrin homology domains of Grb10, as well as its Akt phosphorylation site and consequent binding by 14-3-3, are all necessary for its anti-apoptotic functions. As for Raf-1, its kinase activity, its ability to be phosphorylated by Src on Tyr-340/341 and the binding of its Ras-associated domain to the Grb10 SH2 domain are all necessary to promote cell survival. Silencing the expression of either Grb10 or Raf-1 by small interfering RNAs as well as mutagenesis of specific serine residues on Bad, coupled with signaling inhibitor studies, all indicate that Raf-1 and Grb10 are required for the ability of both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MAP kinase pathways to modulate the phosphorylation and inactivation of Bad. Because total Raf-1, ERK, and Akt kinase activities are not impaired in the absence of Grb10, we propose that this adapter protein creates a subpopulation of Raf-1 with specific anti-apoptotic activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;30;21873-83

  • In vivo functions of mitogen-activated protein kinases: conclusions from knock-in and knock-out mice.

    Gerits N, Kostenko S and Moens U

    Department of Microbiology and Virology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. nancyg@fagmed.uit.no

    Multicellular organisms achieve intercellular communication by means of signalling molecules whose effect on the target cell is mediated by signal transduction pathways. Such pathways relay, amplify and integrate signals to elicit appropriate biological responses. Protein kinases form crucial intermediate components of numerous signalling pathways. One group of protein kinases, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) are kinases involved in signalling pathways that respond primarily to mitogens and stress stimuli. In vitro studies revealed that the MAP kinases are implicated in several cellular processes, including cell division, differentiation, cell survival/apoptosis, gene expression, motility and metabolism. As such, dysfunction of specific MAP kinases is associated with diseases such as cancer and immunological disorders. However, the genuine in vivo functions of many MAP kinases remain elusive. Genetically modified mouse models deficient in a specific MAP kinase or expressing a constitutive active or a dominant negative variant of a particular MAP kinase offer valuable tools for elucidating the biological role of these protein kinases. In this review, we focus on the current status of MAP kinase knock-in and knock-out mouse models and their phenotypes. Moreover, examples of the application of MAP kinase transgenic mice for validating therapeutic properties of specific MAP kinase inhibitors, and for investigating the role of MAP kinase in pathogen-host interactions will be discussed.

    Transgenic research 2007;16;3;281-314

  • Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo.

    Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen AP, Baccarini M and Snider WD

    Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7250, USA.

    To define the role of the Raf serine/threonine kinases in nervous system development, we conditionally targeted B-Raf and C-Raf, two of the three known mammalian Raf homologs, using a mouse line expressing Cre recombinase driven by a nestin promoter. Targeting of B-Raf, but not C-Raf, markedly attenuated baseline phosphorylation of Erk in neural tissues and led to growth retardation. Conditional elimination of B-Raf in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons did not interfere with survival, but instead caused marked reduction in expression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor Ret at postnatal stages, associated with a profound reduction in levels of transcription factor CBF-beta. Elimination of both alleles of Braf, which encodes B-Raf, and one allele of Raf1, which encodes C-Raf, affected DRG neuron maturation as well as proprioceptive axon projection toward the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Finally, conditional elimination of all Braf and Raf1 alleles strongly reduced neurotrophin-dependent axon growth in vitro as well as cutaneous axon terminal arborization in vivo. We conclude that Raf function is crucial for several aspects of DRG neuron development, including differentiation and axon growth.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: P 18712; NINDS NIH HHS: NS45892; PHS HHS: R01N0S31768

    Nature neuroscience 2007;10;5;598-607

  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 sensitivity is altered in Abl-Myc- and Raf-Myc-induced mouse pre-B-cell tumors.

    Letterio J, Rudikoff E, Voong N and Bauer SR

    Case Western Reserve University, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, The Ireland Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to transformation of early B-lineage precursors is an important step leading to rational design of new treatments for precursor (pre)-B-cell leukemia. We used normal mouse pre-B cells to determine if and how transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 affects these precursors to the B-cell lineage and whether transformed pre-B cells respond to TGF-beta1. We found that normal pre-B cells proliferating in the presence of interleukin (IL)-7 enter cell-cycle arrest after exposure to TGF-beta1. However, clonally related IL-7-independent tumors induced by oncogenes abl + myc or raf + myc have reduced sensitivity to TGF-beta1. In contrast, tumor cells induced by myc alone remain sensitive to TGF-beta1 growth suppression. These results suggest that lesions in different molecular signaling pathways can lead to loss of TGF-beta1 sensitivity in a single cell type. The approach of using normal pre-B-cell lines and transformation by overexpression of different oncogenes provides a system to compare and contrast molecular pathways that lead to full malignancy.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 2006;24;12;2611-7

  • Activation of Ras up-regulates pro-apoptotic BNIP3 in nitric oxide-induced cell death.

    An HJ, Maeng O, Kang KH, Lee JO, Kim YS, Paik SG and Lee H

    Department of Biology, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthases causes nitration and nitrosylation of cellular factors. We have shown previously that endogenously produced or exogenously added NO induces expression of BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3), leading to death of macrophages (Yook, Y.-H., Kang, K.-H., Maeng, O., Kim, T.-R., Lee, J.-O., Kang, K.-i., Kim, Y.-S., Paik, S.-G., and Lee, H. (2004) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 321, 298-305). We now provide evidence that Ras mediates NO-induced BNIP3 expression via the MEK/ERK/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 pathway. (a) ras-Q61L, a constitutively active form of Ras, up-regulated BNIP3 protein expression by enhancing Bnip3 promoter activity, and ras-S17N, a dominant-negative form, and ras-C118S, an S-nitrosylation mutant, blocked NO-induced BNIP3 expression, suggesting that Ras acts downstream of NO and that NO activates Ras by nitrosylation. (b) U0126, a specific MEK inhibitor, completely abolished BNIP3 expression and the stimulation of promoter activity by NO and Ras, whereas 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, SB203580, and wortmannin, specific inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase, p38 MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, respectively, had no effect. Ras, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 were sequentially activated by NO treatment of macrophages. (c) Mutation of the HIF-1-binding site (hypoxia-response element) in the Bnip3 promoter abolished BNIP3 induction, and HIF-1alpha was strongly induced by NO. (d) Transient expression of activated Ras promoted macrophage death, as did NO, and this Ras-mediated cell death was inhibited by silencing BNIP3 expression. These results suggest that NO-induced death of macrophages is mediated, at least in part, by BNIP3 induction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;45;33939-48

  • K-ras Asp12 mutant neither interacts with Raf, nor signals through Erk and is less tumorigenic than K-ras Val12.

    Céspedes MV, Sancho FJ, Guerrero S, Parreño M, Casanova I, Pavón MA, Marcuello E, Trias M, Cascante M, Capellà G and Mangues R

    Grup d'Oncogènesi i Antitumorals, Institut de Recerca Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP), Barcelona, Spain.

    Different mutant amino acids in the Ras proteins lead to distinct transforming capacities and different aggressiveness in human tumors. K-Ras Asp12 (K12D) is more prevalent in benign than in malignant human colorectal tumors, whereas K-Ras Val12 (K12V) associates with more advanced and metastatic carcinomas, higher recurrence and decreased survival. Here, we tested, in a nude mouse xenograft model, whether different human K-Ras oncogenes mutated at codon 12 to Val, Asp or Cys would confer NIH3T3 fibroblasts distinct oncogenic phenotypes. We studied tumor histology and growth, apoptotic and mitotic rates, activation of signal transduction pathways downstream of Ras and regulation of the cell cycle and apoptotic proteins in tumors derived from the implanted transformants. We found that the K12V oncogene induces a more aggressive tumorigenic phenotype than the K12D oncogene, whereas K12C does not induce tumors in this model. Thus, K12V mutant tumors proliferate about seven times faster, and have higher cellularity and mitotic rates than the K12D mutant tumors. A molecular analysis of the induced tumors shows that the K12V mutant protein interacts with Raf-1 and transduces signals mainly through the Erk pathway. Unexpectedly, in tumors induced by the K12D oncogene, the K-Ras mutant protein does not interact with Raf-1 nor activates the Erk canonical pathway. Instead, it transduces signals through the PI3K/Akt, JNK, p38 and FAK pathways. Finally, the higher growth rate of the K12V tumors associates with enhanced Rb phosphorylation, and PCNA and cyclin B upregulation, consistent with faster G1/S and G2/M transitions, without alteration of apoptotic regulation.

    Carcinogenesis 2006;27;11;2190-200

  • In melanoma, RAS mutations are accompanied by switching signaling from BRAF to CRAF and disrupted cyclic AMP signaling.

    Dumaz N, Hayward R, Martin J, Ogilvie L, Hedley D, Curtin JA, Bastian BC, Springer C and Marais R

    Signal Transduction Team, The Institute for Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Centre of Cell and Molecular Biology, London, United Kingdom.

    Melanocytes require the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways to maintain the fine balance between proliferation and differentiation. We have investigated how cross-talk between these pathways affects melanoma progression. We show that cAMP suppresses CRAF activity in melanocytes and that this is essential to suppress the oncogenic potential of CRAF in these cells. As a consequence, BRAF alone is responsible for signaling to MEK. However, when RAS is mutated in melanoma, the cells switch their signaling from BRAF to CRAF. This switch is accompanied by dysregulated cAMP signaling, a step that is necessary to allow CRAF to signal to MEK. Thus, a fundamental switch in RAF isoform usage occurs when RAS is mutated in melanoma, and this occurs in the context of disrupted cAMP signaling. These data have important implications for the development of therapeutic strategies to treat this life-threatening disease.

    Cancer research 2006;66;19;9483-91

  • Rheb inhibits C-raf activity and B-raf/C-raf heterodimerization.

    Karbowniczek M, Robertson GP and Henske EP

    Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.

    The Ras-Raf-MEK signaling cascade is critical for normal development and is activated in many forms of cancer. We have recently shown that B-Raf kinase interacts with and is inhibited by Rheb, the target of the GTPase-activating domain of the tuberous sclerosis complex 2 gene product tuberin. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that activation of Rheb is associated with decreased B-Raf and C-Raf phosphorylation at residues Ser-446 and Ser-338, respectively, concomitant with a decrease in the activities of both kinases and decreased heterodimerization of B-Raf and C-Raf. Importantly, the impact of Rheb on B-Raf/C-Raf heterodimerization and kinase activity are rapamycin-insensitive, indicating that they are independent of Rheb activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin-Raptor complex. In addition, we found that Rheb inhibits the association of B-Raf with H-Ras. Taken together, these results support a central role of Rheb in the regulation of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK signaling network.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 51052

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;35;25447-56

  • A balance between Raf-1 and Fas expression sets the pace of erythroid differentiation.

    Rubiolo C, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Beug H, Huber JC, Kolbus A and Baccarini M

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    Normal erythropoiesis critically depends on the balance between the renewal of precursor cells and their differentiation. If the renewal phase is shortened, the decrease in the precursor pool results in anemia; conversely, impaired differentiation increases the number of proliferating progenitors and the potential risk of leukemic transformation. Using gene ablation, we have discovered 2 self-sustaining signal transduction loops that antagonize each other and regulate erythroid progenitor proliferation and differentiation, respectively. We identify Raf-1 as the main activator of the MEK/ERK cascade and as the key molecule in maintaining progenitor proliferation. Differentiation, in contrast, is mediated by Fas via the activation of both the ASK1/JNK/p38 module and the caspase cascade. The point of convergence between the 2 cascades is activated ERK, which positively feeds back on the proliferation pathway by maintaining the expression of Raf-1, while inhibiting the expression of Fas and therefore differentiation. In turn, Fas, once expressed, antagonizes proliferation by exerting a negative feedback on ERK activation and Raf-1 expression. Simultaneously, Fas-mediated caspase activation precipitates differentiation. These results identify Raf-1 and Fas as the key molecules whose expression finely tunes erythropoiesis and the extent of ERK activation as the switch that tips the balance between them.

    Blood 2006;108;1;152-9

  • ERK and beyond: insights from B-Raf and Raf-1 conditional knockouts.

    Galabova-Kovacs G, Kolbus A, Matzen D, Meissl K, Piazzolla D, Rubiolo C, Steinitz K and Baccarini M

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    The Raf/MEK/ERK cascade is a highly conserved signal transduction module whose activation reportedly results in a plethora of physiological outcomes. Depending on the cell type or the stimulus used, the pathway has been implicated in proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. Their wide range of activities renders the component of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway prime candidates for molecule-targeted therapies, in particular, but not exclusively, in the context of cancer. Ras, Raf and MEK inhibitors have been developed, and some of them are in advanced clinical trials. Somewhat surprising in view of all this interest, our understanding of the fundamental biology of the ERK pathway in vivo is still scanty. Its investigation has been hampered by the fact that conventional targeting of many of these genes results in embryonic lethality. Recently, we and others have generated mouse strains that allow the conditional ablation of the genes coding for Raf-1, B-Raf and MEK-1. We are using these tools to identify the essential biological functions of these kinases, and to understand how the ERK pathway is wired in vivo. Here, we discuss some of the surprises yielded by the analysis of the role of B-Raf and Raf-1 and of their downstream effectors.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2006;5;14;1514-8

  • Macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-induced proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of macrophages requires Raf-1 phosphorylation to induce mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 expression.

    Sánchez-Tilló E, Comalada M, Farrera C, Valledor AF, Lloberas J and Celada A

    Macrophage Biology Group, Institute of Research in Biomedicine-University of Barcelona, Barcelona Science Park, Barcelona, Spain.

    Macrophages are key regulators of immune responses. In the absence of an activating signal, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages undergo proliferation in response to their specific growth factor, namely M-CSF. The addition of bacterial LPS results in macrophage growth arrest and their engagement in a proinflammatory response. Although participation of ERKs is required for both macrophage proliferation and activation, ERK phosphorylation follows a more delayed pattern in response to activating agents. In primary macrophages, mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a key regulator of the time course of MAPK activity. Here we showed that MKP-1 expression is dependent on Raf-1 activation. The time course of Raf-1 activation correlated with that of ERK-1/2. However, whereas ERK phosphorylation in response to M-CSF is Raf-1 dependent, in response to LPS, an alternative pathway directs the activation of these kinases. Inhibition of Raf-1 activity increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and growth arrest. In contrast, no effect was observed in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible NO synthase following LPS stimulation. The data reported here reveal new insights into how signaling determines opposing macrophage functions.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2006;176;11;6594-602

  • Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic development.

    Galabova-Kovacs G, Matzen D, Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Plyushch T, Chen AP, Silva A and Baccarini M

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Vienna Biocenter, Dr. Bohr Gasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    The kinases of the Raf family have been intensively studied as activators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) module in regulated and deregulated proliferation. Genetic evidence that Raf is required for ERK activation in vivo has been obtained in lower organisms, which express only one Raf kinase, but was hitherto lacking in mammals, which express more than one Raf kinase. Ablation of the two best studied Raf kinases, B-Raf and Raf-1, is lethal at midgestation in mice, hampering the detailed study of the essential functions of these proteins. Here, we have combined conventional and conditional gene ablation to show that B-Raf is essential for ERK activation and for vascular development in the placenta. B-Raf-deficient placentae show complete absence of phosphorylated ERK and strongly reduced HIF-1alpha and VEGF levels, whereas all these parameters are normal in Raf-1-deficient placentae. In addition, neither ERK phosphorylation nor development are affected in B-raf-deficient embryos that are born alive obtained by epiblast-restricted gene inactivation. The data demonstrate that B-Raf plays a nonredundant role in ERK activation during extraembyronic mammalian development in vivo.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;5;1325-30

  • Erbin inhibits RAF activation by disrupting the sur-8-Ras-Raf complex.

    Dai P, Xiong WC and Mei L

    Program of Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, 30912, USA.

    Erbin is a member of the LAP (leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and PDZ domain) family. It inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK in response to growth factors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Erbin regulates the Ras-Raf-MEK pathway. The N-terminal LRR domain was necessary and sufficient to inhibit neuregulin-activated expression of epsilon416-Luc, a reporter of ERK activation. On the other hand, Erbin had no effect on Ras activation, but it attenuated neuregulin-induced Raf activation, suggesting that Erbin may regulate Raf activation by Ras. Via the LRR domain, Erbin interacts with Sur-8, a scaffold protein necessary for the Ras-Raf complex. Expression of Erbin attenuated the interaction of Sur-8 with active Ras and Raf. Moreover, Erbin-shRNA, which suppressed Erbin expression at mRNA and protein levels, increased the interaction of Sur-8 with Ras and Raf, ERK activation, and neuregulin-induced expression of endogenous acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit mRNA. These results demonstrate a regulatory role of Erbin in the Ras-Raf-MEK pathway, suggesting that Erbin may inhibit ERK activation by disrupting the Sur-8-Ras/Raf interaction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;2;927-33

  • Raf-1 sets the threshold of Fas sensitivity by modulating Rok-alpha signaling.

    Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Kucerova L, Rubiolo C and Baccarini M

    Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Campus Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    Ablation of the Raf-1 protein causes fetal liver apoptosis, embryonic lethality, and selective hypersensitivity to Fas-induced cell death. Furthermore, Raf-1-deficient cells show defective migration as a result of the deregulation of the Rho effector kinase Rok-alpha. In this study, we show that the kinase-independent modulation of Rok-alpha signaling is also the basis of the antiapoptotic function of Raf-1. Fas activation stimulates the formation of Raf-1-Rok-alpha complexes, and Rok-alpha signaling is up-regulated in Raf-1-deficient cells. This leads to increased clustering and membrane expression of Fas, which is rescued both by kinase-dead Raf-1 and by interfering with Rok-alpha or its substrate ezrin. Increased Fas clustering and membrane expression are also evident in the livers of Raf-1-deficient embryos, and genetically reducing Fas expression counteracts fetal liver apoptosis, embryonic lethality, and the apoptotic defects of embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, Raf-1 has an essential function in regulating Fas expression and setting the threshold of Fas sensitivity during embryonic life.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;171;6;1013-22

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone induction of extracellular-signal regulated kinase is blocked by inhibition of calmodulin.

    Roberson MS, Bliss SP, Xie J, Navratil AM, Farmerie TA, Wolfe MW and Clay CM

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, T3-004d Veterinary Research Tower, Ithaca, New York 14853, usa. msr14@cornell.edu

    Our previous studies demonstrate that GnRH-induced ERK activation required influx of extracellular Ca2+ in alphaT3-1 and rat pituitary cells. In the present studies, we examined the hypothesis that calmodulin (Cam) plays a fundamental role in mediating the effects of Ca2+ on ERK activation. Cam inhibition using W7 was sufficient to block GnRH-induced reporter gene activity for the c-Fos, murine glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit, and MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-2 promoters, all shown to require ERK activation. Inhibition of Cam (using a dominant negative) was sufficient to block GnRH-induced ERK but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity activation. The Cam-dependent protein kinase (CamK) II inhibitor KN62 did not recapitulate these findings. GnRH-induced phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinase 1 and c-Raf kinase was blocked by Cam inhibition, whereas activity of phospholipase C was unaffected, suggesting that Ca2+/Cam modulation of the ERK cascade potentially at the level of c-Raf kinase. Enrichment of Cam-interacting proteins using a Cam agarose column revealed that c-Raf kinase forms a complex with Cam. Reconstitution studies reveal that recombinant c-Raf kinase can associate directly with Cam in a Ca2+-dependent manner and this interaction is reduced in vitro by addition of W7. Cam was localized in lipid rafts consistent with the formation of a Ca2+-sensitive signaling platform including the GnRH receptor and c-Raf kinase. These data support the conclusion that Cam may have a critical role as a Ca2+ sensor in specifically linking Ca2+ flux with ERK activation within the GnRH signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD34722; PHS HHS: F3244379

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2005;19;9;2412-23

  • A-Raf and Raf-1 work together to influence transient ERK phosphorylation and Gl/S cell cycle progression.

    Mercer K, Giblett S, Oakden A, Brown J, Marais R and Pritchard C

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Adrian Building, University Road, Leicester LEI 7RH, UK.

    The Raf/MEK/ERK (extracellular regulated kinase) signal transduction pathway controls the ability of cells to respond to proliferative, apoptotic, migratory and differentiation signals. We have investigated the combined contribution of A-Raf and Raf-1 isotypes to signalling through this pathway by generating mice with knockout mutations of both A-raf and raf-1 genes. Double knockout (DKO) mice have a more severe phenotype than single null mutations of either gene, dying in embryogenesis at E10.5. The DKO embryos show no changes in apoptosis, but staining for Ki67 indicates a generalized reduction in proliferation. DKO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit a delayed ability to enter S phase of the cell cycle. This is associated with a reduction in levels of transiently induced MEK and ERK phosphorylation and reduced expression of c-Fos and cyclin Dl. Levels of sustained ERK phosphorylation are not significantly altered. Thus, Raf-1 and A-Raf have a combined role in controlling physiological transient ERK activation and in maintenance of cell cycle progression at its usual rate.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Oncogene 2005;24;33;5207-17

  • p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association.

    Jin S, Zhuo Y, Guo W and Field J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Raf-1 protects cells from apoptosis, independently of its signals to MEK and ERK, by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds Bcl-2 and displaces BAD. However, the answer to the question of how Raf-1 is normally lured to the mitochondria and becomes activated remains elusive. p21-activated protein kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate Raf-1 at Ser-338 and Ser-339. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism through which Pak1 signals to BAD through a Raf-1-activated pathway. Upon phosphorylation by Pak1, Raf-1 translocates to mitochondria and phosphorylates BAD at Ser-112. Moreover, the mitochondrial translocation of Raf-1 and the interaction between Raf-1 and Bcl-2 are regulated by Raf-1 phosphorylation at Ser-338/Ser-339. Notably, we show that formation of a Raf-1-Bcl-2 complex coincides with loss of an interaction between Bcl-2 and BAD. These signals are specific for Pak1, because Src-activated Raf-1 only stimulates the MAP kinase cascade. Thus, our data identify the molecular connections of a Pak1-Raf-1-BAD pathway that is involved in cell survival signaling.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48241, R01 GM048241

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;26;24698-705

  • A novel isoform of Vinexin, Vinexin gamma, regulates Sox9 gene expression through activation of MAPK cascade in mouse fetal gonad.

    Matsuyama M, Mizusaki H, Shimono A, Mukai T, Okumura K, Abe K, Shimada K and Morohashi K

    Division of Sex Differentiation, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444-8787, Japan.

    Recent loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies have revealed that transcription factor Sox9 is required for testis formation by governing Sertoli cell differentiation, and thereafter regulating transcription of Sertoli marker genes. In the present study, we identified a novel isoform of Vinexin, which is expressed in somatic cells but not germ cells of sexually indifferent stages of fetal gonads. After the sex is determined, the expression continues in testicular Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemical analyses with a specific antibody to Vinexin indicated that Vinexin gamma is localized in the cytoplasm. Functional studies with C3H10T1/2 cells showed that Vinexin gamma acted as a scaffold protein to activate MEK and ERK through interaction with c-Raf and ERK. Ultimately, Sox9 transcription was induced by Vinexin gamma. This up-regulation of Sox9 expression disappeared when the cells were treated with a specific MEK inhibitor, U0126. To determine the role of Vinexin gamma during gonad formation, the gene was disrupted by targeted mutagenesis. The phenotype displayed by the mice indicated that ERK activation was decreased in the Vinexin gamma(-/-) XY gonads, and Sox9 expression was down-regulated. Thus, Vinexin gamma seems to be implicated in regulation of Sox9 gene expression by modulating MAPK cascade in mouse fetal gonads.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2005;10;5;421-34

  • Six post-implantation lethal knockouts of genes for lipophilic MAPK pathway proteins are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and trophoblast stem cells.

    Xie Y, Wang Y, Sun T, Wang F, Trostinskaia A, Puscheck E and Rappolee DA

    CS Mott Center for Human Growth and Development of Ob/Gyn, Wayne State University School of Medicine, East Hancock, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play an important role in controlling embryonic proliferation and differentiation. It has been demonstrated that sequential lipophilic signal transduction mediators that participate in the MAPK pathway are null post-implantation lethal. It is not clear why the lethality of these null mutants arises after implantation and not before. One hypothesis is that the gene product of these post-implantation lethal null mutants are not present before implantation in normal embryos and do not have function until after implantation. To test this hypothesis, we selected a set of lipophilic genes mediating MAPK signal transduction pathways whose null mutants result in early peri-implantation or placental lethality. These included FRS2alpha, GAB1, GRB2, SOS1, Raf-B, and Raf1. Products of these selected genes were detected and their locations and functions indicated by indirect immunocytochemistry and Western blotting for proteins and RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mRNA transcription. We report here that all six signal mediators are detected at the protein level in preimplantation mouse embryo, placental trophoblasts, and in cultured trophoblast stem cells (TSC). Proteins are all detected in E3.5 embryos at a time when the first known mitogenic intercellular communication has been documented. mRNA transcripts of two post-implantation null mutant genes are expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos and unfertilized eggs. These mRNA transcripts were detected as maternal mRNA in unfertilized eggs that could delay the lethality of null mutants. All of the proteins were detected in the cytoplasm or in the cell membrane. This study of spatial and temporal expression revealed that all of these six null mutants post-implantation genes in MAPK pathway are expressed and, where tested, phosphorylated/activated proteins are detected in the blastocyst. Studies on RNA expression using RT-PCR suggest that maternal RNA could play an important role in delaying the presence of the lethal phenotype of null mutations.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD40972A

    Molecular reproduction and development 2005;71;1;1-11

  • Cell signaling through the protein kinases cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase Cepsilon, and RAF-1 regulates amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope protein-induced syncytium formation.

    Wang W, Jobbagy Z, Bird TH, Eiden MV and Anderson WB

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) utilizes the PiT2 sodium-dependent phosphate transporter as its cell surface receptor to infect mammalian cells. The process of A-MuLV infection requires cleavage of the R peptide from the envelope protein. This occurs within virions thereby rendering them competent to fuse with target cells. Envelope proteins lacking the inhibitory R peptide (e.g. envelope (R-) proteins) induce viral envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion (syncytium). Here we have performed studies to determine if cell signaling through protein kinases is involved in the regulation of PiT2-mediated A-MuLV envelope (R-)-induced syncytium formation. Truncated A-MuLV retroviral envelope protein lacking the inhibitory R peptide (R-) was used to induce viral envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion. Signaling through cyclic AMP to activate PKA was found to inhibit envelope-induced cell-cell fusion, whereas treatment of cells with PKA inhibitors H89, KT5720, and PKA Catalpha siRNA all enhanced this cell fusion process. It was noted that activation of PKC, as well as overexpression of PKCepsilon, up-regulated A-MuLV envelope protein-induced cell-cell fusion, whereas exposure to PKC inhibitors and expression of a kinase-inactive dominant-negative mutant of PKCepsilon (K437R) inhibited syncytium formation. v-ras transformed NIH3T3 cells were highly susceptible to A-MuLV envelope-induced cell-cell fusion, whereas expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Ras (N17Ras) inhibited this cell fusion process. Importantly, activation of Raf-1 protein kinase also is required for A-MuLV envelope-induced syncytium formation. Expression of constitutively active BXB Raf supported, whereas expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Raf-1 (Raf301) blocked, A-MuLV-induced cell-cell fusion. These results indicate that specific cell signaling components are involved in regulating PiT2-mediated A-MuLV-induced cell-cell fusion. Selective pharmacological modulation of these signaling components may be an effective means of altering cell susceptibility to viral-mediated cytopathic effects.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;17;16772-83

  • Raf-1 regulates Rho signaling and cell migration.

    Ehrenreiter K, Piazzolla D, Velamoor V, Sobczak I, Small JV, Takeda J, Leung T and Baccarini M

    Department of Microbiology and Genetics, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University Departments at the Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    Raf kinases relay signals inducing proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The Raf-1 isoform has been extensively studied as the upstream kinase linking Ras activation to the MEK/ERK module. Recently, however, genetic experiments have shown that Raf-1 plays an essential role in counteracting apoptosis, and that it does so independently of its ability to activate MEK. By conditional gene ablation, we now show that Raf-1 is required for normal wound healing in vivo and for the migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Raf-1-deficient cells show a symmetric, contracted appearance, characterized by cortical actin bundles and by a disordered vimentin cytoskeleton. These defects are due to the hyperactivity and incorrect localization of the Rho-effector Rok-alpha to the plasma membrane. Raf-1 physically associates with Rok-alpha in wild-type (WT) cells, and reintroduction of either WT or kinase-dead Raf-1 in knockout fibroblasts rescues their defects in shape and migration. Thus, Raf-1 plays an essential, kinase-independent function as a spatial regulator of Rho downstream signaling during migration.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;168;6;955-64

  • Use of a recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain expressing C-Raf for protection against C-Raf induced lung adenoma in mice.

    Gentschev I, Fensterle J, Schmidt A, Potapenko T, Troppmair J, Goebel W and Rapp UR

    Institut für Medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung (MSZ), University of Wuerzburg, D-97078 Wuerzburg, Germany. ivaylo.gentschev@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de

    Background: Serine-threonine kinases of the Raf family (A-Raf, B-Raf, C-Raf) are central players in cellular signal transduction, and thus often causally involved in the development of cancer when mutated or over-expressed. Therefore these proteins are potential targets for immunotherapy and a possible basis for vaccine development against tumors. In this study we analyzed the functionality of a new live C-Raf vaccine based on an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain in two Raf dependent lung tumor mouse models.

    Methods: The antigen C-Raf has been fused to the C-terminal secretion signal of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin and expressed in secreted form by an attenuated aroA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain via the alpha-hemolysin secretion pathway. The effect of the immunization with this recombinant C-Raf strain on wild-type C57BL/6 or lung tumor bearing transgenic BxB mice was analyzed using western blot and FACS analysis as well as specific tumor growth assays.

    Results: C-Raf antigen was successfully expressed in secreted form by an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain using the E. coli hemolysin secretion system. Immunization of wild-type C57BL/6 or tumor bearing mice provoked specific C-Raf antibody and T-cell responses. Most importantly, the vaccine strain significantly reduced tumor growth in two transgenic mouse models of Raf oncogene-induced lung adenomas.

    Conclusions: The combination of the C-Raf antigen, hemolysin secretion system and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium could form the basis for a new generation of live bacterial vaccines for the treatment of Raf dependent human malignancies.

    BMC cancer 2005;5;15

  • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer identify scaffold protein CNK1 interactions in intact cells.

    Lopez-Ilasaca MA, Bernabe-Ortiz JC, Na SY, Dzau VJ and Xavier RJ

    Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Connector enhancer of KSR (CNK) proteins have been proposed to act as scaffolds in the Ras-MAPK pathway. In this work, using in vivo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays and in vitro co-immunoprecipitation, we show that hCNK1 interacts with the active form of Rho A (G14V) proteins. The domain of hCNK1 that allows binding to Rho proteins involves the C-terminal PH domain. Overexpression of hCNK1 does not affect the actin cytoskeleton and does not modify the appearance of stress fibers in cells overexpressing a constitutively active form of RhoA. In contrast, hCNK1 was able to significantly decrease the RhoA-induced transcriptional activity of the serum response element (SRE) without effect on the Ras-induced SRE activation. These results identify hCNK1 as a specific partner of Rho proteins both in vitro and in vivo and suggest a role of hCNK1 in the signal transduction of Rho proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-5987663, HL-5987732

    FEBS letters 2005;579;3;648-54

  • Regulation of Raf-1 by direct feedback phosphorylation.

    Dougherty MK, Müller J, Ritt DA, Zhou M, Zhou XZ, Copeland TD, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Lu KP and Morrison DK

    Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

    The Raf-1 kinase is an important signaling molecule, functioning in the Ras pathway to transmit mitogenic, differentiative, and oncogenic signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK. Because of its integral role in cell signaling, Raf-1 activity must be precisely controlled. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation is required for Raf-1 activation, and here, we identify six phosphorylation sites that contribute to the downregulation of Raf-1 after mitogen stimulation. Five of the identified sites are proline-directed targets of activated ERK, and phosphorylation of all six sites requires MEK signaling, indicating a negative feedback mechanism. Hyperphosphorylation of these six sites inhibits the Ras/Raf-1 interaction and desensitizes Raf-1 to additional stimuli. The hyperphosphorylated/desensitized Raf-1 is subsequently dephosphorylated and returned to a signaling-competent state through interactions with the protein phosphatase PP2A and the prolyl isomerase Pin1. These findings elucidate a critical Raf-1 regulatory mechanism that contributes to the sensitive, temporal modulation of Ras signaling.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01GM58556

    Molecular cell 2005;17;2;215-24

  • Ras-Raf-Arf signaling critically depends on the Dmp1 transcription factor.

    Sreeramaneni R, Chaudhry A, McMahon M, Sherr CJ and Inoue K

    Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 2102 Gray Building, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

    Dmp1 prevents tumor formation by activating the Arf-p53 pathway. In cultured primary cells, the Dmp1 promoter was efficiently activated by oncogenic Ha-Ras(V12), but not by overexpressed c-Myc or E2F-1. Dmp1 promoter activation by Ras(V12) depended on Raf-MEK-ERK signaling. Induction of p19(Arf) and p21(Cip1) by oncogenic Raf was compromised in Dmp1-null cells, which were resistant to Raf-mediated premature senescence. A Ras(V12)-responsive element was mapped to the 5' leader sequence of the murine Dmp1 promoter, where endogenous Fos and Jun family proteins bind. Dmp1 promoter activation by Ras(V12) was strikingly impaired in c-Jun as well as in JunB knock-down cells, suggesting the critical role of Jun proteins in the activation of the Dmp1 promoter. A Ras(V12)-responsive element was mapped to the unique Dmp1/Ets site on the Arf promoter, where endogenous Dmp1 proteins bind upon oncogenic Raf activation. Therefore, activation of Arf by Ras/Raf signaling is indirectly mediated by Dmp1, explaining why Dmp1-null primary cells are highly susceptible to Ras-induced transformation. Our data indicate the presence of the novel Jun-Dmp1 pathway that directly links oncogenic Ras-Raf signaling and p19(Arf), independent of the classical cyclin D1/Cdk4-Rb-E2F pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 106314-01, R01 CA106314

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;1;220-32

  • Role of the kinase MST2 in suppression of apoptosis by the proto-oncogene product Raf-1.

    O'Neill E, Rushworth L, Baccarini M and Kolch W

    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK.

    The ablation of the protein kinase Raf-1 renders cells hypersensitive to apoptosis despite normal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, which suggests that apoptosis protection is mediated by a distinct pathway. We used proteomic analysis of Raf-1 signaling complexes to show that Raf-1 counteracts apoptosis by suppressing the activation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST2). Raf-1 prevents dimerization and phosphorylation of the activation loop of MST2 independently of its protein kinase activity. Depletion of MST2 from Raf-1-/- mouse or human cells abrogated sensitivity to apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MST2 induced apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of Raf-1 from Raf-1+/+ mouse or human cells led to MST2 activation and apoptosis. The concomitant depletion of both Raf-1 and MST2 prevented apoptosis.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004;306;5705;2267-70

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 markedly enhances Ras-independent activation of Raf-1 protein kinase by phorbol myristate acetate and H2O2.

    Lee M, Kim JY and Anderson WB

    Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yusong, Daejeon 305-600, Korea. mikelee@kitox.re.kr

    Recently we reported that simultaneous treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with the combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulted in synergistic activation of Raf-1 kinase (Lee, M., Petrovics, G., and Anderson, W. B. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 311, 1026-1033). In this study we have demonstrated that PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), a potent and selective inhibitor of the Src-family tyrosine kinase, greatly potentiated the ability of PMA and/or H2O2 to activate Raf-1 kinase, whereas it blocked the tyrosine phosphorylation of Raf-1. Unlike PMA/H2O2 treatment, which showed transient activation, PP2-mediated Raf-1 activation was sustained and continued to increase through 4 h of treatment. Transient transfection studies with a dominant-negative mutant of Ras (N19Ras) indicated that this PP2-induced activation of Raf-1 was Ras-independent. Moreover, PP2 showed no effect on platelet-derived growth factor-induced Raf-1 activation. Interestingly, mutation of the reported Raf-1 Src family tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site by conversion of tyrosines 340 and 341 to phenylalanine (YY340/341FF Raf) had limited effect on the ability of PP2 to induce significant stimulation of Raf-1 kinase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that a tyrosine phosphorylation event is involved in the negative feedback regulation of Raf-1. Inhibition of a Src family tyrosine kinase by PP2 appears to alleviate this tyrosine kinase-mediated inhibition of Raf-1 and allow activating modification(s) of Raf-1 to proceed. This PP2 effect resulted in significant and sustained Ras-independent activation of Raf-1 by PMA and H2O2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;47;48692-701

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cardiac-specific disruption of the c-raf-1 gene induces cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis.

    Yamaguchi O, Watanabe T, Nishida K, Kashiwase K, Higuchi Y, Takeda T, Hikoso S, Hirotani S, Asahi M, Taniike M, Nakai A, Tsujimoto I, Matsumura Y, Miyazaki J, Chien KR, Matsuzawa A, Sadamitsu C, Ichijo H, Baccarini M, Hori M and Otsu K

    Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

    The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway regulates diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and is implicated as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. To examine the in vivo role of Raf-1 in the heart, we generated cardiac muscle-specific Raf-1-knockout (Raf CKO) mice with Cre-loxP-mediated recombination. The mice demonstrated left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart dilatation without cardiac hypertrophy or lethality. The Raf CKO mice showed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. The expression level and activation of MEK1/2 or ERK showed no difference, but the kinase activity of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), JNK, or p38 increased significantly compared with that in controls. The ablation of ASK1 rescued heart dysfunction and dilatation as well as cardiac fibrosis. These results indicate that Raf-1 promotes cardiomyocyte survival through a MEK/ERK-independent mechanism.

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2004;114;7;937-43

  • Entire mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is present in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    Wang Y, Wang F, Sun T, Trostinskaia A, Wygle D, Puscheck E and Rappolee DA

    C.S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hützel Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    To understand how mitogenic signals are transduced into the trophoblasts in preimplantation embryos, the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway molecules was tested. We used immunocytochemical means and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to test whether MAPK pathway molecule gene products exist at the protein and phosphoprotein level in the zygote and the RNA level in the egg and zygote. In addition, all antibodies detected the correct-sized major band in Westerns of placental cell lines representing the most prevalent cell type in preimplantation embryos. A majority of mRNA transcripts of MAPK pathway genes were detected in unfertilized eggs, and all were expressed in the zygote. We found that the MAPK pathway protein set consisting of the following gene products was present: FRS2 alpha, GRB2, GAB1, SOS1, Ha-ras, Raf1/RafB, MEK1,2,5, MAPK/ERK1,2, MAPK/ERK5, and RSK1,2,3 (see abbreviations). These proteins were detected in trophoblasts in embryonic day (E) 3.5 embryos when they could mediate mitogenic fibroblast growth factor signals from the embryo or colony stimulating factor-1 signals from the uterus. The phosphorylation state and position of the phosphoproteins in the cells suggested that they might function in mediating mitogenic signals. Interestingly, a subtle transition from maternal MAPK function to zygotic function was suggested by the localization for three MAPK pathway enzymes between E2.5 and E3.5, Raf1 phospho is largely cell membrane-localized at E2.5 and E3.5, and MEK1,2 phospho accumulates in the nucleus on E2.5 and E3.5. However, MAPK phospho shifts from nuclear accumulation at E2.5 to cytoplasmic accumulation at E3.5. This finding is similar to the cytoplasmic MAPK phospho localization reported in fibroblast growth factor signaling fields in postimplantation embryos (Corson et al. [2003] Development 130:4527-4537). This spatial and temporal expression study lays a foundation to plan and analyze perturbation studies aimed at understanding the role of the major mitogenic pathway in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R01 HD40972A

    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 2004;231;1;72-87

  • Raf-1 kinase is required for cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte survival in response to pressure overload.

    Harris IS, Zhang S, Treskov I, Kovacs A, Weinheimer C and Muslin AJ

    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo, USA.

    Background: Cardiac hypertrophy is a common response to pressure overload and is associated with increased mortality. Mechanical stress in the heart results in the activation of the small GTPase ras and the Raf-1/MEK/ERK signaling cascade in addition to other signaling pathways.

    In an attempt to determine the requirement for the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a dominant negative form of Raf-1 (DN-Raf). DN-Raf mice appeared normal at birth, were fertile, and had normal cardiac structure and function in the absence of provocative stimulation. In response to pressure overload, cardiac extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was inhibited, but c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation were normal. DN-Raf mice were sensitized to pressure overload and the development of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and >35% of animals died within 7 days of aortic banding. Surviving DN-Raf animals were markedly resistant to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic gene induction in response to transverse aortic constriction.

    Conclusions: These results establish that Raf-1 kinase activity is essential for cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte survival in response to pressure overload.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL057278, HL61567, K08 HL089330-04; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK52574

    Circulation 2004;110;6;718-23

  • Raf-1 is not required for megakaryocytopoiesis or TPO-induced ERK phosphorylation.

    Kamata T, Pritchard CA and Leavitt AD

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0100, USA.

    Thrombopoietin stimulates extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in megakaryocytes, and the classic mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (Raf/mitogen-induced extracellular kinase [MEK]/ERK) pathway has been implicated directly and indirectly to play a critical role in megakaryocytopoiesis. However, the involvement of specific Raf family members in megakaryocytopoiesis is unknown. raf-1(-/-) mice were therefore used to directly determine the role of Raf-1 in megakaryocytopoiesis. Surprisingly, raf-1(-/-) mice have a modestly higher platelet count than their raf-1(+/+) littermates. Nonetheless, the absence of Raf-1 does not alter thrombopoietin-induced expansion of primary megakaryocyte-lineage cells, the development of apoptotic megakaryocytes in the presence or absence of thrombopoietin, or the development of megakaryocyte DNA ploidy distribution. Moreover, raf-1(-/-) megakaryocytes do not have a compensatory increase in A-Raf or B-Raf expression, and thrombopoietin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is similar in raf-1(-/-) and raf-1(+/+) megakaryocytes. These unexpected findings demonstrate that Raf-1 is dispensable for megakaryocytopoiesis, and for thrombopoietin-induced ERK1/2 activation in primary megakaryocyte-lineage cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL54476, R01 HL65198

    Blood 2004;103;7;2568-70

  • Bioinformatics and cellular signaling.

    Papin J and Subramaniam S

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The understanding of cellular function requires an integrated analysis of context-specific, spatiotemporal data from diverse sources. Recent advances in describing the genomic and proteomic 'parts list' of the cell and deciphering the interrelationship of these parts are described, including genome-wide location analysis, standards for microarray data analysis, and two-hybrid and mass spectrometry approaches. This information is being collected and curated in databases such as the Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS) Molecule Pages, which will serve as vital tools for the reconstruction and analysis of cellular signaling networks.

    Current opinion in biotechnology 2004;15;1;78-81

  • Molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and characteristic expression in tooth organ of rat and mouse Krox-25.

    Lee SK, Kim YS, Lee SS, Lee YJ, Song IS, Park SC, Kozak C and Yamada Y

    Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702, South Korea. sklee@kangnung.ac.kr

    A novel member of the Krox family of proteins, designated Krox-25, was identified by screening clones from the cDNA libraries of a rat incisor and mouse embryo craniofacial tissue. Rat and mouse Krox-25 mRNAs are about 2.4 kb long, encoding 225 and 224 amino acids, respectively. Krox-25 consists of five zinc finger motifs homologous to the Drosophila Krüppel segmentation gene and also contains several consensus amino acid sequences for a protein kinase C binding domain. Northern blot analysis revealed an intense expression of Krox-25 mRNA in rat and mouse teeth, although it was expressed weakly in other tissues, including calvaria, brain, lung, thymus, kidney, and submandibular gland of mouse. In situ hybridization showed that Krox-25 mRNA began to be expressed weakly in the early odontogenic mesenchyme and primitive enamel epithelium located at the apical end of the rat incisor, and Krox-25 expression increased in the presecretory ameloblasts and became intense in the secretory ameloblasts. This expression was also similar to the results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot, especially the Krox-25 localization in the nuclei of enamel epithelial cells. These results suggest that Krox-25 plays an important role as a transcription factor for the cytodifferentiation and amelogenesis of enamel epithelium.

    Genomics 2004;83;2;243-53

  • G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway.

    Weissman JT, Ma JN, Essex A, Gao Y and Burstein ES

    ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc., 3911 Sorrento Valley Blvd, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

    Ras proteins mediate the proliferative effects of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the role of Rap proteins in GPCR signaling is unclear. We have developed a novel cellular proliferation assay for examining signal transduction to Rap utilizing Ras-rap chimeras that respond selectively to Rap-specific exchange factors, but which stimulate cellular proliferation through Ras effectors. Both the D1 dopamine receptor (Gs-coupled) and the 5HT1E serotonin receptor (Gi-coupled) mediated cellular proliferation in a Ras/rap chimera-dependent manner. Responses to both receptors were PKA-independent. Both receptors activated Ras/rap and full-length Rap as measured by activation-specific probes. Pertussis toxin blocked Ras/rap-dependent responses to 5HT1E but not D1. Ras/rap-dependent responses to both receptors were insensitive to beta-gamma scavengers. Responses to 5HT1E, but not D1, were sensitive to inhibition by a dominant-negative C3G fragment, by the Src-like kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2, and by a dominant-negative mutant of Src. Very similar data were obtained for two other Gi-coupled receptors, the D2 dopamine receptor and the alpha2C adrenergic receptor. A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway.

    Oncogene 2004;23;1;241-9

  • Protein kinase C switches the Raf kinase inhibitor from Raf-1 to GRK-2.

    Lorenz K, Lohse MJ and Quitterer U

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Versbacher Strasse 9, D-97078 Würzburg, Germany.

    Feedback inhibition is a fundamental principle in signal transduction allowing rapid adaptation to different stimuli. In mammalian cells, the major feedback inhibitor for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK-2), which phosphorylates activated receptors, uncouples them from G proteins and initiates their internalization. The functions of GRK-2 are indispensable and need to be tightly controlled. Dysregulation promotes disorders such as hypertension or heart failure. In our search for a control mechanism for this vital kinase, here we show that the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of GRK-2. After stimulation of GPCR, RKIP dissociates from its known target, Raf-1 (refs 6-8), to associate with GRK-2 and block its activity. This switch is triggered by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the RKIP on serine 153. The data delineate a new principle in signal transduction: by activating PKC, the incoming receptor signal is enhanced both by removing an inhibitor from Raf-1 and by blocking receptor internalization. A physiological role for this mechanism is shown in cardiomyocytes in which the downregulation of RKIP restrains beta-adrenergic signalling and contractile activity.

    Nature 2003;426;6966;574-9

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Phosphorylation-dependent paxillin-ERK association mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis.

    Ishibe S, Joly D, Zhu X and Cantley LG

    Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    Activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-met results in the regulation of cell-matrix interactions, including the MAPK-dependent stimulation of epithelial cell morphogenesis. In the present study we demonstrate that HGF stimulates the localization of ERK to sites of cell-matrix interactions and that this is mediated by the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent association of inactive ERK and the focal adhesion complex protein paxillin. In addition, paxillin was found to associate with the upstream MAP kinases Raf and MEK, resulting in a complex that can mediate localized ERK activation. Mutation of the ERK binding site in paxillin prevented HGF-stimulated ERK-paxillin association and eliminated HGF-induced cell spreading and branching process formation. These experiments reveal that paxillin-dependent ERK activation at sites of cell-matrix interaction is critical for HGF-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK54911

    Molecular cell 2003;12;5;1275-85

  • Raf1 plays a pivotal role in lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of dendritic cells.

    Nakayama K, Ota Y, Okugawa S, Ise N, Kitazawa T, Tsukada K, Kawada M, Yanagimoto S and Kimura S

    Department of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

    Activation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK) is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular responses such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38 are also activated by LPS and have been postulated to be important in the control of these end points. Therefore, establishing the relative contribution of MAPKs in each cell type is important, as is elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which these MAPKs are activated in LPS-induced signaling cascades. We demonstrated in DC2.4 dendritic cells that ERK regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) and the production of TNF-alpha. We also demonstrated that Raf1 is phosphorylated and involved in the production of TNF-alpha and tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-K via ERK. Raf1 also regulates the activation of NF-kappaB. We propose that Raf1 plays a pivotal role in LPS-induced activation of the dendritic cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;308;2;353-60

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • Protein kinase A blocks Raf-1 activity by stimulating 14-3-3 binding and blocking Raf-1 interaction with Ras.

    Dumaz N and Marais R

    Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, United Kingdom.

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) blocks Raf-1 activation by stimulating its phosphorylation on serine 43 (Ser43), serine 233 (Ser233), and serine 259 (Ser259). We show here that phosphorylation of all three sites blocks Raf-1 binding to Ras.GTP in vivo and that cAMP stimulates binding of 14-3-3 proteins to Ser233 and Ser259. We also show that Raf-1 and protein kinase A (PKA) form a complex in vivo that is disrupted by cAMP and that ablation of PKA by use of small interfering RNA blocks phosphorylation by cAMP. The ability of PKA to block Raf-1 activation is ablated by the PKA inhibitor H89. These studies suggest that Raf-1 and cAMP form a signaling complex in cells. Upon activation of PKA, Raf-1 is phosphorylated and 14-3-3 binds, blocking Raf-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane and preventing its activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;32;29819-23

  • A Raf-1 mutant that dissociates MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation from malignant transformation and differentiation but not proliferation.

    Dhillon AS, Meikle S, Peyssonnaux C, Grindlay J, Kaiser C, Steen H, Shaw PE, Mischak H, Eychène A and Kolch W

    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, CR-UK Beatson Laboratories, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, UK. A.Dhillon@beatson.gla.ac.uk

    It is widely thought that the biological outcomes of Raf-1 activation are solely attributable to the activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. However, an increasing number of reports suggest that some Raf-1 functions are independent of this pathway. In this report we show that mutation of the amino-terminal 14-3-3 binding site of Raf-1 uncouples its ability to activate the MEK/ERK pathway from the induction of cell transformation and differentiation. In NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and COS-1 cells, mutation of serine 259 resulted in Raf-1 proteins which activated the MEK/ERK pathway as efficiently as v-Raf. However, in contrast to v-Raf, RafS259 mutants failed to transform. They induced morphological alterations and slightly accelerated proliferation in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts but were not tumorigenic in mice and behaved like wild-type Raf-1 in transformation assays measuring loss of contact inhibition or anchorage-independent growth. Curiously, the RafS259 mutants inhibited focus induction by an activated MEK allele, suggesting that they can hyperactivate negative-feedback pathways. In primary cultures of postmitotic chicken neuroretina cells, RafS259A was able to sustain proliferation to a level comparable to that sustained by the membrane-targeted transforming Raf-1 protein, RafCAAX. In contrast, RafS259A was only a poor inducer of neurite formation in PC12 cells in comparison to RafCAAX. Thus, RafS259 mutants genetically separate MEK/ERK activation from the ability of Raf-1 to induce transformation and differentiation. The results further suggest that RafS259 mutants inhibit signaling pathways required to promote these biological processes.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;6;1983-93

  • Raf-independent and MEKK1-dependent activation of NF-kappaB by hydrogen peroxide in 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocyte tumor cells.

    Lee M and Koh WS

    Korea Institute of Toxicology, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 107, Yusong, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea. mikelee@kitox.re.kr

    We have previously demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of murine 70Z/3 pre-B lymphocytes inhibits the immune response to lipopolysaccharide by attenuating signaling through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. In the present study, we further examined the signaling intermediates responsible for immunosuppression by H(2)O(2), focusing on NF-kappaB, a dimeric transcription factor whose activation is implicated in a number of immune response. Treatment of 70Z/3 pre-B cells with H(2)O(2) caused activation of NF-kappaB in the nuclei by detection of NF-kappaB specific DNA binding, concomitant with phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. H(2)O(2) stimulation of NF-kappaB occurred within 20 min of treatment, reached maximum level at 60 min, and sustained for 2 h or more. Especially, MEK1 may contribute to H(2)O(2)-induced NF-kappaB activation as shown in the inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity by the MEK1 inhibitor, PD 98059, and H(2)O(2)-induced MEK1 activation. However, H(2)O(2) exhibited no effect on the activity of Raf-1 kinase, which was an upstream activator of MEK1. Furthermore, B-58l and alpha-hydroxyfarnesylphosphonic acid, two inhibitors of Ras, did not block NF-kappaB activation. In addition, the transient transfection of a dominant negative Ras (RasN17) construct showed a negligible inhibitory effect on the activation of NF-kappaB by H(2)O(2). Instead, treatment of 70Z/3 cells with H(2)O(2) resulted in the activation of MAPK kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) as well as JNK. Therefore, our data suggest that H(2)O(2) regulates the activity of NF-kappaB by MEK1 activation through MEKK1-dependent but Ras/Raf-independent mechanism.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2003;88;3;545-56

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Gris1, a new common integration site in Graffi murine leukemia virus-induced leukemias: overexpression of a truncated cyclin D2 due to alternative splicing.

    Denicourt C, Kozak CA and Rassart E

    Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.

    The Graffi murine leukemia virus is a nondefective ecotropic retrovirus that was originally reported to induce myeloid leukemia in some strains of mice (A. Graffi, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 68:540-558, 1957). Using provirus-flanking sequences as DNA probes, we identified a new common retroviral integration site called Gris1 (for Graffi integration site 1). Viral integrations in Gris1 were detected in 13% of the tumors analyzed. The Gris1 locus was mapped to the distal region of mouse chromosome 6, 85 kb upstream of the cyclin D2 gene. Such viral integration in Gris1 causes overexpression of the normal 6.5-kb major transcript of cyclin D2 but also induces the expression of a new, alternatively spliced 1.1-kb transcript from the cyclin D2 gene that encodes a truncated cyclin D2 of 17 kDa. The expression of this 1.1-kb transcript is specific to tumors in which Gris1 is rearranged but is also detected at low levels in normal tissue.

    Journal of virology 2003;77;1;37-44

  • Raf-1 antagonizes erythroid differentiation by restraining caspase activation.

    Kolbus A, Pilat S, Husak Z, Deiner EM, Stengl G, Beug H and Baccarini M

    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    The Raf kinases are key signal transducers activated by mitogens or oncogenes. The best studied Raf isoform, Raf-1, was identified as an inhibitor of apoptosis by conventional and conditional gene ablation in mice. c-raf-1(-)(/)(-) embryos are growth retarded and anemic, and die at midgestation with anomalies in the placenta and fetal liver. Here, we show that Raf-1-deficient primary erythroblasts cannot be expanded in culture due to their accelerated differentiation into mature erythrocytes. In addition, Raf-1 expression is down-regulated in differentiating wild-type cells, whereas overexpression of activated Raf-1 delays differentiation. As recently described for human erythroid precursors, we find that caspase activation is necessary for the differentiation of murine fetal liver erythroblasts. Differentiation-associated caspase activation is accelerated in erythroid progenitors lacking Raf-1 and delayed by overexpression of the activated kinase. These results reveal an essential function of Raf-1 in erythropoiesis and demonstrate that the ability of Raf-1 to restrict caspase activation is biologically relevant in a context distinct from apoptosis.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2002;196;10;1347-53

  • Regulation of lipoprotein lipase by protein kinase C alpha in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    Ranganathan G, Song W, Dean N, Monia B, Barger SW and Kern PA

    Central Arkansas Veterans HealthCare System and Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA. Rangsnsthangovx1@UAMS.edu

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an important enzyme in adipocyte and lipid metabolism with complex cellular regulation. Previous studies demonstrated an inhibition of LPL activity and synthesis following depletion of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms with long term treatment of 3T3-F442A adipocytes with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. To identify the specific PKC isoforms involved, we treated cells with antisense oligonucleotides that block expression of specific PKC isoforms. An antisense oligonucleotide to PKC alpha inhibited LPL activity by 78 +/- 8%, whereas antisense oligonucleotides directed against PKC delta or PKC epsilon had no effect on LPL activity. The change in LPL activity was maximal at 72 h and was accompanied by a decrease in LPL protein and LPL synthetic rate but no change in LPL mRNA, suggesting regulation at the level of translation. However, PKC depletion resulted in no change in the polysome profile, indicating that translation initiation was not affected. However, the addition of cytoplasmic extracts from adipocytes treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or PKC alpha antisense oligomers inhibited LPL translation in vitro. This inhibition of LPL translation in vitro was lost when the LPL mRNA transcript did not contain nucleotides 1599-3200, thus implicating the 3'-untranslated region of LPL in the regulation of translation by PKC depletion. Both LPL activity and Raf1 activity were decreased in parallel following depletion of either total PKC or specific inhibition of PKC alpha. An antisense oligonucleotide to RAF1, which inhibited RAF1 activity, also inhibited LPL activity by 48 +/- 10%, and this decrease in LPL activity was not accompanied by a change in LPL mRNA. Cells were treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor of the ERK-activating kinases MEK1 and MEK2. Although U0126 inhibited ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, U0126 had no effect on LPL activity, indicating that MEK/ERK pathways were not involved in this mechanism of LPL regulation. Together, these data indicate that PKC alpha and RAF1 are important in the translational regulation of LPL in adipocytes and that the mechanism of regulation is probably through an ERK-independent pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;41;38669-75

  • Effects of catecholamines on kinase activation in lung neutrophils after hemorrhage or endotoxemia.

    Arcaroli J, Yang KY, Yum HK, Kupfner J, Pitts TM, Park JS, Strassheim D and Abraham E

    Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA.

    Catecholamines are released in high levels after hemorrhage or endotoxemia and have been shown to modulate immune function, including cellular release of inflammatory mediators. In the present experiments, we examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous catecholamines on neutrophil accumulation and activation in the lungs using pretreatment with alpha- or beta-antagonists or alpha-adrenergic agonists before hemorrhage or endotoxemia. These studies showed that alpha-, but not beta-adrenergic stimuli, modulated the severity of acute lung injury after hemorrhage or endotoxemia, and alpha-adrenergic stimuli was proinflammatory after hemorrhage but anti-inflammatory after endotoxemia. The observed alpha-adrenergic effects on lung neutrophil activation appeared to involve primarily the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway at the upstream kinase Raf, but not Ras. Although p38 and protein kinase A were activated in lung neutrophils after hemorrhage or endotoxemia, these kinases were not affected by alpha- or beta-adrenergic modulation. These results demonstrate that catecholamines have important immunomodulatory effects in vivo that affect intracellular signaling pathways in neutrophils and neutrophil-driven, inflammatory processes such as the development of acute lung injury.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 62221

    Journal of leukocyte biology 2002;72;3;571-9

  • Expression of kinase suppressor of Ras in the normal adult and embryonic mouse.

    Giblett SM, Lloyd DJ, Light Y, Marais R and Pritchard CA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.

    Recent studies indicate that kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR)is a scaffold protein for the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade in mammals. To help determine the in vivo function of KSR, we have examined the tissue-specific distribution of this protein in the embryonic and adult mouse using a rat monoclonal antibody raised against the mouse protein. Western blot analysis indicates that the protein is expressed at highest levels in the adult brain. It is also expressed at low levels in bladder, ovary, testis, and lung, but the protein is not detectable in any other adult tissue. However, reverse transcription-PCR analysis shows that Ksr transcripts are detected in all adult tissues except the liver. A variant containing a differentially spliced exon in the CA4 domain is observed in brain, cerebellum, ovary, and intestine. The protein is also expressed throughout the E6.5 embryo and at high levels in the neuroepithelium of the E10.5 embryo. At this embryonic stage, expression is also detected at lower levels in the limb and tail buds as well as in the myocardium.

    Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2002;13;7;307-13

  • Cyclic AMP blocks cell growth through Raf-1-dependent and Raf-1-independent mechanisms.

    Dumaz N, Light Y and Marais R

    Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, United Kingdom.

    It is widely accepted that cyclic AMP (cAMP) can block cell growth by phosphorylating Raf-1 on serine 43 and inhibiting signaling to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase. We show that the suppression of Raf-1 by cAMP is considerably more complex than previously reported. When cellular cAMP is elevated, Raf-1 is phosphorylated on three residues (S43, S233, and S259), which work independently to block Raf-1. Both Ras-dependent and Ras-independent processes are disrupted. However, when cAMP-insensitive versions of Raf-1 are expressed in NIH 3T3 cells, their growth is still strongly suppressed when cAMP is elevated. Thus, although Raf-1 appears to be an important cAMP target, other pathways are also targeted by cAMP, providing alternative mechanisms that lead to suppression of cell growth.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;11;3717-28

  • Gene-expression profile of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Ibrahim SM, Koczan D and Thiesen HJ

    Institute of Immunology, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 70, Rostock, 18055, Germany. saleh.ibrahim@med.uni-rostock.de

    To provide a global analysis of genes involved in the inflammatory process in joints of DBA/1J mice suffering from collagen induced arthritis (CIA) we used oligonucleotide microarrays representing approximately 11,000 genes to determine the gene expression profile of the inflamed paws at peak of disease, and compared them to normal tissue. Peak of disease was determined from clinical evaluation of disease and histopathology of joints. Of the 11,000 genes assayed, 223 showed differential expression of four fold or more (187 upregulated and 36 downregulated). Ninety-five of the genes observed had well-characterized full length sequences in databases, and 128 were unknown (Ests). Inflammation resulted in a profile of increased gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases, immune-related, extra-cellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules, as well as molecules involved in cell division and transcription; differential regulation of molecules involved in signal transduction, protein synthesis and metabolism. Of the 55 genes with known chromosomal locations nine mapped to previously identified QTL, contributing to susceptibility or severity of CIA, i.e. MHC class I, II, Basigin, FAP, Cathepsin K, CD 53, RAF1, glucagon, and retinal taurine transporter. The profile of gene expression supports current theoretical models of disease progression and might open new perspectives for both diagnosis and treatment of arthritis.

    Journal of autoimmunity 2002;18;2;159-67

  • Regulation of glycolysis by Raf protein serine/threonine kinases.

    Le Mellay V, Houben R, Troppmair J, Hagemann C, Mazurek S, Frey U, Beigel J, Weber C, Benz R, Eigenbrodt E and Rapp UR

    Institut für Medizinische, Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung (MSZ), Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 5, Germany.

    Advances in enzyme regulation 2002;42;317-32

  • Phylogenetic conservation of the makorin-2 gene, encoding a multiple zinc-finger protein, antisense to the RAF1 proto-oncogene.

    Gray TA, Azama K, Whitmore K, Min A, Abe S and Nicholls RD

    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, 2109 Adelbert Rd., BRB 739, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. gray@wadsworth.org

    Natural endogenous antisense RNAs have been reported in multiple loci, with evidence in some cases supporting a regulatory role for the antisense transcript. Here, we describe a novel gene, makorin RING zinc finger-2 (MKRN2), that overlaps and is antisense to the gene RAF1 in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3' untranslated region of RAF1 orthologues suggests that this relationship may have existed for up to 450 million years. We have also identified MKRN2 orthologues in two species of fish. This places the gene duplication event that created this locus from an ancestral MKRN1 gene early in vertebrate evolution, over 450 million years ago. Northern blot analyses show that human MKRN2 and RAF1 are co-expressed in tissues and cell lines, raising the possibility of mRNA duplex formation. The encoded makorin-2 protein is likely a ribonucleoprotein of unknown function, but its conservation suggests an important cellular role. The data presented here describe a conserved vertebrate MKRN2 gene that is closely associated with the RAF1 locus.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD31491

    Genomics 2001;77;3;119-26

  • Embryonic lethality and fetal liver apoptosis in mice lacking the c-raf-1 gene.

    Mikula M, Schreiber M, Husak Z, Kucerova L, Rüth J, Wieser R, Zatloukal K, Beug H, Wagner EF and Baccarini M

    Department of Cell- and Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics and Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna Biocenter, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    The Raf kinases play a key role in relaying signals elicited by mitogens or oncogenes. Here, we report that c-raf-1(-/-) embryos are growth retarded and die at midgestation with anomalies in the placenta and in the fetal liver. Although hepatoblast proliferation does not appear to be impaired, c-raf-1(-/-) fetal livers are hypocellular and contain numerous apoptotic cells. Similarly, the poor proliferation of Raf-1(-/-) fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells cultivated in vitro is due to an increase in the apoptotic index of these cultures rather than to a cell cycle defect. Furthermore, Raf-1- deficient fibroblasts are more sensitive than wild- type cells to specific apoptotic stimuli, such as actinomycin D or Fas activation, but not to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. MEK/ERK activation is normal in Raf-1-deficient cells and embryos, and is probably mediated by B-RAF. These results indicate that the essential function of Raf-1 is to counteract apoptosis rather than to promote proliferation, and that effectors distinct from the MEK/ERK cascade must mediate the anti-apoptotic function of Raf-1.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;8;1952-62

  • MEK kinase activity is not necessary for Raf-1 function.

    Hüser M, Luckett J, Chiloeches A, Mercer K, Iwobi M, Giblett S, Sun XM, Brown J, Marais R and Pritchard C

    Department of Biochemistry, MRC Toxicology Unit and Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

    Raf-1 protein kinase has been identified as an integral component of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway in mammals. Activation of Raf-1 is achieved by RAS:GTP binding and other events at the plasma membrane including tyrosine phosphorylation at residues 340/341. We have used gene targeting to generate a 'knockout' of the raf-1 gene in mice as well as a rafFF mutant version of endogenous Raf-1 with Y340FY341F mutations. Raf-1(-/-) mice die in embryogenesis and show vascular defects in the yolk sac and placenta as well as increased apoptosis of embryonic tissues. Cell proliferation is not affected. Raf-1 from cells derived from raf-1(FF/FF) mice has no detectable activity towards MEK in vitro, and yet raf-1(FF/FF) mice survive to adulthood, are fertile and have an apparently normal phenotype. In cells derived from both the raf-1(-/-) and raf-1(FF/FF) mice, ERK activation is normal. These results strongly argue that MEK kinase activity of Raf-1 is not essential for normal mouse development and that Raf-1 plays a key role in preventing apoptosis.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;8;1940-51

  • Protective role of Raf-1 in Salmonella-induced macrophage apoptosis.

    Jesenberger V, Procyk KJ, Rüth J, Schreiber M, Theussl HC, Wagner EF and Baccarini M

    Department of Cell and Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, Austria.

    Invasive Salmonella induces macrophage apoptosis via the activation of caspase-1 by the bacterial protein SipB. Here we show that infection of macrophages with Salmonella causes the activation and degradation of Raf-1, an important intermediate in macrophage proliferation and activation. Raf-1 degradation is SipB- and caspase-1-dependent, and is prevented by proteasome inhibitors. To study the functional significance of Raf-1 in this process, the c-raf-1 gene was inactivated by Cre-loxP-mediated recombination in vivo. Macrophages lacking c-raf-1 are hypersensitive towards pathogen-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, activation of the antiapoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappaB pathways is normal in Raf-1-deficient macrophages, and mitochondrial fragility is not increased. Instead, pathogen-mediated activation of caspase-1 is enhanced selectively, implying that Raf-1 antagonizes stimulus-induced caspase-1 activation and apoptosis.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2001;193;3;353-64

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Lung-targeted expression of the c-Raf-1 kinase in transgenic mice exposes a novel oncogenic character of the wild-type protein.

    Kerkhoff E, Fedorov LM, Siefken R, Walter AO, Papadopoulos T and Rapp UR

    Institut für medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung, Universität Würzburg, Germany.

    The c-Raf-1 kinase is a downstream effector of Ras signaling. Both proteins are highly oncogenic when they are mutationally activated, but only the Ras GTPase is frequently mutated in naturally occurring tumors. Although the c-Raf-1 protein was found to be amplified in different lung cancer cell lines, overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 protein was shown to be insufficient to transform cultured cells. Here we have addressed the question of whether overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 kinase can induce lung cancer in mice. We show that lung-targeted expression of oncogenically activated or wild-type c-Raf-1 proteins induces morphologically indistinguishable lung adenomas in transgenic mice. Compared with mice transgenic for the activated c-Raf-1-BxB, tumor development is delayed and occurs at a lower incidence in wild-type c-Raf-1 transgenic mice. Our studies show that the c-Raf-1 expression level is a critical parameter in tumor development and should be analyzed in more detail to evaluate its potential in the induction of cancer.

    Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2000;11;4;185-90

  • Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis.

    Wojnowski L, Stancato LF, Larner AC, Rapp UR and Zimmer A

    Laboratory on Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. lwojnowski@epidauros.com

    The three mammalian Raf serine/threonine protein kinases mediate the transduction of proliferative and differentiative signals from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. In vertebrates, Raf signaling has been implicated in the progression of mouse embryos through the two-cell stage and in the induction of posterior mesoderm. However, mouse embryos mutant for each of the Raf genes exhibit no developmental defects before mid-gestation. Here we describe the phenotype of mouse mutants with different combinations of mutant Craf-1 and Braf alleles. Our results show that Raf signaling is indeed indispensable for normal development beyond the blastocyst stage. However, due to a significant redundancy between Craf-1 and Braf, either gene is sufficient for normal development until mid-gestation. The molecular and developmental mechanisms for this redundancy were investigated by monitoring the expression of Raf genes throughout embryogenesis and by biochemical studies in mutant cell lines.

    Mechanisms of development 2000;91;1-2;97-104

  • A node between proliferation, apoptosis, and growth arrest.

    Blagosklonny MV

    Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bldg. 10, R 12N226, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. mikhailb@box-m.nih.gov

    Paradoxically, oncogenes and growth factors can induce proliferation and promote cellular survival but can also cause apoptosis and growth arrest. What determines whether a cell decides to proliferate, arrest growth, or die? Mitogens and activators of mitogen-activated pathways initiate the simultaneous production of proliferative (cyclins) and anti-proliferative (CDK inhibitors such as p21WAF1/CIP1) signals. Quiescent cells may respond to these signals by proliferation whereas proliferating cells may respond by growth arrest. Although pro-apoptotic oncoproteins, which constitute the downstream pathway (cyclin D, E2F, c-myc) directly induce proliferation, the activation of the upstream steps (growth factor receptors, Ras, cytoplasmic kinases) is required to prevent apoptosis.

    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 1999;21;8;704-9

  • Small GTPases and cell cycle regulation.

    Marshall CJ

    CRC Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

    Biochemical Society transactions 1999;27;4;363-70

  • The ankyrin repeat-containing adaptor protein Tvl-1 is a novel substrate and regulator of Raf-1.

    Lin JH, Makris A, McMahon C, Bear SE, Patriotis C, Prasad VR, Brent R, Golemis EA and Tsichlis PN

    Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Tvl-1 is a 269-amino acid ankyrin repeat protein expressed primarily in thymus, lung, and testes that was identified by screening a murine T-cell two-hybrid cDNA library for proteins that associate with the serine-threonine kinase Raf-1. The interaction of Tvl-1 with Raf-1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins from COS-1 cells transiently transfected with Tvl-1 and Raf-1 expression constructs as well as by co-immunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins from CV-1 and NB2 cells. Tvl-1 interacts with Raf-1 via its carboxyl-terminal ankyrin repeat domain. The same domain also mediates Tvl-1 homodimerization. Tvl-1 was detected by immunofluorescence in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus suggesting that in addition to Raf-1 it may also interact with nuclear proteins. Activated Raf-1 phosphorylates Tvl-1 both in vitro and in vivo. In baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells, Tvl-1 potentiates the activation of Raf-1 by Src and Ras while in COS-1 cells it potentiates the activation of Raf-1 by EGF. These data suggest that Tvl-1 is both a target as well as a regulator of Raf-1. The human homologue of Tvl-1 maps to chromosome 19p12, upstream of MEF2B with the two genes in a head to head arrangement.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA06927, R01-CA38147, T32-CA09683

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;21;14706-15

  • p21 ras and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase are required for survival of wild-type and NF1 mutant sensory neurons.

    Klesse LJ and Parada LF

    Center for Developmental Biology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9133, USA.

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a required differentiation and survival factor for sympathetic and a majority of neural crest-derived sensory neurons in the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system. Although much is known about the function of NGF, the intracellular signaling cascade that it uses continues to be a subject of intense study. p21 ras signaling is considered necessary for sensory neuron survival. How additional intermediates downstream or in parallel may function has not been fully understood yet. Two intracellular signaling cascades, extra cellular regulated kinase (erk) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI 3) kinase, transduce NGF signaling in the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. To elucidate the role these cascades play in survival and differentiation, we used a combination of recombinant adenoviruses and chemical inhibitors to perturb these pathways in sensory neurons from wild-type mice and mice deficient for neurofibromin in which the survival and differentiation pathway is constitutively active. We demonstrate that ras activity is both necessary and sufficient for the survival of embryonic sensory neurons. Downstream of ras, however, the erk cascade is neither required nor sufficient for neuron survival or overall differentiation. Instead, the activity of PI 3 kinase is necessary for the survival of the wild-type and neurofibromin-deficient neurons. Therefore, we conclude that in sensory neurons, NGF acts via a signaling pathway, which includes both ras and PI 3 kinase.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS34296

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;24;10420-8

  • BID, a proapoptotic BCL-2 family member, is localized to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 22q11.

    Wang K, Yin XM, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Keck CL, Zimonjic DB, Popescu NC and Korsmeyer SJ

    Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110, USA.

    BID is a proapoptotic member of the BCL-2 family of cell death regulators. BID shares sequence homology with other members of the family within a single alpha-helical domain, BH3. BH3 is required for BID to interact with BCL-2 and BAX, as well as for its function as a death agonist. We have isolated and characterized mouse Bid and human BID genomic clones. The sequence for BID is encoded within five exons. We used interspecific backcross analysis to localize Bid to the distal region of mouse chromosome 6 near the Atp6e locus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized human BID to a syntenic human region, chromosome 22q11, close to the BCR-1 gene.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA50239

    Genomics 1998;53;2;235-8

  • Craf-1 protein kinase is essential for mouse development.

    Wojnowski L, Stancato LF, Zimmer AM, Hahn H, Beck TW, Larner AC, Rapp UR and Zimmer A

    Section on Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health, 36 Convent Dr. 3D06, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    The three mammalian Raf serine/threonine protein kinases mediate the transduction of proliferative and differentiative signals from a variety of cell surface receptors to the nucleus. We report here that Craf-1 is essential for mouse development, as its mutation results in embryonic lethality. Developmental defects are found in mutant placentas as well as in the skin and in the lungs of mutant embryos. Craf-1 mutants also display a generalized growth retardation which is consistent with the ubiquitous expression of Craf-1 and which could be due to the reduced proliferation of mutant cells. Interestingly, the time-point of embryonal death varies depending on the genetic background. This suggests that Craf-1-mediated signaling is affected by genetic background-specific alleles of other genes.

    Mechanisms of development 1998;76;1-2;141-9

  • Selective mutation of K-ras by N-ethylnitrosourea shifts from codon 12 to codon 61 during fetal mouse lung maturation.

    Sithanandam G, Ramakrishna G, Diwan BA and Anderson LM

    Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA.

    Fetal mouse lung before gestation day 17 shows unique sensitivity to causation of rapidly growing tumors by N-ethylnitrosourea (ENU). Since mouse lung tumors present a mutated K-ras oncogene, we hypothesized that this special susceptibility might reflect an unusual vulnerability of the K-ras gene. Of the lung tumors caused by ENU exposure of BALB/c mice on gestation day 14, 8/25 had a codon 12 mutation in K-ras, vs 4/25 in codon 61. Of 15 tumors after day 16 exposure, three had codon 12 and four codon 61 changes. Tumors from day 18 exposure had only codon 61 mutations (11/16), all A:T to G:C changes (CGA). By contrast, codon 12 (GGT) changes included G:C to T:A, to A:T, and to C:G. These results show significant (P<0.01) shift in the sensitivity of particular K-ras codons to ENU mutation, during fetal mouse lung maturation. In a test of a possible relationship to expression of K-ras, K-ras p21 was measured in lungs of fetal mice, and found to increase markedly on day 18 in comparison to days 14 and 16. Both alkylation of DNA and base damage due to reactive oxygen species are postulated as mechanisms for mutation by ENU, whose efficacies vary with state of fetal lung maturation and K-ras expression.

    Oncogene 1998;17;4;493-502

  • Cloning of the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 gene (TIMP4) and localization of the TIMP4 and Timp4 genes to human chromosome 3p25 and mouse chromosome 6, respectively.

    Olson TM, Hirohata S, Ye J, Leco K, Seldin MF and Apte SS

    Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112, USA.

    We have isolated genomic DNA containing the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-4 gene (TIMP4) and determined the structure of the exons comprising the gene. Like other members of the TIMP family, the TIMP-4 protein is encoded by five exons. These span 6 kb of genomic DNA, so that TIMP4 is similar in size to Timp1 but considerably smaller than TIMP2 and TIMP3. The exon-intron boundaries of TIMP4 are at locations very similar to those of the other TIMP genes, demonstrating the high degree of conservation of gene structure in this family. The human and mouse TIMP-4 genes map to comparable locations in the respective genomes, localizing to human chromosome 3p25 and mouse chromosome 6.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HGO0734; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR44436

    Genomics 1998;51;1;148-51

  • Identification of Nore1 as a potential Ras effector.

    Vavvas D, Li X, Avruch J and Zhang XF

    The Diabetes Unit and Medical Services and the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital East, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    The small GTP-binding protein Ras is pivotal in transmitting growth and differentiation signals downstream of cell surface receptors. Many observations have indicated that Ras transmits signals from cell surface receptors into multiple pathways via direct interaction with different effectors in mammalian cells. We have identified a novel potential Ras effector or target named Nore1. Nore1 has no significant sequence similarity to known mammalian proteins and lacks an identifiable catalytic domain, but contains sequence motifs that predict DAG_PE binding and SH3 domain binding. We show that Nore1 directly interacts with Ras in vitro in a GTP-dependent manner, and the interaction requires an intact Ras effector domain. Nore1 becomes associated with Ras in situ following activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in COS-7 and in KB cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51281

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;10;5439-42

  • v-Ras and v-Raf block differentiation of transformable C3H10T1/2-derived preadipocytes at lower levels than required for neoplastic transformation.

    Raptis L, Brownell HL, Lu Y, Preston T, Narsimhan RP, Anderson S, Schaefer E and Haliotis T

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. RaptisL@Post.QueensU.ca

    To investigate the functional relationship between the transforming ability of Ras and its role as an integral component of the differentiative insulin signaling pathway, we introduced a leu61-activated ras gene into a Ras-transformable, C3H10T1/2-derived preadipocytic cell line. The results demonstrate that rasleu61 expression in this line blocks differentiation and that this block appears at lower levels than required for full neoplastic transformation. In addition, to examine whether the inability of Rasleu61 to induce differentiation by replacing the insulin signal could be attributed to its transforming effect in this system, we examined the effect of Rasleu61 at levels below the baseline, by expressing rasleu61 in a series of preadipocytes which were rendered deficient in endogenous c-Ras activity. The results show that even very low Rasleu61 levels, insufficient to restore the growth rate of these cells to normal, blocked rather than enhanced differentiation, indicating that rasleu61 expression alone is not sufficient to promote adipocytic differentiation in this system, even in the absence of neoplastic transformation. Consistent with its established role as a downstream effector of Ras, v-Raf expression mirrored the v-Ras effects upon adipocytic differentiation and transformation.

    Experimental cell research 1997;235;1;188-97

  • Endothelial apoptosis in Braf-deficient mice.

    Wojnowski L, Zimmer AM, Beck TW, Hahn H, Bernal R, Rapp UR and Zimmer A

    Section on Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health/National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors and Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK signalling have been implicated in the suppression as well as augmentation of programmed cell death. In addition, a Ras-independent role for Raf as a suppressor of programmed cell death has been suggested by the recent finding that Craf1 interacts with members of the Bcl-2 family at mitochondrial membranes. However, genetic studies of C. elegans and Drosophila, as well as the targeted mutagenesis of the murine Araf gene, have failed to support such a role. Here we show that mice with a targeted disruption in the Braf gene die of vascular defects during mid-gestation. Braf -/- embryos, unlike Araf -/- or Craf1 -/- embryos (L.W. et al., unpublished), show an increased number of endothelial precursor cells, dramatically enlarged blood vessels and apoptotic death of differentiated endothelial cells. These results establish Braf as a critical signalling factor in the formation of the vascular system and provide the first genetic evidence for an essential role of Raf gene in the regulation of programmed cell death.

    Nature genetics 1997;16;3;293-7

  • Protein binding and signaling properties of RIN1 suggest a unique effector function.

    Han L, Wong D, Dhaka A, Afar D, White M, Xie W, Herschman H, Witte O and Colicelli J

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Human RIN1 was first characterized as a RAS binding protein based on the properties of its carboxyl-terminal domain. We now show that full-length RIN1 interacts with activated RAS in mammalian cells and defines a minimum region of 434 aa required for efficient RAS binding. RIN1 interacts with the "effector domain" of RAS and employs some RAS determinants that are common to, and others that are distinct from, those required for the binding of RAF1, a known RAS effector. The same domain of RIN1 that binds RAS also interacts with 14-3-3 proteins, extending the similarity between RIN1 and other RAS effectors. When expressed in mammalian cells, the RAS binding domain of RIN1 can act as a dominant negative signal transduction blocker. The amino-terminal domain of RIN1 contains a proline-rich sequence similar to consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) binding regions. This RIN1 sequence shows preferential binding to the ABL-SH3 domain in vitro. Moreover, the amino-terminal domain of RIN1 directly associates with, and is tyrosine phosphorylated by, c-ABL. In addition, RIN1 encodes a functional SH2 domain that has the potential to activate downstream signals. These data suggest that RIN1 is able to mediate multiple signals. A differential pattern of expression and alternate splicing indicate several levels of RIN1 regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA53867, CA56301, R01 CA056301, R01 CA071443; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24787

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;10;4954-9

  • Suppression of integrin activation: a novel function of a Ras/Raf-initiated MAP kinase pathway.

    Hughes PE, Renshaw MW, Pfaff M, Forsyth J, Keivens VM, Schwartz MA and Ginsberg MH

    Department of Vascular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Rapid modulation of ligand binding affinity ("activation") is a central property of the integrin cell adhesion receptors. Using a screen for suppressors of integrin activation, we identified the small GTP-binding protein, H-Ras, and its effector kinase, Raf-1, as negative regulators of integrin activation. H-Ras inhibited the activation of integrins with three distinct alpha and beta subunit cytoplasmic domains. Suppression was not associated with integrin phosphorylation and was independent of both mRNA transcription and protein synthesis. Furthermore, suppression correlated with activation of the ERK MAP kinase pathway. Thus, regulation of integrin affinity state is a novel, transcription-independent function of a Ras-linked MAP kinase pathway that may mediate a negative feedback loop in integrin function.

    Cell 1997;88;4;521-30

  • Sequential modification of serines 621 and 624 in the Raf-1 carboxyl terminus produces alterations in its electrophoretic mobility.

    Ferrier AF, Lee M, Anderson WB, Benvenuto G, Morrison DK, Lowy DR and DeClue JE

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4040, USA.

    The Raf-1 serine/threonine protein kinase plays a central role in many of the mitogenic signaling pathways regulating cell growth and differentiation. The regulation of Raf-1 is complex, and involves protein-protein interactions as well as changes in the phosphorylation state of Raf-1 that are accompanied by alterations in its electrophoretic mobility. We have previously shown that a 33-kDa COOH-terminal, kinase-inactive fragment of Raf-1 underwent a mobility shift in response to the stimulation of cells with serum or phorbol esters. Here we demonstrate that treatment of NIH 3T3 cells or Sf9 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also induces the mobility shift of the kinase-inactive Raf-1 fragment. A series of deletion mutants of the Raf-1 COOH terminus were analyzed, and the region required for the mobility shift was localized to a 78-amino acid fragment (residues 566-643). Metabolic labeling revealed that the slower migrating forms of the 33-kDa and of the smaller fragment contained phosphorus. Mutation of a previously characterized phosphorylation site, serine 621, to alanine prevented the mobility shift as well as phosphate incorporation or Src and Ras-dependent kinase activation in Sf9 cells when this mutation was engineered into the full-length Raf-1. Mutation of 621 to aspartate yielded a protein that existed in both the shifted and unshifted forms, demonstrating that a negative charge at 621 was necessary, but not sufficient, for the mobility shift to occur; however, its full-length form was still resistant to activation in the Sf9 system. Additional mutation of nearby serine 624 to alanine blocked the shift, implicating this residue as the site of the second of a two-step modification process leading to the slower migrating form. Co-expression of the 33-kDa fragment with an activated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in NIH 3T3 led to the appearance of the shifted form in a serum-independent manner. These results demonstrate that a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-induced event involving modification of serines 621 and 624 leads to the mobility shift of Raf-1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;4;2136-42

  • Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene.

    Inoue I, Taniuchi I, Kitamura D, Jenkins NA, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG and Watanabe T

    Department of Molecular Immunology, Kyushu University 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812, Japan.

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p.

    Genomics 1996;36;1;178-81

  • ARIA/HRG regulates AChR epsilon subunit gene expression at the neuromuscular synapse via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras/MAPK pathway.

    Tansey MG, Chu GC and Merlie JP

    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St.Louis, Missouri 63110-8103, USA.

    AChR-inducing activity (ARIA)/heregulin, a ligand for erbB receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), is likely to be one nerve-supplied signal that induces expression of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) genes at the developing neuromuscular junction. Since some RTKs act through Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), we investigated the role of these pathways in ARIA signaling. Expression of activated Ras or Raf mimicked ARIA-induction of AChR epsilon subunit genes in muscle cells; whereas dominant negative Ras or Raf blocked the effect of ARIA. ARIA rapidly activated erk1 and erk2 and inhibition of both erks also abolished the effect of ARIA. ARIA stimulated association of PI3K with erbB3, expression of an activated PI3K led to ARIA-independent AChR epsilon subunit expression, and inhibition of PI3K abolished the action of ARIA. Thus, synaptic induction of AChR genes requires activation of both Ras/MAPK and PI3K signal transduction pathways.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32GM0780513; NINDS NIH HHS: T32NS07129

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;134;2;465-76

  • Plasmacytoma-associated neuronal glycoprotein, Pang, maps to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 3.

    Mock BA, Connelly MA, McBride OW, Kozak CA and Marcu KB

    Laboratory of Genetics, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892-4255, USA.

    A new member of the immunoglobulin/fibronectin superfamily of adhesion molecules, Pang (plasmacytoma-associated neuronal glycoprotein), was recently isolated from a plasmacytoma. In previous studies, Pang was found to be normally expressed in the brain and ectopically activated by intracisternal A-type particle long terminal repeats in plasmacytomas. In this study, Pang was initially mapped to mouse Chr 6 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and further positioned on the chromosome between Wnt7a and Pcp1. Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids together with predictions from the mouse map location indicate that human PANG is located at 3p26.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 36246, N01-CB-21075

    Genomics 1996;34;2;226-8

  • Induction of expression of growth-related genes by FGF-4 in mouse fibroblasts.

    Guthridge MA, Seldin M and Basilico C

    Department of Microbiology and Kaplan Cancer Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA.

    Cells monitor and respond to extracellular signals from polypeptide growth factors by the induction of a genetic program. Although poorly understood at the molecular level, the biological activity of growth factors is believed to be mediated by the regulation of specific sets of genes. We have isolated a number of cDNAs, the expression of whose corresponding RNAs is induced by FGF-4 (K-FGF) in murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts. The cDNAs (FIN, for FGF-inducible) were isolated using a strategy of subtractive hybridization designed to yield 'late' genes which compared transformed 3T3 cells that constitutively produce FGF-4 with their normal counterpart. The 21 independent cDNAs isolated were found to correspond to known genes (FIN1-12), or novel genes (FIN13-21). Expression of the FIN genes is induced in response to FGF-4 as well as to serum in NIH3T3 cells with delayed kinetics, with maximum stimulation occurring 12-18h after growth factor treatment. Induction requires protein synthesis and is mostly transcriptional. FIN1-12 encode a broad range of previously described genes, some of which are proposed to have an important role in cell proliferation. The novel clones include a putative serine-threonine phosphatase (FIN13) and a gene with homology to NTP-binding proteins (FIN16). The distribution of expression of the novel FIN clones in adult mouse tissues was highly restricted, although most were expressed in embryos. While expression of novel FIN cDNAs was strongly regulated in NIH3T3 cells, induction of differentiation in PC-12 cells by FGF-4 (as well as by NGF) did not result in significant induction of expression, suggesting that most of the FIN genes are proliferation-specific. Chromosomal localization of novel FIN clones indicated that each segregated independently to separate mouse chromosomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42568; PHS HHS: H600734

    Oncogene 1996;12;6;1267-78

  • Genetic mapping of members of the polyubiquitin gene subfamily coding for UbB.

    Voss GC and Jockusch H

    Developmental Biology Unit, University of Bielefeld, Germany.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;2;169

  • Report of the sixth international workshop on human chromosome 3 mapping 1995.

    Naylor SL, Carritt B, Boileau C, Beroud C, Alexander C, Allderdice P, Alimov A, Ashworth T, Bonifas J, Bugert P, Buys CH, Chipperfield MA, Deng G, Drabkin H, Gemmill RM, Grompe M, Joensuu T, Jonasdottir A, Gizatullin R, Krols L, Leach RJ, Lott ST, Killary A, Martinsson T, Messiaen L et al.

    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78284-7762, USA.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1996;72;4;255-70

  • Mouse lymphotoxin-beta receptor. Molecular genetics, ligand binding, and expression.

    Force WR, Walter BN, Hession C, Tizard R, Kozak CA, Browning JL and Ware CF

    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

    Lymphotoxin (LT) -alpha beta heterotrimer is a membrane-anchored ligand expressed by activated T cells which binds specifically to the LT beta receptor (LT beta R), a member of the TNFR family. The LT beta R is implicated as a critical element in controlling lymph node development and cellular immune reactions. To address this hypothesis we have isolated a mouse cDNA encoding a single transmembrane protein of 415 amino acids with 76% identity to human LT beta R. The receptor function of this molecule was demonstrated by the ability of the extracellular domain, constructed as a chimera with the Fc region of IgG7, to bind to LT alpha beta complexes expressed on the surface of activated T cells or insect cells infected with baculoviruses containing LT alpha and LT beta cDNAs. The gene encoding mouse LT beta R, Ltbr, contains 10 exons spanning 6.9 kb and maps to mouse chromosome 6, which is closely linked to Tnfr1, consistent with the tight linkage of the human homologue of these genes on chromosome 12p13. Mouse LT beta R mRNA is expressed by cell lines of monocytic and epithelial origin but not by a CTL line, and in vivo it is constitutively expressed in visceral and lymphoid tissues. The delineation of the structure of the mouse LT beta R will aid investigations into the role of this cytokine-receptor system in immune function and development.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI33068

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1995;155;11;5280-8

  • Herpesvirus Saimiri encodes a new cytokine, IL-17, which binds to a novel cytokine receptor.

    Yao Z, Fanslow WC, Seldin MF, Rousseau AM, Painter SL, Comeau MR, Cohen JI and Spriggs MK

    Immunex Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.

    Herpesvirus Saimiri gene 13 (HVS13) exhibits 57% identity with the predicted sequence of a T cell-derived molecule termed CTLA8. Recombinant HVS13 and CTLA8 stimulate transcriptional factor NF-kappa B activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in fibroblasts, and costimulate T cell proliferation. An HVS13.Fc fusion protein was used to isolate a cDNA encoding a novel receptor that also binds CTLA8. This receptor is unrelated to previously identified cytokine receptor families. A recombinant soluble receptor inhibited T cell proliferation and IL-2 production induced by PHA, concanavalin A (conA), and anti-TCR MAb. These results define CTLA8 and HVS13 as novel cytokines that bind to a novel cytokine receptor. We propose to call these molecules IL-17, vIL-17, and IL-17R, respectively.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00734; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR41053

    Immunity 1995;3;6;811-21

  • Raf-1 provides a dominant but not exclusive signal for the induction of CD69 expression on T cells.

    Taylor-Fishwick DA and Siegel JN

    Signal Transduction Branch, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA.

    Stimulation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces a number of intracellular signaling pathways which lead to the transcription of a variety of new genes. Of the newly synthesized proteins, the earliest to be detected on the cell surface is the type II integral membrane protein CD69. Cross-linking of this activation antigen induces signaling events related to T cell activation. The proto-oncogene product Ras has been reported to up-regulate CD69. However, which of the potential effectors of Ras induces the expression of CD69 has remained unclear. Using transient transfection, we have shown a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 to be sufficient to induce CD69 expression in human Jurkat T cells. Raf-1 was further shown to be necessary for PMA-induced CD69 expression, since transfection of a dominant inhibitory form of Raf-1 blocked the up-regulation of CD69 by PMA. In addition, studies with the calcium ionophore ionomycin identified a previously uncharacterized pathway regulating the expression of CD69 in T cells. Elevation of intracellular calcium induced the expression of CD69 in both Jurkat cells and peripheral blood T cells. This effect was sensitive to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, indicating that calcium-induced CD69 expression is mediated by the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Taken together, these results define Raf-1 as the major signaling mediator of CD69 expression in T cells and suggest that multiple mechanisms exist to regulate the level of CD69 expression following TCR stimulation.

    European journal of immunology 1995;25;12;3215-21

  • Epithelial sodium channel genes Scnn1b and Scnn1g are closely linked on distal mouse chromosome 7.

    Brooker DR, Kozak CA and Kleyman TR

    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6144, USA.

    The chromosomal localizations of Scnn1b and Scnn1g, genes corresponding to the beta- and gamma-subunits, respectively, of an epithelial non-voltage-gated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel, were determined by analyses of two sets of multilocus crosses using probes generated by polymerase chain reaction and a mouse kidney cortical collecting tubule cell line (M1). Scnn1b and Scnn1g were determined to be closely linked on distal mouse chromosome 7, showing no recombination with Zp2, whereas the gene for the alpha-subunit, Scnn1a, was confirmed to map to distal mouse chromosome 6.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07006

    Genomics 1995;29;3;784-6

  • Chromosomal localisation, inducibility, tissue-specific expression and strain differences in three murine peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor genes.

    Jones PS, Savory R, Barratt P, Bell AR, Gray TJ, Jenkins NA, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG and Bell DR

    Department of Life Science, University of Nottingham, England.

    Three murine peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR) genes were localised to chromosome 15 (PPAR alpha), chromosome 17 (PPAR beta) and chromosome 6 (PPAR gamma). The expression of the three PPAR RNAs was determined using a specific RNase protection assay. In liver RNA, PPAR alpha was expressed at the highest level, with 20-fold lower levels of PPAR beta, and very low levels of PPAR gamma. The three PPAR RNAs showed no sex-specific differences in expression, and the levels of these transcripts were unaffected by treatment of mice with testosterone or the potent peroxisome proliferator, methylclofenapate. In agreement with this data, the level of PPAR alpha protein in liver was unchanged after treatment of mice with methylclofenapate. Investigation of the tissue-specific distribution revealed that the PPAR alpha RNA was expressed at highest levels in liver, to moderate levels in kidney and brown adipose tissue, and at low levels elsewhere. PPAR beta was expressed at moderate levels in liver, and lower levels in other tissues, including brown adipose tissue. In contrast, PPAR gamma RNA was expressed at low levels in liver or epididymal white adipose tissue and at very low levels elsewhere, but was expressed at high levels in brown adipose tissue. The tissue distribution of these receptors suggests an important role in lipid metabolism and toxicity for individual members of the PPAR family. The expression of PPAR alpha and PPAR beta RNAs was examined in 13 strains of mice, and the levels of expression varied within a fourfold range. Polymorphism in the size of PPAR alpha RNA from Swiss-Webster mice was detected, and shown to be due to a 2-bp mutation in the 3' non-coding region of PPAR alpha in Swiss Webster mice.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101; Wellcome Trust

    European journal of biochemistry / FEBS 1995;233;1;219-26

  • Rapid induction of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor expression by Raf and Ras oncogenes.

    McCarthy SA, Samuels ML, Pritchard CA, Abraham JA and McMahon M

    DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.

    We have used differential display PCR to search for mRNAs induced by delta Raf-1:ER, an estradiol-dependent form of Raf-1 kinase. Through this approach the gene encoding heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified as an immediate-early transcriptional target of oncogenic Raf kinases. Activation of delta Raf-1:ER and a conditional oncogenic form of B-Raf, delta B-RAF:ER, resulted in rapid and sustained induction of HB-EGF mRNA expression and secretion of mature HB-EGF from cells. Neutralizing anti-HB-EGF antisera prevented the delayed activation of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases that is observed in cells transformed by delta Raf-1:ER. These results demonstrate that distinct signaling pathways can cross talk via the secretion of polypeptide growth factors. Furthermore, cells transformed by oncogenic Ras, which also induced HB-EGF expression, demonstrated a marked increase in sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, for which the membrane anchored HB-EGF precursor acts as a cell-surface receptor.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46166

    Genes & development 1995;9;16;1953-64

  • cDNA cloning, expression, mutagenesis, intracellular localization, and gene chromosomal assignment of mouse 5-lipoxygenase.

    Chen XS, Naumann TA, Kurre U, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG and Funk CD

    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    5-Lipoxygenase of mouse macrophages and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) was investigated. Indirect immunocytofluorescence combined with confocal microscopy provided evidence for distinct intracellular expression patterns and trafficking of 5-lipoxygenase upon cellular activation. In resting BMMC, 5-lipoxygenase was found within the nucleus co-localizing with the nuclear stain Yo-Pro-1. When BMMC were IgE/antigen-activated the 5-lipoxygenase immunofluorescence pattern was changed from nuclear to perinuclear. The absence of divalent cations in the incubation medium, or calcium ionophore A23187 challenge, altered the predominantly nuclear expression pattern to new sites both cytosolic and intranuclear. The cDNA for murine macrophage 5-lipoxygenase was cloned by the polymerase chain reaction and would predict a 674 amino acid protein. Using control cells obtained from 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice it was determined that a single isoform accounts for both soluble and membrane-bound and nuclear and cytosolic-localized enzyme in macrophages and BMMC. A mutation at amino acid 672 (Val-->Met) introduced serendipitously during the cloning process was found to completely abolish 5-lipoxygenase enzyme activity when the enzyme was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. This subtle change is proposed to affect the ability of the COOH-terminal isoleucine to coordinate the essential non-heme iron atom. In macrophages and BMMC obtained from 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice, compensatory changes in expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 were investigated. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein expression was reduced by 50%, while leukotriene A4 hydrolase expression was unaltered. The 5-lipoxygenase gene was mapped to the central region of mouse chromosome 6 in a region that shares homology with human chromosome 10 by interspecific backcross analysis. These studies provide a global picture of the murine 5-lipoxygenase system and raise questions about the role of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotrienes within the nucleus.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-46000; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL02710; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM15431

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;30;17993-9

  • Localization of the synapsin II (SYN2) gene to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 6.

    Li L, Chin LS, Greengard P, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ and Jenkins NA

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-46000; NIMH NIH HHS: MH39327

    Genomics 1995;28;2;365-6

  • Mapping of the taurine transporter gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to the short arm of human chromosome 3.

    Patel A, Rochelle JM, Jones JM, Sumegi J, Uhl GR, Seldin MF, Meisler MH and Gregor P

    Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Transport proteins have essential functions in the uptake of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. We have mapped the gene encoding the taurine transporter, Taut, to the central region of mouse chromosome 6. Analysis of a cross segregating the neurological mutant mnd2 excluded Taut as a candidate gene for this closely linked mutation. To map the human taurine transporter gene, TAUT, a sequence-tagged site (STS) corresponding to the 3' untranslated region of the human cDNA was developed. TAUT was assigned to human chromosome 3 by typing this STS on a panel of somatic cell hybrids. Further analysis of a hybrid panel containing defined deletions of chromosome 3 suggested that TAUT maps to 3p21-p25. These data extend a conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 3p. Deletion of TAUT might contribute to some phenotypic features of the 3p- syndrome.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00734

    Genomics 1995;25;1;314-7

  • Colocalization of the rat homolog of the von Hippel Lindau (Vhl) gene and the plasma membrane Ca++ transporting ATPase isoform 2 (Atp2b2) gene to rat chromosome bands 4q41.3-->42.1.

    Aldaz CM, Yeung RS, Latif F, Lerman MI, Xiao G, Trono D and Walker CL

    University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Carcinogenesis, Smithville 78957, USA.

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the rat homolog of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (Vhl) to rat chromosome band 4q41.3-->q42.1. We also mapped the gene encoding the plasma membrane Ca(++)-transporting ATPase isoform 2(Atp2b2) to the same chromosome subregion. These two genes together with Raf1 appear to be members of a large syntenic gene cluster that maps to human chromosome bands 3p25-->p26, mouse chromosome bands 6 C3-->E, and rat chromosome bands 4q41-->q42. Cytogenetic analysis of NRK 52E cells derived from immortalized normal rat kidney epithelial cells revealed an inverted duplication of the region containing this gene cluster.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA48922, CA63613

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1995;71;3;253-6

  • Mapping of the genes for four members of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: mouse Cd9, Cd63, Cd81, and Cd82.

    Seldin MF, Rochelle JM, Tomlinson MG and Wright MD

    The MRC Cellular Immunology Unit, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00734

    Immunogenetics 1995;42;5;422-5

  • Isolation and genetic mapping of two novel members of the murine Wnt gene family, Wnt11 and Wnt12, and the mapping of Wnt5a and Wnt7a.

    Adamson MC, Dennis C, Delaney S, Christiansen J, Monkley S, Kozak CA and Wainwright B

    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    The murine Wnt genes are implicated in the control of a variety of developmental processes. Using a PCR-based approach, we have isolated two novel members of the murine Wnt gene family, Wnt11 and Wnt12. These cDNAs display an amino acid sequence identity of between 38 and 49% with all other murine Wnts over the regions that we have isolated. In addition, two previously described Wnt genes, Wnt5a and Wnt7a, were detected in RT-PCR products. Interspecific crosses were used to demonstrate close linkage between Wnt12 and Wnt1 on Chromosome (Chr) 15. Wnt7a was mapped to mouse Chr 6, Wnt5a to the centromeric region of Chr 14, and Wnt11 to Chr7.

    Genomics 1994;24;1;9-13

  • SCNN1, an epithelial cell sodium channel gene in the conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 12.

    Meisler MH, Barrow LL, Canessa CM and Rossier BC

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0618.

    SCNN1, a gene encoding a nonvoltage-gated sodium channel, was detected using a rat colon cDNA probe with homology to Caenorhabditis elegans degenerin genes. Human SCNN1 was assigned to chromosome 12 using the NIGMS hybrid mapping panel 2. Mouse SCNN1 was mapped to a conserved linkage group on distal chromosome 6. The observed order of mouse genes was centromere-Raf1-(2.1 +/- 2.1)-Scnn1, Vwf-(1.9 +/- 1.9)-Ntf3, with 0/101 recombinants between Scnn1 and Vwf. No rearrangements of genomic DNA were detected in the linked mouse mutations deaf waddler (dfw) and opisthotonus (opt).

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24872

    Genomics 1994;24;1;185-6

  • The Ras/Raf signaling pathway is required for progression of mouse embryos through the two-cell stage.

    Yamauchi N, Kiessling AA and Cooper GM

    Division of Molecular Genetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115.

    We have used microinjection of antisense oligonucleotides, monoclonal antibody, and the dominant negative Ras N-17 mutant to interfere with Ras expression and function in mouse oocytes and early embryos. Microinjection of either ras antisense oligonucleotides or anti-Ras monoclonal antibody Y13-259 did not affect normal progression of oocytes through meiosis and arrest at metaphase II. However, microinjection of fertilized eggs with constructs expressing Ras N-17 inhibited subsequent development through the two-cell stage. The inhibitory effect of Ras N-17 was overcome by simultaneous injection of a plasmid expressing an active raf oncogene, indicating that it resulted from interference with the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. In contrast to the inhibition of two-cell embryo development resulting from microinjection of pronuclear stage eggs, microinjection of late two-cell embryos with Ras N-17 expression constructs did not affect subsequent cleavages and development to morulae and blastocysts. It thus appears that the Ras/Raf signaling pathway, presumably activated by autocrine growth factor stimulation, is specifically required at the two-cell stage, which is the time of transition between maternal and embryonic gene expression in mouse embryos.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD26594

    Molecular and cellular biology 1994;14;10;6655-62

  • Molecular characterization of a novel human gene, SEC13R, related to the yeast secretory pathway gene SEC13, and mapping to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 3p24-p25 and mouse chromosome 6.

    Swaroop A, Yang-Feng TL, Liu W, Gieser L, Barrow LL, Chen KC, Agarwal N, Meisler MH and Smith DI

    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0618.

    We previously described sequence tags from 58 novel directionally cloned human cDNAs from an enriched retinal pigment epithelial cell line library (Gieser and Swaroop, 1992). The nucleotide sequence of one of the cDNA clones, AA35 (D3S1231E), showed strong homology to the yeast SEC13 gene, required for vesicle biogenesis from endoplasmic reticulum during the transport of proteins. We have designated the human gene SEC13R (SEC13-Related). The amino acid sequence of the SEC13R gene product shows 70% similarity to yeast Sec13p, suggesting that SEC13R may be the human homolog of SEC13. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains several beta-transducin like 'WD40' repeats, and is rich in serine and threonine residues. The 1.4 kb transcript of SEC13R is detected by Northern analysis in many human tissues. However, RT-PCR analysis using two primer sets from different regions of the gene suggests differential expression of alternately spliced transcripts in various tissues. Somatic cell hybrid and in situ hybridization studies localized the SEC13R gene to human chromosome 3p24-p25. A related sequence was mapped to chromosome 18q11.2-q12. SEC13R was physically mapped to a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone spanning the D3S720 marker from the region of the Von Hippel-Lindau disease locus. The mouse Sec13r gene was mapped to the conserved linkage group on chromosome 6 that corresponds to human chromosome 3p24-p25.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 48039; NEI NIH HHS: EY07961; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24872; ...

    Human molecular genetics 1994;3;8;1281-6

  • v-raf suppresses apoptosis and promotes growth of interleukin-3-dependent myeloid cells.

    Cleveland JL, Troppmair J, Packham G, Askew DS, Lloyd P, González-Garcia M, Nuñez G, Ihle JN and Rapp UR

    Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105.

    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is required for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of myeloid progenitors. In the absence of IL-3, murine myeloid 32D.3 cells accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and subsequently undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that enforced expression of the v-raf oncogene suppresses apoptosis of myeloid 32D.3 cells following the withdrawal of IL-3. Surprisingly, steady state levels of Bcl-2, an oncogene known to suppress apoptosis, were not dependent upon IL-3 in 32D.3 cells and its levels were not augmented in v-raf clones. This suggests that ability of v-raf to suppress apoptosis in the absence of ligand is either Bcl-2 independent or that v-raf kinase promotes Bcl-2 function. v-raf also promoted growth of these cells in the presence of IL-3. v-raf clones proliferated at an increased rate due to a shortened G1 phase and had decreased requirements for IL-3 for growth. Therefore, transformation of myeloid cells by v-raf involves signaling pathways which promote both cell cycle progression and cell survival.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P0 CA21765; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK42932, DK44158

    Oncogene 1994;9;8;2217-26

  • Raf meets Ras: completing the framework of a signal transduction pathway.

    Avruch J, Zhang XF and Kyriakis JM

    Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    The Ras oncoprotein, a GTP-activated molecular switch, interacts directly with the Raf oncoprotein to recruit the MAP kinases and their subordinates. In this way, a mitogenic signal initiated by tyrosine kinases is converted by Ras into a wave of regulatory phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues that, depending on its intensity and duration, and the variety of substrates available, results in cell differentiation or cell division.

    Trends in biochemical sciences 1994;19;7;279-83

  • Voltage-gated potassium channel genes are clustered in paralogous regions of the mouse genome.

    Lock LF, Gilbert DJ, Street VA, Migeon MB, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG and Tempel BL

    ABL-Basic Research Program, NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702.

    Cloning of the Drosophila Shaker gene established that a neurological phenotype including locomotor dysfunction can be caused by a mutation in a voltage-gated potassium (K) channel gene. Shaker sequences have been used to isolate a large family of related K channel genes from both flies and mammals. Toward elucidating the evolutionary relationship between loci and the potential causal connection that K channels may have to mammalian genetic disorders, we report here the genetic mapping of 12-16 different murine, voltage-gated K channel genes. We find that multiple genes, in some cases from distantly related K channel subfamilies, occur in clusters in the mouse genome. These mapping results suggest that the K channel gene subfamilies arose through ancient localized gene duplication events, followed by chromosomal duplications and rearrangements as well as further gene duplication. We also note that several neurologic disorders of both mouse and human are associated with the chromosomal regions containing K channel genes.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-27206; PHS HHS: N01-C0-74101

    Genomics 1994;20;3;354-62

  • Alterations in the methylation status and expression of the raf oncogene in phenobarbital-induced and spontaneous B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors.

    Ray JS, Harbison ML, McClain RM and Goodman JI

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824.

    The liver tumor-prone B6C3F1 mouse (C57Bl/6 female x C3H/He male), in conjunction with the more susceptible C3H/He paternal strain and the resistant C57BL/6 maternal strain, is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. The study reported here indicated that the B6C3F1 mouse inherited a maternal raf allele containing a methylated site not present in the paternal allele. Seven days after partial hepatectomy or after administration of a promoting dose of phenobarbital (PB) for 14 d; raf in B6C3F1 mouse liver was hypomethylated. The additional methylated site in the allele inherited from C57BL/6 was not maintained. The methylation status of raf in the liver of the C57BL/6 mouse was not affected by PB treatment. This indicates that the B6C3F1 mouse is less capable of maintaining methylation of raf than the C57BL/6 strain is. In both PB-induced and spontaneous B6C3F1 liver tumors, raf was hypomethylated in a nonrandom fashion. The level of raf mRNA increased in seven of 10 PB-induced tumors but in only one of five spontaneous tumors, whereas the level of Ha-ras mRNA increased in nine of 10 PB-induced tumors and in four of five spontaneous tumors. The results of our investigation (a) support the hypothesis that hypomethylation of DNA is a nongenotoxic mechanism involved in tumorigenesis, (b) support the notion that PB promotes liver tumors that develop along a pathway different from that leading to spontaneous tumors, and (c) indicate that differences in DNA methylation between C57BL/6 and B6C3F1 mice could, in part, account for the unusually high tendency of the latter strain to develop liver tumors.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES-05299

    Molecular carcinogenesis 1994;9;3;155-66

  • Mapping of two genes encoding members of a distinct subfamily of MAX interacting proteins: MAD to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 6, and MXI1 to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19.

    Edelhoff S, Ayer DE, Zervos AS, Steingrímsson E, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Eisenman RN, Brent R and Disteche CM

    Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

    Both the MAD and the MXI1 genes encode basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors which bind Max in vitro, forming a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex similar to the Myc-Max heterodimer. Mad and Myc compete for binding to Max. In addition, Mad has been shown to act as a transcriptional repressor while Myc appears to function as an activator. Mxi1 also appears to lack a transcriptional activation domain. Therefore, Mxi1 and Mad might antagonize Myc function and are candidate tumor suppressor genes. We report here the mapping of the MAD and MXI1 genes in human and mouse by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and by recombination mapping. The MAD gene was mapped to human chromosome 2 at band p13 by FISH and to mouse chromosome 6 by meiotic mapping. The MXI1 gene was mapped to human chromosome 10 at band q25 and on mouse chromosome 19 at region D by FISH. There was a second site of hybridization on mouse chromosome 2 at region C, which may represent a pseudogene or a related sequence. The mapping results confirm regions of conservation between human chromosome 2p13 and mouse chromosome 6 and between chromosome 10q25 and mouse chromosome 19D. Human chromosomes 2p13 and 10q25 have been involved in specific tumors where the role of Mad and Mxi1 can now be investigated.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101

    Oncogene 1994;9;2;665-8

  • Chromosomal mapping in the mouse of eight K(+)-channel genes representing the four Shaker-like subfamilies Shaker, Shab, Shaw, and Shal.

    Klocke R, Roberds SL, Tamkun MM, Gronemeier M, Augustin A, Albrecht B, Pongs O and Jockusch H

    Developmental Biology Unit, University of Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The four Shaker-like subfamilies of Shaker-, Shab-, Shaw-, and Shal-related K+ channels in mammals have been defined on the basis of their sequence homologies to the corresponding Drosophila genes. Using interspecific backcrosses between Mus musculus and Mus spretus, we have chromosomally mapped in the mouse the Shaker-related K(+)-channel genes Kcna1, Kcna2, Kcna4, Kcna5, and Kcna6; the Shab-related gene Kcnb1; the Shaw-related gene Kcnc4; and the Shal-related gene Kcnd2. The following localizations were determined: Chr 2, cen-Acra-Kcna4-Pax-6-a-Pck-1-Kras-3-Kcn b1 (corresponding human Chrs 11p and 20q, respectively); Chr 3, cen-Hao-2-(Kcna2, Kcnc4)-Amy-1 (human Chr 1); and Chr 6, cen-Cola-2-Met-Kcnd2-Cpa-Tcrb-adr/Clc-1-Hox-1.1-Myk - 103-Raf-1-(Tpi-1, Kcna1, Kcna5, Kcna6) (human Chrs 7q and 12p, respectively). Thus, there is a cluster of at least three Shaker-related K(+)-channel genes on distal mouse Chr 6 and a cluster on Chr 2 that at least consists of one Shaker-related and one Shaw-related gene. The three other K(+)-channel genes are not linked to each other. The map positions of the different types of K(+)-channel genes in the mouse are discussed in relation to those of their homologs in man and to hereditary diseases of mouse and man that might involve K+ channels.

    Genomics 1993;18;3;568-74

  • Phylogenetic relationships among laboratory and wild-origin Mus musculus strains on the basis of genomic DNA RFLPs.

    Santos J, Cole Y and Pellicer A

    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016.

    Genetic distance measures between the laboratory mouse strains C57BL/6J and RF/J and the wild-origin Mus musculus mouse strains CAST/Ei, MOLF/Ei, POSCH I, and CZECH II were estimated by allelic patterns revealed by RFLP analysis. These results suggest phylogenetic relationships indicating that the mouse strains related to the subspecies M.m. domesticus (RF/J, POSCH I and C57BL/6J) are more closely related to the CAST/Ei strain (derived from M.m. castaneus) than to the strains CZECH II (M.m. musculus) and MOLF/Ei (M.m. molossinus). Furthermore, the hybrid strain C57BL/6J is more closely related to POSCH I (M.m. poschiavinus) than to RF/J as calculated by the method distance measures of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards (Evolution 21,550, 1967), Nei's minimum (Am. Natural. 106,283, 1972) and unbiased minimum (Genetics 89,583, 1978), Edwards (Biometrics 27,873, 1971; Genetic Distance, p. 41, 1974) and Rogers modified (1986).

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA36327, CA50434

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;9;485-92

  • An inhibitory Raf-1 mutant suppresses expression of a subset of v-raf-activated genes.

    Miltenberger RJ, Cortner J and Farnham PJ

    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706.

    The proto-oncogene Raf-1 is a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase implicated in the signaling process in cell proliferation. To determine if Raf-1 is sufficient and necessary to transmit mitogenic signals to growth-responsive genes, we examined the effect of constitutively activated (v-raf) or inhibitory (Raf-C4) Raf-1 proteins on reporter gene activation in transient expression assays of NIH 3T3 cells. In serum-starved cells, v-raf strongly activated transcription from the promoters of the immediate-early genes c-fos and egr-2, as well as the proximal or B promoter of the late growth response gene rep-3 (rep-3b). Two other late response gene promoters, cad and dhfr, were only modestly activated by v-raf, however. An individual serum response element from the c-fos or egr-2 promoter conferred both serum-inducibility and v-raf-responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Consistent with the degree to which antisense c-raf-1 RNA and dominant-negative Raf-1 proteins interfere with NIH 3T3 cell proliferation, Raf-C4 reduced serum-induced transcription from the egr-2 and rep-3b promoters in a dose-dependent manner by 50%. In contrast, Raf-C4 did not significantly reduce transcription from the c-fos or cad promoters or the serum response element-driven heterologous promoters. We conclude that Raf-1 is both sufficient and necessary to activate a subset of early and late growth response genes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA07175, CA09135, CA23076

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;21;15674-80

  • Mammalian Ras interacts directly with the serine/threonine kinase Raf.

    Vojtek AB, Hollenberg SM and Cooper JA

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104.

    We have identified proteins that interact with H-Ras using a two hybrid system screen of a mouse cDNA library. Approximately 50% of the clones identified encoded portions of the c-Raf and A-Raf serine/threonine kinases. Overlaps among these clones define a conserved 81 residue region of the N-terminus of Raf as the Ras interaction region. We show that Raf interacts with wild-type and activated Ras, but not with an effector domain mutant of Ras or with a dominant-interfering Ras mutant. Using purified bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we show, furthermore, that Ras and the N-terminal region of Raf associate directly in vitro and that this interaction is dependent on GTP bound to Ras.

    Cell 1993;74;1;205-14

  • mnd2: a new mouse model of inherited motor neuron disease.

    Jones JM, Albin RL, Feldman EL, Simin K, Schuster TG, Dunnick WA, Collins JT, Chrisp CE, Taylor BA and Meisler MH

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109.

    The autosomal recessive mutation mnd2 results in early onset motor neuron disease with rapidly progressive paralysis, severe muscle wasting, regression of thymus and spleen, and death before 40 days of age. mnd2 has been mapped to mouse chromosome 6 with the gene order: centromere-Tcrb-Ly-2-Sftp-3-D6Mit4-mnd2-D6Mit 6, D6Mit9-D6Rck132-Raf-1, D6Mit11-D6Mit12-D6Mit14, mnd2 is located within a conserved linkage group with homologs on human chromosome 2p12-p13. Spinal motor neurons of homozygous affected animals are swollen and stain weakly, and electromyography revealed spontaneous activity characteristic of muscle denervation. Myelin staining was normal throughout the neuraxis. The clinical observations are consistent with a primary abnormality of lower motor neuron function. This new animal model will be of value for identification of a genetic defect responsible for motor neuron disease and for evaluation of new therapies.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS01300, NS01381, NS19613

    Genomics 1993;16;3;669-77

  • A divergence in the MAP kinase regulatory network defined by MEK kinase and Raf.

    Lange-Carter CA, Pleiman CM, Gardner AM, Blumer KJ and Johnson GL

    Division of Basic Sciences, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO 80206.

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to various extracellular stimuli in many different cell types. Such regulation of MAPK results from sequential activation of a series of protein kinases. The kinases that phosphorylate MAPKs, the MAP kinase kinases (MEKs) are also activated by phosphorylation. MEKs are related in sequence to the yeast protein kinases Byr1 (from Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Ste7 (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which function in the pheromone-induced signaling pathway that results in mating. Byr1 and Ste7 are in turn regulated by the protein kinases Byr2 and Ste11. The amino acid sequence of the mouse homolog of Byr2 and Ste11, denoted MEKK (MEK kinase), was elucidated from a complementary DNA sequence encoding a protein of 672 amino acid residues (73 kilodaltons). MEKK was expressed in all mouse tissues tested, and it phosphorylated and activated MEK. Phosphorylation and activation of MEK by MEKK was independent of Raf, a growth factor-regulated protein kinase that also phosphorylates MEK. Thus, MEKK and Raf converge at MEK in the protein kinase network mediating the activation of MAPKs by hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58187; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 37871; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 30324

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1993;260;5106;315-9

  • Developmental and cell lineage specificity of raf family gene expression in mouse testis.

    Wadewitz AG, Winer MA and Wolgemuth DJ

    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Columbia Univeristy College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    The proto-oncogene c-raf-1 and the related genes A-raf and B-raf encode serine/threonine protein kinases thought to be involved in regulating gene expression by transducing extracellular signals into the cell. All three raf family genes have been shown previously to be expressed in mouse testis. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses with probes specific for each gene demonstrated that c-raf-1 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in both somatic and germ cells as a 3.1-kb transcript. Additionally, the levels of c-raf-1 expression are developmentally regulated in the germ cells, exhibiting highest expression in early pachytene spermatocytes and decreasing progressively through later stages. A-raf is expressed predominantly in the somatic compartment as two transcripts of 2.6 and 4.3 kb. A-raf expression in Leydig cells appears to be elevated in testes undergoing spermatogenesis. In contrast, B-raf is expressed as two major transcripts of 4.0 and 2.6 kb, with the 4.0-kb transcript first expressed at low levels in pachytene spermatocytes and the more abundant 2.6-kb transcript restricted to post-meiotic spermatids. These studies indicate that each raf gene exhibits a characteristic, limited pattern of expression and suggests that the different forms may play a unique regulatory role in androgen production and/or spermatogenesis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 2-S07-RR05395; NICHD NIH HHS: F32 HD07414-01, P50 HD05077

    Oncogene 1993;8;4;1055-62

  • A major susceptibility locus to murine lung carcinogenesis maps on chromosome 6.

    Gariboldi M, Manenti G, Canzian F, Falvella FS, Radice MT, Pierotti MA, Della Porta G, Binelli G and Dragani TA

    Division of Experimental Oncology A, University of Milan, Italy.

    Lung tumours represent a major cause of death in humans, and although smoking represents the main pathogenetic factor, inheritance also plays a part. However, the identification of possible predisposing genetic factors is difficult, because of their low penetrance. We took advantage of murine strains that are genetically susceptible or resistant to lung tumour development, to map murine genes associated with susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis. An F2 population of urethan-treated A/J x C3H/He mice was scored with 83 genetic markers. A chromosome 6 distal region, spanning mice was scored with 83 genetic markers. A chromosome 6 distal region, spanning 35 centiMorgans, contained a major lung tumour susceptibility locus. No other chromosomal region was significantly associated with lung tumour development.

    Nature genetics 1993;3;2;132-6

  • Mapping of the interleukin 5 receptor gene to human chromosome 3 p25-p26 and to mouse chromosome 6 close to the Raf-1 locus with polymorphic tandem repeat sequences.

    Jacob CO, Mykytyn K, Varcony T and Drabkin HA

    Syntex Research R7-201, Palo Alto, California 94304.

    Simple-sequence tandem repeat sequences in the 3' UTR of interleukin 5 (IL5)-receptor gene of human and mouse are polymorphic in their length among humans and different strains of mice. In 20 different human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cell lines, six alleles of IL5R could be distinguished. In the mouse, three different alleles are found. With the human-specific IL5R tandem repeat marker in human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, the IL5R gene was mapped to human Chromosome (Chr) 3 p25-p26. With the mouse-specific IL5R tandem repeat sequence in recombinant inbred strains of mice, the Il5r gene was mapped to the distal part of mouse Chr 6 close to the Raf-1 locus.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;8;435-9

  • Novel RFLPs at protooncogene and cancer-related gene loci on mouse chromosomes.

    Santos J and Pellicer A

    Department of Pathology and Kaplan Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, NY 10016.

    DNA probes for the NRAS, HRAS, KRAS2, LCK, RAF1, MET, MYCL1, MYCN, MYB, ERBB2, FOS, CSF1R, and SRC protooncogene loci; the retinoblastoma gene locus (RB1); the tumor virus integration sites INT2, PVT1, and MLV12; and the locus of the tumor-specific antigen T1A were used to screen mouse genomic DNAs from RF/J, CAST/Ei, MOLF/Ei, Mus musculus musculus, M. m. poschiavinus, and M. spretus. Polymorphic DNA fragments for the 18 DNA probes have been identified using Southern blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA36327, CA50434

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1993;62;4;217-9

  • Conserved linkage of neurotrophin-3 and von Willebrand factor on mouse chromosome 6.

    Barrow LL, Simin K, Mohlke K, Nichols WC, Ginsburg D and Meisler MH

    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0618.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL39693; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24872

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;6;343-5

  • Raf-1 activates MAP kinase-kinase.

    Kyriakis JM, App H, Zhang XF, Banerjee P, Brautigan DL, Rapp UR and Avruch J

    Diabetes Unit, Medical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129.

    The normal cellular homologue of the acutely transforming oncogene v-raf is c-raf-1, which encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by many extracellular stimuli. The physiological substrates of the protein c-Raf-1 are unknown. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk1 and 2 are also activated by mitogens through phosphorylation of Erk tyrosine and threonine residues catalysed by a protein kinase of relative molecular mass 50,000, MAP kinase-kinase (MAPK-K). Here we report that MAPK-K as well as Erk1 and 2 are constitutively active in v-raf-transformed cells. MAPK-K partially purified from v-raf-transformed cells or from mitogen-treated cells can be deactivated by phosphatase 2A. c-Raf-1 purified after mitogen stimulation can reactivate the phosphatase 2A-inactivated MAPK-K over 30-fold in vitro. c-Raf-1 reactivation of MAPK-K coincides with the selective phosphorylation at serine/threonine residues of a polypeptide with M(r) 50,000 which coelutes precisely on cation-exchange chromatography with the MAPK-K activatable by c-Raf-1. These results indicate that c-Raf-1 is an immediate upstream activator of MAPK-K in vivo. To our knowledge, MAPK-K is the first physiological substrate of the c-raf-1 protooncogene product to be identified.

    Nature 1992;358;6385;417-21

  • Gene and pseudogene of the mouse cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosomal localization.

    Ludwig T, Rüther U, Metzger R, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Lobel P and Hoflack B

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is one of the two transmembrane proteins involved in transport of lysosomal enzymes. We have cloned the mouse CD-MPR gene and also a very unusual processed-type CD-MPR pseudogene. They are both present at one copy per haploid genome and map to chromosomes 6 and 3, respectively. Comparison of the complete 10-kilobase (kb) sequence of the functional gene with the cDNA indicates that it contains seven exons. Exon 1 encodes the 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA, the others (exons 2-7) encode the luminal, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains of the CD-MPR. Exon 7 also contains a 1.2-kb-long 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA. A unique transcription-initiation site was determined by primer extension of mouse liver mRNA. The promoter elements in the 5' upstream region of this site resemble those contained in genes constitutively transcribed. However, Northern blot analysis demonstrates that the CD-MPR is variably expressed in adult mouse tissues and during mouse development. The pseudogene, which is flanked by direct repeats, is almost colinear with the cDNA indicating that it presumably arose by reverse transcription of an mRNA. However, the pseudogene differs from the cDNA. It contains at its 5' end, an additional 340-nucleotide (nt) sequence homologous to the promoter region of the functional gene. This sequence exhibits some promoter activity in vitro. Furthermore, a 24-nt insertion interrupts the region homologous to the 5'-noncoding region of the cDNA. In the functional gene, this 24-nt sequence occurs between exon 1 and 2, where it is flanked by typical consensus sequences of exon/intron boundaries. Therefore, it may represent an additional exon of the functional gene. These two features of the pseudogene suggest that expression of the CD-MPR gene may be regulated by use of different promoters and/or alternative splicing.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;17;12211-9

  • Evolution of the mammalian G protein alpha subunit multigene family.

    Wilkie TM, Gilbert DJ, Olsen AS, Chen XN, Amatruda TT, Korenberg JR, Trask BJ, de Jong P, Reed RR, Simon MI et al.

    Biology Division, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125.

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. The multigene family of G protein alpha subunits, which interact with receptors and effectors, exhibit a high level of sequence diversity. In mammals, 15 G alpha subunit genes can be grouped by sequence and functional similarities into four classes. We have determined the murine chromosomal locations of all 15 G alpha subunit genes using an interspecific backcross derived from crosses of C57BL/6J and Mus spretus mice. These data, in combination with mapping studies in humans, have provided insight into the events responsible for generating the genetic diversity found in the mammalian alpha subunit genes and a framework for elucidating the role of the G alpha subunits in disease.

    Nature genetics 1992;1;2;85-91

  • Localization of the gene for a third G protein beta-subunit to mouse chromosome 6 near Raf-1.

    Danciger M, Chakraborti A, Farber DB and Kozak CA

    Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine.

    The large family of signal transducing proteins known as G proteins are heterotrimers that dissociate into an independent alpha-subunit and beta gamma-subunit complex after ligand binding or other stimulation. For G alpha, at least 30 distinct sequences representing 10 different classes have been identified. On the other hand, cDNAs for only three G beta-subunit genes have been isolated so far. All three of the G beta genes have been chromosomally mapped in the human, but only two in the mouse. Using a human retinal cDNA for the third G protein beta-subunit, we have mapped the corresponding gene, termed Gnb-3, to mouse Chromosome 6 with somatic cell hybrids and have positioned it distal to but near the marker Raf-1 by analysis of the progeny of three genetic crosses.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 00331, EY 02651

    Genomics 1992;12;4;688-92

  • Localization of the IL-5 receptor gene to the distal half of murine chromosome 6 using recombinant inbred strains of mice.

    Gough NM and Rakar S

    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA22556

    Genomics 1992;12;4;855-6

  • Identification of a novel gene, Vin-1, in murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell leukemias by provirus insertional mutagenesis.

    Tremblay PJ, Kozak CA and Jolicoeur P

    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    The BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus is a nondefective retrovirus which induces clonal or oligoclonal T-cell leukemia in mice. To study the role of provirus insertional mutagenesis in the development of these neoplasias, we searched for common provirus integration sites in BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus-induced tumors. Using cellular sequences flanking a provirus cloned from one of these thymomas, we found that the viral genome was integrated into a common region, designated Vin-1, in a low percentage (5%) of these tumors. The proviruses found in this locus were integrated in the same orientation, close to a CpG-rich island, at proximity of a transcriptional unit encoding a 6-kb RNA. Vin-1 RNA was detected in several organs of the adult mouse. Vin-1 RNA levels were high in tumors having a provirus inserted within the Vin-1 region but were also high in some other tumors whose Vin-1 region was not found to be rearranged. Vin-1 was found to be well conserved among mammalian species and was mapped to mouse chromosome 6, between raf and K-ras-2. Vin-1 appears to be a novel gene which may be involved in tumor development.

    Journal of virology 1992;66;3;1344-53

  • Chromosomal localization of three pulmonary surfactant protein genes in the mouse.

    Moore KJ, D'Amore-Bruno MA, Korfhagen TR, Glasser SW, Whitsett JA, Jenkins NA and Copeland NG

    ABL-Basic Research Program, NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702.

    Pulmonary surfactant, a protein-phospholipid mixture, maintains surface tension at the lung epithelium/air interface preventing alveolar collapse during respiration. For mammals appropriate developmental production of surfactant is necessary for adaptation to the air breathing environment. Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a leading cause of death in premature infants. Recently, three lung-specific pulmonary surfactant proteins designated SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C have been described. Cloned sequences for the genes that encode each of these proteins have been partially characterized in humans and other species. Analysis of interspecific backcross mice has allowed us to map the chromosomal locations of these three genes in the mouse. The gene encoding SP-A (Sftp-1) and the gene encoding SP-C (Sftp-2) both map to mouse chromosome 14, although at separate locations, while the gene encoding SP-B (Sftp-3) maps to chromosome 6. The mouse map locations determined in this study for the Sftp genes are consistent with the locations of these genes on the human genetic map and the syntenic relationships between the human and the mouse genomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28623, HL3859; ...

    Genomics 1992;12;2;388-93

  • Mapping HSA 3 loci in cattle: additional support for the ancestral synteny of HSA 3 and 21.

    Threadgill DS and Womack JE

    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843.

    Homologs to genes residing on human chromosome 3 (HSA 3) map to four mouse chromosomes (MMU) 3, 6, 9, and 16. In the bovine, two syntenic groups that contain HSA 3 homologs, unassigned syntenic groups 10 (U10) and 12 (U12), have been defined. U10 also contains HSA 21 genes, which is similar to the situation seen on MMU 16, whereas U12 apparently contains only HSA 3 homologs. The syntenic arrangement of other HSA 3 homologs in the bovine was investigated by physically mapping five genes through segregation analysis of a bovine-hamster hybrid somatic cell panel. The genes mapped include Friend-murine leukemia virus integration site 3 homolog (FIM3; HSA 3/MMU 3), sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) (HSA 3/MMU ?), murine leukemia viral (v-raf-1) oncogene homolog 1 (RAF1; HSA 3/MMU 6), and ceruloplasmin (CP; HSA 3/MMU 9). FIM3, SI, and CP mapped to bovine syntenic group U10, while RAF1 and GPX1 mapped to U12.

    Genomics 1991;11;4;1143-8

  • Glucose transporter gene expression in early mouse embryos.

    Hogan A, Heyner S, Charron MJ, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Thorens B and Schultz GA

    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Calgary Health Sciences Center, Alberta, Canada.

    The glucose transporter (GLUT) isoforms responsible for glucose uptake in early mouse embryos have been identified. GLUT 1, the isoform present in nearly every tissue examined including adult brain and erythrocytes, is expressed throughout preimplantation development. GLUT 2, which is normally present in adult liver, kidney, intestine and pancreatic beta cells is expressed from the 8-cell stage onward. GLUT 4, an insulin-recruitable isoform, which is expressed in adult fat and muscle, is not expressed at any stage of preimplantation development or in early postimplantation stage embryos. Genetic mapping studies of glucose transporters in the mouse show that Glut-1 is located on chromosome 4, Glut-2 on chromosome 3, Glut-3 on chromosome 6, and Glut-4 on chromosome 11.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101; NICHD NIH HHS: HD 23511; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-08101

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1991;113;1;363-72

  • Chromosomal assignment of five cancer-associated rat genes: two thyroid hormone receptor (ERBA) genes, two ERBB genes and the retinoblastoma gene.

    Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Rivière M, Ingvarsson S, Vennström B, Islam MQ and Levan G

    Département de Biologie Moléculaire, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Rhode-St-Genèse, Brussels, Belgium.

    Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids that segregate rat chromosomes, the localization of five cancer-related rat genes was determined: (i) two thyroid receptor genes, THRA1/ERBA1 and THRB/ERBA2 on chromosomes 10 and 15 respectively, (ii) two ERBB genes, namely the epidermal growth factor gene (EGFR, also called ERBB1) and the ERBB2 gene (also designated neu) on chromosomes 14 and 10 respectively, and (iii) the retinoblastoma gene, RB1, on chromosome 15. The THRA1/ERBA1 and ERBB2/neu genes are thus included in a synteny group, conserved on rat chromosomes 10 and human chromosome arm 17q.

    Oncogene 1991;6;8;1319-24

  • The gene map of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and comparative mapping with mouse and man.

    Levan G, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Klinga K, Hanson C and Islam MQ

    Department of Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

    The current status of the rat gene map is presented. Mapping information is now available for a total of 214 loci and the number of mapped genes is increasing steadily. The corresponding number of loci quoted at HGM10 was 128. Genes have been assigned to 20 of the 22 chromosomes in the rat. Some aspects of comparative mapping with mouse and man are also discussed. It was found that there is a good correlation between the morphological homologies detectable in rat and mouse chromosomes, on the one hand, and homology at the gene level on the other. For 10 rat synteny groups all the genes so far mapped are syntenic also in the mouse. For the remaining rat synteny groups it appears that the majority of the genes will be syntenic on specific (homologous) mouse chromosomes, with only a few genes dispersed to other members of the mouse karyotype. Furthermore, the data indicate that mouse chromosome 1 genetically corresponds to two rat chromosomes, viz., 9 and 13, equalizing the difference in chromosome number between the two species. Further mappings will show whether the genetic homology will prove to be as extensive as these preliminary results indicate. As might be expected from evolutionary considerations, rat synteny groups are much more dispersed in the human genome. It is clear, however, that many groups of genes have remained syntenic during the period since man and rat shared a common ancestor. One further point was noted. In two cases groups of genes were syntenic in the mouse but dispersed to two chromosomes in rat and man, whereas in a third case a group of genes was syntenic in the rat but dispersed to two chromosomes in mouse and man. This finding argues in favor of the notion that the original gene groups were on separate ancestral chromosomes, which have fused in one rodent species but remained separate in the other and in man.

    Genomics 1991;10;3;699-718

  • Molecular cloning and expression of the type 1 and type 2 murine receptors for tumor necrosis factor.

    Goodwin RG, Anderson D, Jerzy R, Davis T, Brannan CI, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA and Smith CA

    Immunex Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98101.

    Clones encoding the type 1 (p80) and type 2 (p60) forms of the murine receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were isolated by cross-hybridization using probes derived from the cloned human TNF receptors. Each of the murine receptors shows strong sequence homology to the corresponding human receptor (approximately 65% amino acid identity) throughout the molecule but only modest homology, limited to ligand-binding domains, between themselves. The ligand-binding characteristics of the recombinant murine receptors mirror those of the human homologs: both receptor types bind TNF-alpha and -beta with multiple affinity classes, and the ligands cross-compete. Analysis of the murine transcripts encoding these receptors revealed the presence of RNAs for one or both forms of the receptors in all cells examined. It was also demonstrated that for both types of human TNF receptor, variably sized transcripts are observed in different cells. The murine cDNAs were further used to determine the chromosomal locations of the TNF receptor genes. They are not linked, in contrast to the ligands, and map to chromosomes 4 (type 1) and 6 (type 2).

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101

    Molecular and cellular biology 1991;11;6;3020-6

  • Raf-1 protein kinase is required for growth of induced NIH/3T3 cells.

    Kolch W, Heidecker G, Lloyd P and Rapp UR

    Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, NIH/NCI, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702-1201.

    Many growth factors regulate the cytoplasmic Raf-1 protein kinase, consistent with its having a central role in transduction of growth signals. The kinase is ubiquitously expressed and can promote proliferation, presumably in a manner dependent on growth-factor receptors and membrane-associated oncogenes. We have now examined the dependence of serum- and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-regulated NIH/3T3 cell growth on RAF-1 kinase to determine whether Raf-1 is essential for receptor signalling. We inhibited Raf-1 function by expressing c-raf-1 antisense RNA or kinase-defective c-raf-1 mutants. Antisense RNA for c-raf-1 interferes with proliferation of normal NIH/3T3 cells and reverts raf-transformed cells. In revertant cells, DNA replication induced by serum or TPA was eliminated or reduced proportionately to the reduction in Raf protein levels. Expression of a kinase-defective Raf-1 mutant (craf301) or a regulatory domain fragment (HCR) inhibited serum-induced NIH/3T3-cell proliferation and raf transformation even more efficiently. Inhibition by antisense RNA or craf301 blocked proliferation and transformation by Ki- and Ha-ras oncogenes. We conclude that raf functions as an essential signal transducer downstream of serum growth factor receptors, protein kinase C and ras.

    Nature 1991;349;6308;426-8

  • Structure, chromosome mapping and expression of the murine Fgf-6 gene.

    de Lapeyriere O, Rosnet O, Benharroch D, Raybaud F, Marchetto S, Planche J, Galland F, Mattei MG, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA et al.

    U .119 INSERM, Marseille, France.

    The sixth member of the fibroblast growth factor gene family was cloned and analysed in the mouse. It is composed of three coding exons and encodes a putative growth protein of 198 amino acids, possessing a potential signal peptide, and presenting 79% and 93.5% sequence similarity with the mouse Hst/K-fgf and human FGF-6 genes products, respectively. The murine Fgf-6 gene is located in a region distinct from the Int-41 locus and belongs to a linkage group conserved between chromosome 12 in man and chromosome 6 in mouse. It presents an intrinsic oncogenic capacity since it is able to transform cultured fibroblasts. Fgf-6 mRNA levels are developmentally regulated with a peak of expression in the developing fetus at day 15.5 of gestation, moderate levels during late gestation and in the neonate. In the adult, Fgf-6 mRNA can be detected in testis, heart and skeletal muscle.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101

    Oncogene 1990;5;6;823-31

  • Localization of the rhodopsin gene to the distal half of mouse chromosome 6.

    Elliott RW, Sparkes RS, Mohandas T, Grant SG and McGinnis JF

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263.

    We have assigned the mouse rhodopsin gene, Rho, to chromosome 6 using DNA from a set of mouse-hamster somatic hybrid cell lines and a partial cDNA clone for mouse opsin. This assignment rules out the direct involvement of the rhodopsin gene in the known mouse mutations that produce retinal degeneration, including retinal degeneration slow (rds, chromosome 17), retinal degeneration (rd, chromosome 5), Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd, chromosome 13), and nervous (nr, chromosome 8). Segregation of Rho-specific DNA fragment differences among 50 animals from an interspecific backcross (C57BL/6J X Mus spretus) X C57BL/6J indicates that the Rho locus is 4.0 +/- 2.8 map units distal to the locus for the proto-oncogene Raf-1 and 18.0 +/- 5.4 map units proximal to the locus for the proto-oncogene Kras-2. Linkage to Raf-1 was confirmed using four sets of recombinant inbred strains. The two loci RAF1 and RHO are also syntenic on human chromosome 3, but on opposite arms.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY06085, EY06639; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM28464

    Genomics 1990;6;4;635-44

  • Expression of raf family proto-oncogenes in normal mouse tissues.

    Storm SM, Cleveland JL and Rapp UR

    Viral Pathology Section, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21701-1013.

    We have determined RNA expression patterns of raf family proto-oncogenes in a variety of normal NFS/n mouse tissues, and several murine cell lines. Tissues were collected from male and female adults, and 16 day old fetuses. Raf-1 transcripts of 3.1 kb were found to be expressed in all tissues examined with highest levels in striated muscle, cerebellum and fetal brain. In contrast, A-raf showed wider variation in its range of expression, with the 2.6 kb transcripts being most abundant in epididymis and ovary. B-raf was found to have a very restricted expression pattern, with high levels in fetal brain and adult cerebrum. In addition to the 10 and 13 kb transcripts common to all B-raf expressing tissues, alternate sized B-raf RNAs were detected in testes, placenta and fetal membranes. We found no effect of gender on raf expression in non-sex related tissues, nor does tissue germline of origin correlate with levels of expression for any of the three genes.

    Oncogene 1990;5;3;345-51

  • Localization of the raf-1 protooncogene on chromosome 6 of the mouse.

    Tailor S and Martin-DeLeon PA

    School of Life and Health Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark 19716.

    The murine c-raf-1 gene was localized by in situ hybridization to 6C3, proximal to c-ki-ras-2 and distal to the Igk locus. The localization of this protooncogene may be relevant to the correlation of chromosome breakpoints in neoplastic disease.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 19040

    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 1989;40;1;89-94

  • Susceptibility to raf and raf/myc retroviruses is governed by different genetic loci.

    Klinken SP, Hartley JW, Fredrickson TN, Rapp UR and Morse HC

    Laboratory of Immunopathology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    The susceptibility to tumors induced by raf and raf/myc retroviruses was investigated in BALB/c, C57BL/6, (BALB/c x C57BL/6)F1 and (BALB/c x C57BL/6) backcross mice. Newborn mice were susceptible to neoplasms generated by both viruses, but resistance to raf-induced leukemia developed rapidly in all mice as they matured. Older C57BL/6 mice were also resistant to raf/myc lymphomas, whereas BALB/c mice remained susceptible to the virus at all ages, indicating that different genes control susceptibility to raf and raf/myc tumors. From these data and the susceptibility of C x B recombinant inbred strains, it appears that very few genes (perhaps even a single gene) may govern susceptibility to raf/myc lymphomas and that resistance is the dominant trait.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-A1-22673

    Journal of virology 1989;63;5;2411-4

  • Two regulatory domains flank the mouse H19 gene.

    Yoo-Warren H, Pachnis V, Ingram RS and Tilghman SM

    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544.

    The mouse H19 gene was identified by virtue of its coordinate regulation with the mouse alpha-fetoprotein gene. Both genes are expressed in the fetal liver, gut, and visceral endoderm of the yolk sac and are repressed shortly after birth in the liver and gut. They are both under the control of two trans-acting loci: raf, which affects the adult basal levels of the two mRNAs, and Rif, which affects their inducibility during liver regeneration. One crucial difference between the two genes is the activation of the H19 gene in mesoderm derivatives, skeletal and cardiac muscle. As a strategy for explaining both the similarities and differences in their modes of expression, the regulatory domains responsible for the expression of the H19 gene in liver were identified by transiently introducing the gene into a human hepatoma cell line. Two regions necessary for high-level expression of the gene could be identified, a promoter-proximal domain immediately preceding the start of transcription and an enhancer domain which lies between 5 and 6.5 kilobases 3' of the polyadenylation site. The 3' domain consists of two separable enhancer elements, each of which exhibits the properties of tissue-specific enhancers. Nucleotide sequence comparisons between the two H19 and three alpha-fetoprotein enhancers revealed limited similarities which are candidates for binding of common regulatory factors. Sequences which lie 3' of the gene are also required for the expression of the H19 gene following differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells into visceral endoderm.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA44976

    Molecular and cellular biology 1988;8;11;4707-15

  • Rat c-raf oncogene is located on chromosome 4 and may be activated by sequences from chromosome 13.

    Ingvarsson S, Asker C, Szpirer J, Levan G and Klein G

    Department of Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Activated forms of the protooncogene c-raf have been found to transform established lines of rodent fibroblasts after transfection with DNA from several human and rat tumors. Using Southern blot analysis of DNAs from rat x mouse somatic cell hybrids, we have mapped c-raf to rat chromosome 4. An exogenous sequence that was found juxtaposed to c-raf within transforming DNA originally derived from a rat hepatocellular carcinoma was localized to chromosome 13.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 3R01CA14054

    Somatic cell and molecular genetics 1988;14;4;401-5

  • Chromosomal localization of the met proto-oncogene in the mouse and cat genome.

    Dean M, Kozak C, Robbins J, Callahan R, O'Brien S and Vande Woude GF

    BRI-Basic Research Program, NCI-Frederick Cancer Research Facility, Maryland 21701.

    The met proto-oncogene was mapped in the mouse and cat genomes with the use of mouse X hamster and cat X rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA panels. Based on these analyses we assigned the met gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to cat chromosome A2. We also assigned the cat raf-1 proto-oncogene to the A2 chromosome; met and raf-1 are the first cloned DNAs mapped to this linkage group. Using an interspecies backcross we further localized met on mouse chromosome 6 to a position proximal to the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. This places met near the obese locus in a region of mouse chromosome 6 that appears to be homologous with the long arm of human chromosome 7. The close linkage of met to the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis in humans suggests that further genetic analysis of mouse chromosome 6 may be useful in developing a mouse model for the disease.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-23909

    Genomics 1987;1;2;167-73

  • Genetic and cytogenetic localisation of the homeo box containing genes on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 7.

    Bućan M, Yang-Feng T, Colberg-Poley AM, Wolgemuth DJ, Guenet JL, Francke U and Lehrach H

    Probes from the m6 homeo box cluster were mapped to mouse chromosome 6 by somatic cell genetics, in situ hybridisation, and by a Mus spretus--Mus musculus backcross mapping system. In addition, the testis-specific homeo box containing cDNA, clone, HBT-1, has been mapped using the same back-cross system and the B X D recombinant inbred strain set. Close genetic and physical linkage between the m6 cluster and HBT-1 was demonstrated, positioning these sequences to the same local cluster of homeo box containing genes. The map location of this cluster between IgK and Tcrb coincides with the morphological mutation hypodactyly (Hd). Synteny has been observed between a region of mouse chromosome 6 and the long arm of human chromosome 7 encompassing the markers Cpa, Tcrb and Try-1. Here we localise human sequences hybridising to the mouse m6 probes to the short arm of chromosome 7, breaking the region of synteny.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 26105; PHS HHS: R01 18122

    The EMBO journal 1986;5;11;2899-905

  • An endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus genome common in inbred mouse strains is located on chromosome 6.

    Robbins JM, Gallahan D, Hogg E, Kozak C and Callahan R

    We have examined EcoRI-restricted cellular DNA from mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Results of this analysis show that the unit II mouse mammary tumor virus proviral genome is located on mouse chromosome 6. Restriction analysis of cellular DNA from (C3H/OuJ X Czech II) X Czech II backcross mice showed a strong linkage between unit II and Igk. The gene order of these markers on chromosome 6 relative to the Raf and Kirsten murine sarcoma virus ras-2 proto-oncogenes was established.

    Journal of virology 1986;57;2;709-13

  • Primary structure of v-raf: relatedness to the src family of oncogenes.

    Mark GE and Rapp UR

    A replication-defective, acute transforming retrovirus (murine sarcoma virus 3611) was isolated from mouse and molecularly cloned. The nucleotide sequence of 1.5 kilobases encompassing the transforming gene (v-raf) was determined. This sequence, which predicts the amino acid sequence of a gag-raf fusion protein, terminates 180 nucleotides from the 3' end of the acquired cellular sequence. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of v-raf with the predicted amino acid sequences of other oncogenes reveals significant homologies to the src family of oncogenes. There is a lack of homology within the sequence of the tyrosine acceptor domain described for the phosphotyrosine kinase members of the src family of transforming proteins. Phylogenetic arrangement of this family of oncogenes suggests that tyrosine-specific phosphorylation may be a recently acquired activity.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1984;224;4646;285-9

  • A common onc gene sequence transduced by avian carcinoma virus MH2 and by murine sarcoma virus 3611.

    Kan NC, Flordellis CS, Mark GE, Duesberg PH and Papas TS

    A common cellular sequence was independently transduced by avian carcinoma virus MH2 (v-mht) and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) 3611 (v-raf). Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of v-mht and v-raf revealed a region of homology that extends over 969 nucleotides. The homology between the corresponding amino acids was about 95 percent with only 19 of 323 amino acids being different. With this example, 5 of the 19 known different viral onc genes have been observed in viruses of different taxonomic groups. These data indicate that (i) the number of cellular proto-onc genes is limited because, like other viruses of different taxonomic groups, MH2 and MSV 3611 have transduced the same onc gene-specific sequences from different cell species and (ii) that specific deletion and linkage of the same proto-onc sequences to different viral vector elements affect the oncogenic potential of the resulting viruses. The difference in transformation capabilities of MH2 and MSV 3611 serves as an example.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA11426

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1984;223;4638;813-6

  • A new oncogene, c-raf, is located on mouse chromosome 6.

    Kozak C, Gunnell MA and Rapp UR

    The recently described acute transforming virus 3611-MSV contains cellular sequences designated v-raf. Mouse cellular DNA contains a single-copy sequence homologous to this oncogene (c-raf), and Southern blot analysis of hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrid DNAs showed that the mouse c-raf sequence is present on chromosome 6.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-23910

    Journal of virology 1984;49;1;297-9

  • Structure and biological activity of v-raf, a unique oncogene transduced by a retrovirus.

    Rapp UR, Goldsborough MD, Mark GE, Bonner TI, Groffen J, Reynolds FH and Stephenson JR

    We have molecularly cloned a unique acutely transforming replication-defective mouse type C virus (3611-MSV) and characterized its acquired oncogene. The viral genome closely resembles Moloney (M) murine leukemia virus (MuLV), except for a substitution in M-MuLV in the middle of p30 and the middle of the polymerase gene (pol). Heteroduplex analysis revealed that 2.4 kilobases of M-MuLV DNA were replaced by 1.2 kilobases of cellular DNA. The junctions between viral and cellular sequences were determined by DNA sequence analysis to be 517 nucleotides into the p30 sequence and 1,920 nucleotides into the polymerase sequence. Comparison of the transforming gene from 3611-MSV, designated v-raf, with previously isolated retrovirus oncogenes either by direct hybridization or by comparison of restriction fragments of their cellular homologs shows it to be unique. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with cloned 3611-MSV proviral DNA leads to highly efficient transformation and the recovered virus elicits tumors in mice typical of the 3611-MSV virus. Transfected NIH 3T3 cells express two 3611-MSV-specific polyproteins (P75 and P90), both of which contain NH2-terminal gag gene-encoded components linked to the acquired sequence (v-raf) translational product. The cellular homolog, c-raf, is present in one or two copies per haploid genome in mouse and human DNA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-75380

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1983;80;14;4218-22

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000007 G2C Mus musculus Mouse NRC Mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000021 G2C Mus musculus Pocklington M3 Cluster 3 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 30
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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