G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Csnk1e (MGI)
Mus musculus
casein kinase 1, epsilon
G00001410 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

ENSMUSG00000022433 (Ensembl mouse gene)
27373 (Entrez Gene)
504 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_013767 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00176 (BGEM)
27373 (Genepaint)
csnk1e (gensat)
600863 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:1351660 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q9JMK2 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • CK1epsilon
  • CKI epsilon
  • CKIepsilon
  • KC1epsilon
  • tau

Literature (41)

Pubmed - other

  • Casein kinase 1 delta functions at the centrosome to mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth.

    Greer YE and Rubin JS

    Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Previously we determined that Dishevelled-2/3 (Dvl) mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth in Ewing sarcoma family tumor cells. Here we report that neurite extension was associated with Dvl phosphorylation and that both were inhibited by the casein kinase 1 (CK1) δ/ε inhibitor IC261. Small interfering RNAs targeting either CK1δ or CK1ε decreased Dvl phosphorylation, but only knockdown of CK1δ blocked neurite outgrowth. CK1δ but not CK1ε was detected at the centrosome, an organelle associated with neurite formation. Deletion analysis mapped the centrosomal localization signal (CLS) of CK1δ to its C-terminal domain. A fusion protein containing the CLS and EGFP displaced full-length CK1δ from the centrosome and inhibited Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth. In contrast to wild-type CK1ε, a chimera comprised of the kinase domain of CK1ε and the CLS of CK1δ localized to the centrosome and rescued Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth suppressed by CK1δ knockdown. These results provide strong evidence that the centrosomal localization of CK1δ is required for Wnt-3a-dependent neuritogenesis.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of cell biology 2011;192;6;993-1004

  • Tuning the period of the mammalian circadian clock: additive and independent effects of CK1εTau and Fbxl3Afh mutations on mouse circadian behavior and molecular pacemaking.

    Maywood ES, Chesham JE, Meng QJ, Nolan PM, Loudon AS and Hastings MH

    Division of Neurobiology, Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, UK. emaywood@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    Circadian pacemaking in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) revolves around a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which period (Per) and cryptochrome (Cry) genes are negatively regulated by their protein products. Genetically specified differences in this oscillator underlie sleep and metabolic disorders, and dictate diurnal/nocturnal preference. A critical goal, therefore, is to identify mechanisms that generate circadian phenotypic diversity, through both single gene effects and gene interactions. The individual stabilities of PER or CRY proteins determine pacemaker period, and PER/CRY complexes have been proposed to afford mutual stabilization, although how PER and CRY proteins with contrasting stabilities interact is unknown. We therefore examined interactions between two mutations in male mice: Fbxl3(Afh), which lengthens period by stabilizing CRY, and Csnk1ε(tm1Asil) (CK1ε(Tau)), which destabilizes PER, thereby accelerating the clock. By intercrossing these mutants, we show that the stabilities of CRY and PER are independently regulated, contrary to the expectation of mutual stabilization. Segregation of wild-type and mutant alleles generated a spectrum of periods for rest-activity behavior and SCN bioluminescence rhythms. The mutations exerted independent, additive effects on circadian period, biased toward shorter periods determined by CK1ε(Tau). Notably, Fbxl3(Afh) extended the duration of the nadir of the PER2-driven bioluminescence rhythm but CK1ε(Tau) reversed this, indicating that despite maintained CRY expression, CK1ε(Tau) truncated the interval of negative feedback. These results argue for independent, additive biochemical actions of PER and CRY in circadian control, and complement genome-wide epistatic analyses, seeking to decipher the multigenic control of circadian pacemaking.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/E022553/1, BB/E023223/1, BBE0225531/1; Medical Research Council: G0900414, MC_U105170643, MC_U142684173

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2011;31;4;1539-44

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins.

    Gibson P, Tong Y, Robinson G, Thompson MC, Currle DS, Eden C, Kranenburg TA, Hogg T, Poppleton H, Martin J, Finkelstein D, Pounds S, Weiss A, Patay Z, Scoggins M, Ogg R, Pei Y, Yang ZJ, Brun S, Lee Y, Zindy F, Lindsey JC, Taketo MM, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Clifford SC, Roussel MF, McKinnon PJ, Gutmann DH, Ellison DW, Wechsler-Reya R and Gilbertson RJ

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    Medulloblastoma encompasses a collection of clinically and molecularly diverse tumour subtypes that together comprise the most common malignant childhood brain tumour. These tumours are thought to arise within the cerebellum, with approximately 25% originating from granule neuron precursor cells (GNPCs) after aberrant activation of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway (hereafter, SHH subtype). The pathological processes that drive heterogeneity among the other medulloblastoma subtypes are not known, hindering the development of much needed new therapies. Here we provide evidence that a discrete subtype of medulloblastoma that contains activating mutations in the WNT pathway effector CTNNB1 (hereafter, WNT subtype) arises outside the cerebellum from cells of the dorsal brainstem. We found that genes marking human WNT-subtype medulloblastomas are more frequently expressed in the lower rhombic lip (LRL) and embryonic dorsal brainstem than in the upper rhombic lip (URL) and developing cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intra-operative reports showed that human WNT-subtype tumours infiltrate the dorsal brainstem, whereas SHH-subtype tumours are located within the cerebellar hemispheres. Activating mutations in Ctnnb1 had little impact on progenitor cell populations in the cerebellum, but caused the abnormal accumulation of cells on the embryonic dorsal brainstem which included aberrantly proliferating Zic1(+) precursor cells. These lesions persisted in all mutant adult mice; moreover, in 15% of cases in which Tp53 was concurrently deleted, they progressed to form medulloblastomas that recapitulated the anatomy and gene expression profiles of human WNT-subtype medulloblastoma. We provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct cellular origins. Our data provide an explanation for the marked molecular and clinical differences between SHH- and WNT-subtype medulloblastomas and have profound implications for future research and treatment of this important childhood cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 01CA96832, P01 CA096832, P01 CA096832-06A18120, P01 CA096832-078120, P30 CA021765, P30CA021765, R01 CA129541, R01 CA129541-01, R01 CA129541-02, R01 CA129541-03, R01 CA129541-04, R01 CA129541-05, R01CA129541; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS037956, R01 NS037956-13

    Nature 2010;468;7327;1095-9

  • Entrainment of disrupted circadian behavior through inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) enzymes.

    Meng QJ, Maywood ES, Bechtold DA, Lu WQ, Li J, Gibbs JE, Dupré SM, Chesham JE, Rajamohan F, Knafels J, Sneed B, Zawadzke LE, Ohren JF, Walton KM, Wager TT, Hastings MH and Loudon AS

    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.

    Circadian pacemaking requires the orderly synthesis, posttranslational modification, and degradation of clock proteins. In mammals, mutations in casein kinase 1 (CK1) epsilon or delta can alter the circadian period, but the particular functions of the WT isoforms within the pacemaker remain unclear. We selectively targeted WT CK1epsilon and CK1delta using pharmacological inhibitors (PF-4800567 and PF-670462, respectively) alongside genetic knockout and knockdown to reveal that CK1 activity is essential to molecular pacemaking. Moreover, CK1delta is the principal regulator of the clock period: pharmacological inhibition of CK1delta, but not CK1epsilon, significantly lengthened circadian rhythms in locomotor activity in vivo and molecular oscillations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral tissue slices in vitro. Period lengthening mediated by CK1delta inhibition was accompanied by nuclear retention of PER2 protein both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, phase mapping of the molecular clockwork in vitro showed that PF-670462 treatment lengthened the period in a phase-specific manner, selectively extending the duration of PER2-mediated transcriptional feedback. These findings suggested that CK1delta inhibition might be effective in increasing the amplitude and synchronization of disrupted circadian oscillators. This was tested using arrhythmic SCN slices derived from Vipr2(-/-) mice, in which PF-670462 treatment transiently restored robust circadian rhythms of PER2::Luc bioluminescence. Moreover, in mice rendered behaviorally arrhythmic by the Vipr2(-/-) mutation or by constant light, daily treatment with PF-670462 elicited robust 24-h activity cycles that persisted throughout treatment. Accordingly, selective pharmacological targeting of the endogenous circadian regulator CK1delta offers an avenue for therapeutic modulation of perturbed circadian behavior.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/E022553/1, EO225531, EO232231; Medical Research Council: G0900414, MC_U105170643

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107;34;15240-5

  • Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) regulates period length of the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock in vitro.

    Etchegaray JP, Yu EA, Indic P, Dallmann R and Weaver DR

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

    Background: Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) plays a more prominent role in the regulation of circadian cycle length than its homologue casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1epsilon) in peripheral tissues such as liver and embryonic fibroblasts. Mice lacking CK1delta die shortly after birth, so it has not been possible to assess the impact of loss of CK1delta on behavioral rhythms controlled by the master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN).

    In the present study, mPER2::LUCIFERASE bioluminescence rhythms were monitored from SCN explants collected from neonatal mice. The data demonstrate that SCN explants from neonatal CK1delta-deficient mice oscillate, but with a longer circadian period than littermate controls. The cycle length of rhythms recorded from neonatal SCN explants of CK1epsilon-deficient mice did not differ from control explants.

    The results indicate that CK1delta plays a more prominent role than CK1epsilon in the maintenance of 24-hour rhythms in the master circadian oscillator.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 32520, DK32520, P30 DK032520; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS056125

    PloS one 2010;5;4;e10303

  • The DNA-binding activity of mouse DNA methyltransferase 1 is regulated by phosphorylation with casein kinase 1delta/epsilon.

    Sugiyama Y, Hatano N, Sueyoshi N, Suetake I, Tajima S, Kinoshita E, Kinoshita-Kikuta E, Koike T and Kameshita I

    Department of Life Sciences, Kagawa University, Japan.

    Dnmt1 (DNA methyltansferase 1) is an enzyme that recognizes and methylates hemimethylated DNA during DNA replication to maintain methylation patterns. The N-terminal region of Dnmt1 is known to form an independent domain structure that interacts with various regulatory proteins and DNA. In the present study, we investigated protein kinases in the mouse brain that could bind and phosphorylate the N-terminal regulatory domain of Dnmt1. A protein fraction containing protein kinase activity for phosphorylation of Dnmt1(1-290) was prepared using Dnmt1(1-290)-affinity, DNA-cellulose and gel-filtration columns. When the proteins in this fraction were analysed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem MS), CK1delta/epsilon (casein kinase 1delta/epsilon) was the only protein kinase identified. Recombinant CK1delta/epsilon was found to bind to the N-terminal domain of Dnmt1 and significantly phosphorylated this domain, especially in the presence of DNA. Phosphorylation analyses using various truncation and point mutants of Dnmt1 revealed that the major priming site phosphorylated by CK1delta/epsilon was Ser146, and that subsequent phosphorylation at other sites may occur after phosphorylation of the priming site. When the DNA-binding activity of phosphorylated Dnmt1 was compared with that of the non-phosphorylated form, phosphorylation of Dnmt1 was found to decrease the affinity for DNA. These results suggest that CK1delta/epsilon binds to and phosphorylates the N-terminal domain of Dnmt1 and regulates Dnmt1 function by reducing the DNA-binding activity.

    The Biochemical journal 2010;427;3;489-97

  • Analysis of cell type-specific expression of CK1 epsilon in various tissues of young adult BALB/c Mice and in mammary tumors of SV40 T-Ag-transgenic mice.

    Utz AC, Hirner H, Blatz A, Hillenbrand A, Schmidt B, Deppert W, Henne-Bruns D, Fischer D, Thal DR, Leithäuser F and Knippschild U

    Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, University of Ulm, Steinhövelstr. 9, 89075 Ulm, Germany.

    Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1epsilon) is involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, vesicle transport, and control of the circadian rhythm. Deregulation of CK1epsilon has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. To better understand the cell type-specific functions of CK1epsilon, we determined its localization by immunhistochemistry in tissues of healthy, young adult BALB/c mice and in mammary tumors of SV40 T-antigen-transgenic mice. CK1epsilon expression was found to be highly regulated in normal tissues of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin and in neoplastic tissue of mammary cancer. The data presented here give an overview of CK1epsilon reactivity in different organs under normal conditions and outline changes in its expression in mammary carcinomas. Our data suggest a cell/organ type-specific function of CK1epsilon and indicate that tumorigenic conversion of mammary glands in SV40 T-antigen-transgenic mice leads to downregulation of CK1epsilon. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2010;58;1;1-15

  • Essential roles of CKIdelta and CKIepsilon in the mammalian circadian clock.

    Lee H, Chen R, Lee Y, Yoo S and Lee C

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are generated by a negative transcriptional feedback loop in which PERIOD (PER) is rate-limiting for feedback inhibition. Casein kinases Idelta and Iepsilon (CKIdelta/epsilon) can regulate temporal abundance/activity of PER by phosphorylation-mediated degradation and cellular localization. Despite their potentially crucial effects on PER, it has not been demonstrated in a mammalian system that these kinases play essential roles in circadian rhythm generation as does their homolog in Drosophila. To disrupt both CKIdelta/epsilon while avoiding the embryonic lethality of CKIdelta disruption in mice, we used CKIdelta-deficient Per2(Luc) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and overexpressed a dominant-negative mutant CKIepsilon (DN-CKIepsilon) in the mutant MEFs. CKIdelta-deficient MEFs exhibited a robust circadian rhythm, albeit with a longer period, suggesting that the cells possess a way to compensate for CKIdelta loss. When CKIepsilon activity was disrupted by the DN-CKIepsilon in the mutant MEFs, circadian bioluminescence rhythms were eliminated and rhythms in endogenous PER abundance and phosphorylation were severely compromised, demonstrating that CKIdelta/epsilon are indeed essential kinases for the clockwork. This is further supported by abolition of circadian rhythms when physical interaction between PER and CKIdelta/epsilon was disrupted by overexpressing the CKIdelta/epsilon binding domain of PER2 (CKBD-P2). Interestingly, CKBD-P2 overexpression led to dramatically low levels of endogenous PER, while PER-binding, kinase-inactive DN-CKIepsilon did not, suggesting that CKIdelta/epsilon may have a non-catalytic role in stabilizing PER. Our results show that an essential role of CKIdelta/epsilon is conserved between Drosophila and mammals, but CKIdelta/epsilon and DBT may have divergent non-catalytic functions in the clockwork as well.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-053616, R01 NS053616

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;50;21359-64

  • CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is a temperature-insensitive, period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock.

    Isojima Y, Nakajima M, Ukai H, Fujishima H, Yamada RG, Masumoto KH, Kiuchi R, Ishida M, Ukai-Tadenuma M, Minami Y, Kito R, Nakao K, Kishimoto W, Yoo SH, Shimomura K, Takao T, Takano A, Kojima T, Nagai K, Sakaki Y, Takahashi JS and Ueda HR

    Comparative Systems Biology Team, Genomic Science Center, RIKEN, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.

    A striking feature of the circadian clock is its flexible yet robust response to various environmental conditions. To analyze the biochemical processes underlying this flexible-yet-robust characteristic, we examined the effects of 1,260 pharmacologically active compounds in mouse and human clock cell lines. Compounds that markedly (>10 s.d.) lengthened the period in both cell lines, also lengthened it in central clock tissues and peripheral clock cells. Most compounds inhibited casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) or CKIdelta phosphorylation of the PER2 protein. Manipulation of CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation by these compounds lengthened the period of the mammalian clock from circadian (24 h) to circabidian (48 h), revealing its high sensitivity to chemical perturbation. The degradation rate of PER2, which is regulated by CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation, was temperature-insensitive in living clock cells, yet sensitive to chemical perturbations. This temperature-insensitivity was preserved in the CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide in vitro. Thus, CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is likely a temperature-insensitive period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIMH NIH HHS: P50 MH074924, P50 MH074924-05

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;37;15744-9

  • Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock.

    Etchegaray JP, Machida KK, Noton E, Constance CM, Dallmann R, Di Napoli MN, DeBruyne JP, Lambert CM, Yu EA, Reppert SM and Weaver DR

    Department of Neurobiology, LRB-723, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

    Both casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) and epsilon (CK1epsilon) phosphorylate core clock proteins of the mammalian circadian oscillator. To assess the roles of CK1delta and CK1epsilon in the circadian clock mechanism, we generated mice in which the genes encoding these proteins (Csnk1d and Csnk1e, respectively) could be disrupted using the Cre-loxP system. Cre-mediated excision of the floxed exon 2 from Csnk1d led to in-frame splicing and production of a deletion mutant protein (CK1delta(Delta2)). This product is nonfunctional. Mice homozygous for the allele lacking exon 2 die in the perinatal period, so we generated mice with liver-specific disruption of CK1delta. In livers from these mice, daytime levels of nuclear PER proteins, and PER-CRY-CLOCK complexes were elevated. In vitro, the half-life of PER2 was increased by approximately 20%, and the period of PER2::luciferase bioluminescence rhythms was 2 h longer than in controls. Fibroblast cultures from CK1delta-deficient embryos also had long-period rhythms. In contrast, disruption of the gene encoding CK1epsilon did not alter these circadian endpoints. These results reveal important functional differences between CK1delta and CK1epsilon: CK1delta plays an unexpectedly important role in maintaining the 24-h circadian cycle length.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK32520, P30 DK032520; NIGMS NIH HHS: F32 GM074277; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS047141, R01 NS056125, R01 NS056125-03, R01 NS056125-04, R21 NS051458, R21 NS051458-02, R21NS051458

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;14;3853-66

  • The methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator does not employ canonical clock genes.

    Mohawk JA, Baer ML and Menaker M

    Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22904, USA.

    The "master clock" in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus controls most behavioral, physiological, and molecular circadian rhythms in mammals. However, there are other, still unidentified, circadian oscillators that are able to carry out some SCN functions. Here we show that one of these, the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO), which generates behavioral rhythms in the absence of the SCN, is based on an entirely different molecular mechanism. We tested mice lacking, or with mutations of, genes that form the canonical circadian machinery. In all cases, animals that were arrhythmic as a consequence of genetic defect expressed circadian locomotor rhythms when treated with methamphetamine. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the mechanism generating MASCO does not involve the molecular feedback loops that underlie canonical circadian rhythmicity. The properties of MASCO may provide insight into the evolution of circadian mechanisms. Importantly, MASCO may play a role in addiction to psychostimulants.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: F32 DA024542, F32DA024542; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32 DK007646, T32DK007646; NIMH NIH HHS: 1P50MH074924, P50 MH074924

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;9;3519-24

  • Setting clock speed in mammals: the CK1 epsilon tau mutation in mice accelerates circadian pacemakers by selectively destabilizing PERIOD proteins.

    Meng QJ, Logunova L, Maywood ES, Gallego M, Lebiecki J, Brown TM, Sládek M, Semikhodskii AS, Glossop NRJ, Piggins HD, Chesham JE, Bechtold DA, Yoo SH, Takahashi JS, Virshup DM, Boot-Handford RP, Hastings MH and Loudon ASI

    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT.

    The intrinsic period of circadian clocks is their defining adaptive property. To identify the biochemical mechanisms whereby casein kinase1 (CK1) determines circadian period in mammals, we created mouse null and tau mutants of Ck1 epsilon. Circadian period lengthened in CK1epsilon-/-, whereas CK1epsilon(tau/tau) shortened circadian period of behavior in vivo and suprachiasmatic nucleus firing rates in vitro, by accelerating PERIOD-dependent molecular feedback loops. CK1epsilon(tau/tau) also accelerated molecular oscillations in peripheral tissues, revealing its global role in circadian pacemaking. CK1epsilon(tau) acted by promoting degradation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic PERIOD, but not CRYPTOCHROME, proteins. Together, these whole-animal and biochemical studies explain how tau, as a gain-of-function mutation, acts at a specific circadian phase to promote degradation of PERIOD proteins and thereby accelerate the mammalian clockwork in brain and periphery.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/D004357/1, BB/E022553/1, S18856; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Medical Research Council: G0900414, MC_U105170643

    Neuron 2008;58;1;78-88

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies.

    Schwarz-Romond T, Metcalfe C and Bienz M

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QH, UK.

    Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are cytoplasmic components of the Wnt signalling pathway, which controls numerous cell fate decisions during animal development. During Wnt signalling, Dvl binds to the intracellular domain of the frizzled transmembrane receptors, and also to axin to block its activity, which results in the activation of beta-catenin and, consequently, in a transcriptional switch. We have previously reported that the DIX domain of mammalian Dvl2 allows it to form dynamic protein assemblies. Here, we show that these Dvl2 assemblies recruit axin, and also casein kinase Iepsilon. Using photobleaching experiments of GFP-tagged Dvl2 and axin to study the dynamics of their interaction, we found that the recruitment of axin-GFP by Dvl2 assemblies is accompanied by a striking acceleration of the dynamic properties of axin-GFP. We also show that the interaction between Dvl2 and axin remains highly dynamic even after Wnt-induced relocation to the plasma membrane. We discuss how the recruitment of casein kinase Iepsilon by Dvl2 assemblies might impact on the recruitment of axin to the plasma membrane during Wnt signalling.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U105184273, MC_U105192713

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 14;2402-12

  • Regulation of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta formation by casein kinase I.

    Flajolet M, He G, Heiman M, Lin A, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with accumulation of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid-beta (Abeta), which is produced by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the aspartyl protease beta-secretase and the presenilin-dependent protease gamma-secretase. An increase of casein kinase 1 (CK1) expression has been described in the human AD brain. We show, by using in silico analysis, that APP, beta-secretase, and gamma-secretase subunits contain, in their intracellular regions, multiple CK1 consensus phosphorylation sites, many of which are conserved among human, rat, and mouse species. Overexpression of constitutively active CK1epsilon, one of the CK1 isoforms expressed in brain, leads to an increase in Abeta peptide production. Conversely, three structurally dissimilar CK1-specific inhibitors significantly reduced endogenous Abeta peptide production. By using mammalian cells expressing the beta C-terminal fragment of APP, it was possible to demonstrate that CK1 inhibitors act at the level of gamma-secretase cleavage. Importantly, Notch cleavage was not affected. Our results indicate that CK1 represents a therapeutic target for prevention of Abeta formation in AD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 09464, P01 AG009464

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007;104;10;4159-64

  • Regulation of the nuclear export of the transcription factor NFATc1 by protein kinases after slow fibre type electrical stimulation of adult mouse skeletal muscle fibres.

    Shen T, Cseresnyés Z, Liu Y, Randall WR and Schneider MF

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 108 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-1503, USA.

    The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1 has been shown to be involved in turning on slow skeletal muscle fibre gene expression. Previous studies from our laboratory have characterized the stimulation pattern-dependent nuclear import and resting shuttling of NFATc1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibres from adult mouse. In this study, we use viral expression of the transcription factor NFATc1-GFP fusion protein to investigate the mechanisms underlying the nuclear export of the NFATc1-GFP that accumulated in the nuclei of cultured dissociated adult mouse FDB muscle fibres during slow-twitch fibre type electrical stimulation. In these studies, we found that inhibition of either glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) or casein kinase 1 or 2 (CK1/2) markedly slowed the decay of nuclear NFATc1-GFP after cessation of muscle fibre electrical stimulation, whereas inhibition of casein kinase 1delta, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein kinase A had little effect. Simultaneous inhibition of GSK3beta and CK1/2 completely blocked the nuclear export of NFATc1-GFP after muscle activity. We also developed a simplified model of NFATc1 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and nuclear fluxes, and used this model to simulate the observed time courses of nuclear NFATc1-GFP with and without NFATc1 kinase inhibition. Our results suggest that GSK3beta and CK1/2 are the major protein kinases that contribute to the removal of NFATc1 that accumulates in muscle fibre nuclei during muscle activity, and that GSK3beta and CK1/2 are responsible for phosphorylating NFATc1 in muscle nuclei in a complementary or synergistic fashion.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: T32 AR007592, T32-AR-07592; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS033578, R01-NS33578

    The Journal of physiology 2007;579;Pt 2;535-51

  • Dual alterations in casein kinase I-epsilon and GSK-3beta modulate beta-catenin stability in hyperproliferating colonic epithelia.

    Umar S, Wang Y, Morris AP and Sellin JH

    Div of Gastroenterology, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0632, USA. shumar@utmb.edu

    Casein kinase I (CKI)-epsilon and GSK-3beta phosphorylate beta-catenin at Ser(45) (beta-cat(45)) and Thr(41)/Ser(37,33) (beta-cat(33,37,41)) residues, thereby facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We used a Citrobacter rodentium-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model to determine Ser/Thr phosphorylation and biological function of beta-catenin during crypt hyperproliferation. TMCH was associated with 3-fold and 3.3-fold increases in CKI-epsilon cellular abundance and 2-fold and 1.8-fold increase in its activity at 6 and 12 days after infection, respectively. beta-Catenin coimmunoprecipitated with both cellular and nuclear CKI-epsilon and cellular axin at these time points. Cellular beta-catenin was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser(45) and underwent subcellular redistribution to cytoskeletal and nuclear fractions at days 6 and 12 of TMCH, respectively. beta-cat(33,37,41), however, exhibited only subtle changes in either phosphorylation status or subcellular distribution even after blocking proteasomal degradation in vivo. Interestingly, GSK-3beta underwent increased phosphorylation at Ser(9), leading to 40% and 70% decreases in its activity at these time points, respectively. Coimmunoprecipitation studies exhibited strong association of GSK-3beta with PKC-zeta at either time point. Cellular beta-cat(45) stabilized and, along with unphosphorylated beta-catenin, underwent nuclear translocation, associated with nuclear accumulated Tcf-4 and cAMP response element binding protein binding protein, and was significantly acetylated, leading to increases in DNA binding. Priming of beta-catenin at Ser(45) exists in vivo. However, beta-cat(45) does not necessarily enter the degradation pathway. Impairment in linking beta-cat(45) to subsequent GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation and degradation may account for increased steady-state levels of both unphosphorylated as well as Ser(45)-phosphorylated beta-catenin, which may be causally linked to increases in cell census during TMCH.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-099121

    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2007;292;2;G599-607

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Physiological role for casein kinase 1 in glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    Chergui K, Svenningsson P and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Casein kinase 1 (CK1) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase, present in virtually all cell types, in which it phosphorylates a wide variety of substrates. So far, no role has been found for this ubiquitous protein kinase in the physiology of nerve cells. In the present study, we show that CK1 regulates fast synaptic transmission mediated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Through the use of CK1 inhibitors, we present evidence that activation of CK1 decreases NMDA receptor activity in the striatum via a mechanism that involves activation by this kinase of protein phosphatase 1 and/or 2A and resultant increased dephosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Indeed, inhibition of CK1 increases NMDA-mediated EPSCs in medium spiny striatal neurons. This effect is associated with an increased phosphorylation of the NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor and is occluded by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The mGluR1, but not mGluR5, subclass of metabotropic glutamate receptors uses CK1 to inhibit NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These results provide the first evidence for a role of CK1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA 10044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-40899

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;28;6601-9

  • Gene expression differences in mice divergently selected for methamphetamine sensitivity.

    Palmer AA, Verbitsky M, Suresh R, Kamens HM, Reed CL, Li N, Burkhart-Kasch S, McKinnon CS, Belknap JK, Gilliam TC and Phillips TJ

    Columbia Genome Center, Columbia University, 1150 St. Nicholas Ave., New York, New York 10032, USA. aap2010@columbia.edu

    In an effort to identify genes that may be important for drug-abuse liability, we mapped behavioral quantitative trait loci (bQTL) for sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effect of methamphetamine (MA) using two mouse lines that were selectively bred for high MA-induced activity (HMACT) or low MA-induced activity (LMACT). We then examined gene expression differences between these lines in the nucleus accumbens, using 20 U74Av2 Affymetrix microarrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Expression differences were detected for several genes, including Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon (Csnkle), glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA1 (GluR1), GABA B1 receptor (Gabbr1), and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (Darpp-32). We used the www.WebQTL.org database to identify QTL that regulate the expression of the genes identified by the microarrays (expression QTL; eQTL). This approach identified an eQTL for Csnkle on Chromosome 15 (LOD = 3.8) that comapped with a bQTL for the MA stimulation phenotype (LOD = 4.5), suggesting that a single allele may cause both traits. The chromosomal region containing this QTL has previously been associated with sensitivity to the stimulant effects of cocaine. These results suggest that selection was associated with (and likely caused) altered gene expression that is partially attributable to different frequencies of gene expression polymorphisms. Combining classical genetics with analysis of whole-genome gene expression and bioinformatic resources provides a powerful method for provisionally identifying genes that influence complex traits. The identified genes provide excellent candidates for future hypothesis-driven studies, translational genetic studies, and pharmacological interventions.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: AA07468; NIDA NIH HHS: DA10913; NIMH NIH HHS: MH70933

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;5;291-305

  • Control of mammalian circadian rhythm by CKIepsilon-regulated proteasome-mediated PER2 degradation.

    Eide EJ, Woolf MF, Kang H, Woolf P, Hurst W, Camacho F, Vielhaber EL, Giovanni A and Virshup DM

    Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

    The mammalian circadian regulatory proteins PER1 and PER2 undergo a daily cycle of accumulation followed by phosphorylation and degradation. Although phosphorylation-regulated proteolysis of these inhibitors is postulated to be essential for the function of the clock, inhibition of this process has not yet been shown to alter mammalian circadian rhythm. We have developed a cell-based model of PER2 degradation. Murine PER2 (mPER2) hyperphosphorylation induced by the cell-permeable protein phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A is rapidly followed by ubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Proteasome-mediated degradation is critically important in the circadian clock, as proteasome inhibitors cause a significant lengthening of the circadian period in Rat-1 cells. CKIepsilon (casein kinase Iepsilon) has been postulated to prime PER2 for degradation. Supporting this idea, CKIepsilon inhibition also causes a significant lengthening of circadian period in synchronized Rat-1 cells. CKIepsilon inhibition also slows the degradation of PER2 in cells. CKIepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of PER2 recruits the ubiquitin ligase adapter protein beta-TrCP to a specific site, and dominant negative beta-TrCP blocks phosphorylation-dependent degradation of mPER2. These results provide a biochemical mechanism and functional relevance for the observed phosphorylation-degradation cycle of mammalian PER2. Cell culture-based biochemical assays combined with measurement of cell-based rhythm complement genetic studies to elucidate basic mechanisms controlling the mammalian clock.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P04CA42104; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM060387, R01 GM60387

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;7;2795-807

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • Age-associated alteration of gene expression patterns in mouse oocytes.

    Hamatani T, Falco G, Carter MG, Akutsu H, Stagg CA, Sharov AA, Dudekula DB, VanBuren V and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 333 Cassell Drive, Suite 3000, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

    Decreasing oocyte competence with maternal aging is a major factor in human infertility. To investigate the age-dependent molecular changes in a mouse model, we compared the expression profiles of metaphase II oocytes collected from 5- to 6-week-old mice with those collected from 42- to 45-week-old mice using the NIA 22K 60-mer oligo microarray. Among approximately 11,000 genes whose transcripts were detected in oocytes, about 5% (530) showed statistically significant expression changes, excluding the possibility of global decline in transcript abundance. Consistent with the generally accepted view of aging, the differentially expressed genes included ones involved in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. However, the expression of other genes involved in chromatin structure, DNA methylation, genome stability and RNA helicases was also altered, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms for aging. Among the transcripts decreased with aging, we identified and characterized a group of new oocyte-specific genes, members of the human NACHT, leucine-rich repeat and PYD-containing (NALP) gene family. These results have implications for aging research as well as for clinical ooplasmic donation to rejuvenate aging oocytes.

    Human molecular genetics 2004;13;19;2263-78

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mechanism of phosphorylation-dependent binding of APC to beta-catenin and its role in beta-catenin degradation.

    Ha NC, Tonozuka T, Stamos JL, Choi HJ and Weis WI

    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94043, USA.

    The transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin mediates Wnt growth factor signaling. In the absence of a Wnt signal, casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylate cytosolic beta-catenin, thereby flagging it for recognition and destruction by the ubiquitin/proteosome machinery. Phosphorylation occurs in a multiprotein complex that includes the kinases, beta-catenin, axin, and the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein. The role of APC in this process is poorly understood. CK1epsilon and GSK-3beta phosphorylate APC, which increases its affinity for beta-catenin. Crystal structures of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated APC bound to beta-catenin reveal a phosphorylation-dependent binding motif generated by mutual priming of CK1 and GSK-3beta substrate sequences. Axin is shown to act as a scaffold for substrate phosphorylation by these kinases. Phosphorylated APC and axin bind to the same surface of, and compete directly for, beta-catenin. The structural and biochemical data suggest a novel model for how APC functions in beta-catenin degradation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56169

    Molecular cell 2004;15;4;511-21

  • Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon activity by Wnt signaling.

    Swiatek W, Tsai IC, Klimowski L, Pepler A, Barnette J, Yost HJ and Virshup DM

    Department of Oncological Sciences and the Center for Children, Huntsman Cancer Institute, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

    The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is important in both development and cancer. Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) is a positive regulator of the canonical Wnt pathway. CKIepsilon itself can be regulated in vitro by inhibitory autophosphorylation, and recent data suggest that in vivo kinase activity can be regulated by extracellular stimuli. We show here that the phosphorylation state and kinase activity of CKIepsilon are directly regulated by Wnt signaling. Coexpression of XWnt-8 or addition of soluble Wnt-3a ligand led to a significant and rapid increase in the activity of endogenous CKIepsilon. The increase in CKIepsilon activity is the result of decreased inhibitory autophosphorylation because it is abolished by preincubation of immunoprecipitated kinase with ATP. Furthermore, mutation of CKIepsilon inhibitory autophosphorylation sites creates a kinase termed CKIepsilon(MM2) that is significantly more active than CKIepsilon and is not activated further upon Wnt stimulation. Autoinhibition of CKIepsilon is biologically relevant because CKIepsilon(MM2) is more effective than CKIepsilon at activating transcription from a Lef1-dependent promoter. Finally, CKIepsilon(MM2) expression in Xenopus embryos induces both axis duplication and additional developmental abnormalities. The data suggest that Wnt signaling activates CKIepsilon by causing transient dephosphorylation of critical inhibitory sites present in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the kinase. Activation of the Wnt pathway may therefore stimulate a cellular phosphatase to dephosphorylate and activate CKIepsilon

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 80809

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;13;13011-7

  • Casein kinase Iepsilon modulates the signaling specificities of dishevelled.

    Cong F, Schweizer L and Varmus H

    Program in Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA. congf@mskcc.org

    Wnt signaling is critical to many aspects of development, and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway can cause cancer. Dishevelled (Dvl) protein plays a central role in this pathway by transducing the signal from the Wnt receptor complex to the beta-catenin destruction complex. Dvl also plays a pivotal role in the planar cell polarity pathway that involves the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). How functions of Dvl are regulated in these two distinct pathways is not clear. We show that deleting the C-terminal two-thirds of Dvl, which includes the PDZ and DEP domains and is essential for Dvl-induced JNK activation, rendered the molecule a much more potent activator of the beta-catenin pathway. We also found that casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon), a previously identified positive regulator of Wnt signaling, stimulated Dvl activity in the Wnt pathway, but dramatically inhibited Dvl activity in the JNK pathway. Consistent with this, overexpression of CKIepsilon in Drosophila melanogaster stimulated Wnt signaling and disrupted planar cell polarity. We also observed a correlation between the localization and the signaling activity of Dvl in the beta-catenin pathway and the JNK pathway. Furthermore, by using RNA interference, we demonstrate that the Drosophila CKIepsilon homologue Double time positively regulates the beta-catenin pathway through Dvl and negatively regulates the Dvl-induced JNK pathway. We suggest that CKIepsilon functions as a molecular switch to direct Dvl from the JNK pathway to the beta-catenin pathway, possibly by altering the conformation of the C terminus of Dvl.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;5;2000-11

  • Direct association between mouse PERIOD and CKIepsilon is critical for a functioning circadian clock.

    Lee C, Weaver DR and Reppert SM

    Department of Neurobiology, LRB-728, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

    The mPER1 and mPER2 proteins have important roles in the circadian clock mechanism, whereas mPER3 is expendable. Here we examine the posttranslational regulation of mPER3 in vivo in mouse liver and compare it to the other mPER proteins to define the salient features required for clock function. Like mPER1 and mPER2, mPER3 is phosphorylated, changes cellular location, and interacts with other clock proteins in a time-dependent manner. Consistent with behavioral data from mPer2/3 and mPer1/3 double-mutant mice, either mPER1 or mPER2 alone can sustain rhythmic posttranslational events. However, mPER3 is unable to sustain molecular rhythmicity in mPer1/2 double-mutant mice. Indeed, mPER3 is always cytoplasmic and is not phosphorylated in the livers of mPer1-deficient mice, suggesting that mPER3 is regulated by mPER1 at a posttranslational level. In vitro studies with chimeric proteins suggest that the inability of mPER3 to support circadian clock function results in part from lack of direct and stable interaction with casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon). We thus propose that the CKIepsilon-binding domain is critical not only for mPER phosphorylation but also for a functioning circadian clock.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 39303, R01 NS039303

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;2;584-94

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • A large-scale, gene-driven mutagenesis approach for the functional analysis of the mouse genome.

    Hansen J, Floss T, Van Sloun P, Füchtbauer EM, Vauti F, Arnold HH, Schnütgen F, Wurst W, von Melchner H and Ruiz P

    Institute of Developmental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    A major challenge of the postgenomic era is the functional characterization of every single gene within the mammalian genome. In an effort to address this challenge, we assembled a collection of mutations in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is the largest publicly accessible collection of such mutations to date. Using four different gene-trap vectors, we generated 5,142 sequences adjacent to the gene-trap integration sites (gene-trap sequence tags; http://genetrap.de) from >11,000 ES cell clones. Although most of the gene-trap vector insertions occurred randomly throughout the genome, we found both vector-independent and vector-specific integration "hot spots." Because >50% of the hot spots were vector-specific, we conclude that the most effective way to saturate the mouse genome with gene-trap insertions is by using a combination of gene-trap vectors. When a random sample of gene-trap integrations was passaged to the germ line, 59% (17 of 29) produced an observable phenotype in transgenic mice, a frequency similar to that achieved by conventional gene targeting. Thus, gene trapping allows a large-scale and cost-effective production of ES cell clones with mutations distributed throughout the genome, a resource likely to accelerate genome annotation and the in vivo modeling of human disease.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;17;9918-22

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Mechanism of regulation of casein kinase I activity by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Liu F, Virshup DM, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Previously, we reported that (S)-3,5-dihydroxypenylglycine (DHPG), an agonist for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), stimulates CK1 and Cdk5 kinase activities in neostriatal neurons, leading to enhanced phosphorylation, respectively, of Ser-137 and Thr-75 of DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa). We have now investigated the signaling pathway that leads from mGluRs to casein kinase 1 (CK1) activation. In mouse neostriatal slices, the effect of DHPG on phosphorylation of Ser-137 or Thr-75 of DARPP-32 was blocked by the phospholipase Cbeta inhibitor, the Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA/AM), and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A. In neuroblastoma N2a cells, the effect of DHPG on the activity of transfected HA-tagged CK1(epsilon) was blocked by BAPTA/AM and cyclosporin A. In neostriatal slices, the effect of DHPG on Cdk5 activity was also abolished by BAPTA/AM and cyclosporin A, presumably through blocking activation of CK1. Metabolic labeling studies and phosphopeptide mapping revealed that a set of C-terminal sites in HA-CK1epsilon were transiently dephosphorylated in N2a cells upon treatment with DHPG, and this was blocked by cyclosporin A. A mutant CK1epsilon with a nonphosphorylatable C-terminal domain was not activated by DHPG. Together, these studies suggest that DHPG activates CK1(epsilon) via Ca(2+)-dependent stimulation of calcineurin and subsequent dephosphorylation of inhibitory C-terminal autophosphorylation sites.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA073992-06A10004; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM060387-04

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;47;45393-9

  • Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Cheng MY, Bullock CM, Li C, Lee AG, Bermak JC, Belluzzi J, Weaver DR, Leslie FM and Zhou QY

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the circadian rhythm of physiological and behavioural processes in mammals. Here we show that prokineticin 2 (PK2), a cysteine-rich secreted protein, functions as an output molecule from the SCN circadian clock. PK2 messenger RNA is rhythmically expressed in the SCN, and the phase of PK2 rhythm is responsive to light entrainment. Molecular and genetic studies have revealed that PK2 is a gene that is controlled by a circadian clock (clock-controlled). Receptor for PK2 (PKR2) is abundantly expressed in major target nuclei of the SCN output pathway. Inhibition of nocturnal locomotor activity in rats by intracerebroventricular delivery of recombinant PK2 during subjective night, when the endogenous PK2 mRNA level is low, further supports the hypothesis that PK2 is an output molecule that transmits behavioural circadian rhythm. The high expression of PKR2 mRNA within the SCN and the positive feedback of PK2 on its own transcription through activation of PKR2 suggest that PK2 may also function locally within the SCN to synchronize output.

    Nature 2002;417;6887;405-10

  • Construction of long-transcript enriched cDNA libraries from submicrogram amounts of total RNAs by a universal PCR amplification method.

    Piao Y, Ko NT, Lim MK and Ko MS

    Developmental Genomics and Aging Section, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    Here we report a novel design of linker primer that allows one to differentially amplify long tracts (average 3.0 kb with size ranges of 1-7 kb) or short DNAs (average 1.5 kb with size ranges of 0.5-3 kb) from a complex mixture. The method allows one to generate cDNA libraries enriched for long transcripts without size selection of insert DNAs. One representative library from newborn kidney includes 70% of clones bearing ATG start codons. A comparable library has been generated from 20 mouse blastocysts, containing only approximately 40 ng of total RNA. This universal PCR amplification scheme can provide a route to isolate very large cDNAs, even if they are expressed at very low levels.

    Genome research 2001;11;9;1553-8

  • Expression of genes involved in mammalian meiosis during the transition from egg to embryo.

    Hwang SY, Oh B, Knowles BB, Solter D and Lee JS

    Research Institute of Immunobiology, Catholic Institutes of Medical Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

    The ooplasm of higher eukaryotes provides substances necessary for completing the last stages of meiosis and initiating the first mitotic division. These processes are firmly attuned to other events in the egg and newly formed embryo, such as switching from the use of maternal transcripts to the onset of zygotic transcription. In mammals little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding this transition, largely due to the lack of information about genes expressed in the egg and early embryos. Studies of yeast mitosis have contributed much of what is known about the vertebrate cell cycle, and recent reports indicate that homologs of yeast DNA repair genes also function during mammalian gametogenesis. To examine whether this conservation can be expanded to include genes operative in oocyte meiosis, we performed a computer-based search for homologs of yeast genes that are induced during sporulation in C. elegans, Drosophila, and mammals. Results from this study suggest that yeast and higher eukaryotes share genes that coordinate the overall process of meiosis. However intriguing differences exist, reflecting the distinctive mechanisms governing the progression of meiosis in each organism. ESTs representing more than half of the mammalian homologs are present in mouse cDNA libraries that contains genes controlling the meiosis/mitosis transition. About 50% of these genes contain potential cis-elements for cytoplasmic polyadenylation in their 3'-UTR, suggesting the importance of controlled translation in the egg and zygote.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-37102

    Molecular reproduction and development 2001;59;2;144-58

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon.

    Vielhaber E, Eide E, Rivers A, Gao ZH and Virshup DM

    Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.

    The molecular oscillator that keeps circadian time is generated by a negative feedback loop. Nuclear entry of circadian regulatory proteins that inhibit transcription from E-box-containing promoters appears to be a critical component of this loop in both Drosophila and mammals. The Drosophila double-time gene product, a casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) homolog, has been reported to interact with dPER and regulate circadian cycle length. We find that mammalian CKIepsilon binds to and phosphorylates the murine circadian regulator mPER1. Unlike both dPER and mPER2, mPER1 expressed alone in HEK 293 cells is predominantly a nuclear protein. Two distinct mechanisms appear to retard mPER1 nuclear entry. First, coexpression of mPER2 leads to mPER1-mPER2 heterodimer formation and cytoplasmic colocalization. Second, coexpression of CKIepsilon leads to masking of the mPER1 nuclear localization signal and phosphorylation-dependent cytoplasmic retention of both proteins. CKIepsilon may regulate mammalian circadian rhythm by controlling the rate at which mPER1 enters the nucleus.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 3P30 CA42014, P30 CA042014, R01 CA71074

    Molecular and cellular biology 2000;20;13;4888-99

  • Positional syntenic cloning and functional characterization of the mammalian circadian mutation tau.

    Lowrey PL, Shimomura K, Antoch MP, Yamazaki S, Zemenides PD, Ralph MR, Menaker M and Takahashi JS

    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

    The tau mutation is a semidominant autosomal allele that dramatically shortens period length of circadian rhythms in Syrian hamsters. We report the molecular identification of the tau locus using genetically directed representational difference analysis to define a region of conserved synteny in hamsters with both the mouse and human genomes. The tau locus is encoded by casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon), a homolog of the Drosophila circadian gene double-time. In vitro expression and functional studies of wild-type and tau mutant CKIepsilon enzyme reveal that the mutant enzyme has a markedly reduced maximal velocity and autophosphorylation state. In addition, in vitro CKIepsilon can interact with mammalian PERIOD proteins, and the mutant enzyme is deficient in its ability to phosphorylate PERIOD. We conclude that tau is an allele of hamster CKIepsilon and propose a mechanism by which the mutation leads to the observed aberrant circadian phenotype in mutant animals.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIMH NIH HHS: R01MH56647, R37MH39592

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;288;5465;483-92

  • cDNA cloning and chromosome mapping of the mouse casein kinase I epsilon gene (Csnk1e).

    Kusuda J, Hirai M, Tanuma R and Hashimoto K

    Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. jkusada@nih.go.jp

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1999;87;1-2;99-101

  • Sequence analysis of the cDNA for the human casein kinase I delta (CSNK1D) gene and its chromosomal localization.

    Kusuda J, Hidari N, Hirai M and Hashimoto K

    Division of Genetic Resources, National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.

    A cDNA clone coding for human casein kinase I (CK1) has been isolated and sequenced. The insert of 1911 bp contained an open reading frame of 415 amino acids. The entire amino acid sequence of human CK1 was 97% homologous to that of rat CK1 delta, and their sequences in the kinase domain (284 amino acid residues) were completely identical, predicting that the obtained cDNA is for a human homolog of the CK1 delta isoform (CSNKID). The considerable similarity in the amino acid sequence of the kinase domain of human CK1 delta to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CK1, HRR25 (66%), and to the Saccharomyces pombe CK1, HHP1 (78%), which are involved in the repair of DNA strand break, supports the speculation that human CK1 delta might also act in DNA metabolism through excision and recombinational repair. The human CK1 delta gene was mapped to chromosome 17q25.2-q25.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis of the human/rodent hybrid cell panels.

    Genomics 1996;32;1;140-3

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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