G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Sorbs1 (MGI)
Mus musculus
sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1
G00001383 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

ENSMUSG00000025006 (Ensembl mouse gene)
20411 (Entrez Gene)
486 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:700014 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00715 (BGEM)
20411 (Genepaint)
sorbs1 (gensat)
605264 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:700014 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q62417 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CAP
  • Ponsin
  • Sh3d5
  • c-Cbl-associated protein

Literature (34)

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Ponsin interacts with Nck adapter proteins: implications for a role in cytoskeletal remodelling during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells.

    Gehmlich K, Hayess K, Legler C, Haebel S, Van der Ven PF, Ehler E and Fürst DO

    Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Cell Biology, University of Potsdam, Germany. k.gehmlich@ucl.ac.uk

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is a complex process: It is characterised by changes in gene expression and protein composition. Simultaneously, a dramatic remodelling of the cytoskeleton and associated cell-matrix contacts, the costameres, occurs. The expression and localisation of the protein ponsin at cell-matrix contacts marks the establishment of costameres. In this report we show that skeletal muscle cells are characterised by a novel ponsin isoform, which contains a large insertion in its carboxy-terminus. This skeletal muscle-specific module binds the adapter proteins Nck1 and Nck2, and increased co-localisation of ponsin with Nck2 is observed at remodelling cell-matrix contacts of differentiating skeletal muscle cells. Since this ponsin insertion can be phosphorylated, it may adjust the interaction affinity with Nck adapter proteins. The novel ponsin isoform and its interaction with Nck1/2 provide exciting insight into the convergence of signalling pathways at the costameres, and its crucial role for skeletal muscle differentiation and re-generation.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0400153

    European journal of cell biology 2010;89;5;351-64

  • The level of the transcription factor Pax6 is essential for controlling the balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

    Sansom SN, Griffiths DS, Faedo A, Kleinjan DJ, Ruan Y, Smith J, van Heyningen V, Rubenstein JL and Livesey FJ

    Gurdon Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    Neural stem cell self-renewal, neurogenesis, and cell fate determination are processes that control the generation of specific classes of neurons at the correct place and time. The transcription factor Pax6 is essential for neural stem cell proliferation, multipotency, and neurogenesis in many regions of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. We used Pax6 as an entry point to define the cellular networks controlling neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis in stem cells of the developing mouse cerebral cortex. We identified the genomic binding locations of Pax6 in neocortical stem cells during normal development and ascertained the functional significance of genes that we found to be regulated by Pax6, finding that Pax6 positively and directly regulates cohorts of genes that promote neural stem cell self-renewal, basal progenitor cell genesis, and neurogenesis. Notably, we defined a core network regulating neocortical stem cell decision-making in which Pax6 interacts with three other regulators of neurogenesis, Neurog2, Ascl1, and Hes1. Analyses of the biological function of Pax6 in neural stem cells through phenotypic analyses of Pax6 gain- and loss-of-function mutant cortices demonstrated that the Pax6-regulated networks operating in neural stem cells are highly dosage sensitive. Increasing Pax6 levels drives the system towards neurogenesis and basal progenitor cell genesis by increasing expression of a cohort of basal progenitor cell determinants, including the key transcription factor Eomes/Tbr2, and thus towards neurogenesis at the expense of self-renewal. Removing Pax6 reduces cortical stem cell self-renewal by decreasing expression of key cell cycle regulators, resulting in excess early neurogenesis. We find that the relative levels of Pax6, Hes1, and Neurog2 are key determinants of a dynamic network that controls whether neural stem cells self-renew, generate cortical neurons, or generate basal progenitor cells, a mechanism that has marked parallels with the transcriptional control of embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council: MC_U127527199; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS034661, R01 NS099099; Wellcome Trust

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;6;e1000511

  • CAP (Cbl associated protein) regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Tosoni D and Cestra G

    IFOM, Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

    CAP (c-Cbl associated protein)/ponsin belongs to a family of adaptor proteins implicated in cell adhesion and signaling. Here we show that CAP binds to and co-localizes with the essential endocytic factor dynamin. We demonstrate that CAP promotes the formation of dynamin-decorated tubule like structures, which are also coated with actin filaments. Accordingly, we found that the expression of CAP leads to the inhibition of dynamin-mediated endocytosis and increases EGFR stability. Thus, we suggest that CAP may coordinate the function of dynamin with the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during endocytosis.

    FEBS letters 2009;583;2;293-300

  • A postnatal switch of CELF and MBNL proteins reprograms alternative splicing in the developing heart.

    Kalsotra A, Xiao X, Ward AJ, Castle JC, Johnson JM, Burge CB and Cooper TA

    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    From a large-scale screen using splicing microarrays and RT-PCR, we identified 63 alternative splicing (AS) events that are coordinated in 3 distinct temporal patterns during mouse heart development. More than half of these splicing transitions are evolutionarily conserved between mouse and chicken. Computational analysis of the introns flanking these splicing events identified enriched and conserved motifs including binding sites for CUGBP and ETR-3-like factors (CELF), muscleblind-like (MBNL) and Fox proteins. We show that CELF proteins are down-regulated >10-fold during heart development, and MBNL1 protein is concomitantly up-regulated nearly 4-fold. Using transgenic and knockout mice, we show that reproducing the embryonic expression patterns for CUGBP1 and MBNL1 in adult heart induces the embryonic splicing patterns for more than half of the developmentally regulated AS transitions. These findings indicate that CELF and MBNL proteins are determinative for a large subset of splicing transitions that occur during postnatal heart development.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG002439, R01 HG002439; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL045565, R01HL45565; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM076493, R01GM076493

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;51;20333-8

  • Identification of CAP as a costameric protein that interacts with filamin C.

    Zhang M, Liu J, Cheng A, Deyoung SM and Saltiel AR

    Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    Cbl-associated protein (CAP) is an adaptor protein that interacts with both signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we characterize the expression, localization and potential function of CAP in striated muscle. CAP is markedly induced during myoblast differentiation, and colocalizes with vinculin during costamerogenesis. In adult mice, CAP is enriched in oxidative muscle fibers, and it is found in membrane anchorage complexes, including intercalated discs, costameres, and myotendinous junctions. Using both yeast two-hybrid and proteomic approaches, we identified the sarcomeric protein filamin C (FLNc) as a binding partner for CAP. When overexpressed, CAP recruits FLNc to cell-extracellular matrix adhesions, where the two proteins cooperatively regulate actin reorganization. Moreover, overexpression of CAP inhibits FLNc-induced cell spreading on fibronectin. In dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, the expression and membrane localization of CAP is increased, concomitant with the elevated plasma membrane content of FLNc, suggesting that CAP may compensate for the reduced membrane linkage of the myofibrils due to the loss of the dystroglycan-sarcoglycan complex in these mice. Thus, through its interaction with FLNc, CAP provides another link between the myofibril cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and it may play a dynamic role in the regulation and maintenance of muscle structural integrity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-60591, DK-61618, F32 DK064551, R01 DK060591, R01 DK061618

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;12;4731-40

  • EUCOMM--the European conditional mouse mutagenesis program.

    Friedel RH, Seisenberger C, Kaloff C and Wurst W

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    Functional analysis of the mammalian genome is an enormous challenge for biomedical scientists. To facilitate this endeavour, the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) aims at generating up to 12 000 mutations by gene trapping and up to 8000 mutations by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutations can be rendered into conditional alleles, allowing Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gene function in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the EUCOMM program will generate up to 320 mouse lines from the EUCOMM resource and up to 20 new Cre driver mouse lines. The EUCOMM resource of vectors, mutant ES cell lines and mutant mice will be openly available to the scientific community. EUCOMM will be one of the cornerstones of an international effort to create a global mouse mutant resource.

    Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 2007;6;3;180-5

  • Nerve growth factor stimulates the concentration of TrkA within lipid rafts and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation through c-Cbl-associated protein.

    Limpert AS, Karlo JC and Landreth GE

    Department of Neurosciences, Alzheimer Research Laboratory, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106-4928, USA.

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts through its receptor, TrkA, to elicit the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells through the action of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2. Upon NGF binding, TrkA translocates and concentrates in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains or lipid rafts, facilitating formation of receptor-associated signaling complexes, activation of downstream signaling pathways, and internalization into endosomes. We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the localization of TrkA within lipid rafts and its ability to activate ERK1 and ERK2. We report that NGF treatment results in the translocation of activated forms of TrkA to lipid rafts, and this localization is important for efficient activation of the ERKs. TrkA is recruited and retained within lipid rafts through its association with flotillin, an intrinsic constituent of these membrane microdomains, via the adapter protein, c-Cbl associated protein (CAP). Mutant forms of CAP that lack protein interaction domains block TrkA localization to lipid rafts and attenuate ERK activation. Importantly, suppression of endogenous CAP expression inhibited NGF-stimulated neurite outgrowth from primary dorsal root ganglion neurons. These data provide a mechanism for the lipid raft localization of TrkA and establish the importance of the CAP adaptor protein for NGF activation of the ERKs and neuronal differentiation.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: T32 HD007104, TD-HD07104

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;16;5686-98

  • Bone marrow-specific Cap gene deletion protects against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

    Lesniewski LA, Hosch SE, Neels JG, de Luca C, Pashmforoush M, Lumeng CN, Chiang SH, Scadeng M, Saltiel AR and Olefsky JM

    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

    Cbl-associated protein (Cap) is a member of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway for insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Despite this positive role of Cap in glucose uptake, here we show that deletion of the gene encoding Cap (official gene name: Sorbs1) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice while also having an opposite, insulin-sensitizing effect, accompanied by reduced tissue markers of inflammation. Given the emerging role of chronic inflammation in insulin resistance and the macrophage in initiating this inflammatory process, we considered that Sorbs1 deletion from macrophages may have resulted in the observed protection from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Using bone marrow transplantation to generate functional Sorbs1-null macrophages, we show that the insulin-sensitive phenotype can be transferred to wild-type mice by transplantation of Sorbs1-null bone marrow. These studies show that macrophages are an important cell type in the induction of insulin resistance and that Cap has a modulatory role in this function.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 33651, DK 60591, F32 DK072815

    Nature medicine 2007;13;4;455-62

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Vosseller K, Trinidad JC, Chalkley RJ, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Lynn AJ, Snedecor JO, Guan S, Medzihradszky KF, Maltby DA, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. kav27@drexel.edu

    O-GlcNAc is a widespread dynamic carbohydrate modification of cytosolic and nuclear proteins with features analogous to phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc acts critically in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein degradation, and regulation of gene expression. However, the study of its specific regulatory functions has been limited by difficulties in mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification. We report methods for direct enrichment and identification of in vivo O-GlcNAc-modified peptides through lectin weak affinity chromatography (LWAC) and mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of this strategy on complex peptide mixtures was demonstrated through enrichment of 145 unique O-GlcNAc-modified peptides from a postsynaptic density preparation. 65 of these O-GlcNAc-modified peptides were sequenced and belonged to proteins with diverse functions in synaptic transmission. Beta-elimination/Michael addition, MS(3) on O-GlcNAc neutral loss ions, and electron capture dissociation were shown to facilitate analysis of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides/sites from lectin weak affinity chromatography enriched postsynaptic density samples. Bassoon and Piccolo, proteins critical to synapse assembly and vesicle docking, were extensively modified by O-GlcNAc. In some cases, O-GlcNAc was mapped to peptides previously identified as phosphorylated, indicating potential interplay between these modifications. Shared substrate amino acid context was apparent in subsets of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, including "PVST" and a novel "TTA" motif (two hydroxyl-containing amino acids adjacent to an alanine). The results suggest specific roles for O-GlcNAc modification in synaptic transmission, establish a basis for site-specific regulatory studies, and provide methods that will facilitate O-GlcNAc proteome analysis across a wide variety of cells and tissues.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;923-34

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • A novel isoform of Vinexin, Vinexin gamma, regulates Sox9 gene expression through activation of MAPK cascade in mouse fetal gonad.

    Matsuyama M, Mizusaki H, Shimono A, Mukai T, Okumura K, Abe K, Shimada K and Morohashi K

    Division of Sex Differentiation, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444-8787, Japan.

    Recent loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies have revealed that transcription factor Sox9 is required for testis formation by governing Sertoli cell differentiation, and thereafter regulating transcription of Sertoli marker genes. In the present study, we identified a novel isoform of Vinexin, which is expressed in somatic cells but not germ cells of sexually indifferent stages of fetal gonads. After the sex is determined, the expression continues in testicular Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemical analyses with a specific antibody to Vinexin indicated that Vinexin gamma is localized in the cytoplasm. Functional studies with C3H10T1/2 cells showed that Vinexin gamma acted as a scaffold protein to activate MEK and ERK through interaction with c-Raf and ERK. Ultimately, Sox9 transcription was induced by Vinexin gamma. This up-regulation of Sox9 expression disappeared when the cells were treated with a specific MEK inhibitor, U0126. To determine the role of Vinexin gamma during gonad formation, the gene was disrupted by targeted mutagenesis. The phenotype displayed by the mice indicated that ERK activation was decreased in the Vinexin gamma(-/-) XY gonads, and Sox9 expression was down-regulated. Thus, Vinexin gamma seems to be implicated in regulation of Sox9 gene expression by modulating MAPK cascade in mouse fetal gonads.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2005;10;5;421-34

  • Characterization of an exchangeable gene trap using pU-17 carrying a stop codon-beta geo cassette.

    Taniwaki T, Haruna K, Nakamura H, Sekimoto T, Oike Y, Imaizumi T, Saito F, Muta M, Soejima Y, Utoh A, Nakagata N, Araki M, Yamamura K and Araki K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kuhonji 4-24-1, Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan.

    We have developed a new exchangeable gene trap vector, pU-17, carrying the intron-lox71-splicing acceptor (SA)-beta geo-loxP-pA-lox2272-pSP73-lox511. The SA contains three stop codons in-frame with the ATG of beta galactosidase/neomycin-resistance fusion gene (beta geo) that can function in promoter trapping. We found that the trap vector was highly selective for integrations in the introns adjacent to the exon containing the start codon. Furthermore, by using the Cre-mutant lox system, we successfully replaced the beta geo gene with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, established mouse lines with the replaced clones, removed the selection marker gene by mating with Flp-deleter mice, and confirmed that the replaced EGFP gene was expressed in the same pattern as the beta geo gene. Thus, using this pU-17 trap vector, we can initially carry out random mutagenesis, and then convert it to a gain-of-function mutation by replacing the beta geo gene with any gene of interest to be expressed under the control of the trapped promoter through Cre-mediated recombination.

    Development, growth & differentiation 2005;47;3;163-72

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • RNAi-based analysis of CAP, Cbl, and CrkII function in the regulation of GLUT4 by insulin.

    Mitra P, Zheng X and Czech MP

    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.

    Stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in cultured adipocytes through translocation of intracellular GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane has been suggested to require phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms. To test the involvement of a PI 3-kinase-independent pathway leading to activation of the TC10 GTPase, the putative intermediates CAP, c-Cbl, Cbl-b, and CrkII were selectively depleted in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using highly efficient small interfering (si) RNAs. Simultaneous depletion of the ubiquitination factors c-Cbl plus Cbl-b in cultured adipocytes had the expected effect of delaying dephosphorylation of EGF receptors upon removal of EGF. However, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of both Cbl isoforms or CAP or CrkII in these cells failed to attenuate insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose transport or Myc-tagged GLUT4-GFP translocation at either sub-maximal or maximal concentrations of insulin. The dose-response relationship for insulin stimulation of deoxyglucose transport in primary adipocytes derived from c-Cbl knock-out mice was also identical to insulin action on adipocytes from wild type mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that CAP, Cbl iso-forms, and CrkII are not required components of insulin signaling to GLUT4 transporters.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK30898

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;36;37431-5

  • cDNA cloning and functional characterization of a novel splice variant of c-Cbl-associated protein from mouse skeletal muscle.

    Alcazar O, Ho RC, Fujii N and Goodyear LJ

    The Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) is an SH3-containing adapter protein that binds to the proto-oncogene c-Cbl. Recent work suggests that signaling through these molecules is involved in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal but there have been no reports of CAP function in this tissue. Using RT-PCR of mouse skeletal muscle RNA, we discovered a novel splice variant of CAP (CAPSM; GenBank Accession No. AF521593) that is different from the adipocyte form by inclusion of a novel 168 bp fragment. This fragment encodes a peptide sequence that shows very high similarity with exon 25 of the human homologue of CAP (SORBS1). To understand the function of CAPSM in glucose uptake regulation, L6 myotubes were transfected with either CAPSM or a truncated CAPSM devoid of all three SH3-binding domains (CAPDeltaSH3), which prevents CAP association with c-Cbl. Transfection with CAPDeltaSH3 decreased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake and reduced c-Cbl phosphorylation. In contrast, transfection of L6 myotubes with CAPDeltaSH3 had no effect on dinitrophenol (DNP)- or hypoxia-stimulated glucose uptake, stimuli that work through insulin-independent mechanisms for the regulation of glucose uptake. These data demonstrate the existence of a novel CAP isoform expressed in skeletal muscle, and suggest the involvement of the CAP/Cbl pathway in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;317;1;285-93

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • The roles of Cbl-b and c-Cbl in insulin-stimulated glucose transport.

    Liu J, DeYoung SM, Hwang JB, O'Leary EE and Saltiel AR

    Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Previous studies suggest that the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin involves the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl and the translocation of the c-Cbl/CAP complex to lipid raft subdomains of the plasma membrane. We now demonstrate that Cbl-b also undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane translocation in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ectopic expression of APS facilitated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosines 665 and 709 in Cbl-b. The phosphorylation of APS produced by insulin drove the translocation of both c-Cbl and Cbl-b to the plasma membrane. Like c-Cbl, Cbl-b associates constitutively with CAP and interacts with Crk upon insulin stimulation. Cbl proteins formed homo- and heterodimers in vivo, which required the participation of a conserved leucine zipper domain. A Cbl mutant incapable of dimerization failed to interact with APS and to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin, indicating an essential role of Cbl dimerization in these processes. Thus, both c-Cbl and Cbl-b can initiate a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B-independent signaling pathway critical to insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 5F32 DK61188-02, DK60591, DK61618

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36754-62

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: II. The complete nucleotide sequences of 400 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries.

    Okazaki N, Kikuno R, Ohara R, Inamoto S, Aizawa H, Yuasa S, Nakajima D, Nagase T, Ohara O and Koga H

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    We have accumulated information of the coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, and the number of these genes exceeds 2000 at present. As an extension of this sequencing project, we recently have begun to accumulate mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs, because it would be useful to prepare a set of human and mouse homologous cDNA pairs for further functional analysis of the KIAA genes. We herein present the entire sequences of 400 mouse KIAA cDNA clones and 4 novel cDNA clones which were incidentally identified during this project. Most of clones entirely sequenced in this study were selected by computer-assisted analysis of terminal sequences of the cDNAs. The average size of the 404 cDNA sequences reached 5.3 kb and that of the deduced amino acid sequences from these cDNAs was 868 amino acid residues. The results of sequence analyses of these clones showed that single mouse KIAA cDNAs bridged two different human KIAA cDNAs in some cases, which indicated that these two human KIAA cDNAs were derived from single genes although they had been supposed to originate from different genes. Furthermore, we successfully mapped all the mouse KIAA cDNAs along the genome using a recently published mouse genome draft sequence.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;1;35-48

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Mapping murine loci for physical dependence on ethanol.

    Buck KJ, Rademacher BS, Metten P and Crabbe JC

    Portland Alcohol Research Center, and Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, VA Medical Center, Research Service (mailcode RD40), 3710 SW US Veteran's Hospital Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA. buckk@ohsu.edu

    Rationale: Alcoholism is associated with withdrawal (physical dependence), tolerance, or a maladaptive pattern of alcohol (ethanol) use. The well-documented difference in susceptibility to withdrawal after chronic ethanol exposure between the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse strains provides an excellent starting point for dissecting genetic influences involved in physical dependence on ethanol. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) identifies the genomic location of a gene (or genes) affecting a trait of interest.

    Objectives: A genome-wide QTL mapping study was carried out to dissect the multifactorial nature of withdrawal after chronic ethanol exposure using 400 B6D2F2 mice.

    Methods: To induce physical dependence, we used a standard paradigm in which mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 h. The mice were then tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions (HICs) for 10 h and at hours 24 and 25. Ethanol withdrawal severity was first computed as the area under the 25-h HIC curve. Separate regression residuals were then calculated that corrected for individual differences in blood ethanol concentration at the time of withdrawal and baseline HIC severity (i.e. before ethanol exposure).

    Results: Statistical mapping yielded significant evidence ( P<0.00005) for QTLs on chromosomes 19 and distal 1 that account for 45% of the genetic variance in ethanol withdrawal severity. The F2 results also provide supporting evidence for a sex-limited QTL on chromosome 13, and QTLs on chromosomes 4 and proximal 1, which may account for an additional 38% of the genetic variance. The distal chromosome 1 QTL is a locus of major effect, accounting for 26% of the genetic variance. Experiments using two congenic strains more precisely mapped this QTL.

    Conclusions: The QTLs map near candidate genes involved in neurosteroid biosynthesis and signal transduction. Syntenic homology between human and mouse chromosomes suggests that genes related to physical dependence on ethanol may localize to human chromosome regions 10q23-q26, 1q21-q43, 2q11-q32, 5p15/5q14-q21, and 9p24-p22.

    Funded by: NIAAA NIH HHS: P60 AA010760

    Psychopharmacology 2002;160;4;398-407

  • A large-scale in situ screen provides molecular evidence for the induction of eye anterior segment structures by the developing lens.

    Thut CJ, Rountree RB, Hwa M and Kingsley DM

    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Beckman Center B300, Stanford, California 94305-5329, USA.

    The anterior segment of the vertebrate eye includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork, and lens. Although malformations of these structures have been implicated in many human eye diseases, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control their development. To identify genes involved in anterior segment formation, we developed a large-scale in situ hybridization screen and examined the spatial and temporal expression of over 1000 genes during eye development. This screen identified 62 genes with distinct expression patterns in specific eye structures, including several expressed in novel patterns in the anterior segment. Using these genes as developmental markers, we tested for the presence of inductive signals that control the differentiation of anterior segment tissues. Organ culture recombination experiments showed that a chick lens is capable of inducing the expression of markers of the presumptive iris and ciliary body in the developing mouse neural retina. The inducing activity from the lens acts only over short ranges and is present at multiple stages of eye development. These studies provide molecular evidence that an evolutionarily conserved signal from the lens controls tissue specification in the developing optic cup.

    Developmental biology 2001;231;1;63-76

  • CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport.

    Baumann CA, Ribon V, Kanzaki M, Thurmond DC, Mora S, Shigematsu S, Bickel PE, Pessin JE and Saltiel AR

    Department of Physiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells. Although the precise molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain uncertain, insulin initiates its actions by binding to its tyrosine kinase receptor, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular substrates. One such substrate is the Cbl proto-oncogene product. Cbl is recruited to the insulin receptor by interaction with the adapter protein CAP, through one of three adjacent SH3 domains in the carboxy terminus of CAP. Upon phosphorylation of Cbl, the CAP-Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and moves to a caveolin-enriched, triton-insoluble membrane fraction. Here, to identify a molecular mechanism underlying this subcellular redistribution, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library using the amino-terminal region of CAP and identified the caveolar protein flotillin. Flotillin forms a ternary complex with CAP and Cbl, directing the localization of the CAP-Cbl complex to a lipid raft subdomain of the plasma membrane. Expression of the N-terminal domain of CAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blocks the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin, without affecting signalling events that depend on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Thus, localization of the Cbl-CAP complex to lipid rafts generates a pathway that is crucial in the regulation of glucose uptake.

    Nature 2000;407;6801;202-7

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Exchangeable gene trap using the Cre/mutated lox system.

    Araki K, Imaizumi T, Sekimoto T, Yoshinobu K, Yoshimuta J, Akizuki M, Miura K, Araki M and Yamamura K

    Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan. yamamura@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    The gene trap technique is a powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes involved in mouse development. However, one shortcoming of gene trapping is the relative inability to induce subtle mutations. This problem can be overcome by introducing a knock-in system into the gene trap strategy. Here, we have constructed a new gene trap vector, pU-Hachi, employing the Cre-mutated lox system (Araki et al., 1997), in which a pair of mutant lox, lox71 and lox66, was used to promote targeted integrative reaction by Cre recombinase. The pU-Hachi carries splicing acceptor (SA)-lox71-internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-beta-geo-pA-loxP-pA-pUC. By using this vector, we can carry out random insertional mutagenesis as the first step, and then we can replace the beta-geo gene with any gene of interest through Cre-mediated integration. We have isolated 109 trap clones electroporated with pU-Hachi, and analyzed their integration patterns by Southern blotting to select those carrying a single copy of the trap vector. By use of some of these clones, we have succeeded in exchanging the reporter gene at high efficiency, ranging between 20-80%. This integration system is also quite useful for plasmid rescue to recover flanking genomic sequences, because a plasmid vector sequence can be introduced even when the pUC sequence of the trap vector is lost through integration into the genome. Thus, this method, termed exchangeable gene trapping, has many advantages as the trapped clones can be utilized to express genes with any type of mutation.

    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 1999;45;5;737-50

  • Genetic mapping of eight SH3 domain genes on seven mouse chromosomes.

    Lee CG, Morse HC, Kay BK and Kozak CA

    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bldg. 4, Room 329, 4 Center Drive MSC 0460, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0460, USA.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1999;10;4;402-4

  • Ponsin/SH3P12: an l-afadin- and vinculin-binding protein localized at cell-cell and cell-matrix adherens junctions.

    Mandai K, Nakanishi H, Satoh A, Takahashi K, Satoh K, Nishioka H, Mizoguchi A and Takai Y

    Takai Biotimer Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., 2-2-10 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan.

    We recently isolated a novel actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein, afadin, that has two isoforms, l- and s-afadins. l-Afadin is ubiquitously expressed and specifically localized at zonula adherens (ZA) in epithelial cells and at cell-cell adherens junction (AJ) in nonepithelial cells, whereas s-afadin is abundantly expressed in neural tissue. l-Afadin has one PDZ domain, three proline-rich regions, and one F-actin-binding domain, whereas s-afadin lacks the third proline-rich region and the F-actin-binding domain. To understand the molecular mechanism of the specific localization of l-afadin at ZA in epithelial cells and at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, we attempted here to identify an l-afadin-binding protein(s) and isolated a protein, named ponsin. Ponsin had many splicing variants and the primary structures of two of them were determined. Both the two variants had three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and turned out to be splicing variants of SH3P12. The third proline-rich region of l-afadin bound to the region of ponsin containing the second and third SH3 domains. Ponsin was ubiquitously expressed and localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells. Ponsin furthermore directly bound vinculin, an F-actin-binding protein localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells. Vinculin has one proline-rich region where two proline-rich sequences are located. The proline-rich region bound to the region of ponsin containing the first and second SH3 domains. l-Afadin and vinculin bound to ponsin in a competitive manner and these three proteins hardly formed a ternary complex. These results indicate that ponsin is an l-afadin- and vinculin-binding protein localized at ZA in epithelial cells, at cell-cell AJ in nonepithelial cells, and at cell-matrix AJ in both types of cells.

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;144;5;1001-17

  • A role for CAP, a novel, multifunctional Src homology 3 domain-containing protein in formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions.

    Ribon V, Herrera R, Kay BK and Saltiel AR

    Department of Physiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    c-Cbl-associated protein, CAP, was originally cloned from a 3T3-L1 adipocyte cDNA expression library using full-length c-Cbl as a bait. CAP contains a unique structure, with three adjacent Src homology-3 (SH3) domains in the COOH terminus and a region sharing significant sequence similarity with the peptide hormone sorbin. Expression of CAP in NIH-3T3 cells overexpressing the insulin receptor induced the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. This effect of CAP expression on the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton was independent of the type of integrin receptors engaged with extracellular matrix, whereas membrane ruffling and decreased actin stress fibers induced by insulin were not affected by expression of CAP. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that CAP colocalized with actin stress fibers. Moreover, CAP interacted with the focal adhesion kinase, p125FAK, both in vitro and in vivo through one of the SH3 domains of CAP. The increased formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in CAP-expressing cells was correlated with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK in growing cells or upon integrin-mediated cell adhesion. These results suggest that CAP may mediate signals for the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;7;4073-80

  • A novel, multifuntional c-Cbl binding protein in insulin receptor signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Ribon V, Printen JA, Hoffman NG, Kay BK and Saltiel AR

    Department of Physiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    The protein product of the c-Cbl proto-oncogene is prominently tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and not in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. After insulin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl specifically associates with endogenous c-Crk and Fyn. These results suggest a role for tyrosine-phosphorylated c-Cbl in 3T3-L1 adipocyte activation by insulin. A yeast two-hybrid cDNA library prepared from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes was screened with full-length c-Cbl as the target protein in an attempt to identify adipose-specific signaling proteins that interact with c-Cbl and potentially are involved in its tyrosine phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here we describe the isolation and the characterization of a novel protein that we termed CAP for c-Cbl-associated protein. CAP contains a unique structure with three adjacent Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the C terminus and a region showing significant sequence similarity with the peptide hormone sorbin. Both CAP mRNA and proteins are expressed predominately in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and not in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. CAP associates with c-Cbl in 3T3-L1 adipocytes independently of insulin stimulation in vivo and in vitro in an SH3-domain-mediated manner. Furthermore, we detected the association of CAP with the insulin receptor. Insulin stimulation resulted in the dissociation of CAP from the insulin receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that CAP represents a novel c-Cbl binding protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes likely to participate in insulin signaling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1998;18;2;872-9

  • Binding properties of SH3 peptide ligands identified from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Hoffman NG, Sparks AB, Carter JM and Kay BK

    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599-3280, USA.

    Combinatorial libraries have yielded high-affinity ligands for SH3 domains of a number of different proteins. We have shown that synthetic peptides containing these SH3 ligand sequences serve as specific probes of SH3 domains. Direct binding of the N-terminal biotinylated peptide ligands was conveniently detected in ELISA, filter-blotting, and dot-blotting experiments with the use of streptavidin-conjugated enzymes. In some cases, detection of peptide-SH3 interactions required that the biotinylated peptides first were preconjugated with streptavidin to form a multivalent complex. Interestingly, these nominally tetravalent SH3 peptide ligands cross-react to varying degrees with different SH3 domains. We have used such complexes to screen lambda cDNA expression libraries and have isolated clones that encode both known and novel SH3-domain-containing proteins. Based on the success of this methodology, we propose a general strategy by which ligands of a modular domain-containing protein can be isolated from random peptide libraries and used to screen cDNA expression libraries systematically for novel modular domain-containing proteins.

    Molecular diversity 1996;2;1-2;5-12

  • Cloning of ligand targets: systematic isolation of SH3 domain-containing proteins.

    Sparks AB, Hoffman NG, McConnell SJ, Fowlkes DM and Kay BK

    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Based on the prevalence of modular protein domains, such as Src homology domain 3 and 2 (SH3 and SH2), among important signaling molecules, we have sought to identify new SH3 domain-containing proteins. However, modest sequence similarity among these domains restricts the use of DNA-based methods for this purpose. To circumvent this limitation, we have developed a functional screen that permits the rapid cloning of modular domains based on their ligand-binding activity. Using operationally defined SH3 ligands from combinatorial peptide libraries, we screened a series of mouse and human cDNA expression libraries. We found that 69 of the 74 clones isolated encode at least one SH3 domain. These clones encode 18 different SH3-containing proteins, 10 of which have not been described previously. The isolation of entire repertoires of modular domain-containing proteins will prove invaluable in genome analysis and in bringing new targets into drug discovery programs.

    Nature biotechnology 1996;14;6;741-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.