G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Atp1a3 (MGI)
Mus musculus
ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 3 polypeptide
G00001323 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000016491 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000040907 (Ensembl mouse gene)
232975 (Entrez Gene)
101 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_144921 (Allen Brain Atlas)
182350 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:88107 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q6PIC6 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Atpa-2

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Distribution of Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 isoform, a sodium-potassium P-type pump associated with rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) in the adult mouse brain.

    Bøttger P, Tracz Z, Heuck A, Nissen P, Romero-Ramos M and Lykke-Hartmann K

    Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease-PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation.

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase1 alpha subunit 3 (ATP1α(3)) is one of many essential components that maintain the sodium and potassium gradients across the plasma membrane in animal cells. Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene cause rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP), a rare movement disorder characterized by sudden onset of dystonic spasms and slowness of movement. To achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, we used immunohistochemical approaches to describe the regional and cellular distribution of ATP1α(3) in the adult mouse brain. Our results show that localization of ATP1α(3) is restricted to neurons, and it is expressed mostly in projections (fibers and punctuates), but cell body expression is also observed. We found high expression of ATP1α(3) in GABAergic neurons in all nuclei of the basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra), which is a key circuitry in the fine movement control. Several thalamic nuclei structures harboring connections to and from the cortex expressed high levels of the ATP1α(3) isoform. Other structures with high expression of ATP1α(3) included cerebellum, red nucleus, and several areas of the pons (reticulotegmental nucleus of pons). We also found high expression of ATP1α(3) in projections and cell bodies in hippocampus; most of these ATP1α(3)-positive cell bodies showed colocalization to GABAergic neurons. ATP1α(3) expression was not significant in the dopaminergic cells of substantia nigra. In conclusion, and based on our data, ATP1α(3) is widely expressed in neuronal populations but mainly in GABAergic neurons in areas and nuclei related to movement control, in agreement with RDP symptoms.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 2011;519;2;376-404

  • Characterization of Atp1a3 mutant mice as a model of rapid-onset dystonia with parkinsonism.

    DeAndrade MP, Yokoi F, van Groen T, Lingrel JB and Li Y

    Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

    Rapid-onset dystonia with parkinsonism (RDP) or DYT12 dystonia is a rare form of primary, generalized dystonia. Patients do not present with any symptoms until triggered by a physiological stressor. Within days, patients will show both dystonia and parkinsonism. Mutations resulting in a loss of function in the ATP1A3 gene have been identified as the cause of RDP. ATP1A3 encodes the α3 subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which is exclusively expressed in neurons and cardiac cells. We have previously created a line of mice harboring a point mutation of the Atp1a3 gene (mouse homolog of the human ATP1A3 gene) that results in a loss of function of the α3 subunit. The Atp1a3 mutant mice showed hyperactivity, spatial learning and memory deficits, and increased locomotion induced by methamphetamine. However, the full spectrum of the motor phenotype has not been characterized in the mutant mice and it is not known whether triggers such as restraint stress affect the motor phenotype. Here, we characterized the motor phenotype in normal heterozygous Atp1a3 mutant mice and heterozygous Atp1a3 mutant mice that have been exposed to a restraint stress. We found that this type of trigger induced significant deficits in motor coordination and balance in the mutant mice, characteristic of other genotypic dystonia mouse models. Furthermore, stressed mutant mice also had a decreased thermal sensitivity and alterations in monoamine metabolism. These results suggest that the Atp1a3 mutant mouse models several characteristics of RDP and further analysis of this mouse model will provide great insight into pathogenesis of RDP.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 5R01HL28573, R01 HL028573; NIA NIH HHS: R03 AG017291-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS37409, NS47466, NS47692, NS54246, NS57098, NS65273, NS72872, P01 NS037409, P30 NS047466, P30 NS047466-06, P30 NS057098, P30 NS057098-05, R01 NS054246, R01 NS054246-04, R21 NS042356, R21 NS042356-03, R21 NS047692, R21 NS047692-03, R21 NS065273, R21 NS065273-02, R21 NS072872, R21 NS072872-01

    Behavioural brain research 2011;216;2;659-65

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • RNG105 deficiency impairs the dendritic localization of mRNAs for Na+/K+ ATPase subunit isoforms and leads to the degeneration of neuronal networks.

    Shiina N, Yamaguchi K and Tokunaga M

    Structural Biology Center, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, and Department of Genetics, Sokendai, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan. nshiina@nibb.ac.jp

    mRNA transport and local translation in dendrites play key roles in use-dependent synaptic modification and in higher-order brain functions. RNG105, an RNA-binding protein, has previously been identified as a component of RNA granules that mediate dendritic mRNA localization and local translation. Here, we demonstrate that RNG105 knock-out in mice reduces the dendritic localization of mRNAs for Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA) subunit isoforms (i.e., α3, FXYD1, FXYD6, and FXYD7). The loss of dendritic mRNA localization is accompanied by the loss of function of NKA in dendrites without affecting the NKA function in the soma. Furthermore, we show that RNG105 deficiency affects the formation and maintenance of synapses and neuronal networks. These phenotypes are partly explained by an inhibition of NKA, which is known to influence synaptic functions as well as susceptibility to neurotoxicity. The present study first demonstrates the in vivo role of RNG105 in the dendritic localization of mRNAs and uncovers a novel link between dendritic mRNA localization and the development and maintenance of functional networks.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2010;30;38;12816-30

  • Mutation I810N in the alpha3 isoform of Na+,K+-ATPase causes impairments in the sodium pump and hyperexcitability in the CNS.

    Clapcote SJ, Duffy S, Xie G, Kirshenbaum G, Bechard AR, Rodacker Schack V, Petersen J, Sinai L, Saab BJ, Lerch JP, Minassian BA, Ackerley CA, Sled JG, Cortez MA, Henderson JT, Vilsen B and Roder JC

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X5. s.j.clapcote@leeds.ac.uk

    In a mouse mutagenesis screen, we isolated a mutant, Myshkin (Myk), with autosomal dominant complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures, a greatly reduced threshold for hippocampal seizures in vitro, posttetanic hyperexcitability of the CA3-CA1 hippocampal pathway, and neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus. Positional cloning and functional analysis revealed that Myk/+ mice carry a mutation (I810N) which renders the normally expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha3 isoform inactive. Total Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced by 42% in Myk/+ brain. The epilepsy in Myk/+ mice and in vitro hyperexcitability could be prevented by delivery of additional copies of wild-type Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha3 by transgenesis, which also rescued Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Our findings reveal the functional significance of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha3 isoform in the control of epileptiform activity and seizure behavior.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;33;14085-90

  • Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    Hilgenberg LG, Pham B, Ortega M, Walid S, Kemmerly T, O'Dowd DK and Smith MA

    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.

    Drugs that inhibit Na,K-ATPases, such as digoxin and ouabain, alter cardiac myocyte contractility. We recently demonstrated that agrin, a protein first identified at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction, binds to and regulates the activity of alpha3 subunit-containing isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in the mammalian brain. Both agrin and the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase are expressed in heart, but their potential for interaction and effect on cardiac myocyte function was unknown. Here we show that agrin binds to the alpha3 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase in cardiac myocyte membranes, inducing tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibiting activity of the pump. Agrin also triggers a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Na(+) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting a role in cardiac myocyte function. Consistent with this hypothesis, spontaneous contraction frequencies of cultured cardiac myocytes prepared from mice in which agrin expression is blocked by mutation of the Agrn gene are significantly higher than in the wild type. The Agrn mutant phenotype is rescued by acute treatment with recombinant agrin. Furthermore, exposure of wild type myocytes to an agrin antagonist phenocopies the Agrn mutation. These data demonstrate that the basal frequency of myocyte contraction depends on endogenous agrin-alpha3 Na,K-ATPase interaction and suggest that agrin modulation of the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase is important in regulating heart function.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27501, NS33213

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;25;16956-65

  • Differential expression of Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-subunits in mouse hippocampal interneurones and pyramidal cells.

    Richards KS, Bommert K, Szabo G and Miles R

    INSERM U739, CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, 105 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. kat@chups.jussieu.fr

    The sodium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), maintains intracellular and extracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium by catalysing ATP. Three sodium pump alpha subunits, ATP1A1, ATP1A2 and ATP1A3, are expressed in brain. We compared their role in pyramidal cells and a subset of interneurones in the subiculum. Interneurones were identified by their expression of GFP under the GAD-65 promoter. We used the sensitivity to the cardiac glycoside, ouabain, to discriminate between different alpha subunit isoforms. GFP-positive interneurones were depolarized by nanomolar doses of ouabain, but higher concentrations were needed to depolarize pyramidal cells. Comparison of pump currents in these cells revealed a current sensitive to low doses of ouabain in interneurones, while micromolar doses of ouabain were needed to suppress the pump current in subicular pyramidal cells. As predicted, nanomolar doses of ouabain increased the frequency but not the amplitudes of IPSPs in pyramidal cells. Immunostaining confirmed a differential distribution of alpha-subunits of the Na+/K+-ATPase in subicular interneurones and pyramidal cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that while ATP1A3-isoforms regulate sodium and potassium homeostasis in subicular interneurones, ATP1A1-isoforms assume this function in pyramidal cells. This differential expression of sodium pump isoforms may contribute to differences in resting membrane potential of subicular interneurones and pyramidal cells.

    The Journal of physiology 2007;585;Pt 2;491-505

  • Na,K-ATPase and the role of alpha isoforms in behavior.

    Lingrel JB, Williams MT, Vorhees CV and Moseley AE

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, 3110 Medical Sciences Building, 231 Bethesda Avenue, P.O. Box 670524, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0524, USA. jerry.lingrel@uc.edu

    The Na,K-ATPase is composed of multiple isoforms and the isoform distribution varies with the tissue and during development. The alpha1 isoform for example, is the major isoform in the kidney and many other tissues, while the alpha2 isoform is the predominate one in skeletal muscle. All three isoforms are found in the brain although in adult rodent brain, the alpha 3 isoform is located essentially in neurons while the alpha2 isoform is found in astrocytes and some limited neuronal populations. Interestingly the alpha 4 isoform is found exclusively in the mid region of the sperm tail. The distribution of the isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase has been extensively studied in many tissues and during development. The examples cited above provide some indication to the diversity of Na,K-ATPase isoform expression. In order to understand the significance of this distribution, we have developed animals which lack the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha 3 isoforms. It is anticipated that these studies will provide insight into the role that these isoforms play in driving various biological processes in specific tissues. Here we describe some of our studies which deal with the behavioral aspects of the alpha1, alpha2, and alpha 3 deficient mice, particularly those that are haploinsufficient in one isoform i.e. lacking one functional gene for the alpha1, alpha2, or alpha 3 isoforms. Such studies are important as two human diseases are associated with deficiency in the alpha2 and alpha 3 isoforms. These are Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 and Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, these diseases result from alpha2 and alpha 3 isoform haploinsufficiency, respectively. We find that the haploinsufficiency of both alpha2 and alpha 3 isoforms result in behavioral defects.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573, HL66062; NIDA NIH HHS: DA06733, DA14269

    Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 2007;39;5-6;385-9

  • Retinoschisin (RS1), the protein encoded by the X-linked retinoschisis gene, is anchored to the surface of retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cells through its interactions with a Na/K ATPase-SARM1 complex.

    Molday LL, Wu WW and Molday RS

    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Centre for Macular Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. molday@interchange.ubc.ca

    Retinoschisin or RS1 is a discoidin domain-containing protein encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), an early onset macular degeneration characterized by a splitting of the retina. Retinoschisin, expressed and secreted from photoreceptors and bipolar cells as a homo-octameric complex, associates with the surface of these cells where it serves to maintain the cellular organization of the retina and the photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic structure. To gain insight into the role of retinoschisin in retinal cell adhesion and the pathogenesis of XLRS, we have investigated membrane components in retinal extracts that interact with retinoschisin. Unlike the discoidin domain-containing blood coagulation proteins Factor V and Factor VIII, retinoschisin did not bind to phospholipids or retinal lipids reconstituted into unilamellar vesicles or immobilized on microtiter plates. Instead, co-immunoprecipitation studies together with mass spectrometric-based proteomics and Western blotting showed that retinoschisin is associated with a complex consisting of Na/K ATPase (alpha3, beta2 isoforms) and the sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing protein SARM1. Double labeling studies for immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the co-localization of retinoschisin with Na/K ATPase and SARM1 in photoreceptors and bipolar cells of retina tissue. We conclude that retinoschisin binds to Na/K ATPase on photoreceptor and bipolar cells. This interaction may be part of a novel SARM1-mediated cell signaling pathway required for the maintenance of retinal cell organization and photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic structure.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 02422

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;45;32792-801

  • Deficiency in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform genes alters spatial learning, motor activity, and anxiety in mice.

    Moseley AE, Williams MT, Schaefer TL, Bohanan CS, Neumann JC, Behbehani MM, Vorhees CV and Lingrel JB

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.

    Several disorders have been associated with mutations in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine type-2), as well as reduction in Na,K-ATPase content (depression and Alzheimer's disease), thereby raising the issue of whether haploinsufficiency or altered enzymatic function contribute to disease etiology. Three isoforms are expressed in the brain: the alpha1 isoform is found in many cell types, the alpha2 isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, and the alpha3 isoform is exclusively expressed in neurons. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the alpha2 isoform display increased anxiety-related behavior, reduced locomotor activity, and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Mice heterozygous for the alpha3 isoform displayed spatial learning and memory deficits unrelated to differences in cued learning in the Morris maze, increased locomotor activity, an increased locomotor response to methamphetamine, and a 40% reduction in hippocampal NMDA receptor expression. In contrast, heterozygous alpha1 isoform mice showed increased locomotor response to methamphetamine and increased basal and stimulated corticosterone in plasma. The learning and memory deficits observed in the alpha2 and alpha3 heterozygous mice reveal the Na,K-ATPase to be an important factor in the functioning of pathways associated with spatial learning. The neurobehavioral changes seen in heterozygous mice suggest that these mouse models may be useful in future investigations of the associated human CNS disorders.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573, HL66062; NIDA NIH HHS: DA06733, DA14269

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;3;616-26

  • Drosophila split ends homologue SHARP functions as a positive regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling in neoplastic transformation.

    Feng Y, Bommer GT, Zhai Y, Akyol A, Hinoi T, Winer I, Lin HV, Cadigan KM, Cho KR and Fearon ER

    Department of Internal Medicine, The Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2200, USA.

    Wnt ligands have pleiotropic and context-specific roles in embryogenesis and adult tissues. Among other effects, certain Wnts stabilize the beta-catenin protein, leading to the ability of beta-catenin to activate T-cell factor (TCF)-mediated transcription. Mutations resulting in constitutive beta-catenin stabilization underlie development of several human cancers. Genetic studies in Drosophila highlighted the split ends (spen) gene as a positive regulator of Wnt-dependent signaling. We have assessed the role of SHARP, a human homologue of spen, in Wnt/beta-catenin/TCF function in mammalian cells. We found that SHARP gene and protein expression is elevated in human colon and ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas and mouse colon adenomas and carcinomas carrying gene defects leading to beta-catenin dysregulation. When ectopically expressed, the silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors/histone deacetylase 1-associated repressor protein (SHARP) protein potently enhanced beta-catenin/TCF transcription of a model reporter gene and cellular target genes. Inhibition of endogenous SHARP function via RNA inhibitory (RNAi) approaches antagonized beta-catenin/TCF-mediated activation of target genes. The effect of SHARP on beta-catenin/TCF-regulated genes was mediated via a functional interaction between SHARP and TCF. beta-Catenin-dependent neoplastic transformation of RK3E cells was enhanced by ectopic expression of SHARP, and RNAi-mediated inhibition of endogenous SHARP in colon cancer cells inhibited their transformed growth. In toto, our findings implicate SHARP as an important positive regulator of Wnt signaling in cancers with beta-catenin dysregulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA082223, CA085463, CA094172

    Cancer research 2007;67;2;482-91

  • Alpha3Na+/K+-ATPase is a neuronal receptor for agrin.

    Hilgenberg LG, Su H, Gu H, O'Dowd DK and Smith MA

    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

    Agrin, through its interaction with the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK, mediates accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the developing neuromuscular junction. Agrin has also been implicated in several functions in brain. However, the mechanism by which agrin exerts its effects in neural tissue is unknown. Here we present biochemical evidence that agrin binds to the alpha3 subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in CNS neurons. Colocalization with agrin binding sites at synapses supports the hypothesis that the alpha3NKA is a neuronal agrin receptor. Agrin inhibition of alpha3NKA activity results in membrane depolarization and increased action potential frequency in cortical neurons in culture and acute slice. An agrin fragment that acts as a competitive antagonist depresses action potential frequency, showing that endogenous agrin regulates native alpha3NKA function. These data demonstrate that, through its interaction with the alpha3NKA, agrin regulates activity-dependent processes in neurons, providing a molecular framework for agrin action in the CNS.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA14960; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27501, NS33213, NS45540

    Cell 2006;125;2;359-69

  • Transcriptional regulation of myotube fate specification and intrafusal muscle fiber morphogenesis.

    Albert Y, Whitehead J, Eldredge L, Carter J, Gao X and Tourtellotte WG

    Department of Pathology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Vertebrate muscle spindle stretch receptors are important for limb position sensation (proprioception) and stretch reflexes. The structurally complex stretch receptor arises from a single myotube, which is transformed into multiple intrafusal muscle fibers by sensory axon-dependent signal transduction that alters gene expression in the contacted myotubes. The sensory-derived signal transduction pathways that specify the fate of myotubes are very poorly understood. The zinc finger transcription factor, early growth response gene 3 (Egr3), is selectively expressed in sensory axon-contacted myotubes, and it is required for normal intrafusal muscle fiber differentiation and spindle development. Here, we show that overexpression of Egr3 in primary myotubes in vitro leads to the expression of a particular repertoire of genes, some of which we demonstrate are also regulated by Egr3 in developing intrafusal muscle fibers within spindles. Thus, our results identify a network of genes that are regulated by Egr3 and are involved in intrafusal muscle fiber differentiation. Moreover, we show that Egr3 mediates myotube fate specification that is induced by sensory innervation because skeletal myotubes that express Egr3 independent of other sensory axon regulation are transformed into muscle fibers with structural and molecular similarities to intrafusal muscle fibers. Hence, Egr3 is a target gene that is regulated by sensory innervation and that mediates gene expression involved in myotube fate specification and intrafusal muscle fiber morphogenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA009560, T32 CA009560; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM008061, GM008152, T32 GM008061, T32 GM008152; NINDS NIH HHS: K02 NS046468

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;169;2;257-68

  • Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol.

    Vosseller K, Hansen KC, Chalkley RJ, Trinidad JC, Wells L, Hart GW and Burlingame AL

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    While phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc (cytoplasmic and nuclear glycosylation) are linked to normal and pathological changes in cell states, these post-translational modifications have been difficult to analyze in proteomic studies. We describe advances in beta-elimination / Michael addition-based approaches which allow for mass spectrometry-based identification and comparative quantification of O-phosphate or O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, as well as cysteine-containing peptides for expression analysis. The method (BEMAD) involves differential isotopic labeling through Michael addition with normal dithiothreitol (DTT) (d0) or deuterated DTT (d6), and enrichment of these peptides by thiol chromatography. BEMAD was comparable to isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT; a commercially available differential isotopic quantification technique) in protein expression analysis, but also provided the identity and relative amounts of both O-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification sites. Specificity of O-phosphate vs. O-GlcNAc mapping is achieved through coupling enzymatic dephosphorylation or O-GlcNAc hydrolysis with differential isotopic labeling. Blocking of cysteine labeling by prior oxidation of a cytosolic lysate from mouse brain allowed specific targeting of serine / threonine post-translational modifications as demonstrated through identification of 21 phosphorylation sites (5 previously reported) in a single mass spectrometry analysis. These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR-01614, RR-12961, RR-14606; NIGMS NIH HHS: P41 GM103481

    Proteomics 2005;5;2;388-98

  • The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha2-subunit isoform modulates contractility in the perinatal mouse diaphragm.

    Radzyukevich TL, Moseley AE, Shelly DA, Redden GA, Behbehani MM, Lingrel JB, Paul RJ and Heiny JA

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

    This study uses genetically altered mice to examine the contribution of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha2 catalytic subunit to resting potential, excitability, and contractility of the perinatal diaphragm. The alpha2 protein is reduced by 38% in alpha2-heterozygous and absent in alpha2-knockout mice, and alpha1-isoform is upregulated 1.9-fold in alpha2-knockout. Resting potentials are depolarized by 0.8-4.0 mV in heterozygous and knockout mice. Action potential threshold, overshoot, and duration are normal. Spontaneous firing, a developmental function, is impaired in knockout diaphragm, but this does not compromise its ability to fire evoked action potential trains, the dominant mode of activation near birth. Maximum tetanic force, rate of activation, force-frequency and force-voltage relationships, and onset and magnitude of fatigue are not changed. The major phenotypic consequence of reduced alpha2 content is that relaxation from contraction is 1.7-fold faster. This finding reveals a distinct cellular role of the alpha2-isoform at a step after membrane excitation, which cannot be restored simply by increasing alpha1 content. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger expression decreases in parallel with alpha2-isoform, suggesting that Ca2+ extrusion is affected by the altered alpha2 genotype. There are no major compensatory changes in expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, phospholamban, or plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase. These results demonstrate that the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha1-isoform alone is able to maintain equilibrium K+ and Na+ gradients and to substitute for alpha2-isoform in most cellular functions related to excitability and force. They further indicate that the alpha2-isoform contributes significantly less at rest than expected from its proportional content but can modulate contractility during muscle contraction.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-028573, HL-66044, HL-66062

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2004;287;5;C1300-10

  • Gene discovery by microarray: identification of novel genes induced during growth factor-mediated muscle cell survival and differentiation.

    Kuninger D, Kuzmickas R, Peng B, Pintar JE and Rotwein P

    Molecular Medicine Division, HRC 3, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, USA.

    Peptide growth factors regulate cell fate by activating distinct signal transduction pathways that ultimately influence gene expression. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play central roles in controlling somatic growth and participate in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. In cultured muscle cells, IGF action is critical both for maintaining viability during the transition from proliferating to differentiating myoblasts and for facilitating differentiation. By contrast, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can sustain cell survival but inhibits differentiation. Here we examine the genetic programs that accompany IGF and PDGF action in myoblasts. Through analysis of high-density oligonucleotide arrays containing approximately 36,000 mouse probe sets, we identify 90 transcripts differentially induced by IGF-I, including 28 muscle-specific genes and 33 previously unannotated mRNAs, and 55 transcripts specifically stimulated by PDGF, including 14 unknowns. Detailed study of one IGF-induced mRNA shows that it encodes a protein related to a recently characterized repulsive guidance molecule postulated to regulate neuronal targeting during development. Our results demonstrate the power of transcriptional profiling for gene discovery and provide opportunities for investigating new proteins potentially involved in different aspects of growth factor action in muscle.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: R01-DA15237; NIDDK NIH HHS: 5R01-DK42748, R01 DK042748, T32 DK007674; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS21970

    Genomics 2004;84;5;876-89

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • Na,K-ATPase expression in the mouse cochlea is not dependent on the mineralocorticoid receptor.

    Erichsen S, Berger S, Schmid W, Stierna P and Hultcrantz M

    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    This study was performed in order to test the hypothesis that the mineralocorticoid hormone stimulates the expression of Na,K-ATPase in the cochlea of the mouse. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the distribution of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the cochlea of the C57Bl/J6 mouse at different ages between gestational day 19 and postnatal day 30, and the occurrence and distribution of Na,K-ATPase in the inner ear of a mouse with a null mutation of the MR. Adult patterns of staining for MR were found as early as on gestational day 19 in the cochlea, with small changes thereafter. MR was detected in the same structures in the cochlea as Na,K-ATPase in earlier studies, where the amount of Na,K-ATPase increased after postnatal day 4. Thus there is latency between the increase of MR and the increase of Na,K-ATPase. In the cochlea of the MR deficient mouse, antibody labelling of Na,K-ATPase showed no significant difference as compared to the control wild type mouse. The hypothesis that mineralocorticoid hormone alone via MR stimulates the formation of Na,K-ATPase in the inner ear could not be confirmed by this study, and other regulating mechanisms must be considered.

    Hearing research 2001;160;1-2;37-46

  • Differential involvement of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase isozymes in preimplantation development of the mouse.

    MacPhee DJ, Jones DH, Barr KJ, Betts DH, Watson AJ and Kidder GM

    Department of Physiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1, Canada.

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase plays an essential role in mammalian blastocoel formation (cavitation) by driving trans-epithelial sodium transport. Previously, the alpha1 and beta1 subunit isoforms of this enzyme were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos and were assumed to be responsible for this function. Here we show that mRNAs encoding an additional alpha subunit isoform (alpha3) and the remaining two beta subunit isoforms are also present in preimplantation embryos. Whereas alpha3 mRNA accumulates between the four-cell and the blastocyst stages and thus results from embryonic transcription, the same could not be demonstrated for beta2 and beta3 mRNAs. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that these subunits are present in cavitating embryos. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy we found that alpha1 and beta1 subunits are concentrated in the basolateral membranes of the trophectoderm while being equally distributed in plasma membranes of the inner cell mass. In contrast, alpha3, beta2, and beta3 subunits were not detected in plasma membranes. Our current assessment, therefore, is that as many as six isozymes of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase could be involved in preimplantation development although it is primarily the alpha1beta1 isozyme that is responsible for blastocoel formation. Our findings imply that the regulation of sodium transport within the preimplantation mouse embryo is more complex than had been appreciated.

    Developmental biology 2000;222;2;486-98

  • Detailed comparative map of human chromosome 19q and related regions of the mouse genome.

    Stubbs L, Carver EA, Shannon ME, Kim J, Geisler J, Generoso EE, Stanford BG, Dunn WC, Mohrenweiser H, Zimmermann W, Watt SM and Ashworth LK

    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831-8077, USA. stubbsl@bioaxl.bio.ornl.gov

    One of the larger contiguous blocks of mouse-human genomic homology includes the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 7 and the long arm of human chromosome 19. Previous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between the two regions, but have also indicated significant rearrangements in the relative orders of homologous mouse and human genes. Here we present the genetic locations of the homologs of 42 human chromosome 19q markers in the mouse, with an emphasis on genes also included in the human chromosome 19 physical map. Our results demonstrate that despite an overall inversion of sequences relative to the centromere, apparent "transpositions" of three gene-rich segments, and a local inversion of markers mapping near the 19q telomere, gene content, order, and spacing are remarkably well conserved throughout the lengths of these related mouse and human regions. Although most human 19q markers have remained genetically linked in mouse, one small human segment forms a separate region of homology between human chromosome 19q and mouse chromosome 17. Three of the four rearrangements of mouse versus human 19q sequences involve segments that are located directly adjacent to each other in 19q13.3-q13.4, suggesting either the coincident occurrence of these events or their common association with unstable DNA sequences. These data permit an unusually in-depth examination of this large region of mouse-human genomic homology and provide an important new tool to aid in the mapping of genes and associated phenotypes in both species.

    Genomics 1996;35;3;499-508

  • Developmental cell-specific regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and alpha 3-isoform gene expression.

    Herrera VL, Cova T, Sassoon D and Ruiz-Opazo N

    Section of Molecular Genetics, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University Medical Center, Massachusetts 02118.

    Na(+)-K(+)-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) is the integral membrane protein that maintains the Na(+)-K(+) electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Because of the importance of the Na(+)-K(+) electrochemical gradient to fundamental and specialized cell functions, we investigated the cell-specific modulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit isoform (alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3) gene expression in different stages of postimplantation mouse embryos and neonatal rat tissues by in situ hybridization with use of isoform-specific rat-derived antisense RNA probes. At early organogenesis (9.5-10.5 days postcoitus), we demonstrated generalized coexpression of alpha 1- and alpha 2-isoforms throughout the mouse embryo with greater levels in the developing but already functional heart, in contrast to the distinct spatially restricted alpha 3-isoform gene expression in the early developing neural tube. At midorganogenesis (15.5-16.5 days postcoitus), differential spatial variation in alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and alpha 3-isoform gene expression was already evident in all organs. Interestingly, region-specific expression patterns within single cell types were noted throughout development and were exemplified by 1) alpha 3-isoform gene expression in marginal cells of the 10.5-day-postcoitus developing neural tube; 2) alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and alpha 3-isoform gene expression in cerebellar granular cells of the 4-day-old rat brain; and 3) alpha 1- and alpha 3-isoform gene expression in 4-day-old rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. These isoform-specific changes in cellular and regional Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha-isoform gene expression may play an active role in development and specialized cell functions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-01967, R01-HL-46903

    The American journal of physiology 1994;266;5 Pt 1;C1301-12

  • Genes encoding the H,K-ATPase alpha and Na,K-ATPase alpha 3 subunits are linked on mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 19.

    Malo D, Gros P, Bergmann A, Trask B, Mohrenweiser HW, Canfield VA and Levenson R

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

    We have used linkage analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the chromosomal organization and location of the mouse (Atp4a) and human (ATP4A) genes encoding the H,K-ATPase alpha subunit. Linkage analysis in recombinant inbred (BXD) strains of mice localized Atp4a to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 7. Segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in backcross progeny of Mus musculus x Mus spretus mating confirmed this assignment and indicates that Atp4a and Atp1a3 (gene encoding the murine Na,K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit) are linked and separated by a distance of approximately 2 cM. Analysis of the segregation of simple sequence repeats suggested the gene order centromere-D7Mit21-D7Mit57/Atp1a3-D7Mit72/Atp 4a. A human Chr 19-enriched cosmid library was screened with both H,K-ATPase alpha and Na,K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit cDNA probes to isolate the corresponding human genes (ATP4A and ATP1A3, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with gene-specific cosmid clones localized ATP4A to the q13.1 region, and proximal to ATP1A3, which maps to the q13.2 region, of Chr 19. These results indicate that ATP4A and ATP1A3 are linked in both the mouse and human genomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-38992; NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00256; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-39263

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1993;4;11;644-9

  • Mapping the Hrc gene to proximal mouse chromosome 7: delineation of a conserved linkage group with human 19q.

    Brown SD, Chartier F, Johnson K and Cavanna JS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

    Genomics 1993;18;2;459-61

  • Chromosomal assignments of 17 structural genes and 11 related DNA fragments in rats (Rattus norvegicus) by Southern blot analysis of rat x mouse somatic cell hybrid clones.

    Yasue M, Serikawa T, Kuramoto T, Mori M, Higashiguchi T, Ishizaki K and Yamada J

    Institute of Laboratory Animals, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.

    DNA from 18 rat x mouse somatic cell hybrid clones, which segregated individual rat chromosomes, was analyzed by Southern blot for chromosomal gene assignments. Through the use of 17 DNA probes cloned from 7 rat genes, A2M, ATP1A1, ATP1A2, ATP1A3, B2M, GSTP, and SMST; 5 mouse genes, Ncam, Ngfg, Pim-1, Tcp-1, and Trp53; and 5 human genes, MBP, MYB, NEFM, SCN2A, and TCRGC1, 17 structural genes including 15 newly assigned genes and 11 related DNA fragments were assigned to particular rat chromosomes. Syntenic conservation of the genes among rats, mice, and humans is discussed.

    Genomics 1992;12;4;659-64

  • Characterization of murine carcinoembryonic antigen gene family members.

    Rudert F, Saunders AM, Rebstock S, Thompson JA and Zimmermann W

    Institut für Immunbiologie, Universität Freiburg, FRG.

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a human tumor marker whose gene belongs to a family with more than 20 members. This gene family codes for a group of proteins with in vitro cell adhesion properties and for a group of abundantly expressed pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) with unknown functions. As a basis for in vivo functional studies, we have started to analyze the murine CEA gene family and have identified five new members (Cea-2 to Cea-6). cDNA clones were isolated for Cea-2, Cea-3, and Cea-6. The deduced amino acid sequences of Cea-2 and Cea-6 indicate three IgV-like (N), followed by one IgC-like (A) domain (N1-N2-N3-A). We have also partially characterized the Cea-2 gene and two additional ones, Cea-4 and Cea-5. Cea-2 and Cea-4 are separated by only 16 kb, suggesting a close linkage of murine CEA-related genes, as found for the human CEA gene family. Cea-5 was located to the proximal region of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 7, which is syntenic to part of human Chr 19, containing the human CEA gene family cluster. Cea-2, Cea-3, and a Cea-4-like gene are differentially transcribed in the placenta during pregnancy, but not in other organs tested. This expression pattern strongly suggests that they represent counterparts of the human PSG subgroup members, despite the presence of multiple IgV-like domains, a feature not found for human PSGs. The more distantly related Cea-5 seems to be ubiquitously expressed. The putative promoter region of Cea-2 lacks typical TATA- or CAAT-boxes, but contains other conserved motifs that could play a role in the initiation of transcription.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1992;3;5;262-73

  • A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 7.

    Saunders AM and Seldin MF

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    The homology between mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosomes 11, 15, and 19 was examined using interspecific backcross animals derived from mating C3H/HeJ-gld/gld and Mus spretus mice. In an earlier study, we reported on the linkage relationships of 16 loci on mouse chromosome 7 and the homologous relationship between this chromosome and the myotonic dystrophy gene region on human chromosome 19. Segregation analyses were used to extend the gene linkage relationships on mouse chromosome 7 by an additional 21 loci. Seven of these genes (Cyp2a, D19F11S1h, Myod-1, Otf-2, Rnu1p70, Rnu2pa, and Xrcc-1) were previously unmapped in the mouse. Several potential mouse chromosome 7 genes (Mel, Hkr-1, Icam-1, Pvs) did not segregate with chromosome 7 markers, and provisional chromosomal assignments were made. This study establishes a detailed molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 7 that will be useful as a framework for determining linkage relationships of additional molecular markers and for identifying homologous disease genes in mice and humans.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00101; NINDS NIH HHS: NS19999

    Genomics 1990;8;3;525-35

  • Establishment of the mouse chromosome 7 region with homology to the myotonic dystrophy region of human chromosome 19q.

    Cavanna JS, Greenfield AJ, Johnson KJ, Marks AR, Nadal-Ginard B and Brown SD

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom.

    A number of genetic markers, including ATP1A3, TGFB, CKMM, and PRKCG, define the genetic region on human chromosome 19 containing the myotonic dystrophy locus. These and a number of other DNA probes have been mapped to mouse chromosome 7 utilizing a mouse Mus domesticus/Mus spretus interspecific backcross segregating for the genetic markers pink-eye dilution (p) and chinchilla (cch). The establishment of a highly syntenic group conserved between mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 19q indicates the likely position of the homologous gene locus to the human myotonic dystrophy gene on proximal mouse chromosome 7. In addition, we have mapped the muscle ryanodine receptor gene (Ryr) to mouse chromosome 7 and demonstrated its close linkage to the Atpa-2, Tgfb-1, and Ckmm cluster of genes. In humans, the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility locus (MHS) also maps close to this gene cluster. The comparative mapping data support Ryr as a candidate gene for MHS.

    Genomics 1990;7;1;12-8

  • The syntenic relationship of proximal mouse chromosome 7 and the myotonic dystrophy gene region on human chromosome 19q.

    Saunders AM and Seldin MF

    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    The syntenic relationship of the myotonic dystrophy (DM) gene region on human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 7 was examined using an interspecific backcross between C3H/HeJ-gld/gld mice and Mus spretus. Segregation analyses were used to order homologs of nine human loci linked with the DM gene. Their order from the centromere was Prkcg, [Apoe, Atpa-2, Ckmm, D19S19h, Ercc-2], Cyp2b, Mag, Lhb. Two other murine loci, D7Rp2 and Ngfg, were also positioned within this interval. Homologs for five human chromosome 11 and 15 loci (Calc, Fes, Hras-1, Igflr, Tyr) were localized within an 18-cM span telomeric to Lhb. Comparison of the gene orders indicates an inversion extending from Prkcg through the interval between Mag and Lhb. This study establishes a detailed map of proximal mouse chromosome 7 that will be useful in identifying and determining whether new human chromosome 19 probes are linked to the DM region.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS19999

    Genomics 1990;6;2;324-32

  • Chromosomal localization of human Na+, K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit genes.

    Yang-Feng TL, Schneider JW, Lindgren V, Shull MM, Benz EJ, Lingrel JB and Francke U

    Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Na+, K+-ATPase is a heterodimeric enzyme responsible for the active maintenance of sodium and potassium gradients across the plasma membrane. Recently, cDNAs for several tissue-specific isoforms of the larger catalytic alpha-subunit and the smaller beta-subunit have been cloned. We have hybridized rat brain and human kidney cDNA probes, as well as human genomic isoform-specific DNA fragments, to Southern filters containing panels of rodent X human somatic cell hybrid lines. The results obtained have allowed us to assign the loci for the ubiquitously expressed alpha-chain (ATP1A1) to human chromosome 1, region 1p21----cen, and for the alpha 2 isoform that predominates in neural and muscle tissues (ATP1A2) to chromosome 1, region cen----q32. A common PstI RFLP was detected with the ATP1A2 probe. The alpha 3 gene, which is expressed primarily in neural tissues (ATP1A3), was assigned to human chromosome 19. A fourth alpha gene of unknown function (alpha D) that was isolated by molecular cloning (ATP1AL1) was mapped to chromosome 13. Although evidence to date had suggested a single gene for the beta-subunit, we found hybridizing restriction fragments derived from two different human chromosomes. On the basis of knowledge of conserved linkage groups on human and murine chromosomes, we propose that the coding gene ATP 1B is located on the long arm of human chromosome 1 and that the sequence on human chromosome 4 (ATP 1BL1) is either a related gene or a pseudogene.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28573; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26105, T32GM07439

    Genomics 1988;2;2;128-38

  • Three differentially expressed Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit isoforms: structural and functional implications.

    Herrera VL, Emanuel JR, Ruiz-Opazo N, Levenson R and Nadal-Ginard B

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

    We have characterized cDNAs coding for three Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit isoforms from the rat, a species resistant to ouabain. Northern blot and S1-nuclease mapping analyses revealed that these alpha subunit mRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. The mRNA for the alpha 1 isoform, approximately equal to 4.5 kb long, is expressed in all fetal and adult rat tissues examined. The alpha 2 mRNA, also approximately equal to 4.5 kb long, is expressed predominantly in brain and fetal heart. The alpha 3 cDNA detected two mRNA species: a approximately equal to 4.5 kb mRNA present in most tissues and a approximately equal to 6 kb mRNA, found only in fetal brain, adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. The deduced amino acid sequences of these isoforms are highly conserved. However, significant differences in codon usage and patterns of genomic DNA hybridization indicate that the alpha subunits are encoded by a multigene family. Structural analysis of the alpha subunits from rat and other species predicts a polytopic protein with seven membrane-spanning regions. Isoform diversity of the alpha subunit may provide a biochemical basis for Na,K-ATPase functional diversity.

    The Journal of cell biology 1987;105;4;1855-65

  • Genes encoding alpha and beta subunits of Na,K-ATPase are located on three different chromosomes in the mouse.

    Kent RB, Fallows DA, Geissler E, Glaser T, Emanuel JR, Lalley PA, Levenson R and Housman DE

    We have made use of a panel of mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids and restriction fragment length polymorphisms between two mouse species (Mus musculus and Mus spretus) to determine the chromosomal localization of genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of the Na,K-ATPase (Na+,K+-activated ATP phosphohydrolase, EC DNA probes for three distinct isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit mapped to three different mouse chromosomes: the alpha 1 gene (Atpa-1) cosegregated with the Egf gene on chromosome 3; alpha 2 (Atpa-2) with the cytochrome P-450PB gene family/coumarin hydroxylase locus on chromosome 7; alpha 3 (Atpa-3) with the alpha-spectrin gene on chromosome 1. The Na,K-ATPase beta-subunit gene (Atpb) mapped to the same region of chromosome 1, but it was not tightly linked to the Atpa-3 gene. These results indicate that three isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit are encoded by three distinct genes. The dispersion of Na,K-ATPase genes suggests that their expression is not likely to be controlled by a common cis-acting regulatory element.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-07919, CA-26712, CA-38992

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;15;5369-73

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000003 G2C Mus musculus Mouse clathrin Mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000004 G2C Mus musculus Mouse Synaptosome Mouse Synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000005 G2C Mus musculus Mouse mGluR5 Mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000007 G2C Mus musculus Mouse NRC Mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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