G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00000066
Gene symbol
Grin2d (MGI)
Species
Mus musculus
Description
glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA2D (epsilon 4)
Orthologue
G00001315 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (10)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000022308 (Vega mouse gene)
Gene
ENSMUSG00000002771 (Ensembl mouse gene)
14814 (Entrez Gene)
294 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
NM_008172 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g02908 (BGEM)
grin2d (gensat)
Literature
602717 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:95823 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q03391 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • GluN2D
  • GluRepsilon4
  • NMDAR2D
  • NR2D

Literature (49)

Pubmed - other

  • Glutamate receptor δ2 is essential for input pathway-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR contents in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Yamasaki M, Miyazaki T, Azechi H, Abe M, Natsume R, Hagiwara T, Aiba A, Mishina M, Sakimura K and Watanabe M

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

    The number of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is the major determinant of synaptic strength and is differently regulated in input pathway-dependent and target cell type-dependent manners. In cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), the density of synaptic AMPARs is approximately five times lower at parallel fiber (PF) synapses than at climbing fiber (CF) synapses. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this biased synaptic distribution remain unclear. As a candidate molecule, we focused on glutamate receptor δ2 (GluRδ2 or GluD2), which is known to be efficiently trafficked to and selectively expressed at PF synapses in PCs. We applied postembedding immunogold electron microscopy to GluRδ2 knock-out (KO) and control mice, and measured labeling density for GluA1-4 at three excitatory synapses in the cerebellar molecular layer. In both control and GluRδ2-KO mice, GluA1-3 were localized at PF and CF synapses in PCs, while GluA2-4 were at PF synapses in interneurons. In control mice, labeling density for each of GluA1-3 was four to six times lower at PF-PC synapses than at CF-PC synapses. In GluRδ2-KO mice, however, their labeling density displayed a three- to fivefold increase at PF synapses, but not at CF synapses, thus effectively eliminating input pathway-dependent disparity between the two PC synapses. Furthermore, we found an unexpected twofold increase in labeling density for GluA2 and GluA3, but not GluA4, at PF-interneuron synapses, where we identified low but significant expression of GluRδ2. These results suggest that GluRδ2 is involved in a common mechanism that restricts the number of synaptic AMPARs at PF synapses in PCs and molecular layer interneurons.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2011;31;9;3362-74

  • NR3A-containing NMDARs promote neurotransmitter release and spike timing-dependent plasticity.

    Larsen RS, Corlew RJ, Henson MA, Roberts AC, Mishina M, Watanabe M, Lipton SA, Nakanishi N, Pérez-Otaño I, Weinberg RJ and Philpot BD

    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    Recent evidence suggests that presynaptic-acting NMDA receptors (preNMDARs) are important for neocortical synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that unique properties of the NR3A subunit enable preNMDARs to enhance spontaneous and evoked glutamate release and that NR3A is required for spike timing-dependent long-term depression in the juvenile mouse visual cortex. In the mature cortex, NR2B-containing preNMDARs enhanced neurotransmission in the absence of magnesium, indicating that presynaptic NMDARs may function under depolarizing conditions throughout life. Our findings indicate that NR3A relieves preNMDARs from the dual-activation requirement of ligand-binding and depolarization; the developmental removal of NR3A limits preNMDAR functionality by restoring this associative property.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY005477, R01 EY009024, R01 EY018323, R01 EY018323-04, R01 EY05477, R01 EY09024; NICHD NIH HHS: P01 HD029587, P01 HD29587, T32 HD040127, T32 HD40127; NIGMS NIH HHS: F31 GM080162; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH091817; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS039444, R01 NS39444

    Nature neuroscience 2011;14;3;338-44

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • Activation of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDA receptors modifies amyloid precursor protein expression pattern and increases amyloid-ß production.

    Bordji K, Becerril-Ortega J, Nicole O and Buisson A

    Unité Mixte de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Caen, France. bordji@cyceron.fr

    Calcium is a key mediator controlling essential neuronal functions depending on electrical activity. Altered neuronal calcium homeostasis affects metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to increased production of β-amyloid (Aβ), and contributing to the initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A linkage between excessive glutamate receptor activation and neuronal Aβ release was established, and recent reports suggest that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation may have distinct consequences in plasticity, gene regulation, and neuronal death. Here, we report for the first time that prolonged activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR, but not synaptic NMDAR, dramatically increased the neuronal production of Aβ. This effect was preceded by a shift from APP695 to Kunitz protease inhibitory domain (KPI) containing APPs (KPI-APPs), isoforms exhibiting an important amyloidogenic potential. Conversely, after synaptic NMDAR activation, we failed to detect any KPI-APP expression and neuronal Aβ production was not modified. Calcium imaging data showed that intracellular calcium concentration after extrasynaptic NMDAR stimulation was lower than after synaptic activation. This suggests distinct signaling pathways for each pool of receptors. We found that modification of neuronal APP expression pattern triggered by extrasynaptic NMDAR activation was regulated at an alternative splicing level involving calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, but overall APP expression remained identical. Finally, memantine dose-dependently inhibited extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced KPI-APPs expression as well as neuronal Aβ release. Altogether, these data suggest that a chronic activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR promotes amyloidogenic KPI-APP expression leading to neuronal Aβ release, representing a causal risk factor for developing AD.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2010;30;47;15927-42

  • Essential role of NMDA receptor channel ε4 subunit (GluN2D) in the effects of phencyclidine, but not methamphetamine.

    Hagino Y, Kasai S, Han W, Yamamoto H, Nabeshima T, Mishina M and Ikeda K

    Division of Psychobiology, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

    Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, increases locomotor activity in rodents and causes schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans. Although activation of the dopamine (DA) pathway is hypothesized to mediate these effects of PCP, the precise mechanisms by which PCP induces its effects remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of PCP on extracellular levels of DA (DA(ex)) in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) using in vivo microdialysis in mice lacking the NMDA receptor channel ε1 or ε4 subunit (GluRε1 [GluN2A] or GluRε4 [GluN2D]) and locomotor activity. PCP significantly increased DA(ex) in wildtype and GluRε1 knockout mice, but not in GluRε4 knockout mice, in the striatum and PFC. Acute and repeated administration of PCP did not increase locomotor activity in GluRε4 knockout mice. The present results suggest that PCP enhances dopaminergic transmission and increases locomotor activity by acting at GluRε4.

    PloS one 2010;5;10;e13722

  • Estrogen regulates the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit epsilon 4 (Grin2d), that is essential for the normal sexual behavior in female mice.

    Ikeda K, Fukushima T, Ogura H, Tsukui T, Mishina M, Muramatsu M and Inoue S

    Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Japan.

    Estrogen plays important roles in the reproductive behavior of animals. In the present study, we found that the Grin2d gene of mouse possessed half-sites of the estrogen-responsive element (ERE) in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the reduced Grin2d mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of the ovariectomized mice was restored by estrogen administration. Downregulation of Grin2d mRNA expression was also detected in the hypothalamus of estrogen receptor alpha-knockout female mice. Moreover, estrogen-induced lordosis response was decreased in Grin2d-knockout mice. These results suggest that estrogen regulates lordosis behavior through the regulation of Grin2d expression in the hypothalamus of female mice.

    FEBS letters 2010;584;4;806-10

  • N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate the phosphorylation and desensitization of muscarinic receptors in cerebellar granule neurons.

    Butcher AJ, Torrecilla I, Young KW, Kong KC, Mistry SC, Bottrill AR and Tobin AB

    Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Leicesterm, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom.

    Changes in synaptic strength mediated by ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors is generally considered to be the molecular mechanism underlying memory and learning. NMDA receptors themselves are subject to regulation through signaling pathways that are activated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this study we investigate the ability of NMDA receptors to regulate the signaling of GPCRs by focusing on the G(q/11)-coupled M(3)-muscarinic receptor expressed endogenously in mouse cerebellar granule neurons. We show that NMDA receptor activation results in the phosphorylation and desensitization of M(3)-muscarinic receptors through a mechanism dependent on NMDA-mediated calcium influx and the activity of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our study reveals a complex pattern of regulation where GPCRs (M(3)-muscarinic) and NMDA receptors can feedback on each other in a process that is likely to influence the threshold value of signaling networks involved in synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 047600

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;25;17147-56

  • Cerebellar development transcriptome database (CDT-DB): profiling of spatio-temporal gene expression during the postnatal development of mouse cerebellum.

    Sato A, Sekine Y, Saruta C, Nishibe H, Morita N, Sato Y, Sadakata T, Shinoda Y, Kojima T and Furuichi T

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    A large amount of genetic information is devoted to brain development and functioning. The neural circuit of the mouse cerebellum develops through a series of cellular and morphological events (including neuronal proliferation and migration, axogenesis, dendritogenesis, synaptogenesis and myelination) all within three weeks of birth. All of these events are controlled by specific gene groups, whose temporal and spatial expression profiles must be encoded in the genome. To understand the genetic basis underlying cerebellar circuit development, we analyzed gene expression (transcriptome) during the developmental stages on a genome-wide basis. Spatio-temporal gene expression data were collected using in situ hybridization for spatial (cellular and regional) resolution and fluorescence differential display, GeneChip, microarray and RT-PCR for temporal (developmental time series) resolution, and were annotated using Gene Ontology (controlled terminology for genes and gene products) and anatomical context (cerebellar cell types and circuit structures). The annotated experimental data were integrated into a knowledge resource database, the Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database (CDT-DB http://www.cdtdb.brain.riken.jp), with seamless links to the relevant information at various bioinformatics database websites. The CDT-DB not only provides a unique informatics tool for mining both spatial and temporal pattern information on gene expression in developing mouse brains, but also opens up opportunities to elucidate the transcriptome for cerebellar development.

    Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society 2008;21;8;1056-69

  • Climbing-fibre activation of NMDA receptors in Purkinje cells of adult mice.

    Renzi M, Farrant M and Cull-Candy SG

    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    Among principal neurons, adult Purkinje cells have long been considered unusual in lacking functional NMDA receptors. This view has emerged largely from studies on rats, where NMDA receptors are expressed in Purkinje cells of newborn animals, but are lost after 2 weeks. By contrast, immunolabelling data have shown that Purkinje cells from adult mice express multiple NMDA receptor subunits, suggesting a possible species difference. To investigate the presence of functional NMDA receptors in Purkinje cells of mice, and to explore the contribution of different receptor subunits, we made whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp recordings from Purkinje cells of wild-type and NR2D-/- mice of different ages. Here we report that multiple NMDA receptor subtypes are indeed expressed in Purkinje cells of young and adult mice; in the adult, both NR2A- and NR2B-containing subtypes are present. Furthermore, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs can be evoked by climbing fibre stimulation, and appear to be mediated mainly by NR2A-containing receptors.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of physiology 2007;585;Pt 1;91-101

  • Signal pathways coupled to activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord by nociceptin/orphanin FQ.

    Xu L, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Matsumura S, Mabuchi T, Okamoto S, Sakimura K, Mishina M and Ito S

    Department of Medical Chemistry, Kansai Medical University, 10-15 Fumizono, Moriguchi 570-8506, Japan.

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) was earlier shown to be involved in the maintenance of neuropathic pain by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). We recently established an ex vivo system to elucidate biochemical and molecular mechanisms for nNOS activation by the use of a combination of isolated intact spinal cord preparations and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Here we examined the N/OFQ signal pathways coupled to nNOS activation in the spinal cord by using this ex vivo system. N/OFQ enhanced nNOS activity in the superficial layer of the spinal cord, as assessed by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect was observed at 3-10 nM. The N/OFQ-stimulated nNOS activity was inhibited by NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and D-AP5, but not by the NR2B-selective antagonist CP-101,606; and the stimulated activity was observed in NR2D(-/-) mice, but not in NR2A(-/-) or NR2A(-/-)/NR2D(-/-) mice. N/OFQ receptor antagonists attenuated the nNOS activity stimulated by N/OFQ, but not that by NMDA. Furthermore, the potentiation of nNOS by N/OFQ was inhibited by calphostin C and Ro 31-8220, PP2, and KN-62, but not by H-89. These results suggest that N/OFQ stimulated nNOS activity by a biochemical cascade initiated by activation of NMDA receptors containing NR2A.

    Neuropharmacology 2007;52;5;1318-25

  • Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations.

    Trinidad JC, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R and Burlingame AL

    Mass Spectrometry Facility, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR14606; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;5;914-22

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Maternal stress produces learning deficits associated with impairment of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity.

    Son GH, Geum D, Chung S, Kim EJ, Jo JH, Kim CM, Lee KH, Kim H, Choi S, Kim HT, Lee CJ and Kim K

    School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

    Stress in adulthood can have a profound effect on physiology and behavior, but the extent to which prolonged maternal stress affects the brain function of offspring when they are adult remains primarily unknown. In the present work, chronic immobilization stress to pregnant mice affected fetal growth and development. When pups born from stressed mice were reared to adulthood in an environment identical to that of nonstressed controls, several physiological parameters were essentially unaltered. However, spatial learning and memory was significantly impaired in the maternally stressed offspring in adulthood. Furthermore, electrophysiological examination revealed a significant reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated long-term potentiation in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices. Subsequent biochemical analysis demonstrated a substantial decrease in NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in synapses of the hippocampus, and the interaction between these two subunits appeared to be reduced. These results suggest that prolonged maternal stress leads to long-lasting malfunction of the hippocampus, which extends to and is manifested in adulthood.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2006;26;12;3309-18

  • Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor epsilon1 and epsilon4 subunits in tonic inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain.

    Hizue M, Pang CH and Yokoyama M

    Discovery Biology Research, Nagoya Laboratories, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Aichi, Japan. Masanori.Hizue@pfizer.com

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors play an important role in nociceptive transmissions in various types of pain. In this study, we investigated the pain-related response in mice lacking the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor epsilon1 or epsilon4 subunit in the formalin test and in the partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain model. The second tonic inflammatory phase response in the formalin test was significantly reduced in glutamate receptor epsilon1 knockout epsilon1(-/-) mice, but not in glutamate receptor epsilon4(-/-) when compared with wild-type mice. In the partial sciatic nerve ligation model, glutamate receptor epsilon1(-/-) mice exhibited no difference in mechanical allodynia compared with wild-type mice. Glutamate receptor epsilon4(-/-) mice, however, failed to develop allodynia after the nerve ligation. These results suggest that glutamate receptor epsilon1 and epsilon4 subunits are involved in tonic inflammatory pain and neuropathic allodynia, respectively.

    Neuroreport 2005;16;15;1667-70

  • Target-cell-specific left-right asymmetry of NMDA receptor content in schaffer collateral synapses in epsilon1/NR2A knock-out mice.

    Wu Y, Kawakami R, Shinohara Y, Fukaya M, Sakimura K, Mishina M, Watanabe M, Ito I and Shigemoto R

    Department of Physiology, School of Life Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan.

    Input-dependent left-right asymmetry of NMDA receptor epsilon2 (NR2B) subunit allocation was discovered in hippocampal Schaffer collateral (Sch) and commissural fiber pyramidal cell synapses (Kawakami et al., 2003). To investigate whether this asymmetrical epsilon2 allocation is also related to the types of the postsynaptic cells, we compared postembedding immunogold labeling for epsilon2 in left and right Sch synapses on pyramidal cells and interneurons. To facilitate the detection of epsilon2 density difference, we used epsilon1 (NR2A) knock-out (KO) mice, which have a simplified NMDA receptor subunit composition. The labeling density for epsilon2 but not zeta1 (NR1) and subtype 2/3 glutamate receptor (GluR2/3) in Sch-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was significantly different between the left and right hippocampus with opposite directions in strata oriens and radiatum; the left to right ratio of epsilon2 labeling density was 1:1.50 in stratum oriens and 1.44:1 in stratum radiatum. No significant difference, however, was detected in CA1 stratum radiatum between the left and right Sch-GluR4-positive (mostly parvalbumin-positive) and Sch-GluR4-negative interneuron synapses. Consistent with the anatomical asymmetry, the amplitude ratio of NMDA EPSCs to non-NMDA EPSCs in pyramidal cells was approximately two times larger in right than left stratum radiatum and vice versa in stratum oriens of epsilon1 KO mice. Moreover, the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the Sch-CA1 synapses of left stratum radiatum was significantly larger than that in the right corresponding synapses. These results indicate that the asymmetry of epsilon2 distribution is target cell specific, resulting in the left-right difference in NMDA receptor content and plasticity in Sch-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in epsilon1 KO mice.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;40;9213-26

  • Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit at Tyr1472 is essential for maintenance of neuropathic pain.

    Abe T, Matsumura S, Katano T, Mabuchi T, Takagi K, Xu L, Yamamoto A, Hattori K, Yagi T, Watanabe M, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Mishina M, Nakai Y and Ito S

    Department of Medical Chemistry, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi 570-8506, Japan.

    Despite abundant evidence implicating the importance of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the spinal cord for pain transmission, the signal transduction coupled to NMDA receptor activation is largely unknown for the neuropathic pain state that lasts over periods of weeks. To address this, we prepared mice with neuropathic pain by transection of spinal nerve L5. Wild-type, NR2A-deficient, and NR2D-deficient mice developed neuropathic pain; in addition, phosphorylation of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors at Tyr1472 was observed in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord 1 week after nerve injury. Neuropathic pain and NR2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472 were attenuated by the NR2B-selective antagonist CP-101,606 and disappeared in mice lacking Fyn kinase, a Src-family tyrosine kinase. Concomitant with the NR2B phosphorylation, an increase in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity was visualized in the superficial dorsal horn of neuropathic pain mice by NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Electron microscopy showed that the phosphorylated NR2B was localized at the postsynaptic density in the spinal cord of mice with neuropathic pain. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, and PGE receptor subtype EP1-selective antagonist reduced the NR2B phosphorylation in these mice. Conversely, EP1-selective agonist stimulated Fyn kinase-dependent nitric oxide formation in the spinal cord. The present study demonstrates that Tyr1472 phosphorylation of NR2B subunits by Fyn kinase may have dual roles in the retention of NMDA receptors in the postsynaptic density and in activation of nitric oxide synthase, and suggests that PGE2 is involved in the maintenance of neuropathic pain via the EP1 subtype.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2005;22;6;1445-54

  • NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx plays an essential role in myoblast fusion.

    Lee KH, Park JY and Kim K

    School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, Republic of Korea.

    Ca2+ influx is known to be prerequisite for myoblast fusion during skeletal muscle differentiation. Here, we show that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is involved in the Ca2+ influx of C2C12 myoblasts. NMDA receptor (NR) 1 and NR2D were expressed in the myoblasts during muscle differentiation. Using Ca2+ imaging analysis, Ca2+ influx through NRs was directly measured at a single-cell level. l-Glutamate increased myoblast fusion as well as intracellular Ca2+ levels, and both effects were completely blocked by MK801, a selective antagonist of NRs. Furthermore, treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 recovered MK801-mediated inhibition of myoblast fusion. These results suggest that the NRs may play an important role in myoblast fusion by mediating Ca2+ influx.

    FEBS letters 2004;578;1-2;47-52

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • NR2B and NR2D subunits coassemble in cerebellar Golgi cells to form a distinct NMDA receptor subtype restricted to extrasynaptic sites.

    Brickley SG, Misra C, Mok MH, Mishina M and Cull-Candy SG

    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are thought to be tetrameric assemblies composed of NR1 and at least one type of NR2 subunit. The identity of the NR2 subunit (NR2A, -B, -C, -D) is critical in determining many of the functional properties of the receptor, such as channel conductance and deactivation time. Further diversity may arise from coassembly of more than one type of NR2 subunit, if the resulting triheteromeric assembly (NR1 plus two types of NR2) displays distinct functional properties. We have used gene-ablated mice (NR2D -/-) to examine the effects of the NR2D subunit on NMDAR channels and NMDAR EPSCs in cerebellar Golgi cells. These cells are thought to express both NR2B and NR2D subunits, a combination that occurs widely in the developing nervous system. Our experiments provide direct evidence that the low conductance NMDAR channels in Golgi cells arise from diheteromeric NR1/NR2D assemblies. To investigate whether a functionally distinct triheteromeric assembly was also expressed, we analyzed the kinetic and pharmacological properties of single-channel currents in isolated extrasynaptic patches. We found that after the loss of the NR2D subunit, the properties of the 50 pS NMDAR channels were altered. This result is consistent with the presence of a triheteromeric assembly (NR1/NR2B/NR2D) in cells from wild-type mice. However, we could find no difference in the properties of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs between wild-type and NR2D subunit ablated mice. Our experiments suggest that although both diheteromeric and triheteromeric NR2D-containing receptors are expressed in cerebellar Golgi cells, neither receptor type participates in parallel fiber to Golgi cell synaptic transmission. The presence of the NR2D subunit within an assembly may therefore result in its restriction to extrasynaptic sites.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2003;23;12;4958-66

  • Early onset of NMDA receptor GluR epsilon 1 (NR2A) expression and its abundant postsynaptic localization in developing motoneurons of the mouse hypoglossal nucleus.

    Oshima S, Fukaya M, Masabumi N, Shirakawa T, Oguchi H and Watanabe M

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

    Oro-facial sensorimotor function conducted by the brainstem is vital to newborn mammals, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the regulation. Here we examined the expression of NMDA receptor subunits in the mouse hypoglossal nucleus from embryonic day 13 (E13) through postnatal day 21 (P21). Compared with other brainstem regions, early onset of GluRepsilon1 (NR2A) mRNA expression was conspicuous to the embryonic hypoglossal nucleus. The expression peaked at P1-P7, when other brainstem regions just started to express it. At P1, GluRepsilon1 subunit was localized to asymmetrical synapses on motoneuron dendrites, particularly, on the postsynaptic junction membrane. In developing motoneurons, expressions of GluRepsilon2 (NR2B), GluRepsilon4 (NR2D), and GluRzeta1 (NR1) mRNAs were accompanied. Until P21, however, all of these subunits were down-regulated with particular reduction for GluRepsilon2 and GluRepsilon4 mRNAs. Similar patterns of temporal expressions were observed in motoneurons of other brainstem motor nuclei. Taking that high levels of GluRepsilon1, GluRepsilon2, and GluRzeta1 subunits are also found in the adult hippocampus and cerebral cortex, it can be assumed that NMDA receptors in developing motoneurons are highly potent and potentially involved in structural and functional development of the brainstem motor system.

    Neuroscience research 2002;43;3;239-50

  • Immunohistochemical localization of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in the adult murine hippocampal formation: evidence for a unique role of the NR2D subunit.

    Thompson CL, Drewery DL, Atkins HD, Stephenson FA and Chazot PL

    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, Science Research Laboratories, South Road, Durham, UK. c.l.thompson@durham.ac.uk

    NMDA receptors were immunopurified from adult mouse forebrain and screened by immunoblotting. NR1 was co-associated with NR2A, NR2B and NR2D but not NR2C, nor was NR2C detected in adult mouse hippocampal membranes. The anatomical distribution of NR1, 2A, 2B and 2D was mapped in the adult murine hippocampal formation. NR1-like immunoreactivity was localised to cell bodies of pyramidal neurons, granule cells and hilar cells of the dentate gyrus. Apical dendrites of the CA subfields and hilar cells were also immunopositive. NR2A- and NR2B-like immunoreactivity essentially co-localised with that of NR1 implying co-assembly of all three subunits in this brain structure. NR2D-like immunoreactivity was distinct, being totally excluded from pyramidal, granule and hilar cell bodies. Strong, punctate staining was restricted to the oriens layer of CA1 and the stratum lucidum of CA3 consistent with labelling of presynaptic receptors. Less intense staining was also observed in the internal third of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 2002;102;1-2;55-61

  • Regulated appearance of NMDA receptor subunits and channel functions during in vitro neuronal differentiation.

    Jelitai M, Schlett K, Varju P, Eisel U and Madarász E

    Department of Neural Cell Biology, Institute of Experimental Medicine Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

    The schedule of NMDA receptor subunit expression and the appearance of functional NMDA-gated ion channels were investigated during the retinoic acid (RA) induced neuronal differentiation of NE-4C, a p53-deficient mouse neuroectodermal progenitor cell line. NR2A, NR2B, and NR2D subunit transcripts were present in both nondifferentiated and neuronally differentiated cultures, while NR2C subunits were expressed only transiently, during the early period of neural differentiation. Several splice variants of NR1 were detected in noninduced progenitors and in RA-induced cells, except the N1 exon containing transcripts that appeared after the fourth day of induction, when neuronal processes were already formed. NR1 and NR2A subunit proteins were detected both in nondifferentiated progenitor cells and in neurons, while the mature form of NR2B subunit protein appeared only at the time of neuronal process elongation. Despite the early presence of NR1 and NR2A subunits, NMDA-evoked responses could be detected in NE-4C neurons only after the sixth day of induction, coinciding in time with the expression of the mature NR2B subunit. The formation of functional NMDA receptors also coincided with the appearance of synapsin I and synaptophysin. The lag period between the production of the subunits and the onset of channel function suggests that subunits capable of channel formation cannot form functional NMDA receptors until a certain stage of neuronal commitment. Thus, the in vitro neurogenesis by NE-4C cells provides a suitable tool to investigate some inherent regulatory processes involved in the initial maturation of NMDA receptor complexes.

    Journal of neurobiology 2002;51;1;54-65

  • Lower sensitivity to stress and altered monoaminergic neuronal function in mice lacking the NMDA receptor epsilon 4 subunit.

    Miyamoto Y, Yamada K, Noda Y, Mori H, Mishina M and Nabeshima T

    Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8560, Japan.

    NMDA receptors, an ionotropic subtype of glutamate receptors (GluRs), play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. They are composed of the GluRzeta subunit (NR1) combined with any one of four GluRepsilon subunits (GluRepsilon1-GluRepsilon4; NR2A-NR2D). Although the GluRzeta subunit exists in the majority of the CNS throughout all stages of development, the GluRepsilon subunits are expressed in distinct temporal and spatial patterns. In the present study, we investigated neuronal functions in mice lacking the embryonic GluRepsilon4 subunit. GluRepsilon4 mutant mice exhibited reductions of [(3)H]MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] binding and (45)Ca(2+) uptake through the NMDA receptors. The expression of GluRzeta subunit protein, but not GluRepsilon1 and GluRepsilon2 subunit proteins, was reduced in the frontal cortex and striatum of the mutant mice. A postmortem examination in GluRepsilon4 mutant mice revealed that tissue contents of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites were reduced in the hippocampus and that dopamine, as well as serotonin, metabolism was upregulated in the frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus. To clarify the phenotypical influences of the alteration in neuronal functions, performances in various behavioral tests were examined. GluRepsilon4 mutant mice showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in a novel environment and less sensitivity to stress induced by the elevated plus-maze, light-dark box, and forced swimming tests. These findings suggest that GluRepsilon4 mutant mice have dysfunctional NMDA receptors and altered emotional behavior probably caused by changes in monoaminergic neuronal activities in adulthood.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;6;2335-42

  • Roles of the glutamate receptor epsilon2 and delta2 subunits in the potentiation and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.

    Takeuchi T, Kiyama Y, Nakamura K, Tsujita M, Matsuda I, Mori H, Munemoto Y, Kuriyama H, Natsume R, Sakimura K and Mishina M

    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    We examined the regulation of the acoustic startle response in mutant mice of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- and delta-subtypes of the glutamate receptor (GluR) channel, which play important roles in neural plasticity in the forebrain and the cerebellum, respectively. Heterozygous mutant mice with reduced GluRepsilon2 subunits of the NMDA receptor showed strongly enhanced startle responses to acoustic stimuli. On the other hand, heterozygous and homozygous mutation of the other NMDA receptor GluRepsilon subunits exerted no, or only small effects on acoustic startle responses. The threshold of the auditory brainstem response of the GluRepsilon2-mutant mice was comparable to that of the wild-type littermates. The primary circuit of the acoustic startle response is a relatively simple oligosynaptic pathway located in the lower brainstem, whilst the expression of GluRepsilon2 is restricted to the forebrain. We thus suggest that the NMDA receptor GluRepsilon2 subunit plays a role in the regulation of the startle reflex. Ablation of the cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific delta2 subunit of the GluR channel exerted little effect on the acoustic startle response but resulted in the enhancement of prepulse inhibition of the reflex. Because inhibition of the acoustic startle response by a weak prepulse is a measure of sensorimotor gating, the process by which an organism filters sensory information, these observations indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in the modulation of sensorimotor gating.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2001;14;1;153-60

  • Characterization of the glutamatergic system for induction and maintenance of allodynia.

    Minami T, Matsumura S, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Shimamoto K, Sakimura K, Mishina M, Mori H and Ito S

    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki 569-8686, Japan.

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has been shown to be involved in spinal nociceptive processing. We previously demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2 alpha) induced touch-evoked pain (allodynia) through the glutamatergic system by different mechanisms. In the present study, we characterized glutamate receptor subtypes and glutamate transporters involved in induction and maintenance of PGE(2)- and PGF(2 alpha)-evoked allodynia. In addition to PGE(2) and PGF(2 alpha), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), but not kainate, induced allodynia. PGE(2)- and NMDA-induced allodynia were observed in NMDA receptor epsilon 4 (NR2D) subunit knockout (GluR epsilon 4(-/-)) mice, but not in epsilon 1 (NR2A) subunit knockout (GluR epsilon 1(-/-)) mice. Conversely, PGF(2 alpha)- and AMPA-induced allodynia were observed in GluR epsilon 1(-/-) mice, but not in GluR epsilon 4(-/-) mice. The induction of allodynia by PGE(2) and NMDA was abolished by the NMDA receptor epsilon 2 (NR2B) antagonist CP-101,606 and neonatal capsaicin treatment. PGF(2 alpha)- and AMPA-induced allodynia were not affected by CP-101,606 and by neonatal capsaicin treatment. On the other hand, the glutamate transporter blocker DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) blocked all the allodynia induced by PGE(2), PGF(2 alpha), NMDA, and AMPA. These results demonstrate that there are two pathways for induction of allodynia mediated by the glutamatergic system and suggest that the glutamate transporter is essential for the induction and maintenance of allodynia.

    Brain research 2001;895;1-2;178-85

  • Identification of a juxtamembrane segment of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit required for the plasma membrane localization.

    Matsuda I and Mishina M

    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    Glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) is selectively expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is specifically targeted to parallel fiber synapses, where GluRdelta2 plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, motor learning and synapse formation. Here, we investigated the mechanism of GluRdelta2 sorting using MDCK epithelial cells. Immunocytochemical analysis of subcellular localization showed that GluRdelta2 expressed in MDCK cells was predominantly distributed in the plasma membrane. By examining the subcellular localization of GluRdelta2 mutants with various deletions in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic region, we identified J segment adjacent to transmembrane segment M4 as a key region for the efficient targeting of GluRdelta2 to the plasma membrane. On the other hand, the carboxyl terminus of GluRdelta2 essential for interaction with PDZ domain proteins was dispensable for the plasma membrane localization. Our results suggest that the juxtamembrane segment and the PDZ domain target site at the carboxyl terminus of GluRdelta2 play differential roles in plasma membrane targeting, synapse localization and signal transduction.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;275;2;565-71

  • Characterization of nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced pain responses in conscious mice: neonatal capsaicin treatment and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor GluRepsilon subunit knockout mice.

    Minami T, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Mori H, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Mishina M and Ito S

    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.

    Activation of primary afferent C fibers gives rise to spinal release of substance P and glutamate, and these mediators facilitate the cascade of nociceptive processing. We recently showed that intrathecal administration of nociceptin or orphanin FQ (hereafter called nociceptin) induced hyperalgesia to noxious thermal stimuli and allodynia to innocuous tactile stimuli applied to conscious mice. In the present study, we designed experiments to elucidate the pathways and mediators of nociceptin-evoked pain responses. Neonatal capsaicin treatment eliminated the induction of hyperalgesia and allodynia by nociceptin. Whereas this treatment markedly reduced the content of substance P in the spinal cord, it did not affect the nociceptin content or the expression of nociceptin receptors and GluRvarepsilon and GluRzeta subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in it. The substance P antagonists CP96,345 and CP99,994 blocked the nociceptin-induced hyperalgesia, but not the allodynia. In contrast, the nociceptin-evoked allodynia, but not hyperalgesia, disappeared in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor GluRvarepsilon1 subunit knockout mice. Both nociceptin-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia were attenuated by morphine in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers are involved not only in thermal hyperalgesia but also in tactile allodynia induced by nociceptin, but in different pathways; the former is mediated by substance P and the latter is mediated by glutamate through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor comprising the GluRvarepsilon1 subunit.

    Neuroscience 2000;97;1;133-42

  • Neuronal interleukin-16 (NIL-16): a dual function PDZ domain protein.

    Kurschner C and Yuzaki M

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    Interleukin (IL)-16 is a proinflammatory cytokine that has attracted widespread attention because of its ability to block HIV replication. We describe the identification and characterization of a large neuronal IL-16 precursor, NIL-16. The N-terminal half of NIL-16 constitutes a novel PDZ domain protein sequence, whereas the C terminus is identical with splenocyte-derived mouse pro-IL-16. IL-16 has been characterized only in the immune system, and the identification of NIL-16 marks a previously unsuspected connection between the immune and the nervous systems. NIL-16 is a cytosolic protein that is detected only in neurons of the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The N-terminal portion of NIL-16 interacts selectively with a variety of neuronal ion channels, which is similar to the function of many other PDZ domain proteins that serve as intracellular scaffolding proteins. Among the NIL-16-interacting proteins is the class C alpha1 subunit of a mouse brain calcium channel (mbC alpha1). The C terminus of NIL-16 can be processed by caspase-3, resulting in the release of secreted IL-16. Furthermore, in cultured cerebellar granule neurons undergoing apoptosis, NIL-16 proteolysis parallels caspase-3 activation. Cerebellar granule neurons express the IL-16 receptor CD4. Exposure of these cells to IL-16 induces expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, via a signaling pathway that involves tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that IL-16 provides an autocrine function in the brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that NIL-16 is a dual function protein in the nervous system that serves as a secreted signaling molecule as well as a scaffolding protein.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA21765

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;18;7770-80

  • PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A.

    Tezuka T, Umemori H, Akiyama T, Nakanishi S and Yamamoto T

    Department of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    Fyn, a member of the Src-family protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK), is implicated in learning and memory that involves N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. In this study, we examined how Fyn participates in synaptic plasticity by analyzing the physical and functional interaction between Fyn and NMDA receptors. Results showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A, one of the NMDA receptor subunits, was reduced in fyn-mutant mice. NR2A was tyrosine-phosphorylated in 293T cells when coexpressed with Fyn. Therefore, NR2A would be a substrate for Fyn in vivo. Results also showed that PSD-95, which directly binds to and coclusters with NMDA receptors, promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A. Different regions of PSD-95 associated with NR2A and Fyn, respectively, and so PSD-95 could mediate complex formation of Fyn with NR2A. PSD-95 also associated with other Src-family PTKs, Src, Yes, and Lyn. These results suggest that PSD-95 is critical for regulation of NMDA receptor activity by Fyn and other Src-family PTKs, serving as a molecular scaffold for anchoring these PTKs to NR2A.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;2;435-40

  • Role of the carboxy-terminal region of the GluR epsilon2 subunit in synaptic localization of the NMDA receptor channel.

    Mori H, Manabe T, Watanabe M, Satoh Y, Suzuki N, Toki S, Nakamura K, Yagi T, Kushiya E, Takahashi T, Inoue Y, Sakimura K and Mishina M

    Department of Molecular Neurobiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    The synaptic localization of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor (GluR) channel is a prerequisite for synaptic plasticity in the brain. We generated mutant mice carrying the carboxy-terminal truncated GluR epsilon2 subunit of the NMDA receptor channel. The mutant mice died neonatally and failed to form barrelette structures in the brainstem. The mutation greatly decreased the NMDA receptor-mediated component of hippocampal excitatory postsynaptic potentials and punctate immunofluorescent labelings of GluR epsilon2 protein in the neuropil regions, while GluR epsilon2 protein expression was comparable. Immunostaining of cultured cerebral neurons showed the reduced punctate staining of the truncated GluR epsilon2 protein at synapses. These results suggest that the carboxy-terminal region of the GluRepsilon2 subunit is important for efficient clustering and synaptic localization of the NMDA receptor channel.

    Neuron 1998;21;3;571-80

  • Auditory pathway and auditory brainstem response in mice lacking NMDA receptor epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 subunits.

    Munemoto Y, Kuriyama H, Doi T, Sato K, Matsumoto A, Sugatani J, Cho H, Komeda M, Altschuler RA, Kitajiri M, Mishina M and Yamashita T

    Department of Otolaryngology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

    There is considerable evidence that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a component of excitatory amino acid synapses in the ascending auditory pathway. The availability of mice that are defective in NMDAR epsilon 1 or NMDAR epsilon 4 subunit paves the way for investigations on the role of this receptor in auditory function. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization was used in the parent C57/6J wild strain to determine if these subunits are normally expressed in cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) and to confirm their absence in the respective mutant mice. Evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) to normal acoustic stimulation was investigated to assess function. In situ hybridization revealed the expression of NMDAR epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 subunits mRNAs in major neuronal types in the CN and SOC of the wild type mice while epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 expression were absent in their respective mutant mice. The ABR threshold for the epsilon 1 mutant mice was similar to that of wild type mice however the threshold for the epsilon 4 mutant mice was significantly elevated. These results suggest a role for the NMDAR epsilon 4 in normal auditory functions while the NMDAR epsilon 1 may have a less critical function under normal conditions.

    Neuroscience letters 1998;251;2;101-4

  • CIPP, a novel multivalent PDZ domain protein, selectively interacts with Kir4.0 family members, NMDA receptor subunits, neurexins, and neuroligins.

    Kurschner C, Mermelstein PG, Holden WT and Surmeier DJ

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, 38105, USA. cornelia.kurschner@stjude.org

    We report a novel multivalent PDZ domain protein, CIPP (for channel-interacting PDZ domain protein), which is expressed exclusively in brain and kidney. Within the brain, the highest CIPP mRNA levels were found in neurons of the cerebellum, inferior colliculus, vestibular nucleus, facial nucleus, and thalamus. Furthermore, we identified the inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel, Kir4.1 (also called "Kir1.2"), as a cellular CIPP ligand. Among several other Kir channels tested, only the closely related Kir4.2 (or "Kir1.3") also interacted with CIPP. In addition, specific PDZ domains within CIPP associated selectively with the C-termini of N-methyl-D-aspartate subtypes of glutamate receptors, as well as neurexins and neuroligins, cell surface molecules enriched in synaptic membranes. Thus, CIPP may serve as a scaffold that brings structurally diverse but functionally connected proteins into close proximity at the synapse. The functional consequences of CIPP expression on Kir4.1 channels were studied using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques in Kir4.1 transfected COS-7 cells. On average, Kir4.1 current densities were doubled by cotransfection with CIPP.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA21765

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 1998;11;3;161-72

  • Importance of the intracellular domain of NR2 subunits for NMDA receptor function in vivo.

    Sprengel R, Suchanek B, Amico C, Brusa R, Burnashev N, Rozov A, Hvalby O, Jensen V, Paulsen O, Andersen P, Kim JJ, Thompson RF, Sun W, Webster LC, Grant SG, Eilers J, Konnerth A, Li J, McNamara JO and Seeburg PH

    Max-Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Heidelberg, Germany.

    NMDA receptors, a class of glutamate-gated cation channels with high Ca2+ conductance, mediate fast transmission and plasticity of central excitatory synapses. We show here that gene-targeted mice expressing NMDA receptors without the large intracellular C-terminal domain of any one of three NR2 subunits phenotypically resemble mice made deficient in that particular subunit. Mice expressing the NR2B subunit in a C-terminally truncated form (NR2B(deltaC/deltaC) mice) die perinatally. NR2A(deltaC/deltaC) mice are viable but exhibit impaired synaptic plasticity and contextual memory. These and NR2C(deltaC/deltaC) mice display deficits in motor coordination. C-terminal truncation of NR2 subunits does not interfere with the formation of gateable receptor channels that can be synaptically activated. Thus, the phenotypes of our mutants appear to reflect defective intracellular signaling.

    Funded by: ACF HHS: AF05142; NIA NIH HHS: AG0093; OMHHE CDC HHS: IF32MN10521-01; Wellcome Trust; ...

    Cell 1998;92;2;279-89

  • Synapse-selective impairment of NMDA receptor functions in mice lacking NMDA receptor epsilon 1 or epsilon 2 subunit.

    Ito I, Futai K, Katagiri H, Watanabe M, Sakimura K, Mishina M and Sugiyama H

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    1. We have explored the effects of targeted disruption of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor epsilon 1 or epsilon 2 subunit gene on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA EPSCs) and long-term potentiations (LTPs) at the two types of synapse in mouse hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons: those formed by the commissural/associational (C/A) and fimbrial (Fim) inputs. 2. Electrophysiological experiments were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from both wild-type and epsilon 1- or epsilon 2-disrupted mice using extracellular and whole-cell patch recording techniques. To assess the epsilon 1, epsilon 2 and zeta 1 subunit expression at cellular levels, we performed non-isotopic in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled cRNA probes. 3. We could record EPSCs in response to the stimulations to either of the C/A and Fim afferents from a single CA3 pyramidal neuron. The epsilon 1, epsilon 2 and zeta 1 subunits were expressed together in individual CA3 neurons. 4. The epsilon 1 subunit disruption selectively reduced NMDA EPSCs and LTP in the C/A-CA3 synapse without significantly affecting those in the Fim-CA3 synapse, whereas the epsilon 2 subunit mutation diminished NMDA EPSCs and LTP in the Fim-CA3 synapse with no appreciable functional modifications in the C/A-CA3 synapse. 5. These results suggest that NMDA receptors with different subunit compositions function within a single CA3 pyramidal cell in a synapse-selective manner.

    The Journal of physiology 1997;500 ( Pt 2);401-8

  • Absence of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia in NMDA receptor epsilon subunit knockout mice.

    Minami T, Sugatani J, Sakimura K, Abe M, Mishina M and Ito S

    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.

    1. We have previously found that intrathecal administration of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and D2 (PGD2) into conscious mice induced hyperalgesia by the hot plate test. The present study investigated the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the prostaglandin-induced hyperalgesia by use of mice tacking NMDA receptor epsilon 1, epsilon 4, or epsilon 1/epsilon 4 subunits. 2. PGE2 induced hyperalgesia over a wide range of doses from 50 pg to 500 ng kg-1 in wild-type mice. But PGE2 could not induce hyperalgesia in epsilon 1, epsilon 4, or epsilon 1/epsilon 4 subunit knockout mice. 3. The NMDA receptor antagonist D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5), the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 7-D-glutamylaminomethyl sulphonic acid (GAMS), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N epsilon-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) inhibited the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in wild-type mice. 4. PGD2 induced hyperalgesia at doses of 25 ng to 250 ng kg-1 in both wild-type and epsilon 1/epsilon 4 subunit knockout mice. The substance P receptor antagonist OP 96.345 blocked the PGD2-induced hyperalgesia in wild-type and epsilon 1/epsilon 4 subunit knockout mice. 5. These results demonstrate that the pathways leading to hyperalgesia are different between PGD2 and PGE2, and that both epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 subunits of the NMDA receptor are involved in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia.

    British journal of pharmacology 1997;120;8;1522-6

  • Altered gene expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel subunits in Purkinje cells of the staggerer mutant mouse.

    Nakagawa S, Watanabe M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    The gene expression of five NMDA receptor channel subunits, the epsilon(1), epsilon(2), epsilon(3), epsilon(4) and zeta(1) subunits, was examined in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the staggerer mouse at postnatal day 21. In the midline region of the staggerer cerebellum, signals for the epsilon(1), epsilon(4) and zeta(1) subunit mRNAs were distributed in Purkinje cells, which have a large cell body aligned in a monolayer between the granular and molecular layers. In addition to the midline region, labelled neurons in the intermediate cerebellar region were, though at lower levels, aligned almost in a monolayer between the granular and molecular layers. In the hemisphere, most labelled neurons occurred in various locations in the granular layer and the cerebellar medulla. These regions, populated with Purkinje cells expressing the epsilon(1), epsilon(4) and zeta(1) subunit mRNAs, were separated from each other by narrow gap regions that contained neurons without any detectable NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs. These results suggest that there is discrete mediolateral heterogeneity in staggerer Purkinje cell populations, in terms of expression properties of the NMDA receptor channel subunits. When compared with wild-type Purkinje cells that express the zeta(1) subunit alone, additional expression of the epsilon subunits presumably explains the persistence of NMDA responses in adult staggerer Purkinje cells (Dupont et al., Neuroscience, 12, 613-619, 1984).

    The European journal of neuroscience 1996;8;12;2644-51

  • Modification of NMDA receptor channels and synaptic transmission by targeted disruption of the NR2C gene.

    Ebralidze AK, Rossi DJ, Tonegawa S and Slater NT

    Center for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139-4307, USA.

    A novel strain of mutant mouse has been generated with a deletion of the gene encoding the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor, which is primarily expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Patch-clamp recordings from granule cells in thin cerebellar slices were used to assess the consequences of the gene deletion. In granule cells of wild-type animals, a wide range of single-channel conductances were observed (19-60 pS). The disruption of the NR2C gene results in the disappearance of low-conductance NMDA receptor channels ( < 37 pS) normally expressed in granule cells during developmental maturation. The NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic current is markedly potentiated in amplitude, but abbreviated in duration (with no net difference in total charge), and the non-NMDA component of the synaptic current was reduced. We conclude that the NR2C subunit contributes to functional heteromeric NMDA receptor-subunit assemblies at the mossy fiber synapse and extrasynaptic sites during maturation, and the conductance level exhibited by a given receptor macromolecule may reflect the stochiometry of subunit composition.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1996;16;16;5014-25

  • Functional correlation of NMDA receptor epsilon subunits expression with the properties of single-channel and synaptic currents in the developing cerebellum.

    Takahashi T, Feldmeyer D, Suzuki N, Onodera K, Cull-Candy SG, Sakimura K and Mishina M

    Department of Neurophysiology, Institute for Brain Research, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits epsilon 1-epsilon 4 are expressed differentially with respect to brain region and ontogenic period, but their functional roles still are unclear. We have compared an epsilon 1 subunit-ablated mutant mouse with the wild-type to characterize the effect of epsilon subunit expression on NMDAR-mediated single-channel currents and synaptic currents of granule cells in cerebellar slices. Single-channel and Western blot analyses indicated that the epsilon 2 subunit disappeared gradually during the first postnatal month in both wild-type and mutant mice. Concomitantly, the voltage-dependent Mg2+ block of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs (NMDA-EPSCs) was decreased. Throughout the developmental period studied, postnatal day 7-24 (P7-P24), the decay time course of NMDA-EPSCs in epsilon 1 mutant (-/-) mice was slower than in wild-type mice. We suggest that the expression of the epsilon 3 subunit late in development is responsible for a reduction in the sensitivity of NMDA-EPSCs to block by extracellular Mg2+ and that receptors containing the epsilon 1 subunit determine the fast kinetics of the NMDA-EPSCs.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1996;16;14;4376-82

  • Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the mouse NMDA receptor channel subunits.

    Nagasawa M, Sakimura K, Mori KJ, Bedell MA, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA and Mishina M

    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan.

    Multiple espilon subunits are major determinants of the diversity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel. The four epsilon subunit mRNAs exhibit distinct expression patterns in the brain. In an attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of selective and characteristic expression of the NMDA receptor channel subunits, we have isolated the gene encoding the mouse NMDA receptor epsilon 3 subunit and have determined its structural organization. The epsilon 3 subunit gene spans 17.5 kb and consists of 14 exons. The major transcription start site is 439 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon as determined by primer extension and S1 nucleas protection analyses. Two polyadenylation sites are 397 (or 398) and 402 bp downstream of the termination codon. The 5'-flanking region of the epsilon 3 subunit gene contains GC-rich segments including consensus sequences for binding of the transcription factors Spl and EGR-1. The murine chromosomal locations of the five NMDA receptor channel subunits, the epsilon 1 (Grin2a), epsilon 2 (Grin2b), epsilon 3 (Grin2c), epsilon 4 (Grin2d) and zeta 1 (Grinl) subunits, were determined using an interspecific backcross mapping panel derived from crosses of [(C57BL/6JxM. spretus) F1xC57BL/6J] mice. Each of these genes mapped to a single chromosome location. The mapping results assigned the five loci to five different mouse autosomes, indicating that they have become well dispersed among mouse chromosomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-46001

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1996;36;1;1-11

  • Reduced spontaneous activity of mice defective in the epsilon 4 subunit of the NMDA receptor channel.

    Ikeda K, Araki K, Takayama C, Inoue Y, Yagi T, Aizawa S and Mishina M

    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan.

    In an attempt to examine the functional significance of the molecular diversity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel, we generated mutant mice defective in the epsilon 4 subunit by gene targeting technique. The epsilon 4 subunit mutant mice grew and mated normally. No epsilon 4 subunit protein was detected in the homozygous mutant mice, and the amount of the epsilon 4 subunit protein of 155 kDa was reduced in the heterozygous mice. The expressions of the other NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs were not appreciably affected by the mutation. The mutant mice exhibited no obvious histological abnormalities in the various brain regions and in the formation of whisker-related neuronal patterns (barrels, barreloids and barrelettes). In an open field test, however, the epsilon 4 subunit mutant mice showed a reduced spontaneous activity. No significant difference was found between the heterozygous and mutant mice in motor activity and anxiety tests. These results suggest that the epsilon 4 subunit of the NMDA receptor channel plays a role in vivo in controlling the spontaneous behavioral activity.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1995;33;1;61-71

  • GABAA, GABAC, and NMDA receptor subunit expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain regions.

    O'Hara BF, Andretic R, Heller HC, Carter DB and Kilduff TS

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA.

    Identification of the neurotransmitter receptor subtypes within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) will further understanding of the mechanism of the biological clock and may provide targets to manipulate circadian rhythms pharmacologically. We have focused on the ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptors because these appear to account for the majority of synaptic communication in the SCN. Of the 15 genes known to code for GABA receptor subunits in mammals we have examined the expression of 12 in the SCN, neglecting only the alpha 6, gamma 3, and rho 2 subunits. Among glutamate receptors, we have focused on the five known genes coding for the NMDA receptor subunits, and two subunits which help comprise the kainate-selective receptors. Expression was characterized by Northern analysis with RNA purified from a large number of mouse SCN and compared to expression in the remaining hypothalamus, cortex and cerebellum. This approach provided a uniform source of RNA to generate many replicate blots, each of which was probed repeatedly. The most abundant GABA receptor subunit mRNAs in the SCN were alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 3, gamma 1 and gamma 2. The rho 1 (rho 1) subunit, which produces GABAC pharmacology, was expressed primarily in the retina in three different species and was not detectable in the mouse SCN despite a common embryological origin with the retina. For several GABA subunits we detected additional mRNA species not previously described. High expression of both genes coding for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) was also found in the SCN. Among the NMDA receptor subunits, NR1 was most highly expressed in the SCN followed in order of abundance by NR2B, NR2A, NR2C and NR2D. In addition, both GluR5 and GluR6 show clear expression in the SCN, with GluR5 being the most SCN specific. This approach provides a simple measure of receptor subtype expression, complements in situ hybridization studies, and may suggest novel isoforms of known subunits.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01 AG11084; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD29732; NIDA NIH HHS: K21 DA00187

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1995;28;2;239-50

  • Distinct spatiotemporal distributions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse cervical cord.

    Watanabe M, Mishina M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    The distribution of five N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse spinal cord from embryonic day 13 (E13) through postnatal day 56 (P56) was semiquantitatively examined at the cervical level via in situ hybridization with subunit-specific oligonucleotide probes. Signals for the epsilon 1 subunit mRNA were restricted to the most ventral portion of the spinal cord during embryonic stages. They extended to all laminae of the spinal cord except for the lamina 2 (substantia gelatinosa) during postnatal development. A wide expression of the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA was found in the spinal gray matter from E13 through neonatal stages, but the signals became restricted to the lamina 2 by P21. No significant signals for the epsilon 3 subunit mRNA were detected in the spinal cord at any developmental stages. The epsilon 4 subunit mRNA was distributed widely in the spinal cord during embryonic and early postnatal periods but decreased nearly to background levels by P21. In contrast to the differential distribution of the epsilon subunit mRNAs, the zeta 1 subunit mRNA was found ubiquitously at each developmental stage examined. These findings suggest that the molecular organization of the epsilon subunits may be different between the dorsal horn and the remaining regions in the mature spinal cord, which provides a molecular basis for functional heterogeneity of the NMDA receptor channel. Moreover, this spatial heterogeneity might be generated through drastic alterations in the subunit composition of the channel complex during spinal cord development.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 1994;345;2;314-9

  • N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor structure and function.

    McBain CJ and Mayer ML

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurophysiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Physiological reviews 1994;74;3;723-60

  • Distinct distributions of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the brainstem.

    Watanabe M, Mishina M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    The distribution of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse brainstem at postnatal day 21 was semiquantitatively examined by in situ hybridization with subunit-specific oligonucleotide probes. The epsilon 1 subunit mRNA was observed in various brainstem nuclei. On the other hand, the epsilon 2 and epsilon 3 subunit mRNAs were restricted to particular nuclei, and the epsilon 4 subunit mRNA was detected in several nuclei at very low levels. The dorsal cochlear nucleus exhibited differential expression of the epsilon subunit mRNAs in distinct neuron types: the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA in the pyramidal cells, the epsilon 3 subunit mRNA in the granule cells, and the epsilon 1 subunit mRNA in other neurons. In the vestibular nuclei, the medial nucleus expressed the epsilon 1, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4 subunit mRNAs, whereas the lateral and superior nuclei expressed the epsilon 1 subunit mRNA. Such region-specific expressions were also discerned in the central gray, the superior and inferior colliculi, the medial accessory oculomotor nucleus, the locus ceruleus, the parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, the caudal subnucleus of the trigeminal spinal tract nucleus, and the inferior olive. In contrast to the differential distributions of the four epsilon subunit mRNAs, intense signals for the zeta 1 subunit mRNA were distributed throughout the brainstem. These findings suggest that anatomical organization of the epsilon subunits is heterogeneous in various regions of the brainstem, which would give rise to functional diversity of the NMDA receptor channel in these regions.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 1994;343;4;520-31

  • Distinct spatiotemporal expressions of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the cerebellum.

    Watanabe M, Mishina M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    The distribution of five NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs was examined in the mouse cerebellum from embryonic day 13 through postnatal day 56, by in situ hybridization with subunit-specific oligonucleotide probes. At postnatal days 21 and 56, each cerebellar neuron displayed differential expressions of the epsilon subunit mRNAs. The granule cells showed hybridizing signals for the epsilon 1 and epsilon 3 subunit mRNAs, the molecular layer neurons for the epsilon 4 subunit mRNA, and the cerebellar nucleus neurons for the epsilon 1 and epsilon 4 subunit mRNAs, whereas the Purkinje cells did not express any epsilon subunit mRNAs. At early postmitotic stages of development, the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA appeared in each cerebellar neuron, including the Purkinje cells, and the epsilon 4 subunit mRNA appeared in neurons of the molecular layer and the cerebellar nuclei. The expression patterns in the cerebellum altered drastically during the first 2 postnatal weeks; the epsilon 1 and epsilon 3 subunit mRNAs appeared in the granule cells and the cerebellar nucleus neurons, whereas the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA disappeared from each neuron and the signal levels of the epsilon 4 subunit mRNA decreased remarkably. In contrast to the differential expressions of the four epsilon subunit mRNAs, intense signals for the zeta 1 subunit mRNA were observed in each cerebellar neuron from early postmitotic stages through the mature stage. These findings suggest that anatomical organization of the epsilon subunits is heterogeneous in the cerebellum both spatially and temporally, which would give rise to functional diversity of the NMDA receptor channel.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 1994;343;4;513-9

  • Differential distributions of the NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs in the mouse retina.

    Watanabe M, Mishina M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    In the retina, the epsilon 2 and zeta 1 subunit mRNAs of the NMDA receptor channel were expressed from embryonic stages and found in ganglion cell layer and whole layer of inner nuclear layer at postnatal day 21 (P21). The epsilon 1 subunit mRNA appeared postnatally and was distributed in ganglion cell layer and an inner third of inner nuclear layer at P21. These findings suggest that molecular organization of the NMDA receptor channel may alter during the retinal development.

    Brain research 1994;634;2;328-32

  • Distinct gene expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel subunit in peripheral neurons of the mouse sensory ganglia and adrenal gland.

    Watanabe M, Mishina M and Inoue Y

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    The distribution of five N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel subunit mRNAs was examined in the mouse peripheral nervous tissues by in situ hybridization. The trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion cells showed signals for the zeta 1 subunit mRNA from embryonic stages through postnatal day 21, but not for the epsilon 1, epsilon 2, epsilon 3, and epsilon 4 subunit mRNAs at any developmental stages examined. The adrenal medulla also expressed the zeta 1 subunit mRNA alone. These findings suggest that molecular organization of the NMDA receptor channel in peripheral neurons are distinct from those in central neurons, which may result in different functional properties of the channel between them.

    Neuroscience letters 1994;165;1-2;183-6

  • Developmental changes in distribution of NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs.

    Watanabe M, Inoue Y, Sakimura K and Mishina M

    Department of Anatomy, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

    In situ hybridization analyses have revealed drastic changes in expression and distribution of five subunit mRNAs of the mouse NMDA receptor channel during brain development. The epsilon 1 subunit mRNA is expressed postnatally and widely in the brain. On the other hand, the epsilon 2 subunit mRNA is found throughout the entire embryonic brain, but its expression becomes restricted to the forebrain at postnatal stages. The epsilon 3 subunit mRNA appears postnatally and predominantly in the cerebellum, whereas the epsilon 4 subunit mRNA is abundantly expressed in the diencephalon and the brainstem at embryonic and neonatal stages. In contrast, the zeta 1 subunit mRNA distributes ubiquitously in the brain throughout development. These findings suggest that changes in the subunit composition of the NMDA receptor channel take place during brain development.

    Neuroreport 1992;3;12;1138-40

  • Cloning and expression of the epsilon 4 subunit of the NMDA receptor channel.

    Ikeda K, Nagasawa M, Mori H, Araki K, Sakimura K, Watanabe M, Inoue Y and Mishina M

    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan.

    The primary structure of a novel subunit of the mouse NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channel, designated epsilon 4, has been revealed by cloning and sequencing the cDNA. The epsilon 4 subunit shares high amino acid sequence identity with the epsilon 1, epsilon 2 and epsilon 3 subunits of the mouse NMDA receptor channel, thus constituting the epsilon subfamily of the glutamate receptor channel. Expression from cloned cDNAs of the epsilon 4 subunit together with the zeta 1 subunit in Xenopus oocytes yields functional NMDA receptor channels. The epsilon 4/zeta 1 heteromeric channel exhibits high apparent affinities for agonists and low sensitivities to competitive antagonists. The epsilon 4 subunit is thus distinct in functional properties from the epsilon 1, epsilon 2 and epsilon 3 subunits, and contributes further diversity of the NMDA receptor channel.

    FEBS letters 1992;313;1;34-8

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000050 G2C Mus musculus TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list 120
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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