G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Baiap2 (MGI)
Mus musculus
brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2
G00000037 (Homo sapiens)

Databases (11)

Curated Gene
OTTMUSG00000004049 (Vega mouse gene)
ENSMUSG00000025372 (Ensembl mouse gene)
108100 (Entrez Gene)
471 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
Gene Expression
MGI:2137336 (Allen Brain Atlas)
g00799 (BGEM)
108100 (Genepaint)
baiap2 (gensat)
605475 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
MGI:2137336 (MGI)
Protein Sequence
Q8BKX1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • IRSp53

Alleles (2)

Literature (27)

Pubmed - g2c

  • Targeted tandem affinity purification of PSD-95 recovers core postsynaptic complexes and schizophrenia susceptibility proteins.

    Fernández E, Collins MO, Uren RT, Kopanitsa MV, Komiyama NH, Croning MD, Zografos L, Armstrong JD, Choudhary JS and Grant SG

    Genes to Cognition Programme, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK.

    The molecular complexity of mammalian proteomes demands new methods for mapping the organization of multiprotein complexes. Here, we combine mouse genetics and proteomics to characterize synapse protein complexes and interaction networks. New tandem affinity purification (TAP) tags were fused to the carboxyl terminus of PSD-95 using gene targeting in mice. Homozygous mice showed no detectable abnormalities in PSD-95 expression, subcellular localization or synaptic electrophysiological function. Analysis of multiprotein complexes purified under native conditions by mass spectrometry defined known and new interactors: 118 proteins comprising crucial functional components of synapses, including glutamate receptors, K+ channels, scaffolding and signaling proteins, were recovered. Network clustering of protein interactions generated five connected clusters, with two clusters containing all the major ionotropic glutamate receptors and one cluster with voltage-dependent K+ channels. Annotation of clusters with human disease associations revealed that multiple disorders map to the network, with a significant correlation of schizophrenia within the glutamate receptor clusters. This targeted TAP tagging strategy is generally applicable to mammalian proteomics and systems biology approaches to disease.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Molecular systems biology 2009;5;269

Pubmed - other

  • A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo.

    Diez-Roux G, Banfi S, Sultan M, Geffers L, Anand S, Rozado D, Magen A, Canidio E, Pagani M, Peluso I, Lin-Marq N, Koch M, Bilio M, Cantiello I, Verde R, De Masi C, Bianchi SA, Cicchini J, Perroud E, Mehmeti S, Dagand E, Schrinner S, Nürnberger A, Schmidt K, Metz K, Zwingmann C, Brieske N, Springer C, Hernandez AM, Herzog S, Grabbe F, Sieverding C, Fischer B, Schrader K, Brockmeyer M, Dettmer S, Helbig C, Alunni V, Battaini MA, Mura C, Henrichsen CN, Garcia-Lopez R, Echevarria D, Puelles E, Garcia-Calero E, Kruse S, Uhr M, Kauck C, Feng G, Milyaev N, Ong CK, Kumar L, Lam M, Semple CA, Gyenesei A, Mundlos S, Radelof U, Lehrach H, Sarmientos P, Reymond A, Davidson DR, Dollé P, Antonarakis SE, Yaspo ML, Martinez S, Baldock RA, Eichele G and Ballabio A

    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

    Ascertaining when and where genes are expressed is of crucial importance to understanding or predicting the physiological role of genes and proteins and how they interact to form the complex networks that underlie organ development and function. It is, therefore, crucial to determine on a genome-wide level, the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles at cellular resolution. This information is provided by colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization that can elucidate expression of genes in their native context and does so at cellular resolution. We generated what is to our knowledge the first genome-wide transcriptome atlas by RNA in situ hybridization of an entire mammalian organism, the developing mouse at embryonic day 14.5. This digital transcriptome atlas, the Eurexpress atlas (http://www.eurexpress.org), consists of a searchable database of annotated images that can be interactively viewed. We generated anatomy-based expression profiles for over 18,000 coding genes and over 400 microRNAs. We identified 1,002 tissue-specific genes that are a source of novel tissue-specific markers for 37 different anatomical structures. The quality and the resolution of the data revealed novel molecular domains for several developing structures, such as the telencephalon, a novel organization for the hypothalamus, and insight on the Wnt network involved in renal epithelial differentiation during kidney development. The digital transcriptome atlas is a powerful resource to determine co-expression of genes, to identify cell populations and lineages, and to identify functional associations between genes relevant to development and disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127527203; Telethon: TGM11S03

    PLoS biology 2011;9;1;e1000582

  • The interplay between Eps8 and IRSp53 contributes to Src-mediated transformation.

    Liu PS, Jong TH, Maa MC and Leu TH

    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

    As an oncoprotein, Eps8 participates in v-Src-induced cellular transformation. To delineate the underlying mechanism, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening and identified IRSp53S, a protein critical in cell mobilization, as one of the Eps8-binding partners from a human brain cDNA library. The association was mediated by the multiple proline-rich regions of Eps8 and the C-terminal SH3-WWB containing domains of IRSp53S. In this study, we observed that Eps8 modulated the expression of IRSp53 in v-Src-transformed cells (IV5), raising the question of whether Eps8/IRSp53 interaction was crucial in carcinogenesis. To address this issue, we generated IV5-expressing irsp53 siRNA cells. Attenuation of IRSp53 reduced cell proliferation of IV5 in culture dish and tumor formation in mice, which could be partly rescued by ectopically expressed human IRSp53S. In addition, IRSp53 knockdown impaired activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (as reflected by Pi-Ser473 AKT) and Stat3 (as reflected by Pi-Tyr705 Stat3), and reduced cyclin D1 expression that culminated to impede G(1)-phase cell-cycle progression. Ectopically expressed human IRSp53S, but not its Eps8-binding defective mutants (that is, Delta363 and PPPDA), rescued these defects and partly restored cell proliferation. Remarkably, through activation of Src, EGF increased the formation of Eps8/IRSp53 complex and Stat3 activation in HeLa cells. With these results, we show for the first time that IRSp53, through its interaction with Eps8, not only affects cell migration but also dictates cellular growth in cancer cells.

    Oncogene 2010;29;27;3977-89

  • Scaffold proteins IRSp53 and spinophilin regulate localized Rac activation by T-lymphocyte invasion and metastasis protein 1 (TIAM1).

    Rajagopal S, Ji Y, Xu K, Li Y, Wicks K, Liu J, Wong KW, Herman IM, Isberg RR and Buchsbaum RJ

    Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts UniversitySackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The Rac exchange factor Tiam1 is involved in diverse cell functions and signaling pathways through multiple protein interactions, raising the question of how signaling and functional specificity are achieved. We have shown that Tiam1 interactions with different scaffold proteins activate different Rac-dependent pathways by recruiting specific Rac effector proteins, and reasoned that there must be regulatory mechanisms governing each interaction. Fibroblasts express at least two Tiam1-interacting proteins, insulin receptor substrate protein 53 kDa (IRSp53) and spinophilin. We used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure localized Rac activation associated with IRSp53 and spinophilin complexes in individual fibroblasts to test this hypothesis. Pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and IRSp53. Forskolin or epinephrine induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and spinophilin. In spinophilin-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with IRSp53 in response to pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor. In IRSp53-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with spinophilin in response to forskolin or epinephrine. Total cellular levels of activated Rac were affected only in cells with exogenous Tiam1, and were primarily increased in the membrane fraction. Downstream effects of Rac activation were also stimulus and scaffold-specific. Cell ruffling, spreading, and cell adhesion were dependent on IRSp53, but not spinophilin. Epinephrine decreased IRSp53-dependent adhesion and increased cell migration in a Rac and spinophilin-dependent fashion. These results support the idea that Tiam1 interactions with different scaffold proteins couple distinct upstream signals to localized Rac activation and specific downstream pathways, and suggest that manipulating Tiam1-scaffold interactions can modulate Rac-dependent cellular behaviors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA95559, R01 CA095559; NEI NIH HHS: EY15125, EY19533, K08 EY019533, R01 EY015125; NIAID NIH HHS: R37 AI023538, R37AI023538; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK034928, P30DK34928; NINDS NIH HHS: P30 NS047243, P30NS047243

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;23;18060-71

  • Regulation of IRSp53-dependent filopodial dynamics by antagonism between 14-3-3 binding and SH3-mediated localization.

    Robens JM, Yeow-Fong L, Ng E, Hall C and Manser E

    RGS Group, Institute of Medical Biology,Singapore 138673, Singapore.

    Filopodia are dynamic structures found at the leading edges of most migrating cells. IRSp53 plays a role in filopodium dynamics by coupling actin elongation with membrane protrusion. IRSp53 is a Cdc42 effector protein that contains an N-terminal inverse-BAR (Bin-amphipysin-Rvs) domain (IRSp53/MIM homology domain [IMD]) and an internal SH3 domain that associates with actin regulatory proteins, including Eps8. We demonstrate that the SH3 domain functions to localize IRSp53 to lamellipodia and that IRSp53 mutated in its SH3 domain fails to induce filopodia. Through SH3 domain-swapping experiments, we show that the related IRTKS SH3 domain is not functional in lamellipodial localization. IRSp53 binds to 14-3-3 after phosphorylation in a region that lies between the CRIB and SH3 domains. This association inhibits binding of the IRSp53 SH3 domain to proteins such as WAVE2 and Eps8 and also prevents Cdc42-GTP interaction. The antagonism is achieved by phosphorylation of two related 14-3-3 binding sites at T340 and T360. In the absence of phosphorylation at these sites, filopodium lifetimes in cells expressing exogenous IRSp53 are extended. Our work does not conform to current views that the inverse-BAR domain or Cdc42 controls IRSp53 localization but provides an alternative model of how IRSp53 is recruited (and released) to carry out its functions at lamellipodia and filopodia.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2010;30;3;829-44

  • Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent contractile filopodia tether presumptive lens and retina to coordinate epithelial invagination.

    Chauhan BK, Disanza A, Choi SY, Faber SC, Lou M, Beggs HE, Scita G, Zheng Y and Lang RA

    The Visual Systems Group, Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model with which to study the mechanisms required for epithelial invagination. In the mouse, the lens forms from the head surface ectoderm. A domain of ectoderm first thickens to form the lens placode and then invaginates to form the lens pit. The epithelium of the lens placode remains in close apposition to the epithelium of the presumptive retina as these structures undergo a coordinated invagination. Here, we show that F-actin-rich basal filopodia that link adjacent presumptive lens and retinal epithelia function as physical tethers that coordinate invagination. The filopodia, most of which originate in the presumptive lens, form at E9.5 when presumptive lens and retinal epithelia first come into close contact, and have retracted by E11.5 when invagination is complete. At E10.5--the lens pit stage--there is approximately one filopodium per epithelial cell. Formation of filopodia is dependent on the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 and the Cdc42 effector IRSp53 (Baiap2). Loss of filopodia results in reduced lens pit invagination. Pharmacological manipulation of the actin-myosin contraction pathway showed that the filopodia can respond rapidly in length to change inter-epithelial distance. These data suggest that the lens-retina inter-epithelial filopodia are a fine-tuning mechanism to assist in lens pit invagination by transmitting the forces between presumptive lens and retina. Although invagination of the archenteron in sea urchins and dorsal closure in Drosophila are known to be partly dependent on filopodia, this mechanism of morphogenesis has not previously been identified in vertebrates.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA131270; NEI NIH HHS: EY0117379, EY15766, EY16241, EY17848, R01 EY017848; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL085362

    Development (Cambridge, England) 2009;136;21;3657-67

  • The insulin receptor substrate of 53 kDa (IRSp53) limits hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Sawallisch C, Berhörster K, Disanza A, Mantoani S, Kintscher M, Stoenica L, Dityatev A, Sieber S, Kindler S, Morellini F, Schweizer M, Boeckers TM, Korte M, Scita G and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between the activation of Rac and Cdc42 GTPases and the formation of cellular protrusions; it affects cell shape by coupling membrane-deforming activity with the actin cytoskeleton. IRSp53 is highly expressed in neurons where it is also an abundant component of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Here we analyze the physiological function of this protein in the mouse brain by generating IRSp53-deficient mice. Neurons in the hippocampus of young and adult knock-out (KO) mice do not exhibit morphological abnormalities in vivo. Conversely, primary cultured neurons derived from IRSp53 KO mice display retarded dendritic development in vitro. On a molecular level, Eps8 cooperates with IRSp53 to enhance actin bundling and interacts with IRSp53 in developing neurons. However, postsynaptic Shank proteins which are expressed at high levels in mature neurons compete with Eps8 to block actin bundling. In electrophysiological experiments the removal of IRSp53 increases synaptic plasticity as measured by augmented long term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation. A primarily postsynaptic role of IRSp53 is underscored by the decreased size of the PSDs, which display increased levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits in IRSp53 KO animals. Our data suggest that the incorporation of IRSp53 into the PSD enables the protein to limit the number of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby affect synaptic plasticity rather than dendritic morphology. Consistent with altered synaptic plasticity, IRSp53-deficient mice exhibit cognitive deficits in the contextual fear-conditioning paradigm.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;14;9225-36

  • Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, enhanced long-term potentiation, and impaired learning and memory in mice lacking IRSp53.

    Kim MH, Choi J, Yang J, Chung W, Kim JH, Paik SK, Kim K, Han S, Won H, Bae YS, Cho SH, Seo J, Bae YC, Choi SY and Kim E

    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Synaptogenesis and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    IRSp53 is an adaptor protein that acts downstream of Rac and Cdc42 small GTPases and is implicated in the regulation of membrane deformation and actin filament assembly. In neurons, IRSp53 is an abundant postsynaptic protein and regulates actin-rich dendritic spines; however, its in vivo functions have not been explored. We characterized transgenic mice deficient of IRSp53 expression. Unexpectedly, IRSp53(-/-) neurons do not show significant changes in the density and ultrastructural morphologies of dendritic spines. Instead, IRSp53(-/-) neurons exhibit reduced AMPA/NMDA ratio of excitatory synaptic transmission and a selective increase in NMDA but not AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. IRSp53(-/-) hippocampal slices show a markedly enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) with no changes in long-term depression. LTP-inducing theta burst stimulation enhances NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Spatial learning and novel object recognition are impaired in IRSp53(-/-) mice. These results suggest that IRSp53 is involved in the regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, LTP, and learning and memory behaviors.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2009;29;5;1586-95

  • The postsynaptic density protein, IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1, can interact with IRSp53 through its proline-rich sequence.

    Sanda M, Kamata A, Katsumata O, Fukunaga K, Watanabe M, Kondo H and Sakagami H

    Department of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.

    IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf1 and Arf6, is localized at the postsynaptic density (PSD) and interacts with PSD-95. In this study, we identified a novel interaction of IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 with insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate of 53 kDa (IRSp53), also known as brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2. The interaction was mediated by the binding of the C-terminal proline-rich sequence of IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 to the SH3 domain of IRSp53. IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 and IRSp53 were colocalized at the PSD of excitatory synapses of certain neuronal populations. Our present findings suggest that IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 may play roles downstream of NMDA receptors through the interaction with multivalent PSD proteins such as IRSp53 and PSD-95.

    Brain research 2009;1251;7-15

  • The Cdc42 effector IRSp53 generates filopodia by coupling membrane protrusion with actin dynamics.

    Lim KB, Bu W, Goh WI, Koh E, Ong SH, Pawson T, Sudhaharan T and Ahmed S

    Institute of Medical Biology, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore.

    The Cdc42 effector IRSp53 is a strong inducer of filopodia formation and consists of an Src homology domain 3 (SH3), a potential WW-binding motif, a partial-Cdc42/Rac interacting binding region motif, and an Inverse-Bin-Amphiphysins-Rvs (I-BAR) domain. We show that IRSp53 interacts directly with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) via its SH3 domain and furthermore that N-WASP is required for filopodia formation as IRSp53 failed to induce filopodia formation in N-WASP knock-out (KO) fibroblasts. IRSp53-induced filopodia formation can be reconstituted in N-WASP KO fibroblasts by full-length N-WASP, by N-WASPDeltaWA (a mutant unable to activate the Arp2/3 complex), and by N-WASPH208D (a mutant unable to bind Cdc42). IRSp53 failed to induce filopodia in mammalian enabled (Mena)/VASP KO cells, and N-WASP failed to induce filopodia when IRSp53 was knocked down with RNA interference. The IRSp53 I-BAR domain alone induces dynamic membrane protrusions that lack actin and are smaller than normal filopodia ("partial-filopodia") in both wild-type N-WASP and N-WASP KO cells. We propose that IRSp53 generates filopodia by coupling membrane protrusion through its I-BAR domain with actin dynamics through SH3 domain binding partners, including N-WASP and Mena.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;29;20454-72

  • Membrane targeting of WAVE2 is not sufficient for WAVE2-dependent actin polymerization: a role for IRSp53 in mediating the interaction between Rac and WAVE2.

    Abou-Kheir W, Isaac B, Yamaguchi H and Cox D

    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin homologous (WAVE) proteins play a major role in Rac-induced actin dynamics, but Rac does not bind directly to WAVE proteins. It has been proposed that either the insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53) or a complex of proteins containing Abelson interactor protein 1 (Abi1) mediates the interaction of WAVE2 and Rac. Depletion of endogenous IRSp53 by RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in a RAW/LR5 macrophage cell line resulted in a significant reduction of Rac1Q61L-induced surface ruffles and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-induced actin polymerization, protrusion and cell migration. However, IRSp53 was not essential for Fcgamma-R-mediated phagocytosis, formation of podosomes or for formation of Cdc42V12-induced filopodia. IRSp53 was found to be present in an immunoprecipitable complex with WAVE2 and Abi1 in a Rac1-activation-dependent manner in RAW/LR5 cells in vivo. Importantly, reduction of endogenous IRSp53 or expression of IRSp53 lacking the WAVE2-binding site (IRSp53DeltaSH3) resulted in a significant reduction in the association of Rac1 with WAVE2 and Abi1, indicating that the association of Rac1 with WAVE2 and Abi1 is IRSp53 dependent. While it has been proposed that WAVE2 activity is regulated by membrane recruitment, membrane targeting of WAVE2 in RAW/LR5 and Cos-7 cells did not induce actin polymerization or protrusion, suggesting that membrane recruitment was insufficient for regulation of WAVE2. Combined, these data suggest that IRSp53 links Rac1 to WAVE2 in vivo and its function is crucial for production of CSF-1-induced F-actin-rich protrusions and cell migration in macrophages. This study indicates that Rac1, along with IRSp53 and Abi1, is involved in a more complex and tight regulation of WAVE2 than one operating solely through membrane localization.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM071828, R01 GM071828-03

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 3;379-90

  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations.

    Munton RP, Tweedie-Cullen R, Livingstone-Zatchej M, Weinandy F, Waidelich M, Longo D, Gehrig P, Potthast F, Rutishauser D, Gerrits B, Panse C, Schlapbach R and Mansuy IM

    Brain Research Institute, Medical Faculty of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.

    Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;2;283-93

  • Tbx5-dependent rheostatic control of cardiac gene expression and morphogenesis.

    Mori AD, Zhu Y, Vahora I, Nieman B, Koshiba-Takeuchi K, Davidson L, Pizard A, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Chen XJ, Henkelman RM and Bruneau BG

    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8.

    Dominant mutations in the T-box transcription factor gene TBX5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), an inherited human disease characterized by upper limb malformations and congenital heart defects (CHDs) of variable severity. We hypothesize that minor alterations in the dosage of Tbx5 directly influences severity of CHDs. Using a mouse allelic series, we show a sensitive inverse correlation between Tbx5 dosage and abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and gene expression. The CHDs found in mice harbouring a hypomorphic allele of Tbx5 (Tbx5(lox/+) mice) are less pronounced than those found in Tbx5 haploinsufficient mice (Tbx5(del/+)), and homozygous hypomorphic (Tbx5(lox/lox)) embryos have noticeably more advanced cardiac development than Tbx5 null (Tbx5(del/del)) embryos. Examination of target gene expression across the allelic series uncovers very fine sensitivity across the range of Tbx5 dosages, in which some genes respond dramatically differently to only 15% differences in Tbx5 mRNA levels. This analysis was expanded to a genome-wide level, which uncovered a Tbx5 dosage-sensitive genetic program involving a network of cardiac transcription factors, developmentally important cell-cell signaling molecules, and ion channel proteins. These results indicate an exquisite sensitivity of the developing heart to Tbx5 dosage and provide significant insight into the transcriptional and cellular mechanisms that are disrupted in CHDs.

    Developmental biology 2006;297;2;566-86

  • Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects.

    Desai J, Shannon ME, Johnson MD, Ruff DW, Hughes LA, Kerley MK, Carpenter DA, Johnson DK, Rinchik EM and Culiat CT

    Graduate School for Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee-Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1060 Commerce Park, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-beta1 (PKC-beta1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell1(6R), a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell1(6R) has a T-->A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell1(6R) mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell1(6R) mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

    Human molecular genetics 2006;15;8;1329-41

  • BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system.

    Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P and Curran T

    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 5R37NS036558, N01-NS-0-2331, R37 NS036558

    PLoS biology 2006;4;4;e86

  • Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes and melanomas.

    Watahiki A, Waki K, Hayatsu N, Shiraki T, Kondo S, Nakamura M, Sasaki D, Arakawa T, Kawai J, Harbers M, Hayashizaki Y and Carninci P

    Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako main campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 Japan.

    It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.

    Nature methods 2004;1;3;233-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Wnk1 kinase deficiency lowers blood pressure in mice: a gene-trap screen to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

    Zambrowicz BP, Abuin A, Ramirez-Solis R, Richter LJ, Piggott J, BeltrandelRio H, Buxton EC, Edwards J, Finch RA, Friddle CJ, Gupta A, Hansen G, Hu Y, Huang W, Jaing C, Key BW, Kipp P, Kohlhauff B, Ma ZQ, Markesich D, Payne R, Potter DG, Qian N, Shaw J, Schrick J, Shi ZZ, Sparks MJ, Van Sligtenhorst I, Vogel P, Walke W, Xu N, Zhu Q, Person C and Sands AT

    Lexicon Genetics, 8800 Technology Forest Place, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA. brian@lexgen.com

    The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in approximately 60% of mammalian genes. Through the generation and phenotypic analysis of knockout mice from this resource, we are undertaking a functional screen to identify genes regulating physiological parameters such as blood pressure. As part of this screen, mice deficient for the Wnk1 kinase gene were generated and analyzed. Genetic studies in humans have shown that large intronic deletions in WNK1 lead to its overexpression and are responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Consistent with the human genetic studies, Wnk1 heterozygous mice displayed a significant decrease in blood pressure. Mice homozygous for the Wnk1 mutation died during embryonic development before day 13 of gestation. These results demonstrate that Wnk1 is a regulator of blood pressure critical for development and illustrate the utility of a functional screen driven by a sequence-based mutagenesis approach.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;24;14109-14

  • IRSp53 is colocalised with WAVE2 at the tips of protruding lamellipodia and filopodia independently of Mena.

    Nakagawa H, Miki H, Nozumi M, Takenawa T, Miyamoto S, Wehland J and Small JV

    Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Billrothstrasse 11, Salzburg A-5020, Austria.

    The insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53) links Rac and WAVE2 and has been implicated in lamellipodia protrusion. Recently, however, IRSp53 has been reported to bind to both Cdc42 and Mena to induce filopodia. To shed independent light on IRSp53 function we determined the localisations and dynamics of IRSp53 and WAVE2 in B16 melanoma cells. In cells spread well on a laminin substrate, IRSp53 was localised by antibody labelling at the tips of both lamellipodia and filopodia. The same localisation was observed in living cells with IRSp53 tagged with enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP-IRSp53), but only during protrusion. From the transfection of deletion mutants the N-terminal region of IRSp53, which binds active Rac, was shown to be responsible for its localisation. Although IRSp53 has been reported to regulate filopodia formation with Mena, EGFP-IRSp53 showed the same localisation in MVD7 Ena/VASP (vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein) family deficient cells. WAVE2 tagged with DsRed1 colocalised with EGFP-IRSp53 at the tips of protruding lamellipodia and filopodia and, in double-transfected cells, the IRSp53 signal in filopodia decreased before that of WAVE2 during retraction. These results suggest an alternative modulatory role for IRSp53 in the extension of both filopodia and lamellipodia, through WAVE2.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 12;2577-83

  • BayGenomics: a resource of insertional mutations in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Huang CC, Johns SJ, King LA, Harper CA, Meng EC, Lee RE, Yee A, L'Italien L, Chuang PT, Young SG, Skarnes WC, Babbitt PC and Ferrin TE

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

    The BayGenomics gene-trap resource (http://baygenomics.ucsf.edu) provides researchers with access to thousands of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines harboring characterized insertional mutations in both known and novel genes. Each cell line contains an insertional mutation in a specific gene. The identity of the gene that has been interrupted can be determined from a DNA sequence tag. Approximately 75% of our cell lines contain insertional mutations in known mouse genes or genes that share strong sequence similarities with genes that have been identified in other organisms. These cell lines readily transmit the mutation to the germline of mice and many mutant lines of mice have already been generated from this resource. BayGenomics provides facile access to our entire database, including sequence tags for each mutant ES cell line, through the World Wide Web. Investigators can browse our resource, search for specific entries, download any portion of our database and BLAST sequences of interest against our entire set of cell line sequence tags. They can then obtain the mutant ES cell line for the purpose of generating knockout mice.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001081, P41 RR01081; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL066621, U01 HL66621

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;1;278-81

  • Genomic structure and alternative splicing of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate of 53-kDa protein.

    Miyahara A, Okamura-Oho Y, Miyashita T, Hoshika A and Yamada M

    Department of Genetics, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 3-35-31 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8567, Japan.

    Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate of 53-kDa protein (IRSp53) is now known to be a key factor in cytoskeleton reorganization. The human IRSp53 was identified as a binding partner with DRPLA protein, a product of the gene responsible for a neurodegenerative disorder, dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, as well as a binding partner with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1. Previous studies identified at least four isoforms (L-, M-, S- and T-forms) in human, where 511 amino acid residues from the N-terminus were identical, followed by unique sequences of 9-41 amino acid residues. As each isoform had a distinct function, the unique sequences at the C-terminus had a vital role in its function. Here we report that these isoforms were indeed generated by alternative splicing, which was established by experimental and computational studies on human and rodent genomes. Previous biochemical reports suggested that rodents may lack one of the isoforms (L-form). This study solved this issue, as a nucleotide substitution occurred at a splice donor site followed by a large deletion in the rodent genome compared with human, which made the generation of the L-form impossible. This study also revealed overlapping of the IRSp53 and AATK genes coded for by complementary strands.

    Journal of human genetics 2003;48;8;410-4

  • Knockout of the alpha 1A/C-adrenergic receptor subtype: the alpha 1A/C is expressed in resistance arteries and is required to maintain arterial blood pressure.

    Rokosh DG and Simpson PC

    Cardiology Division and Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. dgroko01@louisville.edu

    alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) play a major role in blood pressure regulation. The three alpha 1-AR subtypes (A/C, B, and D) stimulate contraction of isolated arteries, but it is uncertain how different subtypes contribute to blood pressure regulation in the intact animal. We studied the role of the alpha 1A/C subtype by using gene knockout. alpha 1A/C knockout (KO) mice were viable and overtly normal. The LacZ reporter gene replaced alpha 1A/C coding sequence in the KO, and beta-galactosidase staining was present in resistance arteries and arterioles, but not in the thoracic aorta or its main branches. By tail cuff manometer and arterial catheter in conscious mice, alpha 1A/C KO mice were hypotensive at rest, with an 8-12% reduction of blood pressure dependent on alpha 1A/C gene copy number. A61603, an alpha 1A/C-selective agonist, caused a pressor response that was lost in the KO and reduced but significant in heterozygous mice with a single copy of the alpha 1A/C. A subtype-nonselective agonist [phenylephrine (PE)] caused a pressor response in KO mice, but the final arterial pressure was only 85% of wild type. The baroreflex was reset in the KO, and heart rate variability was decreased. After baroreflex blockade with atropine, PE increased blood pressure but did not change heart rate. Cardiac and vascular responses to the beta-AR agonist isoproterenol were unchanged, and the arterial lumen area was not altered. We conclude that the alpha 1A/C-AR subtype is a vasopressor expressed in resistance arteries and is required for normal arterial blood pressure regulation. alpha 1A/C-selective antagonists might be desirable antihypertensive agents.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL031113

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;14;9474-9

  • Novel isoform of insulin receptor substrate p53/p58 is generated by alternative splicing in the CRIB/SH3-binding region.

    Alvarez CE, Sutcliffe JG and Thomas EA

    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Insulin receptor substrate p53/p58 (IRSp53) is involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and is a candidate disease sensor in polyglutamine expansion neurodegeneration. It is widely expressed throughout the body, but its levels are dramatically elevated in forebrain regions. IRSp53 functions as a signal transducing adaptor between activated Rho family GTPases and their effectors. There are four known alternatively spliced isoforms of IRSp53 that vary by the identity of the 3'-terminal exon. We report here that there is a fifth alternatively spliced isoform, IRSp53-B, which lacks 40 amino acids abutting the CRIB/SH3 (Cdc42/Rac-interactive binding/Src homology 3)-binding site. We speculate that the novel form has an altered function related to the mechanism of autoinactivation. IRSp53-B has an odd history in the mammalian lineage, which may complicate the use of rodent models to study cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM32355

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;27;24728-34

  • Insulin receptor substrate protein p53 localization in rats suggests mechanism for specific polyglutamine neurodegeneration.

    Thomas EA, Foye PE, Alvarez CE, Usui H and Sutcliffe JG

    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat within the coding regions of the DRPLA gene. Recently it was shown that the DRPLA gene product, atrophin-1, interacts with the human insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate protein, IRSp53. We have isolated rat and mouse cDNA clones for IRSp53 and determined expression patterns in rat central nervous system. In situ hybridization analysis revealed enriched IRSp53 mRNA expression in rat forebrain structures, including the cerebral cortex (layers II/III, V and VI), striatum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb. IRSp53 hybridization signals were also detected in the cerebellum, subthalamic nucleus, pons, amygdala and hypothalamus. These findings support the idea that insulin and insulin growth factor-1 have a role in neurotransmission, one that is regionally specific. The expression of IRSp53 in regions similar to those that degenerate in DRPLA supports the notion that IRSp53 is a relevant atrophin-1 binding protein and may provide a mechanism for region-specific neurodegeneration.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM32355

    Neuroscience letters 2001;309;3;145-8

  • IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the regulation of membrane ruffling.

    Miki H, Yamaguchi H, Suetsugu S and Takenawa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation.

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) functions in several intracellular events including filopodium formation, vesicle transport and movement of Shigella frexneri and vaccinia virus, by stimulating rapid actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 complex. N-WASP is regulated by the direct binding of Cdc42 (refs 7, 8), which exposes the domain in N-WASP that activates the Arp2/3 complex. A WASP-related protein, WAVE/Scar, functions in Rac-induced membrane ruffling; however, Rac does not bind directly to WAVE, raising the question of how WAVE is regulated by Rac. Here we demonstrate that IRSp53, a substrate for insulin receptor with unknown function, is the 'missing link' between Rac and WAVE. Activated Rac binds to the amino terminus of IRSp53, and carboxy-terminal Src-homology-3 domain of IRSp53 binds to WAVE to form a trimolecular complex. From studies of ectopic expression, we found that IRSp53 is essential for Rac to induce membrane ruffling, probably because it recruits WAVE, which stimulates actin polymerization mediated by the Arp2/3 complex.

    Nature 2000;408;6813;732-5

  • Genome-wide expression profiling of mid-gestation placenta and embryo using a 15,000 mouse developmental cDNA microarray.

    Tanaka TS, Jaradat SA, Lim MK, Kargul GJ, Wang X, Grahovac MJ, Pantano S, Sano Y, Piao Y, Nagaraja R, Doi H, Wood WH, Becker KG and Ko MS

    Laboratory of Genetics and DNA Array Unit, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224-6820, USA.

    cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;16;9127-32

  • Rho small G-protein-dependent binding of mDia to an Src homology 3 domain-containing IRSp53/BAIAP2.

    Fujiwara T, Mammoto A, Kim Y and Takai Y

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine/ Faculty of Medicine, Suita, 565-0871, Japan.

    mDia1 is a downstream effector of Rho small G protein that is implicated in stress fiber formation and cytokinesis. We isolated an mDia1-binding protein and identified it to be IRSp53/BAIAP2. IRSp53 and BAIAP2 have independently been isolated as a 58/53-kDa protein tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and a BAI1-binding protein, respectively. BAI1 is a brain-specific seven-span transmembrane protein capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. The proline-rich formin homology 1 domain of mDia1 bound the Src homology 3 domain of IRSp53/BAIAP2 in a GTP-Rho-dependent manner. The results suggest that IRSp53/BAIAP2 is a downstream effector of mDia1.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;271;3;626-9

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000001 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSD Mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000008 G2C Mus musculus Mouse PSP Mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000050 G2C Mus musculus TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list 120
L00000060 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 748
L00000062 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus 984
L00000070 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list (ortho) 1461
L00000072 G2C Mus musculus BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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