G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
RAB6A, member RAS oncogene family
G00001139 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000175582 (Ensembl human gene)
5870 (Entrez Gene)
108 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
RAB6A (GeneCards)
179513 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9786 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P20340 (UniProt)

Literature (53)

Pubmed - other

  • Intracellular phospholipase A1gamma (iPLA1gamma) is a novel factor involved in coat protein complex I- and Rab6-independent retrograde transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex.

    Morikawa RK, Aoki J, Kano F, Murata M, Yamamoto A, Tsujimoto M and Arai H

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    The mammalian intracellular phospholipase A(1) (iPLA(1)) family consists of three members, iPLA(1)alpha/PA-PLA(1), iPLA(1)beta/p125, and iPLA(1)gamma/KIAA0725p. Although iPLA(1)beta has been implicated in organization of the ER-Golgi compartments, little is known about the physiological role of its closest paralog, iPLA(1)gamma. Here we show that iPLA(1)gamma mediates a specific retrograde membrane transport pathway between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex. iPLA(1)gamma appeared to be localized to the cytosol, the cis-Golgi, and the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a population of GFP-iPLA(1)gamma was associated with transport carriers moving out from the Golgi complex. Knockdown of iPLA(1)gamma expression by RNAi did not affect the anterograde transport of VSVGts045 but dramatically delayed two types of Golgi-to-ER retrograde membrane transport; that is, transfer of the Golgi membrane into the ER in the presence of brefeldin A and delivery of cholera toxin B subunit from the Golgi complex to the ER. Notably, knockdown of iPLA(1)gamma did not impair COPI- and Rab6-dependent retrograde transports represented by ERGIC-53 recycling and ER delivery of Shiga toxin, respectively. Thus, iPLA(1)gamma is a novel membrane transport factor that contributes to a specific Golgi-to-ER retrograde pathway distinct from presently characterized COPI- and Rab6-dependent pathways.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;39;26620-30

  • The localization of the Golgin GCC185 is independent of Rab6A/A' and Arl1.

    Houghton FJ, Chew PL, Lodeho S, Goud B and Gleeson PA

    The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

    Mammalian golgins of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are small G protein effectors that are required for membrane transport and contain a Golgi targeting C-terminal GRIP domain. The localization of two TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97, is mediated by the small GTPase Arl1, whereas recruitment of the TGN golgin GCC185 is controversial. Recently, GCC185 was proposed to localize to the Golgi by the co-operation of two small GTPases, Rab6A/A' and Arl1 (Burguete et al., 2008), a model based predominantly on in vitro interactions. Here we demonstrate that Golgi recruitment of endogenous GCC185 does not involve Rab6A/A' and Arl1. We find minimal colocalization between Rab6A/A' and endogenous GCC185 on Golgi membranes and failed to detect an interaction between Rab6A/A' and C-terminal domains of GCC185 by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Moreover, depletion of both Rab6A/A' and Arl1 also had no effect on the localization of endogenous GCC185 or the isolated GRIP domain of GCC185.

    Cell 2009;138;4;787-94

  • Structural basis for recruitment of Rab6-interacting protein 1 to Golgi via a RUN domain.

    Recacha R, Boulet A, Jollivet F, Monier S, Houdusse A, Goud B and Khan AR

    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

    Small GTPase Rab6 regulates vesicle trafficking at the level of Golgi via recruitment of numerous and unrelated effectors. The crystal structure of Rab6a(GTP) in complex with a 378-residue internal fragment of the effector Rab6IP1 was solved at 3.2 angstroms resolution. This Rab6IP1 region encompasses an all alpha-helical RUN domain followed in tandem by a PLAT domain that adopts a beta sandwich fold. The structure reveals that the first and last alpha helices of the RUN domain mediate binding to switch I, switch II, and the interswitch region of Rab6. It represents the largest Rab-effector complex determined to date. Comparisons with the recent structure of Rab6 in complex with an unrelated effector, human golgin GCC185, reveals significant conformational changes in the conserved hydrophobic triad of Rab6. Flexibility in the switch and interswitch regions of Rab6 mediates recognition of compositionally distinct alpha-helical coiled coils, thereby contributing to Rab6 promiscuity in effector recruitment.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0500367

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 2009;17;1;21-30

  • Rab6 family proteins interact with the dynein light chain protein DYNLRB1.

    Wanschers B, van de Vorstenbosch R, Wijers M, Wieringa B, King SM and Fransen J

    Department of Cell Biology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    The small GTPase Rab6 is a key regulator in the retrograde transfer from endosomes via the Golgi to the ER. Three isoforms of Rab6 have been identified, the ubiquitously expressed Rab6A and Rab6A', and the brain specific Rab6B. Recent studies have shown that Rab6A' is the major isoform regulating this retrograde transport. Cytoplasmic dynein is the main motor protein complex for this transport. Dynein consists of two heavy chains, two intermediate chains, four light intermediate chains and several light chains, called roadblock/LC7 proteins or DYNLRB proteins. In mammalian cells two light chain isoforms have been identified, DYNLRB1 and DYNLRB2. We here show with yeast-two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation and pull down studies that DYNLRB1 specifically interacts with all three Rab6 isoforms and co-localises at the Golgi. This is the first example of a direct interaction between Rab6 isoforms and the dynein complex. Pull down experiments showed further preferred association of DYNLRB1 with GTP-bound Rab6A and interestingly GDP-bound Rab6A' and Rab6B. In addition DYNLRB1 was found in the Golgi apparatus where it co-localises with EYFP-Rab6 isoforms. DYNLRB is a putative modulator of the intrinsic GTPase activity of GTP-binding proteins. In vitro we were not able to reproduce this effect on Rab6 GTPase activity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51293

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 2008;65;3;183-96

  • Rab and Arl GTPase family members cooperate in the localization of the golgin GCC185.

    Burguete AS, Fenn TD, Brunger AT and Pfeffer SR

    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    GCC185 is a large coiled-coil protein at the trans Golgi network that is required for receipt of transport vesicles inbound from late endosomes and for anchoring noncentrosomal microtubules that emanate from the Golgi. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of GCC185 to the Golgi is mediated by two Golgi-localized small GTPases of the Rab and Arl families. GCC185 binds Rab6, and mutation of residues needed for Rab binding abolishes Golgi localization. The crystal structure of Rab6 bound to the GCC185 Rab-binding domain reveals that Rab6 recognizes a two-fold symmetric surface on a coiled coil immediately adjacent to a C-terminal GRIP domain. Unexpectedly, Rab6 binding promotes association of Arl1 with the GRIP domain. We present a structure-derived model for dual GTPase membrane attachment that highlights the potential ability of Rab GTPases to reach binding partners at a significant distance from the membrane via their unstructured and membrane-anchored, hypervariable domains.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK37332, R01 DK037332, R37 DK037332, R37 DK037332-19, R37 DK037332-20, R37 DK037332-21, R37 DK037332-22, R56 DK037332

    Cell 2008;132;2;286-98

  • Regulation of anterograde transport of adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors by Rab2 and Rab6 GTPases.

    Dong C and Wu G

    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

    Three Rab GTPases, Rab1, Rab2 and Rab6, are involved in protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. Whereas Rab1 regulates the anterograde ER-to-Golgi transport, Rab2 and Rab6 coordinate the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. We have previously demonstrated that Rab1 differentially modulates the export trafficking of distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this report, we determined the role of Rab2 and Rab6 in the cell-surface expression and signaling of alpha(2B)-adrenergic (alpha(2B)-AR), beta(2)-AR and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R). Expression of the GTP-bound mutant Rab2Q65L significantly attenuated the cell-surface expression of both alpha(2B)-AR and beta(2)-AR, whereas the GTP-bound mutant Rab6Q72L selectively inhibited the transport of beta(2)-AR, but not alpha(2B)-AR. Similar results were obtained by siRNA-mediated selective knockdown of endogenous Rab2 and Rab6. Consistently, Rab2Q65L and Rab2 siRNA inhibited alpha(2B)-AR and beta(2)-AR signaling measured as ERK1/2 activation and cAMP production, respectively, whereas Rab6Q72L and Rab6 siRNA reduced signaling of beta(2)-AR, but not alpha(2B)-AR. Similar to the beta(2)-AR, AT1R expression at the cell surface and AT1R-promoted inositol phosphate accumulation were inhibited by Rab6Q72L. Furthermore, the nucleotide-free mutant Rab6N126I selectively attenuated the cell-surface expression of beta(2)-AR and AT1R, but not alpha(2B)-AR. These data demonstrate that Rab2 and Rab6 differentially influence anterograde transport and signaling of GPCRs. These data also provide the first evidence indicating that Rab6-coordinated retrograde transport selectively modulates intracellular trafficking and signaling of GPCRs.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM076167, R01 GM076167, R01 GM076167-02

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;11;2388-99

  • Rab6 is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain and correlates with endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Scheper W, Hoozemans JJ, Hoogenraad CC, Rozemuller AJ, Eikelenboom P and Baas F

    Neurogenetics Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. w.scheper@amc.uva.nl

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposits of aggregated proteins. Accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins activates protein quality control mechanisms, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously reported upregulation of the UPR marker BiP in AD brain. In this study, we investigated the small GTPase Rab6, which is involved in retrograde Golgi-ER trafficking and may function as a post-ER quality control system. Using immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative Western blotting, the expression of Rab6 was analysed in hippocampus, entorhinal and temporal cortex of 10 AD patients and six nondemented control subjects. Rab6 is upregulated in AD temporal cortex from Braak stage 3/4, the same stage that UPR activation is found. We observe increased neuronal Rab6 immunoreactivity in all brain areas examined. Although some neurones show colocalization of immunoreactivity for Rab6 and hyperphosphorylated tau, strong Rab6 staining does not colocalize with tangles. We find a highly significant correlation between the Rab6 and BiP levels. In vitro data show that Rab6 is not upregulated as a result of UPR activation or proteasome inhibition indicating an independent regulatory mechanism. Our data suggest that ER and post-ER protein quality control mechanisms are activated early in the pathology of AD.

    Neuropathology and applied neurobiology 2007;33;5;523-32

  • Rab6 regulates both ZW10/RINT-1 and conserved oligomeric Golgi complex-dependent Golgi trafficking and homeostasis.

    Sun Y, Shestakova A, Hunt L, Sehgal S, Lupashin V and Storrie B

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

    We used multiple approaches to investigate the role of Rab6 relative to Zeste White 10 (ZW10), a mitotic checkpoint protein implicated in Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trafficking/transport, and conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a putative tether in retrograde, intra-Golgi trafficking. ZW10 depletion resulted in a central, disconnected cluster of Golgi elements and inhibition of ERGIC53 and Golgi enzyme recycling to ER. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RINT-1, a protein linker between ZW10 and the ER soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, syntaxin 18, produced similar Golgi disruption. COG3 depletion fragmented the Golgi and produced vesicles; vesicle formation was unaffected by codepletion of ZW10 along with COG, suggesting ZW10 and COG act separately. Rab6 depletion did not significantly affect Golgi ribbon organization. Epistatic depletion of Rab6 inhibited the Golgi-disruptive effects of ZW10/RINT-1 siRNA or COG inactivation by siRNA or antibodies. Dominant-negative expression of guanosine diphosphate-Rab6 suppressed ZW10 knockdown induced-Golgi disruption. No cross-talk was observed between Rab6 and endosomal Rab5, and Rab6 depletion failed to suppress p115 (anterograde tether) knockdown-induced Golgi disruption. Dominant-negative expression of a C-terminal fragment of Bicaudal D, a linker between Rab6 and dynactin/dynein, suppressed ZW10, but not COG, knockdown-induced Golgi disruption. We conclude that Rab6 regulates distinct Golgi trafficking pathways involving two separate protein complexes: ZW10/RINT-1 and COG.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;10;4129-42

  • Rab6 regulates transport and targeting of exocytotic carriers.

    Grigoriev I, Splinter D, Keijzer N, Wulf PS, Demmers J, Ohtsuka T, Modesti M, Maly IV, Grosveld F, Hoogenraad CC and Akhmanova A

    Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Constitutive exocytosis delivers newly synthesized proteins, lipids, and other molecules from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface. This process is mediated by vesicles, which bud off the trans-Golgi network, move along cytoskeletal filaments, and fuse with the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rab6 marks exocytotic vesicles and, together with the microtubule plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1, stimulates their processive microtubule-based transport to the cell periphery. Furthermore, Rab6 directs targeting of secretory vesicles to plasma-membrane sites enriched in the cortical protein ELKS, a known Rab6 binding partner. Our data demonstrate that although Rab6 is not essential for secretion, it controls the organization of exocytosis within the cellular space.

    Developmental cell 2007;13;2;305-14

  • Membrane targeting and activation of the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL1 by rab GTPases.

    Hyvola N, Diao A, McKenzie E, Skippen A, Cockcroft S and Lowe M

    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK.

    The X-linked disorder oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is caused by mutation of the OCRL1 protein, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase. OCRL1 is localised to the Golgi apparatus and early endosomes, and can translocate to lamellipodia upon growth factor stimulation. We show here that OCRL1 interacts with several members of the rab family of small GTPases. Strongest interaction is seen with Golgi-associated rab1 and rab6 and endosomal rab5. Point mutants defective in rab binding fail to target to the Golgi apparatus and endosomes, strongly suggesting rab interaction is required for targeting of OCRL1 to these compartments. Membrane recruitment via rab binding is required for changes in Golgi and endosomal dynamics induced by overexpression of catalytically inactive OCRL1. In vitro experiments demonstrate that rab5 and rab6 directly stimulate the 5-phosphatase activity of OCRL1. We conclude that rabs play a dual role in regulation of OCRL1, firstly targeting it to the Golgi apparatus and endosomes, and secondly, directly stimulating the 5-phosphatase activity of OCRL1 after membrane recruitment.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 068847/Z/02/A

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;16;3750-61

  • Transport of ricin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is regulated by Rab6A and Rab6A'.

    Utskarpen A, Slagsvold HH, Iversen TG, Wälchli S and Sandvig K

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, Faculty Division The Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, 0310 Oslo, Norway.

    Ricin is transported from early endosomes and/or the recycling compartment to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and subsequently to the endoplasmic recticulum (ER) before it enters the cytosol and intoxicates cells. We have investigated the role of the Rab6 isoforms in retrograde transport of ricin using both oligo- and vector-based RNAi assays. Ricin transport to the TGN was inhibited by the depletion of Rab6A when the Rab6A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were reduced by more than 40% and less than 75%. However, when Rab6A mRNA was reduced by more than 75% and Rab6A' mRNA was simultaneously up-regulated, the inhibition of ricin sulfation was abolished, indicating that the up-regulation of Rab6A' may compensate for the loss of Rab6A function. In addition, we found that a near complete depletion of Rab6A' gave approximately 40% reduction in ricin sulfation. The up-regulation of Rab6A mRNA levels did not seem to compensate for the loss of Rab6A' function. The depletion of both Rab6A and Rab6A' gave a stronger inhibition of ricin sulfation than what was observed knocking down the two isoforms separately. In conclusion, both Rab6A and Rab6A' seem to be involved in the transport of ricin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2006;7;6;663-72

  • Rab6A and Rab6A' GTPases play non-overlapping roles in membrane trafficking.

    Del Nery E, Miserey-Lenkei S, Falguières T, Nizak C, Johannes L, Perez F and Goud B

    Molecular Mechanisms of Intracellular Transport, UMR CNRS 144, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    The closely related Rab6 isoforms, Rab6A and Rab6A', have been shown to regulate vesicular trafficking within the Golgi and post-Golgi compartments, but studies using dominant active or negative mutant suggested conflicting models. Here, we report that reduction in the expression of Rab6 isoform using specific small interfering RNA reveals noticeable differences in the Rab6A and Rab6A' biological functions. Surprisingly, Rab6A seems to be largely dispensable in membrane trafficking events, whereas knocking down the expression of Rab6A' hampers the intracellular transport of the retrograde cargo marker, the Shiga Toxin B-subunit along the endocytic pathway, and causes defects in Golgi- associated protein recycling through the endoplasmic reticulum. We also showed that Rab6A' is required for cell cycle progression through mitosis and identify Ile(62) as a key residue for uncoupling Rab6A' functions in mitosis and retrograde trafficking. Thus, our work shows that Rab6A and Rab6A' perform different functions within the cell and suggests a novel role for Rab6A' as the major Rab6 isoform regulating previously described Rab6-dependent transport pathways.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2006;7;4;394-407

  • A role for the Rab6A' GTPase in the inactivation of the Mad2-spindle checkpoint.

    Miserey-Lenkei S, Couëdel-Courteille A, Del Nery E, Bardin S, Piel M, Racine V, Sibarita JB, Perez F, Bornens M and Goud B

    UMR 144 CNRS/IC, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

    The two isoforms of the Rab6 GTPase, Rab6A and Rab6A', regulate a retrograde transport route connecting early endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi complex in interphasic cells. Here we report that when Rab6A' function is altered cells are unable to progress normally through mitosis. Such cells are blocked in metaphase, despite displaying a normal Golgi fragmentation and with the Mad2-spindle checkpoint activated. Furthermore, the Rab6 effector p150(Glued), a subunit of the dynein/dynactin complex, remains associated with some kinetochores. A similar phenotype was observed when GAPCenA, a GTPase-activating protein of Rab6, was depleted from cells. Our results suggest that Rab6A' likely regulates the dynamics of the dynein/dynactin complex at the kinetochores and consequently the inactivation of the Mad2-spindle checkpoint. Rab6A', through its interaction with p150(Glued) and GAPCenA, may thus participate in a pathway involved in the metaphase/anaphase transition.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;2;278-89

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Structure of the extremely slow GTPase Rab6A in the GTP bound form at 1.8A resolution.

    Bergbrede T, Pylypenko O, Rak A and Alexandrov K

    Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Str. 11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

    Rab/Ypt GTPases represent a>60 member large family of membrane traffic regulators in eukaryotic cells. Members of this group display intrinsic GTPase activity varying over two orders of magnitude. Here, we show that Rab6A represents the RabGTPase with the slowest spontaneous GTPase activity yet measured (5x10(-6)s(-1)). Due to the very low intrinsic hydrolysis rate we were able to crystallise and solve the structure of the Rab6A:GTP complex to 1.82A resolution. Analysis of the structure suggests that low catalytic activity of the Rab6A might be due to high flexibility of the Switch II region and a low degree of constraint of critically important for catalysis Gln 72.

    Journal of structural biology 2005;152;3;235-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex.

    Liewen H, Meinhold-Heerlein I, Oliveira V, Schwarzenbacher R, Luo G, Wadle A, Jung M, Pfreundschuh M and Stenner-Liewen F

    Medical Department I, University of the Saarland, Homburg 66421, Germany.

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the "orphan" SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells.

    Experimental cell research 2005;306;1;24-34

  • Regulation of microtubule-dependent recycling at the trans-Golgi network by Rab6A and Rab6A'.

    Young J, Stauber T, del Nery E, Vernos I, Pepperkok R and Nilsson T

    Cell Biology and Biophysics Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The small GTPase rab6A but not the isoform rab6A' has previously been identified as a regulator of the COPI-independent recycling route that carries Golgi-resident proteins and certain toxins from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The isoform rab6A' has been implicated in Golgi-to-endosomal recycling. Because rab6A but not A', binds rabkinesin6, this motor protein is proposed to mediate COPI-independent recycling. We show here that both rab6A and rab6A' GTP-restricted mutants promote, with similar efficiency, a microtubule-dependent recycling of Golgi resident glycosylation enzymes upon overexpression. Moreover, we used small interfering RNA mediated down-regulation of rab6A and A' expression and found that reduced levels of rab6 perturbs organization of the Golgi apparatus and delays Golgi-to-ER recycling. Rab6-directed Golgi-to-ER recycling seems to require functional dynactin, as overexpression of p50/dynamitin, or a C-terminal fragment of Bicaudal-D, both known to interact with dynactin inhibit recycling. We further present evidence that rab6-mediated recycling seems to be initiated from the trans-Golgi network. Together, this suggests that a recycling pathway operates at the level of the trans-Golgi linking directly to the ER. This pathway would be the preferred route for both toxins and resident Golgi proteins.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;1;162-77

  • Assay and properties of rab6 interaction with dynein-dynactin complexes.

    Fuchs E, Short B and Barr FA

    RAB GTPases help to maintain the fidelity of membrane trafficking events by recruiting cytosolic tethering and motility factors to vesicle and organelle membranes. In the case of Rab6, it recruits the dynein-dynaction complex to Golgi-associated vesicles via an adaptor protein of the Bicaudal-D family. Here we describe methods for the identification of Rab6-binding partners in cell extracts. We then focus on the biochemical analysis of interactions with the dynein-dynactin complex and the adaptor proteins Bicaudal-D1 and -D2. Standard protocols for yeast two-hybrid analysis, and biochemical assays for the analysis of the interactions between Rab6, Bicaudal-D, and the subunits of the dynein-dynactin complex are outlined.

    Methods in enzymology 2005;403;607-18

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Over-expression of Rififylin, a new RING finger and FYVE-like domain-containing protein, inhibits recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment.

    Coumailleau F, Das V, Alcover A, Raposo G, Vandormael-Pournin S, Le Bras S, Baldacci P, Dautry-Varsat A, Babinet C and Cohen-Tannoudji M

    Unité Biologie du Développement, CNRS URA 2578, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

    Endocytosed membrane components are recycled to the cell surface either directly from early/sorting endosomes or after going through the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). Studying recycling mechanisms is difficult, in part due to the fact that specific tools to inhibit this process are scarce. In this study, we have characterized a novel widely expressed protein, named Rififylin (Rffl) for RING Finger and FYVE-like domain-containing protein, that, when overexpressed in HeLa cells, induced the condensation of transferrin receptor-, Rab5-, and Rab11-positive recycling tubulovesicular membranes in the perinuclear region. Internalized transferrin was able to access these condensed endosomes but its exit from this compartment was delayed. Using deletion mutants, we show that the carboxy-terminal RING finger of Rffl is dispensable for its action. In contrast, the amino-terminal domain of Rffl, which shows similarities with the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding FYVE finger, is critical for the recruitment of Rffl to recycling endocytic membranes and for the inhibition of recycling, albeit in a manner that is independent of PtdIns(3)-kinase activity. Rffl overexpression represents a novel means to inhibit recycling that will help to understand the mechanisms involved in recycling from the ERC to the plasma membrane.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2004;15;10;4444-56

  • TMF is a golgin that binds Rab6 and influences Golgi morphology.

    Fridmann-Sirkis Y, Siniossoglou S and Pelham HR

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK. yaelfs@wicc.weizmann.ac.il

    Background: Golgins are coiled-coil proteins associated with the Golgi apparatus, that are believed to be involved in the tethering of vesicles and the stacking of cisternae, as well as other functions such as cytoskeletal association. Many are peripheral membrane proteins recruited by GTPases. Several have been described in animal cells, and some in yeast, but the relationships between golgins from different species can be hard to define because although they share structural features, their sequences are not well conserved.

    Results: We show here that the yeast protein Sgm1, previously shown to be recruited to the Golgi by the GTPase Ypt6, binds to Ypt6:GTP via a conserved 100-residue coiled-coil motif that can be identified in a wide range of eukaryotes. The mammalian equivalent of Sgm1 is TMF/ARA160, a protein previously identified in various screens as a putative transcription or chromatin remodelling factor. We show that it is a Golgi protein, and that it binds to the three known isoforms of the Ypt6 homologue Rab6. Depletion of the protein by RNA interference in rat NRK cells results in a modest dispersal of Golgi membranes around the cell, suggesting a role for TMF in the movement or adherence of Golgi stacks.

    Conclusion: We have identified TMF as an evolutionarily conserved golgin that binds Rab6 and contributes to Golgi organisation in animal cells.

    BMC cell biology 2004;5;18

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Dose-dependent transcriptome changes by metal ores on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.

    Sun NN, Fastje CD, Wong SS, Sheppard PR, Macdonald SJ, Ridenour G, Hyde JD and Witten ML

    Southwest Environmental Science Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, USA.

    The increased morbidity of childhood leukemia in Fallon, Nevada and Sierra Vista, Arizona has prompted great health concern. The main characteristic that these two towns share is the environmental pollution attributed to metal ore from abandoned mining operations. Consequently, we have investigated the transcriptome effects of metal ores from these endemic areas using a human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (T-ALL). Metal ore from Fallon significantly increased cell growth after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 1.5 microg/mL concentration, as measured by trypan-blue. Sierra Vista ore significantly increased cell growth with 0.15 and 1.5 microg/mL following 72 h of incubation. From human cDNA microarray, results indicate that in total, eight genes, mostly metallothionein (MT) genes, were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated following treatment of the T-ALL cells with 0.15 and 1.5 microg/mL of metal ores at 72 h, in comparison with untreated cells. Twenty-eight metals of both ores were quantified and their presence may be associated with the cell growth rate and dose-dependent activation of transcriptomes in immature T-cells.

    Toxicology and industrial health 2003;19;7-10;157-63

  • Recombinant antibodies to the small GTPase Rab6 as conformation sensors.

    Nizak C, Monier S, del Nery E, Moutel S, Goud B and Perez F

    CNRS UMR144, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, F75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    Here we report an approach, based on antibody phage display, to generate molecular conformation sensors. Recombinant antibodies specific to the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab6, a regulator of membrane traffic, were generated and used to locate Rab6.GTP in fixed cells, and, after green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging and intracellular expression, to follow Rab6.GTP in vivo. Rab6 was in its GTP-bound conformation on the Golgi apparatus and transport intermediates, and the geometry of transport intermediates was modulated by Rab6 activity. More generally, the same approach could be applied to other molecules that can be locked in a particular conformation in vitro.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5621;984-7

  • Bicaudal-D regulates COPI-independent Golgi-ER transport by recruiting the dynein-dynactin motor complex.

    Matanis T, Akhmanova A, Wulf P, Del Nery E, Weide T, Stepanova T, Galjart N, Grosveld F, Goud B, De Zeeuw CI, Barnekow A and Hoogenraad CC

    Department of Experimental Tumorbiology, University of Muenster, Badestrasse 9, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.

    The small GTPase Rab6a is involved in the regulation of membrane traffic from the Golgi apparatus towards the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a coat complex coatomer protein I (COPI)-independent pathway. Here, we used a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify binding partners of Rab6a. In particular, we identified the dynein-dynactin-binding protein Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1), one of the two mammalian homologues of Drosophila Bicaudal-D. BICD1 and BICD2 colocalize with Rab6a on the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and on cytoplasmic vesicles, and associate with Golgi membranes in a Rab6-dependent manner. Overexpression of BICD1 enhances the recruitment of dynein-dynactin to Rab6a-containing vesicles. Conversely, overexpression of the carboxy-terminal domain of BICD, which can interact with Rab6a but not with cytoplasmic dynein, inhibits microtubule minus-end-directed movement of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rab6a vesicles and induces an accumulation of Rab6a and COPI-independent ER cargo in peripheral structures. These data suggest that coordinated action between Rab6a, BICD and the dynein-dynactin complex controls COPI-independent Golgi-ER transport.

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;12;986-92

  • A family of RIM-binding proteins regulated by alternative splicing: Implications for the genesis of synaptic active zones.

    Wang Y, Liu X, Biederer T and Südhof TC

    The Center for Basic Neuroscience and Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.

    RIMs are presynaptic active zone proteins that regulate neurotransmitter release. We describe two related genes that encode proteins with identical C-terminal sequences that bind to the conserved PDZ domain of RIMs via an unusual PDZ-binding motif. These proteins were previously reported separately as ELKS, Rab6-interacting protein 2, and CAST, leading us to refer to them by the acronym ERC. Alternative splicing of the C terminus of ERC1 generates a longer ERC1a variant that does not bind to RIMs and a shorter ERC1b variant that binds to RIMs, whereas the C terminus of ERC2 is synthesized only in a single RIM-binding variant. ERC1a is expressed ubiquitously as a cytosolic protein outside of brain; ERC1b is detectable only in brain, where it is both a cytosolic protein and an insoluble active zone component; and ERC2 is brain-specific but exclusively localized to active zones. Only brain-specific ERCs bind to RIMs, but both ubiquitous and brain-specific ERCs bind to Rab6, a GTP-binding protein involved in membrane traffic at the Golgi complex. ERC1a and ERC1b/2 likely perform similar functions at distinct localizations, indicating unexpected connections between nonneuronal membrane traffic at the Golgi complex executed via Rab6 and neuronal membrane traffic at the active zone executed via RIMs.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;22;14464-9

  • The Rab6 GTPase regulates recruitment of the dynactin complex to Golgi membranes.

    Short B, Preisinger C, Schaletzky J, Kopajtich R and Barr FA

    Department of Cell Biology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

    Dynactin is a multisubunit protein complex required for the activity of dynein in diverse intracellular motility processes, including membrane transport. Dynactin can bind to vesicles and liposomes containing acidic phospholipids, but general properties such as this are unlikely to explain the regulated recruitment of dynactin to specific sites on organelle membranes. Additional factors must therefore exist to control this process. Candidates for these factors are the Rab GTPases, which function in the tethering of vesicles to their target organelle prior to membrane fusion. In particular, Rab27a tethers melanosomes to the actin cytoskeleton. Other Rabs have been implicated in microtubule-dependent organelle motility; Rab7 controls lysosomal transport, and Rab6 is involved in microtubule-dependent transport pathways through the Golgi and from endosomes to the Golgi. We demonstrate that dynactin binds to Rab6 and shows a Rab6-dependent recruitment to Golgi membranes. Other Golgi Rabs do not bind to dynactin and are unable to support its recruitment to membranes. Rab6 therefore functions as a specificity or tethering factor controlling the recruitment of dynactin to membranes.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;20;1792-5

  • Synaptotagmin-like protein 5: a novel Rab27A effector with C-terminal tandem C2 domains.

    Kuroda TS, Fukuda M, Ariga H and Mikoshiba K

    Fukuda Initiative Research Unit, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    Synaptotagmin-like proteins 1-4 (Slp1-4) are new members of the carboxyl-terminal-type (C-type) tandem C2 proteins and are classified as a subfamily distinct from the synaptotagmin and the Doc2 families, because the Slp family contains a unique homology domain at the amino terminus, referred to as the Slp homology domain (SHD). We previously showed that the SHD functions as a binding site for Rab27A, which is associated with human hemophagocytic syndrome (Griscelli syndrome) [J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 9212; J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 12432]. In the present study, we identified a novel member of the Slp family, Slp5. The same as other Slp family members, the SHD of Slp5 preferentially interacted with the GTP-bound form of Rab27A and marginally with Rab3A and Rab6A, both in vitro and in intact cells, but not with other Rabs tested (Rab1, Rab2, Rab4A, Rab5A, Rab7, Rab8, Rab9, Rab10, Rab11A, Rab17, Rab18, Rab20, Rab22, Rab23, Rab25, Rab28, and Rab37). However, unlike other members of the Slp family, expression of Slp5 mRNA was highly restricted to human placenta and liver. Expression of Slp5 protein and in vivo association of Slp5 with Rab27A in the mouse liver were further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The results suggest that Slp5 might be involved in Rab27A-dependent membrane trafficking in specific tissues.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;293;3;899-906

  • Characterization of novel Rab6-interacting proteins involved in endosome-to-TGN transport.

    Monier S, Jollivet F, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Johannes L and Goud B

    Laboratories Molecular mechanisms of intracellular transport, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France. smonier@curie.fr

    Rab6 GTPase regulates intracellular transport at the level of the Golgi complex. Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we have isolated two clones that specifically interact with the three isoforms of Rab6 present in mammalian cells (Rab6A, A' and B). The cDNAs encode two proteins of 976 and 1120 amino acids (calculated molecular mass of 112 and 128 kDa, respectively) that we named Rab6IP2A and Rab6IP2B (for Rab6 Interacting Protein 2). The two proteins likely correspond to spliced variants of the same gene. Rab6IP2s have no significant homology with other known proteins, including Rab effectors or partners. They are ubiquitously expressed, mostly cytosolic and found in high molecular mass complexes in brain cytosol. We show that Rab6IP2s can be recruited on Golgi membranes in a Rab6:GTP-dependent manner. The overexpression of any form of Rab6IP2 has no detectable effect on the secretory pathway. In contrast, the retrograde transport of the Shiga toxin B subunit between the plasma membrane and the Golgi complex is partly inhibited in cells overexpressing the Rab6-binding domain of Rab6IP2. Our data suggest that Rab6IP2s is involved in the pathway regulated by Rab6A'.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2002;3;4;289-97

  • Identification of rabaptin-5, rabex-5, and GM130 as putative effectors of rab33b, a regulator of retrograde traffic between the Golgi apparatus and ER.

    Valsdottir R, Hashimoto H, Ashman K, Koda T, Storrie B and Nilsson T

    Cell Biology and Biophysics Programme, EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany.

    The role of rab33b, a Golgi-specific rab protein, was investigated. Microinjection of rab33b mutants stabilised in the GTP-specific state resulted in a marked inhibition of anterograde transport within the Golgi and in the recycling of glycosyltransferases from the Golgi to the ER, respectively. A GST-rab33b fusion protein stabilised in its GTP form was found to interact by Western blotting or mass spectroscopy with Golgi protein GM130 and rabaptin-5 and rabex-5, two rab effector molecules thought to function exclusively in the endocytic pathway. A similar binding was seen to rab1 but not to rab6, both Golgi rabs. In contrast, rab5 was as expected, shown to bind rabaptin-5 and rabex-5 as well as the endosomal effector protein EEA1 but not GM130. No binding of EEA1 was seen to any of the Golgi rabs.

    FEBS letters 2001;508;2;201-9

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase deficiency in mice.

    Bergo MO, Leung GK, Ambroziak P, Otto JC, Casey PJ, Gomes AQ, Seabra MC and Young SG

    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, the Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94141-9100, USA. mbergo@gladstone.ucsf.edu

    After isoprenylation, Ras and other CAAX proteins undergo endoproteolytic processing by Rce1 and methylation of the isoprenylcysteine by Icmt (isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase). We reported previously that Rce1-deficient mice died during late gestation or soon after birth. We hypothesized that Icmt deficiency might cause a milder phenotype, in part because of reports suggesting the existence of more than one activity for methylating isoprenylated proteins. To address this hypothesis and also to address the issue of other methyltransferase activities, we generated Icmt-deficient mice. Contrary to our expectation, Icmt deficiency caused a more severe phenotype than Rce1 deficiency, with virtually all of the knockout embryos (Icmt-/-) dying by mid-gestation. An analysis of chimeric mice produced from Icmt-/- embryonic stem cells showed that the Icmt-/- cells retained the capacity to contribute to some tissues (e.g. skeletal muscle) but not to others (e.g. brain). Lysates from Icmt-/- embryos lacked the ability to methylate either recombinant K-Ras or small molecule substrates (e.g. N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-l-cysteine). In addition, Icmt-/- cells lacked the ability to methylate Rab proteins. Thus, Icmt appears to be the only enzyme participating in the carboxyl methylation of isoprenylated proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL41633; NIA NIH HHS: AG15451; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46372

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;8;5841-5

  • Alternative splicing of the human Rab6A gene generates two close but functionally different isoforms.

    Echard A, Opdam FJ, de Leeuw HJ, Jollivet F, Savelkoul P, Hendriks W, Voorberg J, Goud B and Fransen JA

    Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 144, Institut Curie, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    Analysis of the human Rab6A gene structure reveals the presence of a duplicated exon, and incorporation of either of the two exons by alternative splicing is shown to generate two Rab6 isoforms named Rab6A and Rab6A', which differ in only three amino acid residues located in regions flanking the PM3 GTP-binding domain of the proteins. These isoforms are ubiquitously expressed at similar levels, exhibit the same GTP-binding properties, and are localized to the Golgi apparatus. Overexpression of the GTP-bound mutants of Rab6A (Rab6A Q72L) or Rab6A' (Rab6A' Q72L) inhibits secretion in HeLa cells, but overexpression of Rab6A' Q72L does not induce the redistribution of Golgi proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that Rab6A' is not able to stimulate Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum retrograde transport, as described previously for Rab6A. In addition, Rab6A' interacts with two Rab6A partners, GAPCenA and "clone 1," but not with the kinesin-like protein Rabkinesin-6, a Golgi-associated Rab6A effector. Interestingly, we found that the functional differences between Rab6A and Rab6A' are contingent on one amino acid (T or A at position 87). Therefore, limited amino acid substitutions within a Rab protein introduced by alternative splicing could represent a mechanism to generate functionally different isoforms that interact with distinct sets of effectors.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2000;11;11;3819-33

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Rab6c, a new member of the rab gene family, is involved in drug resistance in MCF7/AdrR cells.

    Shan J, Mason JM, Yuan L, Barcia M, Porti D, Calabro A, Budman D, Vinciguerra V and Xu H

    Molecular Oncology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 11030, USA.

    A new Rab6 homolog cDNA, Rab6c, was discovered by a hypermethylated DNA fragment probe that was isolated from a human multidrug resistant (MDR) breast cancer cell line, MCF7/AdrR, by the methylation sensitive-representational difference analysis (MS-RDA) technique. Rab6c was found to be under-expressed in MCF7/AdrR and MES-SA/Dx5 (a human MDR uterine sarcoma cell line) compared with their non-MDR parental cell lines. MCF7/AdrR cells expressing the exogenous Rab6c exhibited less resistance to several anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin (DOX), taxol, vinblastine, and vincristine, than the control cells containing the empty vector. Flow cytometry experiments confirmed that the transfectants' diminished resistance to DOX was caused by increased drug accumulation induced by the exogenous Rab6c. These results indicate that Rab6c is involved in drug resistance in MCF7/AdrR cells.

    Gene 2000;257;1;67-75

  • Impairment of bile salt-dependent lipase secretion in human pancreatic tumoral SOJ-6 cells.

    Caillol N, Pasqualini E, Lloubes R and Lombardo D

    INSERM Unité 260-Faculté de Médecine-Timone, 27 bld Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 05 France.

    Bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL) was detected in human SOJ-6 and rat AR4-2J pancreatic cells. Whereas AR4-2J cells actively secreted the enzyme, BSDL was retained within the Golgi compartment of SOJ-6 cells. Because Rab6 is involved in vesicle transport in the Golgi apparatus and the trans-Golgi network, we confirmed the presence of Rab6 in these cells. In rat AR4-2J cells, Rab6 as well as Rab1A/B and Rab2, partitioned between the cytosol and microsomes. In SOJ-6 cells Rab1A/B and Rab2 also partitioned between the cytosol and microsomes, but Rab6 was strictly associated with microsome membranes, suggesting a specific defect of Rab6 cycling in human SOJ-6 cells. The apparent defect of cycling in these cells is not due to the expression of a defective Rab6 since its correct sequence was confirmed. We further demonstrated that AR4-2J and SOJ-6 cells express the Rab-GDIbeta and Rab-GDIalpha isoforms, respectively. However, the sequence of Rab-GDIbeta, which may be the main form expressed by SOJ-6 cells, identified a few substitutions located in regions that are essential for Rab-GDI function. We conclude that the deficient secretion of BSDL by SOJ-6 cells could be due to the expression of defective Rab-GDIbeta. In spite of the alterations in Rab-GDIbeta, membrane proteins such as CD71 and NHE3 were correctly localized to the cell plasma membrane of SOJ-6 cells, suggesting that two functional distinct secretory pathway coexist in pancreatic cells.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2000;79;4;628-47

  • Interaction cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human prenylated rab acceptor (PRA1).

    Bucci C, Chiariello M, Lattero D, Maiorano M and Bruni CB

    Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare "L. Califano" and Centro di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Via S. Pansini 5, Napoli, Italy.

    Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in the regulation of intracellular membrane traffic in mammalian cells. In order to find Rab-interacting proteins we performed a two-hybrid screening using a human brain cDNA library. Here we report the isolation of a full-length human cDNA clone coding for a protein of 185 amino acids. This protein interacts strongly with the Rab4b, Rab5a, and Rab5c proteins and weakly with Rab4a, Rab6, Rab7, Rab17, and Rab22 in the two-hybrid assay. Comparison with the Data Bank revealed that this clone represents the human homolog of the previously isolated rat Prenylated Rab Acceptor (rPRA1). Analysis of mRNA expression shows a single abundant mRNA of about 0.8 kb ubiquitously expressed. Western blot analysis of the overexpressed protein shows a band of the expected size equally distributed between cytosol and membranes.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;258;3;657-62

  • A novel Rab6-interacting domain defines a family of Golgi-targeted coiled-coil proteins.

    Barr FA

    IBLS, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Davidson Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. f.barr@bio.gla.ac.uk

    In recent years, a large number of coiled-coil proteins localised to the Golgi apparatus have been identified using antisera from human patients with a variety of autoimmune conditions [1]. Because of their common method of discovery and extensive regions of coiled-coil, they have been classified as a family of proteins, the golgins [1]. This family includes golgin-230/245/256, golgin-97, GM130/golgin-95, golgin-160/MEA-2/GCP170, giantin/macrogolgin and a related group of proteins - possibly splice variants - GCP372 and GCP364[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. GM130 and giantin have been shown to function in the p115-mediated docking of vesicles with Golgi cisternae [12]. In this process, p115, another coiled-coil protein, is though to bind to giantin on vesicles and to GM130 on cisternae, thus acting as a tether holding the two together [12] [13]. Apart from giantin and GM130, none of the golgins has yet been assigned a function in the Golgi apparatus. In order to obtain clues as to the functions of the golgins, the targeting to the Golgi apparatus of two members of this family, golgin-230/245/256 and golgin-97, was investigated. Each of these proteins was shown to target to the Golgi apparatus through a carboxy-terminal domain containing a conserved tyrosine residue, which was critical for targeting. The domain preferentially bound to Rab6 on protein blots, and mutations that abolished Golgi targeting resulted in a loss of this interaction. Sequence analysis revealed that a family of coiled-coil proteins from mammals, worms and yeast contain this domain at their carboxyl termini. One of these proteins, yeast Imh1p, has previously been shown to have a tight genetic interaction with Rab6 [14]. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that this family of coiled-coil proteins functions in Rab6-regulated membrane-tethering events.

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;7;381-4

  • Characterization of GAPCenA, a GTPase activating protein for Rab6, part of which associates with the centrosome.

    Cuif MH, Possmayer F, Zander H, Bordes N, Jollivet F, Couedel-Courteille A, Janoueix-Lerosey I, Langsley G, Bornens M and Goud B

    UMR CNRS 144 et 168, Institut Curie, 26 Rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    The Rab6 GTPase regulates intracellular transport at the level of the Golgi apparatus, probably in a retrograde direction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel human Rab6-interacting protein named human GAPCenA (for 'GAP and centrosome-associated'). Primary sequence analysis indicates that GAPCenA displays similarities, within a central 200 amino acids domain, to both the yeast Rab GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and to the spindle checkpoint proteins Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bub2p and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc16p. We demonstrate that GAPCenA is indeed a GAP, specifically active in vitro on Rab6 and, to a lesser extent, on Rab4 and Rab2 proteins. Immunofluorescence and cell fractionation experiments showed that GAPCenA is mainly cytosolic but that a minor pool is associated with the centrosome. Moreover, GAPCenA was found to form complexes with cytosolic gamma-tubulin and to play a role in microtubule nucleation. Therefore, GAPCenA may be involved in the coordination of microtubule and Golgi dynamics during the cell cycle.

    The EMBO journal 1999;18;7;1772-82

  • Interaction of a Golgi-associated kinesin-like protein with Rab6.

    Echard A, Jollivet F, Martinez O, Lacapère JJ, Rousselet A, Janoueix-Lerosey I and Goud B

    Unité Mixte de Recherche CNRS 144 et 168, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    Rab guanosine triphosphatases regulate vesicular transport and membrane traffic within eukaryotic cells. Here, a kinesin-like protein that interacts with guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound forms of Rab6 was identified. This protein, termed Rabkinesin-6, was localized to the Golgi apparatus and shown to play a role in the dynamics of this organelle. The carboxyl-terminal domain of Rabkinesin-6, which contains the Rab6-interacting domain, inhibited the effects of Rab6-GTP on intracellular transport. Thus, a molecular motor is a potential effector of a Rab protein, and coordinated action between members of these two families of proteins could control membrane dynamics and directional vesicular traffic.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;279;5350;580-5

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Determination of structural requirements for the interaction of Rab6 with RabGDI and Rab geranylgeranyltransferase.

    Beranger F, Cadwallader K, Porfiri E, Powers S, Evans T, de Gunzburg J and Hancock JF

    INSERM Unite 248, Paris.

    The importance of geranylgeranylation to the interaction of Rab proteins with RabGDI was investigated with a set of Rab6 mutants post-translationally modified by all known C-terminal lipid combinations. Rab6 proteins geranylgeranylated on CXC or CC motifs were found to be significantly better substrates for membrane extraction by RabGDI than either Rab6 proteins geranylgeranylated on CAAL motifs or Rab6 proteins that were farnesylated and palmitoylated. The methylation status of the CXC motif did not significantly affect interaction of wild type Rab6 with RabGDI. Rab6 protein sequences required for RabGDI interaction were then identified. Consistent with the significant homology between Rab-GDI and the Rab escort protein, a subunit of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (RabGGTase), we show that there is an overlap between Rab6 motifs required for RabGDI binding and RabGGTase processing. The effector domain, loop3/beta 3 and the hypervariable region of Rab6 are all required for RabGDI binding, whereas loop3/beta 3 and the hypervariable region but not the effector domain are required for efficient processing of Rab6 by RabGGTase. Interestingly, however, loop3/beta 3 of Rab6 when introduced into H-Ras is sufficient to allow some in vivo processing of a C-terminal CSC motif.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;18;13637-43

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • REP-2, a Rab escort protein encoded by the choroideremia-like gene.

    Cremers FP, Armstrong SA, Seabra MC, Brown MS and Goldstein JL

    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75235-9046.

    Rab escort proteins (REPs) bind to newly synthesized Rab proteins and remain bound during and after the attachment of a geranylgeranyl (GG) group by the catalytic component of the Rab GG transferase. Transfer of the GG group is absolutely dependent on the participation of a REP. REP-1, the first characterized REP, is produced by a gene on the X chromosome that is defective in patients with choroideremia, a form of retinal degeneration. Cremers et al. (Cremers, F.P.M., Molloy, C. M., van de Pol, D. J. R., van den Hurk, J. A. J. M., Bach, I., Geurts van Kessel, A. H. M., and Ropers, H.-H. (1992) Hum. Mol. Genet. 1, 71-75) isolated a related gene, designated choroideremia-like, which encodes a protein that closely resembles REP-1. In the current studies, we produced REP-1 and REP-2 by recombinant DNA methods and showed that both proteins were approximately equal in facilitating the attachment of GG groups to several Rab proteins, including Rab1A, Rab5A, and Rab6. However, REP-2 was only 25% as active as REP-1 in supporting GG attachment to Rab3A and Rab3D. The low activity toward Rab3A was increased to that of Rab1A when the COOH-terminal 12 amino acids of Rab3A were replaced with the corresponding residues of Rab1A. We suggest that REP-2 substitutes for the absent function of REP-1 in nonretinal cells of patients with choroideremia, thus preventing cellular dysfunction throughout the body. In the retina, REP-2 may be only partially effective, leading eventually to retinal degeneration and blindness.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL20948; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM08014

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;3;2111-7

  • Identification of small GTP-binding rab proteins in human platelets: thrombin-induced phosphorylation of rab3B, rab6, and rab8 proteins.

    Karniguian A, Zahraoui A and Tavitian A

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U 248, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France.

    The activation of platelets by specific agonists is a tightly regulated mechanism that leads to the secretion of the dense- and alpha-granule contents. Platelets have been shown to possess small GTP-binding proteins thought to be involved in central biological processes; however, no rab proteins, which may regulate the exocytic process at different stages, have been reported. This study has shown that rab1, rab3B, rab4, rab6, and rab8 proteins, but not rab3A protein, were present in platelets and in endothelial cells. To probe their functional significance in platelets, rab3B, rab6, and rab8 proteins were further characterized with regard to their intracellular localization and their phosphorylation properties. Whereas rab3B protein was found to be mainly cytosolic, rab6 and rab8 proteins were preferentially targeted to the plasma membrane and to the alpha granules. The activation of platelets by thrombin, a potent inducer of secretion, resulted in the phosphorylation of rab3B, rab6, and rab8 proteins, whereas no phosphorylation was observed in the presence of prostaglandin E1, which stimulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase and inhibits the secretion process. These findings provide evidence that members of the subfamily of rab proteins, rab6 and rab8, are localized in platelets to one type of specific secretory vesicle, the alpha granule, and would suggest their possible implication in the secretion process through phosphorylation mechanisms.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;16;7647-51

  • Chromosome assignment of four RAS-related RAB genes.

    Rousseau-Merck MF, Zahraoui A, Touchot N, Tavitian A and Berger R

    INSERM U.301, Institut de Génétique Moléculaire, Paris, France.

    The human RAB genes share structural and biochemical properties with the RAS gene superfamily. The encoded RAB proteins show 38 to 75% amino acid identity with the yeast YPT1 and SEC4 gene products. We used four human RAB-cDNAs, RAB3B, RAB4, RAB5 and RAB6, to map the corresponding genes on human chromosomes. These genes were assigned to 1p32-p31, 1q42-q43, 3p24-p22 and 2q14-q21, respectively, by in situ hybridization.

    Human genetics 1991;86;4;350-4

  • Small GTP-binding protein associated with Golgi cisternae.

    Goud B, Zahraoui A, Tavitian A and Saraste J

    Unité de Génétique Somatique (URA CNRS 361), Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

    Eukaryotic cells seem to use GTP hydrolysis to regulate vesicular traffic in exocytosis and endocytosis. The best evidence for this comes from studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have identified two small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Sec4p and Ypt1p, which control distinct stages of the secretory pathway. In mammalian cells the effects of a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, GTP-gamma S, on different transport events have suggested that they also have proteins functionally related to yeast Sec4p and Ypt1p. The rab genes have recently been cloned and sequenced for rat and human and their proteins have highly conserved domains in common with Sec4p and Ypt1p (including a putative effector binding site). They are therefore good candidates for GTP-binding proteins involved in intracellular transport in mammalian cells. One of the Rab proteins (Rab1p) is the mammalian counterpart of Ypt1p (ref. 13). Here we report the localization of the protein Rab6p to the Golgi apparatus in several cell types. By immunolabelling and electron microscopy, Rab6p appears to be concentrated predominantly on the medial and trans cisternae and distributed over their entire surface.

    Nature 1990;345;6275;553-6

  • The human Rab genes encode a family of GTP-binding proteins related to yeast YPT1 and SEC4 products involved in secretion.

    Zahraoui A, Touchot N, Chardin P and Tavitian A

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U. 248, Faculté de Médecine Lariboisiere Saint-Louis Paris, France.

    Seven cDNA clones corresponding to the rab1, rab2, rab3A, rab3B, rab4, rab5, and rab6 genes were isolated from a human pheochromocytoma cDNA library. They encode 23-25 kDa polypeptides which share approximately 30-50% homology and belong to the ras superfamily. The rab1, rab2, rab3A, and rab4 proteins are the human counterparts of the rat rab gene products that we have previously characterized. Comparison of the seven human rab proteins with the yeast YPT1 (YPT1p) and SEC4 (SEC4p) proteins reveals highly significant sequence similarities. H-rab1p shows 75% amino acid identity with YPT1p and may be therefore considered as its human counterpart. The other proteins share approximately 40% homology with YPT1p and SEC4p. The homology (approximately 30%) between these rab proteins and p21ras is restricted to the four conserved domains involved in the GTP/GDP binding. Human rab proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. Large amounts of rab proteins in soluble form can be extracted and purified without the use of detergents. All six proteins bind GTP and exhibit GTPase activities. A possible involvement of the rab proteins in secretion is discussed.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;21;12394-401

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000039 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H8 Human orthologues of cluster 8 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 3
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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