G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002338
Gene symbol
PPIB (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
peptidylprolyl isomerase B (cyclophilin B)
Orthologue
G00001089 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000166794 (Ensembl human gene)
5479 (Entrez Gene)
786 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PPIB (GeneCards)
Literature
123841 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9255 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P23284 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • CYPB
  • OI9

Literature (48)

Pubmed - other

  • Lack of cyclophilin B in osteogenesis imperfecta with normal collagen folding.

    Barnes AM, Carter EM, Cabral WA, Weis M, Chang W, Makareeva E, Leikin S, Rotimi CN, Eyre DR, Raggio CL and Marini JC

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder that causes bone fragility. Mutations in type I collagen result in autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta, whereas mutations in either of two components of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex (cartilage-associated protein [CRTAP] and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 [P3H1]) cause autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta with rhizomelia (shortening of proximal segments of upper and lower limbs) and delayed collagen folding. We identified two siblings who had recessive osteogenesis imperfecta without rhizomelia. They had a homozygous start-codon mutation in the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase B gene (PPIB), which results in a lack of cyclophilin B (CyPB), the third component of the complex. The proband's collagen had normal collagen folding and normal prolyl 3-hydroxylation, suggesting that CyPB is not the exclusive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in collagen folding, as is currently thought.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 HD000408-24, Z01 HD008830-01, Z99 HD999999; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR36794, AR37318, R01 AR036794, R01 AR037318, R37 AR036794, R37 AR037318; NICHD NIH HHS: HD22657, P01 HD022657; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-54001

    The New England journal of medicine 2010;362;6;521-8

  • Synthesis of heparan sulfate with cyclophilin B-binding properties is determined by cell type-specific expression of sulfotransferases.

    Deligny A, Denys A, Marcant A, Melchior A, Mazurier J, van Kuppevelt TH and Allain F

    Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8576 du CNRS, Institut de Recherche Fédératif 147, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) induces migration and adhesion of T lymphocytes via a mechanism that requires interaction with 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS). HS biosynthesis is a complex process with many sulfotransferases involved. N-Deacetylases/N-sulfotransferases are responsible for N-sulfation, which is essential for subsequent modification steps, whereas 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs) catalyze the least abundant modification. These enzymes are represented by several isoforms, which differ in term of distribution pattern, suggesting their involvement in making tissue-specific HS. To elucidate how the specificity of CyPB binding is determined, we explored the relationships between the expression of these sulfotransferases and the generation of HS motifs with CyPB-binding properties. We demonstrated that high N-sulfate density and the presence of 2-O- and 3-O-sulfates determine binding of CyPB, as evidenced by competitive experiments with heparin derivatives, soluble HS, and anti-HS antibodies. We then showed that target cells, i.e. CD4+ lymphocyte subsets, monocytes/macrophages, and related cell lines, specifically expressed high levels of NDST2 and 3-OST3 isoforms. Silencing the expression of NDST1, NDST2, 2-OST, and 3-OST3 by RNA interference efficiently decreased binding and activity of CyPB, thus confirming their involvement in the biosynthesis of binding sequences for CyPB. Moreover, we demonstrated that NDST1 was able to partially sulfate exogenous substrate in the absence of NDST2 but not vice versa, suggesting that both isoenzymes do not have redundant activities but do have rather complementary activities in making N-sulfated sequences with CyPB-binding properties. Altogether, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism in which cell type-specific expression of certain HS sulfotransferases determines the specific binding of CyPB to target cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;3;1701-15

  • PPIB mutations cause severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    van Dijk FS, Nesbitt IM, Zwikstra EH, Nikkels PG, Piersma SR, Fratantoni SA, Jimenez CR, Huizer M, Morsman AC, Cobben JM, van Roij MH, Elting MW, Verbeke JI, Wijnaendts LC, Shaw NJ, Högler W, McKeown C, Sistermans EA, Dalton A, Meijers-Heijboer H and Pals G

    Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Centre, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) or prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1(P3H1) has been reported in autosomal-recessive lethal or severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). CRTAP, P3H1, and cyclophilin B (CyPB) form an intracellular collagen-modifying complex that 3-hydroxylates proline at position 986 (P986) in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I. This 3-prolyl hydroxylation is decreased in patients with CRTAP and P3H1 deficiency. It was suspected that mutations in the PPIB gene encoding CyPB would also cause OI with decreased collagen 3-prolyl hydroxylation. To our knowledge we present the first two families with recessive OI caused by PPIB gene mutations. The clinical phenotype is compatible with OI Sillence type II-B/III as seen with COL1A1/2, CRTAP, and LEPRE1 mutations. The percentage of 3-hydroxylated P986 residues in patients with PPIB mutations is decreased in comparison to normal, but it is higher than in patients with CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. This result and the fact that CyPB is demonstrable independent of CRTAP and P3H1, along with reported decreased 3-prolyl hydroxylation due to deficiency of CRTAP lacking the catalytic hydroxylation domain and the known function of CyPB as a cis-trans isomerase, suggest that recessive OI is caused by a dysfunctional P3H1/CRTAP/CyPB complex rather than by the lack of 3-prolyl hydroxylation of a single proline residue in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I.

    American journal of human genetics 2009;85;4;521-7

  • Cyclophilins contribute to Stat3 signaling and survival of multiple myeloma cells.

    Bauer K, Kretzschmar AK, Cvijic H, Blumert C, Löffler D, Brocke-Heidrich K, Schiene-Fischer C, Fischer G, Sinz A, Clevenger CV and Horn F

    Institute of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is the major mediator of interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokines. In addition, Stat3 is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of many malignancies. Here, we show that the cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin (Cyp) B specifically interacts with Stat3, whereas the highly related CypA does not. CypB knockdown inhibited the IL-6-induced transactivation potential but not the tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Binding of CypB to Stat3 target promoters and alteration of the intranuclear localization of Stat3 on CypB depletion suggested a nuclear function of Stat3/CypB interaction. By contrast, CypA knockdown inhibited Stat3 IL-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The Cyp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) caused similar effects. However, Stat1 activation in response to IL-6 or interferon-gamma was not affected by Cyp silencing or CsA treatment. As a result, Cyp knockdown shifted IL-6 signaling to a Stat1-dominated pathway. Furthermore, Cyp depletion or treatment with CsA induced apoptosis in IL-6-dependent multiple myeloma cells, whereas an IL-6-independent line was not affected. Thus, Cyps support the anti-apoptotic action of Stat3. Taken together, CypA and CypB both play pivotal roles, yet at different signaling levels, for Stat3 activation and function. These data also suggest a novel mechanism of CsA action.

    Oncogene 2009;28;31;2784-95

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is a substrate for the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity of cyclophilins A and B.

    Hanoulle X, Badillo A, Wieruszeski JM, Verdegem D, Landrieu I, Bartenschlager R, Penin F and Lippens G

    Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, UMR 8576 CNRS, IFR 147, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    We report here a biochemical and structural characterization of domain 2 of the nonstructural 5A protein (NS5A) from the JFH1 Hepatitis C virus strain and its interactions with cyclophilins A and B (CypA and CypB). Gel filtration chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and finally NMR spectroscopy all indicate the natively unfolded nature of this NS5A-D2 domain. Because mutations in this domain have been linked to cyclosporin A resistance, we used NMR spectroscopy to investigate potential interactions between NS5A-D2 and cellular CypA and CypB. We observed a direct molecular interaction between NS5A-D2 and both cyclophilins. The interaction surface on the cyclophilins corresponds to their active site, whereas on NS5A-D2, it proved to be distributed over the many proline residues of the domain. NMR heteronuclear exchange spectroscopy yielded direct evidence that many proline residues in NS5A-D2 form a valid substrate for the enzymatic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of CypA and CypB.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;20;13589-601

  • Expression of cyclophilin B is associated with malignant progression and regulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

    Fang F, Flegler AJ, Du P, Lin S and Clevenger CV

    Breast Cancer Program, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center & Department of Pathology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a 21-kDa protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity that functions as a transcriptional inducer for Stat5 and as a ligand for CD147. To better understand the global function of CypB in breast cancer, T47D cells with a small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CypB were generated. Subsequent expression profiling analysis showed that 663 transcripts were regulated by CypB knockdown, and that many of these gene products contributed to cell proliferation, cell motility, and tumorigenesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that STMN3, S100A4, S100A6, c-Myb, estrogen receptor alpha, growth hormone receptor, and progesterone receptor were all down-regulated in si-CypB cells. A linkage analysis of these array data to protein networks resulted in the identification of 27 different protein networks that were impacted by CypB knockdown. Functional assays demonstrated that CypB knockdown also decreased cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses of a matched breast cancer progression tissue microarray that was labeled with an anti-CypB antibody demonstrated a highly significant increase in CypB protein levels as a function of breast cancer progression. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhanced expression of CypB in malignant breast epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease through its regulation of the expression of hormone receptors and gene products that are involved in cell proliferation and motility.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA102682

    The American journal of pathology 2009;174;1;297-308

  • The human TRPV6 channel protein is associated with cyclophilin B in human placenta.

    Stumpf T, Zhang Q, Hirnet D, Lewandrowski U, Sickmann A, Wissenbach U, Dörr J, Lohr C, Deitmer JW and Fecher-Trost C

    Abteilungen Proteinfunktion/Proteomics and Allgemeine Zoologie des Fachbereichs Biologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

    Transcellular calcium transport in the kidney, pancreas, small intestine, and placenta is partly mediated by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The highly selective TRPV6 calcium channel protein is most likely important for the calcium transfer in different specialized epithelial cells. In the human placenta the protein is expressed in trophoblast tissue, where it is implicated in the transepithelial calcium transfer from mother to the fetus. We enriched the TRPV6 channel protein endogenously expressed in placenta together with annexin A2 and cyclophilin B (CypB), which is a member of the huge immunophilin family. In the human placenta TRPV6 and CypB are mainly located intracellularly in the syncytiotrophoblast layer, but a small amount of the mature glycosylated TRPV6 channel protein and CypB is also expressed in microvilli apical membranes, the fetomaternal barrier. To understand the role of CypB on the TRPV6 channel function, we evaluated the effect of CypB co-expression on TRPV6-mediated calcium uptake into Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TRPV6. A significant increase of TRPV6-mediated calcium uptake was observed after CypB/TRPV6 co-expression. This stimulatory effect of CypB was reversed by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, which inhibits the enzymatic activity of CypB. Cyclosporin A had no significant effect on TRPV6 and CypB protein expression levels in the oocytes. In summary, our results establish CypB as a new TRPV6 accessory protein with potential involvement in TRPV6 channel activation through its peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;26;18086-98

  • Cyclophilin B induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion by a mechanism involving CD98-dependent activation of protein kinase C-delta and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Melchior A, Denys A, Deligny A, Mazurier J and Allain F

    Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, Unité Mixte de Recherche No. 8576 du CNRS, Institut de Recherche Fédératif No. 147, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.

    Initially identified as a cyclosporin-A binding protein, cyclophilin B (CyPB) is an inflammatory mediator that induces adhesion of T lymphocytes to fibronectin, by a mechanism dependent on CD147 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins. Recent findings have suggested that another cell membrane protein, CD98, may cooperate with CD147 to regulate beta1 integrin functions. Based on these functional relationships, we examined the contribution of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB, by utilizing the responsive promonocyte cell line THP-1. We demonstrated that cross-linking CD98 with CD98-AHN-18 antibody mimicked the responses induced by CyPB, i.e. homotypic aggregation, integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin and activation of p44/42 MAPK. Consistent with previous data, immunoprecipitation confirmed the existence of a heterocomplex wherein CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins were associated. We then demonstrated that CyPB-induced cell adhesion and p44/42 MAPK activation were dependent on the participation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and subsequent activation of protein kinase C-delta. Finally, silencing the expression of CD98 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB-induced cell responses, thus confirming the role of CD98 in the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, our results support a model whereby CyPB induces integrin-mediated adhesion via interaction with a multimolecular unit formed by the association between CD147, CD98 and beta1 integrins.

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;3;616-28

  • The heparin/heparan sulfate sequence that interacts with cyclophilin B contains a 3-O-sulfated N-unsubstituted glucosamine residue.

    Vanpouille C, Deligny A, Delehedde M, Denys A, Melchior A, Liénard X, Lyon M, Mazurier J, Fernig DG and Allain F

    Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, Unité Mixte de Recherche Number 8576 du CNRS, Institut de Recherche Fédératif No. 147, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    Many of the biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans can be attributed to specialized structures within HS moieties, which are thought to modulate binding and function of various effector proteins. Cyclophilin B (CyPB), which was initially identified as a cyclosporin A-binding protein, triggers migration and integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes by a mechanism dependent on interaction with cell surface HS. Here we determined the structural features of HS that are responsible for the specific binding of CyPB. In addition to the involvement of 2-O,6-O, and N-sulfate groups, we also demonstrated that binding of CyPB was dependent on the presence of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues (GlcNH2), which have been reported to be precursors for sulfation by 3-O-sulfotransferases-3 (3-OST-3). Interestingly, 3-OST-3B isoform was found to be the main 3-OST isoenzyme expressed in peripheral blood T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells. Moreover, down-regulation of the expression of 3-OST-3 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB binding and consequent activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Altogether, our results strongly support the hypothesis that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2 residues could be a key modification that provides specialized HS structures for CyPB binding to responsive cells. Given that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2-containing HS by 3-OST-3 also provides binding sites for glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type I, these findings suggest an intriguing structural linkage between the HS sequences involved in CyPB binding and viral infection.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;33;24416-29

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase.

    Watashi K, Ishii N, Hijikata M, Inoue D, Murata T, Miyanari Y and Shimotohno K

    Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

    Viruses depend on host-derived factors for their efficient genome replication. Here, we demonstrate that a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin B (CyPB), is critical for the efficient replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. CyPB interacted with the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B to directly stimulate its RNA binding activity. Both the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CyPB expression and the induced loss of NS5B binding to CyPB decreased the levels of HCV replication. Thus, CyPB functions as a stimulatory regulator of NS5B in HCV replication machinery. This regulation mechanism for viral replication identifies CyPB as a target for antiviral therapeutic strategies.

    Molecular cell 2005;19;1;111-22

  • Role of cyclophilin B in activation of interferon regulatory factor-3.

    Obata Y, Yamamoto K, Miyazaki M, Shimotohno K, Kohno S and Matsuyama T

    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan.

    IRF-3 is a member of the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and plays a principal role in the induction of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) by virus infection. Virus infection results in the phosphorylation of IRF-3 by IkappaB kinase epsilon and TANK-binding kinase 1, leading to its dimerization and association with the coactivators CREB-binding protein/p300. The IRF-3 holocomplex translocates to the nucleus, where it induces IFN-beta. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism of IRF-3 activation. Using bacterial two-hybrid screening, we isolated molecules that interact with IRF-3. One of these was cyclophilin B, a member of the immunophilins with a cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. A GST pull-down assay suggested that one of the autoinhibition domains of IRF-3 and the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of cyclophilin B are required for the binding. A knockdown of cyclophilin B expression by RNA interference resulted in the suppression of virus-induced IRF-3 phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of the subsequent dimerization, association with CREB-binding protein, binding to the target DNA element, and induction of IFN-beta. These findings indicate that cyclophilin B plays a critical role in IRF-3 activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;18;18355-60

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cyclophilin D, a component of the permeability transition-pore, is an apoptosis repressor.

    Schubert A and Grimm S

    Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

    The permeability transition (PT)-pore is an important proapoptotic protein complex in mitochondria. Although it is activated by many signals for apoptosis induction, the role of its various subunits in cell death induction has remained largely unknown. We found that of its components, only the voltage-dependent anion channel in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the adenine nucleotide translocator-1 (ANT-1), a PT-pore subunit of the inner membrane, are apoptosis inducers. We also report that ANT-1's direct interactor, cyclophilin D, can specifically repress ANT-1-induced apoptosis. In addition, cotransfection experiments revealed that for a diverse range of apoptosis inducers, cyclophilin D shows the same repression profile as the compound bongkrekic acid, a specific inhibitor of the PT-pore. This activity seems to be independent of its chaperone activity, the only known function of cyclophilin D to date. Importantly, cyclophilin D is specifically up-regulated in human tumors of the breast, ovary, and uterus, suggesting that inhibition of the PT-pore via up-regulation of cyclophilin D plays a role in tumorigenesis.

    Cancer research 2004;64;1;85-93

  • Nascent lipidated apolipoprotein B is transported to the Golgi as an incompletely folded intermediate as probed by its association with network of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones, GRP94, ERp72, BiP, calreticulin, and cyclophilin B.

    Zhang J and Herscovitz H

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Advanced Biomedical Research, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    We have previously demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) during its maturation. The initial stages of apoB folding occur while it is bound to the ER membrane, where it becomes partially lipidated to form a primordial intermediate. We determined whether this intermediate is dependent on the assistance of molecular chaperones for its subsequent folding steps. To that end, microsomes were prepared from HepG2 cells and luminal contents were subjected to KBr density gradient centrifugation. Immunoprecipitation of apoB followed by Western blotting showed that the luminal pool floated at a density of 1.12 g/ml and, like the membrane-bound pool, was associated with GRP94, ERp72, BiP, calreticulin, and cyclophilin B. Except for calreticulin, chaperone/apoB ratio in the lumen was severalfold higher than that in the membrane, suggesting a role for these chaperones both in facilitating the release of the primordial intermediate into the ER lumen and in providing stability. Subcellular fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that apoB in the Golgi was associated with the same array of chaperones as the pool of apoB recovered from heavy microsomes containing the ER, except that chaperone/apoB ratio was lower. KBr density gradient fractionation showed that the major pool of luminal apoB in the Golgi was recovered from 1.02 < d < 1.08 g/ml, whereas apoB in ER was recovered primarily from 1.08 < d < 1.2 g/ml. Both fractions were associated with the same spectrum of chaperones. Together with the finding that GRP94 was found associated with sialylated apoB, we conclude that correct folding of apoB is dependent on the assistance of molecular chaperone, which play multiple roles in its maturation throughout the secretory pathway including distal compartments such as the trans-Golgi network.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-26335, HL-58833

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7459-68

  • A subset of chaperones and folding enzymes form multiprotein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum to bind nascent proteins.

    Meunier L, Usherwood YK, Chung KT and Hendershot LM

    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    We demonstrate the existence of a large endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multiprotein complex that is comprised of the molecular chaperones BiP; GRP94; CaBP1; protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); ERdj3, a recently identified ER Hsp40 cochaperone; cyclophilin B; ERp72; GRP170; UDP-glucosyltransferase; and SDF2-L1. This complex is associated with unassembled, incompletely folded immunoglobulin heavy chains. Except for ERdj3, and to a lesser extent PDI, this complex also forms in the absence of nascent protein synthesis and is found in a variety of cell types. Cross-linking studies reveal that the majority of these chaperones are included in the complex. Our data suggest that this subset of ER chaperones forms an ER network that can bind to unfolded protein substrates instead of existing as free pools that assembled onto substrate proteins. It is noticeable that most of the components of the calnexin/calreticulin system, which include some of the most abundant chaperones inside the ER, are either not detected in this complex or only very poorly represented. This study demonstrates an organization of ER chaperones and folding enzymes that has not been previously appreciated and suggests a spatial separation of the two chaperone systems that may account for the temporal interactions observed in other studies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-21765, P30 CA021765; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-54068, R01 GM054068

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;12;4456-69

  • Immunophilins and HIV-1 infection.

    Minder D, Böni J, Schüpbach J and Gehring H

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Peptides of the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have been shown to bind with high affinity to the immunophilins cyclophilin (Cyp) A, CypB and the FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) [10]. We investigated whether immunophilins affect HIV-1 infection by assuming they are able to bind to the V3 loop of gp120. T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with T-cell-tropic or macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively, in the presence of different concentrations of immunophilins. P24 antigen ELISA and real-time PCR measurements demonstrated that exogenously added immunophilins do not influence HIV-1 infection. CypA is known to interact with the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein and to be incorporated into the virions. This incorporation can be prevented by cyclosporin A (CsA) resulting in a decreased yield of infectious virus, the mechanism of which is unknown. We measured a normal production of proviral DNA in the first round of infection in CsA treated cells but afterwards, infection was decreased if CsA was present. Pre-treatment of the HIV-1 inocula with CsA, blocking the function of virus-associated CypA, did not inhibit the ensuing yield of infection. We therefore may conclude that endogenous CypA exerts its action after reverse transcription but before virus maturation, probably during capsid formation. FK520, an immunosuppressor which binds to FKBP, had no effect on HIV-1 infection.

    Archives of virology 2002;147;8;1531-42

  • The intranuclear prolactin/cyclophilin B complex as a transcriptional inducer.

    Rycyzyn MA and Clevenger CV

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    The nuclear translocation of peptide hormones, such as the somatolactogenic hormone prolactin, after receptor internalization has been widely reported. Prolactin has been demonstrated to interact with cyclophilin B, a member of the immunophilin family of proteins. Cyclophilin B interaction with prolactin potentiated prolactin-induced proliferation, cell growth, and the nuclear retrotransport of prolactin. These effects could be abrogated by the removal of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilin B. Our findings indicate that the intranuclear prolactin/cyclophilin B complex acts as a transcriptional inducer by interacting directly with Stat5, resulting in the removal of the Stat-repressor protein inhibitor of activated Stat 3 (PIAS3), thereby enhancing Stat5 DNA-binding activity and prolactin-induced, Stat5-mediated gene expression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA069294, R01CA69294; NIDDK NIH HHS: F32 DK010043, F32DK10043

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;10;6790-5

  • Receptor type I and type II binding regions and the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase site of cyclophilin B are required for enhancement of T-lymphocyte adhesion to fibronectin.

    Carpentier M, Allain F, Slomianny MC, Durieux S, Vanpouille C, Haendler B and Spik G

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Unité Mixte de Recherche No. 8576 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IFR 118, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), a cyclosporin A (CsA) binding protein, interacts with two types of binding sites at the surface of T-lymphocytes. The type I sites correspond to functional receptors involved in endocytosis and the type II sites to sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Mutational analysis of CyPB has revealed that W128, which is part of the CsA-binding pocket, is implicated in the binding to the functional type I receptors and that two amino acid clusters located in the N-terminus ensure the binding to GAGs. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity of CyPB is not required for receptor binding. We have recently demonstrated that CyPB enhances adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We intended to identify additional amino acids involved in the binding of CyPB to its functional type I receptor and to determine regions responsible for the stimulation of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte adhesion. We determined that residues R76, G77, K132, D155, and D158 of the calcineurin (CN) interacting region were implicated in the recognition of type I receptor but not of GAGs. We also found that two different changes in the N-terminal extension that abated binding to GAGs prevented adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated CyPB, whereas abbrogation of the PPIase activity had no effect. On the other hand, the adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated fibronectin was not stimulated by CyPB mutants devoid of either type I receptor or GAGs binding activity or by mutants of the PPIase site. Altogether, the results demonstrate that different regions of CyPB are involved in peripheral blood T-lymphocyte activation and imply a novel important physiological function for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;16;5222-9

  • Interaction with glycosaminoglycans is required for cyclophilin B to trigger integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes to extracellular matrix.

    Allain F, Vanpouille C, Carpentier M, Slomianny MC, Durieux S and Spik G

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Unité Mixte de Recherche No. 8576 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A-binding proteins that are involved in inflammatory events. We have reported that CyPB interacts with two types of cell-surface-binding sites. The first site corresponds to a functional receptor and requires interaction with the central core of CyPB. This region is highly conserved in cyclophilins, suggesting that CyPA and CyPB might share biological activities mediated by interaction with this receptor. The second site is identified with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the binding region located in the N terminus of CyPB. The difference in the N-terminal extensions of CyPA and CyPB suggests that a unique interaction with GAGs might account for selective activity of CyPB. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed the lymphocyte responses triggered by CyPA, CyPB, and CyPB(KKK-), a mutant unable to interact with GAGs. The three ligands seemed capable enough to elicit calcium signal and chemotaxis by binding to the same signaling receptor. In contrast, only CyPB enhanced firm adhesion of T cells to the extracellular matrix. This activity depended on the interactions with GAGs and signaling receptor. CyPB-mediated adhesion required CD147 presumably because it was a costimulatory molecule and was related to an activation of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins. Finally, we showed that CyPB was capable mainly to enhance T cell adhesion of the CD4+CD45RO+ subset. The present data indicate that CyPB rather than CyPA is a proinflammatory factor for T lymphocytes and highlight the crucial role of CyPB-GAG interaction in the chemokine-like activity of this protein.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;5;2714-9

  • CD147 is a signaling receptor for cyclophilin B.

    Yurchenko V, O'Connor M, Dai WW, Guo H, Toole B, Sherry B and Bukrinsky M

    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA.

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A binding proteins that can be secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. We recently identified CD147 as a cell-surface receptor for CyPA and demonstrated that CD147 is an essential component in the CyPA-initiated signaling cascade that culminates in ERK activation and chemotaxis. Here we demonstrate that CD147 also serves as a receptor for CyPB. CyPB induced Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis of CD147-transfected, but not control, CHO cells, and the chemotactic response of primary human neutrophils to CyPB was blocked by antibodies to CD147. These results suggest that CD147 serves as a receptor for extracellular cyclophilins.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;288;4;786-8

  • Role of cyclophilin B in prolactin signal transduction and nuclear retrotranslocation.

    Rycyzyn MA, Reilly SC, O'Malley K and Clevenger CV

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

    The pleiotropic actions of PRL are necessary for mammary growth and differentiation and in vitro lymphoid proliferation. The proximal action of this ligand is mediated by its cell surface receptor via associated networks. PRL action, however, is also associated with the internalization and translocation of this hormone into the nucleus. To delineate the mechanism of this retrotranslocation, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed and revealed an interaction between PRL and cyclophilin B (CypB). CypB is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPI) found in the endoplasmic reticulum, extracellular space, and nucleus. The interaction between CypB and PRL was subsequently confirmed in vitro and in vivo through the use of recombinant proteins and coimmunoprecipitation studies. The exogenous addition of CypB potentiated the 3H-thymidine incorporation of PRL-dependent cell lines up to 18-fold. CypB by itself was nonmitogenic and did not potentiate the action of GH or other interleukins. CypB did not alter the affinity of the PRL receptor (PRLr) for its ligand, or increase the phosphorylation of PRLr-associated Jak2 or Stat5a. The potentiation of PRL-action by CypB, however, was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the nuclear retrotranslocation of PRL. A CypB mutant, termed CypB-NT, was generated that lacked the wild-type N-terminal nuclear localization sequence. Although CypB-NT demonstrated levels of PRL binding and PPI activity equivalent to wild-type CypB, it was incapable of mediating the nuclear retrotranslocation of PRL or enhancing PRL-driven proliferation. These studies reveal CypB as an important chaperone facilitating the nuclear retrotransport and action of the lactogenic hormones.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-69294, T32 CA-09140; NIDDK NIH HHS: F32 DK 10043-01

    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2000;14;8;1175-86

  • Human cyclophilin has a significantly higher affinity for HIV-1 recombinant p55 than p24.

    Bristow R, Byrne J, Squirell J, Trencher H, Carter T, Rodgers B, Saman E and Duncan J

    Murex Biotech Ltd., Dartford, Kent, UK. Richard.Bristow@abbott.com

    The ability of cyclophilin to bind a panel of recombinant HIV-gag proteins was assessed using sensitive, quantitative, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs). Significantly higher binding to cyclophilin was observed when recombinants contained at least 12 carboxy-terminal amino acids of p17 in addition to p24 sequences. These results indicate that the carboxy-terminus of p17 is important for optimal binding of cyclophilin to p24 and support the theory that cyclophilin acts on the uncleaved HIV-1 gag (p17-p24) precursor.

    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association 1999;20;4;334-6

  • Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain.

    Endrich MM, Gehrig P and Gehring H

    Biochemisches Institut, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

    Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;9;5326-32

  • The V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope protein is a high-affinity ligand for immunophilins present in human blood.

    Endrich MM and Gehring H

    Biochemisches Institut, Universität Zürich, Switzerland.

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection requires binding of the envelope protein gp120 to host CD4 receptors and the action of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 or CCR5, which define cell tropism. The proline-containing V3 loop of gp120 determines the selection of the chemokine receptor and participates in conformational changes on binding of gp120 to CD4. In this study, we show that macrophage-tropic and T-cell-tropic V3 loop peptides bind specifically to the active site of the immunophilins FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), and cyclophilins A and B. Macrophage-tropic and T-cell-tropic V3 loop peptides inhibited the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activities of the immunophilins. Kd values in the range 0.036-4.1 microM were determined with V3 loop peptides labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore. The observed binding properties of the V3 loop peptides reveal structural motifs of linear water-soluble peptidic substrates for tight interaction with immunophilins. FKBP12, and cyclophilins A and B were found to be present in normal human blood in the ranges 0.8-1.7, 1.4-2.3 and 2.4-3.1 nM, respectively, as demonstrated by PPIase activity measurements and western blot analysis. Cyclophilins A and B levels in serum of HIV-1-infected individuals were increased 3.6-fold and 1.6-fold. Due to the interaction of immunophilins with V3 loop peptides and with the envelope protein gp120, a role of immunophilins in HIV pathogenesis as conformases or docking mediators seems possible, since immunophilin receptors on cell membranes and immunophilin-related virulence factors of pathogens have been identified.

    European journal of biochemistry 1998;252;3;441-6

  • Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Denys A, Allain F, Foxwell B and Spik G

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. We have recently demonstrated that both free CyPB and CyPB-CsA complex specifically bind to peripheral blood T lymphocytes and are internalized. These results suggest that CyPB might promote the targeting of the drug into sensitive cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are subdivided in several populations according to their biological functions and sensitivity to CsA. We have investigated the binding of CyPB to these different subsets using a CyPB derivatized by fluorescein through its single cysteine which retains its binding properties. We have confirmed that only T cells were involved in the interaction with CyPB. The ligand binding was found to be heterogeneously distributed on the different T-cell subsets and surface-bound CyPB was mainly associated with the CD4-positive cells. No significant difference was noted between the CD45RA and CD45RO subsets, demonstrating that CyPB-binding sites were equally distributed between native and memory T cells. CD3 stimulation of T lymphocytes led to a decrease in the CyPB-binding capacity, that may be explained by a down-regulation of the CyPB-receptor expression upon T-cell activation. Finally, we demonstrated that CyPB-receptor-positive cells, isolated on CyPB sulphydryl-coupled affinity matrices, are more sensitive to CyPB-complexed CsA than mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that CyPB potentiates CsA activity through the binding of the complex. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CyPB-binding sites are mainly associated with resting cells of the helper T lymphocyte, and that CyPB might modulate the distribution of CsA through the drug targeting to sensitive cells.

    Immunology 1997;91;4;609-17

  • Native recombinant cyclophilins A, B, and C degrade DNA independently of peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity. Potential roles of cyclophilins in apoptosis.

    Montague JW, Hughes FM and Cidlowski JA

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    Previous work in our laboratory (Montague, J., Gaido, M., Frye, C., and Cidlowski, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18877-18880) has shown that human recombinant cyclophilins A, B, and C have sequence homology with the apoptotic nuclease NUC18 and that denatured cyclophilins can degrade DNA. We have now evaluated the nucleolytic activity of recombinant cyclophilins under native conditions. We show that nuclease activity inherent to cyclophilins is distinct from cis-trans-peptidylprolyl isomerase activity and is similar to that described for apoptotic nucleases. Cyclophilin nucleolytic activity is stimulated by Ca2+ and/or Mg2+, with a combination of the two being optimal for cyclophilins A and B. Mg2+ alone is sufficient for cyclophilin C nuclease activity. pH optimums are in the range of pH 7.5-9.5. Cyclophilins can degrade both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. Additionally, cyclophilins produce 3'-OH termini in linear double-stranded substrates, suggesting the cuts produced are similar to those of apoptotic cells. Cyclophilins also display endonucleolytic activity, demonstrated by their ability to degrade supercoiled DNA. In the absence of ions, cyclophilins bind linearized DNA. When added to nuclei from nonapoptotic cells, cyclophilin C induces 50-kilobase pair DNA fragmentation but not internucleosomal fragmentation. Together, these data suggest that cyclophilins are involved in degradation of the genome during apoptosis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;10;6677-84

  • The hydrophobic pocket of cyclophilin is the binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein.

    Braaten D, Ansari H and Luban J

    Department of Microbiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    Completion of an early step in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle requires incorporation into virions of the cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A (CyPA) by the Gag polyprotein. Elucidation of the biochemical role of CyPA would be aided by a detailed analysis of the genetic requirements for the formation of the Gag-CyPA complex; previous experiments have demonstrated the requirement for a critical proline and the immediately preceding glycine, located within the capsid domain of Gag, but nothing is known about the necessary CyPA residues. Cyclophilins possess a hydrophobic pocket where proline-containing peptide substrates and the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A bind. In this study, we engineered five CyPA mutations, each of which alters a residue that contributes to the hydrophobic pocket. Compared with the wild-type protein, all of the mutants drastically reduced CyPA binding to HIV-1 Gag and similarly inhibited CyPA incorporation into virions. In addition, we demonstrated that previously reported differences between the Gag-binding properties of CyPA and CyPB are due to adventitious association involving residues in the signal sequence of CyPB and that the core domain of CyPB interacts with Gag in a fashion which is indistinguishable from that of CyPA. These studies indicate that, as with other proline-containing peptides or cyclosporine A, HIV-1 Gag directly contacts residues in the hydrophobic pocket of CyPA.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 36199, R01 AI036199; NIGMS NIH HHS: MSTP 5T32GM07367

    Journal of virology 1997;71;3;2107-13

  • Selective assay for CyPA and CyPB in human blood using highly specific anti-peptide antibodies.

    Allain F, Boutillon C, Mariller C and Spik G

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq France.

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are known to be the main binding proteins for cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug. Due to the high homology between the two proteins, antibodies to CyPB were found to cross-react with CyPA. In order to avoid this phenomenon, we raised specific antibodies against peptides copying the most divergent parts of the two sequences. These antibodies allowed us to develop an ELISA capture assay selective for either isotype. Thus, we showed that leukocyte CyPB concentration was almost ten times lower than that of CyPA, and that in contrast to the results described in the literature, only CyPB was released in plasma. Moreover, CyPB levels in leukocytes and plasma were found to correlate for the same donor, but no relationship was found with CyPA level.

    Journal of immunological methods 1995;178;1;113-20

  • Calcium signalling in T cells stimulated by a cyclophilin B-binding protein.

    Bram RJ and Crabtree GR

    Department of Experimental Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

    The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A blocks a calcium-dependent signal from the T-cell receptor (TCR) that normally leads to T-cell activation. When bound to cyclophilin, cyclosporin A binds and inactivates the key signalling intermediate calcineurin. To identify potential cellular homologues of cyclosporin A that might regulate calcium signalling, we have cloned human genes encoding cyclophilin B-binding-proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. One gene product, when overexpressed in Jurkat T cells, specifically induced transcription from the interleukin-2 enhancer, by activating the T-cell-specific transcription factors NF-AT and NF-IL2A. This protein, termed calcium-signal modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML), acts downstream of the TCR and upstream of calcineurin by causing an influx of calcium. CAML appears to be a new participant in the calcium-signal transduction pathway, implicating cyclophilin B in calcium signalling, even in the absence of cyclosporin.

    Nature 1994;371;6495;355-8

  • Characterization of surface binding sites for cyclophilin B on a human tumor T-cell line.

    Allain F, Denys A and Spik G

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin-binding protein, known to be located mainly within the endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Its previous characterization in human milk implies that the protein may be released from the secretory pathway and recovered in biological fluids. In an attempt to understand the role of the extracellular CyPB, we have investigated the binding capacity of the protein to cells derived from human T- and B-lymphocytes. We present here evidence that CyPB binds to T-lymphocytes and that the binding to the Jurkat T-cell surface is specific, saturable, and reversible. The dissociation constant Kd was 12 nM, and the number of binding sites was estimated to 35,000/cell. We report that the surface-bound CyPB was internalized at 37 degrees C and subsequently degraded in the cell. We also show that the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A does not inhibit the surface binding of CyPB, and does not interfere with internalization of the protein. These results support the hypothesis that the selective action of the immunosuppressive drug results in part from its interaction with the extracellular form of CyPB.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;24;16537-40

  • X-ray structure of a cyclophilin B/cyclosporin complex: comparison with cyclophilin A and delineation of its calcineurin-binding domain.

    Mikol V, Kallen J and Walkinshaw MD

    Preclinical Research, Sandoz AG, Basel, Switzerland.

    The crystal structure of a complex between recombinant human cyclophilin B (CypB) and a cyclosporin A (CsA) analog has been determined and refined at 1.85-A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 16.0%. The overall structures of CypB and of cyclophilin A (CypA) are similar; however, significant differences occur in two loops and at the N and C termini. The CsA-binding pocket in CypB has the same structure as in CypA and cyclosporin shows a similar bound conformation and network of interactions in both CypB and CypA complexes. The network of the water-mediated contacts is also essentially conserved. The higher potency of the CypB/CsA complex versus CypA/CsA in inhibiting the Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is discussed in terms of the structural differences between the two complexes. The three residues Arg90, Lys113, and Ala128 and the loop containing Arg158 on the surface of CypB are likely to modulate the differences in calcineurin inhibition between CypA and CypB.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;11;5183-6

  • Cyclophilin B trafficking through the secretory pathway is altered by binding of cyclosporin A.

    Price ER, Jin M, Lim D, Pati S, Walsh CT and McKeon FD

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.

    Cyclophilin B is targeted to the secretory pathway via an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence. We analyzed the localization and trafficking of endogenous and transfected cyclophilin B in mammalian cells. Cyclophilin B accumulates both in the endoplasmic reticulum and in complexes on the plasma membrane. The immunosuppressant cyclosporin A specifically mobilizes cyclophilin B from the endoplasmic reticulum, and promotes the secretion of cyclophilin B into the medium. We suggest that cyclosporin A competes with endogenous plasma membrane proteins for association with cyclophilin B in the secretory pathway. These findings argue in favor of a role for cyclophilin B as a chaperone to proteins destined for the plasma membrane, rather than solely as a proline isomerase functioning within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20011

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;9;3931-5

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein binds to cyclophilins A and B.

    Luban J, Bossolt KL, Franke EK, Kalpana GV and Goff SP

    Department of Medicine, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    Retroviral Gag protein is capable of directing the assembly of virion particles independent of other retroviral elements and plays an important role early in the infection of a cell. Using the GAL4 two hybrid system, we screened a cDNA expression library and identified two host proteins, cyclophillins (CyPs) A and B, which interact specifically with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein Pr55gag. Glutathione S-transferase-CyP fusion proteins bind tightly to Pr55gag in vitro, as well as to the HIV-1 capsid protein p24. Cyclosporin A efficiently disrupts the Gag-CyPA interaction and less efficiently disrupts the Gag-CyPB interaction. The Gag-CyP interaction may be important for the HIV-1 life cycle and may be relevant to the pathology caused by this immunosuppressive virus.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 00988, AI 24845

    Cell 1993;73;6;1067-78

  • Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Rasmussen HH, van Damme J, Puype M, Gesser B, Celis JE and Vandekerckhove J

    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Aarhus University, Denmark.

    Microsequencing of proteins recovered from two-dimensional (2-D) gels is being used systematically to identify proteins in the master human keratinocyte 2-D gel database. To date, about 250 protein spots recorded in human 2-D gel databases have been microsequenced and, of these, 145 are recorded in the keratinocyte database under the entry partial amino acid sequence. Coomassie Brilliant Blue-stained protein spots cut from several (up to 40) dry gels were concentrated by elution-concentration gel electrophoresis, electroblotted onto PVDF membranes and digested in situ with trypsin. Eluting peptides were separated by reversed-phase HPLC, collected individually and sequenced. Computer search using the FASTA and TFASTA programs from Genetics Computer Group indicated that 110 of the microsequenced polypeptides shared significant similarity with proteins contained in the PIR, Mipsx or GenEMBL databases. Only 35 polypeptides corresponded to hitherto unknown proteins. Peptide sequences of all 145 proteins are listed together with their coordinates (apparent molecular weight and pI) in the keratinocyte database.

    Electrophoresis 1992;13;12;960-9

  • s-cyclophilin is retained intracellularly via a unique COOH-terminal sequence and colocalizes with the calcium storage protein calreticulin.

    Arber S, Krause KH and Caroni P

    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

    Cyclophilins (cyclosporin A-binding proteins) are conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins that accelerate the isomerization of XaaPro peptide bonds and the refolding of proteins in vitro. s-Cyclophilin is a member of the cyclophilin family with unique NH2- and COOH-terminal extensions, and with a signal sequence. We now report that s-cyclophilin is retained in the cell, and that the conserved s-cyclophilin-specific COOH-terminal extension VEKPFAIAKE is sufficient to direct a secretory protein to s-cyclophilin containing structures. Antibodies to s-cyclophilin-specific peptides were produced and the location of the protein was determined by an immunocytochemical study at the light microscopic level. s-Cyclophilin colocalized with the Ca(2+)-binding protein calreticulin and, to a lesser extent, with the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase in the myogenic cell line L6, and with the Ca(2+)-binding protein calsequestrin in skeletal muscle. In activated platelets, s-cyclophilin immunoreactivity was detected in a ring-like structure that might correspond to the Ca(2+)-storing and -releasing dense tubular network. In spreading cells, s-cyclophilin containing vesicular structures accumulated at actin-rich protrusion sites. While s-cyclophilin consistently codistributed with Ca2+ storage site markers, the distribution of s-cyclophilin immunoreactivity was not identical to that of ER markers. To determine whether the COOH-terminal extension of s-cyclophilin was involved in its intracellular transport we added this sequence to the COOH-terminus of the secretory protein glia-derived nexin. Appropriate constructs were expressed transiently in cultured cells and proteins were detected with specific antibodies. We found that glia-derived nexin with the COOH-terminal sequence VEKPFAIAKE (but not with the control sequence GLVVMNIT) colocalized with endogenous s-cyclophilin, indicating that the sequence contained retention information. These results indicate that s-cyclophilin is a retained component of an intracellular organelle and that it may accumulate in specialized portions of the ER, and possibly in calciosomes. Because of its conserved structure, widespread distribution, and abundance s-cyclophilin may be a useful marker to study the biogenesis and distribution of ER subcompartments.

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;116;1;113-25

  • Somatic cell mapping of the human cyclophilin B gene (PPIB) to chromosome 15.

    Peddada LB, McPherson JD, Law R, Wasmuth JJ, Youderian P and Deans RJ

    Department of Microbiology, Kenneth Norris Cancer Center, University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles 90033.

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to generate a unique probe complementary to the hydrophobic 5' end of the human cyclophilin B gene. This unique probe was hybridized to DNAs from human x hamster hybrid somatic cell lines retaining different combinations of human chromosomes. The gene was assigned to chromosome 15.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG 00320; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM41988; NINDS NIH HHS: NS26991

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1992;60;3-4;219-21

  • An endoplasmic reticulum-specific cyclophilin.

    Hasel KW, Glass JR, Godbout M and Sutcliffe JG

    Department of Molecular Biology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California 92037.

    Cyclophilin is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. A degenerate oligonucleotide based on a conserved cyclophilin sequence was used to isolate cDNA clones representing a ubiquitously expressed mRNA from mice and humans. This mRNA encodes a novel 20-kDa protein, CPH2, that shares 64% sequence identity with cyclophilin. Bacterially expressed CPH2 binds cyclosporin A and is a cyclosporin A-inhibitable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Cell fractionation of rat liver followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that CPH2 is not cytosolic but rather is located exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that cyclosporin A mediates its effect on cells through more than one cyclophilin and that cyclosporin A-induced misfolding of T-cell membrane proteins normally mediated by CPH2 plays a role in immunosuppression.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1991;11;7;3484-91

  • A novel secreted cyclophilin-like protein (SCYLP).

    Spik G, Haendler B, Delmas O, Mariller C, Chamoux M, Maes P, Tartar A, Montreuil J, Stedman K, Kocher HP et al.

    Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille Flandres-Artois, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

    A novel cyclosporin A binding glycoprotein of 21 kDa was isolated from human milk by several steps of cation exchange chromatography. The corresponding gene was cloned from human T cells, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified. The protein shares 58% amino acid identity with the cytosolic cyclophilin and is initially synthesized with a hydrophobic leader sequence. The cyclophilin-like protein has also peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase activity, although less efficient, that is inhibited by cyclosporin A. The existence of a secreted form of cyclophilin-like protein in addition to the previously known cytosolic cyclophilin implies that these proteins act on different in vivo targets.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1991;266;17;10735-8

  • Human cyclophilin B: a second cyclophilin gene encodes a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase with a signal sequence.

    Price ER, Zydowsky LD, Jin MJ, Baker CH, McKeon FD and Walsh CT

    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.

    We report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a second human cyclosporin A-binding protein (hCyPB). Homology analyses reveal that hCyPB is a member of the cyclophilin B (CyPB) family, which includes yeast CyPB, Drosophila nina A, and rat cyclophilin-like protein. This family is distinguished from the cyclophilin A (CyPA) family by the presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed signal sequences. hCyPB has a hydrophobic leader sequence not found in hCyPA, and its first 25 amino acids are removed upon expression in Escherichia coli. Moreover, we show that hCyPB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase which can be inhibited by cyclosporin A. These observations suggest that other members of the CyPB family will have similar enzymatic properties. Sequence comparisons of the CyPB proteins show a central, 165-amino acid peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and cyclosporin A-binding domain, flanked by variable N-terminal and C-terminal domains. These two variable regions may impart compartmental specificity and regulation to this family of cyclophilin proteins containing the conserved core domain. Northern blot analyses show that hCyPB mRNA is expressed in the Jurkat T-cell line, consistent with its possible target role in cyclosporin A-mediated immunosuppression.

    Funded by: NIEHS NIH HHS: ES05459, ES07155; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM20011

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991;88;5;1903-7

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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