G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase
G00000990 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000120265 (Ensembl human gene)
5110 (Entrez Gene)
305 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PCMT1 (GeneCards)
176851 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8728 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P22061 (UniProt)

Literature (26)

Pubmed - other

  • Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, SP, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease.

    Journal of psychiatric research 2009;43;11;978-86

  • Association between polymorphisms in the protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase gene and premature ovarian failure.

    Pyun JA, Kang H, Lee SK, Kim MH and Kwack K

    Medical Genomics Laboratory, Pochon CHA University, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

    We found that four polymorphisms in the protein L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase (PCMT1) gene, encoding a protein repair enzyme, are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). All four polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The frequencies of two haplotypes were statistically significantly different between the POF group and the matched control group.

    Fertility and sterility 2009;91;4 Suppl;1362-5

  • An association study of 45 folate-related genes in spina bifida: Involvement of cubilin (CUBN) and tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1 (TRDMT1).

    Franke B, Vermeulen SH, Steegers-Theunissen RP, Coenen MJ, Schijvenaars MM, Scheffer H, den Heijer M and Blom HJ

    Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. b.franke@antrg.umcn.nl

    Background: Spina bifida is a class of neural tube defects, which are congenital malformations of the central nervous system with a prevalence of 0.5 to 12 per 1000 births globally. In this article we attempt to identify genes related to folate and its metabolic pathways that are involved in the etiology of spina bifida.

    Methods: We selected 50 folate metabolism-related genes and genotyped polymorphisms in those genes. Eighty-seven polymorphisms in 45 genes passed quality controls. Associations with spina bifida were investigated in 180 patients and 190 controls. For those polymorphisms that were nominally associated with spina bifida risk, the relation with serum and red blood cell folate, vitamin B(12), and homocysteine was evaluated in controls.

    Results: A polymorphism in CUBN was significantly associated with decreased spina bifida risk, after correction for multiple testing, and was related to increased vitamin B(12) (p = 0.039) and red blood cell folate (p = 0.001). The CUBN gene encodes the intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor (or cubilin), a peripheral membrane protein that acts as a receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B(12) complexes. Vitamin B(12) is an important cofactor in the folate metabolism, and low B(12) status in mothers has been linked to neural tube defects in children. Other interesting findings include nominally significant associations with polymorphisms in TRDMT1, ALDH1L1, SARDH, and SLCA19A1 (RFC1).

    Conclusion: Our study indicates interesting new candidate genes and functional pathways for further study and confirms earlier findings. None of the genes CUBN, TRDMT1, ALDH1L1, or SARDH have been investigated previously for association with spina bifida.

    Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology 2009;85;3;216-26

  • Suppression of protein l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) methyltransferase results in hyperactivation of EGF-stimulated MEK-ERK signaling in cultured mammalian cells.

    Kosugi S, Furuchi T, Katane M, Sekine M, Shirasawa T and Homma H

    Laboratory of Biomolecular Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.

    l-Aspartyl (l-Asp) and l-asparaginyl residues in proteins isomerize or racemize to d,l-isoaspartyl (d,l-isoAsp) or d-aspartyl (d-Asp) residues during protein aging. These atypical aspartyl residues can interfere with the biological function of the protein and lead to cellular dysfunction. Protein l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) methyltransferase (PIMT) is a repair enzyme that facilitates conversion of l-isoAsp and d-Asp to l-Asp. PIMT deficient mice exhibit accumulation of l-isoAsp in several tissues and die, on average, 12 days after birth from progressive epileptic seizures with grand mal and myoclonus features. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which accumulation of the aberrant residues leads to cellular abnormalities. In this study, we established PIMT-knockdown cells using a short interfering RNA expression system and characterized the resultant molecular abnormalities in intracellular signaling pathways. PIMT-knockdown cells showed significant accumulation of proteins with isomerized residues, compared to control cells. In the PIMT-knockdown cells, Raf-1, MEK, and ERK, members of the MAPK cascade, were hyperphosphorylated after EGF stimulation compared to control cells. These results suggest that PIMT repair of abnormal proteins is necessary to maintain normal MAPK signaling.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;371;1;22-7

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Regulation of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase by cell-matrix interactions: involvement of integrin alphavbeta3, PI 3-kinase, and the proteasome.

    Lanthier J and Desrosiers RR

    Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada.

    The enzyme L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is known to repair damaged proteins that have accumulated abnormal aspartyl residues during cell aging. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PIMT expression. Here we report that PIMT expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by cell detachment and readhesion to a substratum. During cell detachment, the PIMT level was rapidly and strongly increased and correlated with a stimulation of protein synthesis. Aside from endothelial cells, PIMT levels were also regulated by cell adhesion in various cancer cell lines. The upregulation of PIMT expression could be prevented by an anti-alphavbeta3 antibody (LM609) or by a cyclic RGD peptide (XJ735) specific to integrin alphavbeta3, indicating that this integrin was likely involved in PIMT regulation. Moreover, we found that PIMT expression returned to the basal level when cells were replated on a substratum after detachment, though downregulation of PIMT expression could be partly prevented by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, as well as by the proteasome inhibitors MG-132, lactacystin, and beta-lactone. These findings support the assumption that the PIMT level was downregulated by proteasomal degradation, involving the PI3K pathway, during cell attachment. This study reports new insights on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of PIMT expression in cells. The regulation of PIMT level upon cell-substratum contact suggests a potential role for PIMT in biological processes such as wound healing, cell migration, and tumor metastasis dissemination.

    Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire 2006;84;5;684-94

  • A known functional polymorphism (Ile120Val) of the human PCMT1 gene and risk of spina bifida.

    Zhu H, Yang W, Lu W, Zhang J, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ and Finnell RH

    Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Folate binding protein 1 (Folr1) knockout mice with low maternal folate concentrations have been shown to be excellent animal models for human folate-responsive neural tube defects (NTDs). Previous studies using the Folr1 knockout mice revealed that maternal folate supplementation up-regulates the expression of the PCMT1 gene in Folr1 nullizygous neural tube tissue during neural tube closure. PCMT1 encodes the protein repair enzyme l-isoaspartate (d-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PIMT) that converts abnormal d-aspartyl and l-isoaspartyl residues to the normal l-aspartyl form. PIMT is known to protect certain neural cells from Bax-induced apoptosis. Pcmt1-deficient mice present with abnormal AdoMet/AdoHcy homeostasis. We hypothesized that a known functional polymorphism (Ile120Val) in the human PCMT1 gene is associated with an increased risk of folate-responsive human NTDs. A case-control study was conducted to investigate a possible association between this polymorphism and risk of spina bifida. Compared to the Ile/Ile and Ile/Val genotypes, the homozygous Val/Val genotype showed decreased risk for spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio=0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4-0.9). Our results showed that the Ile120Val polymorphism of PCMT1 gene is a genetic modifier for the risk of spina bifida. Val/Val genotype was associated with a reduction in risk for spina bifida.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS050249, R01 NS050249-01A1

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2006;87;1;66-70

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Different isoforms of PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain/trimethylguanosine synthase localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    Enünlü I, Pápai G, Cserpán I, Udvardy A, Jeang KT and Boros I

    Institute of Biochemistry, Szeged, Hungary.

    A protein family including the recently identified PIMT/Tgs1 (PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain/trimethylguanosine synthase) was identified by searching databases for homologues of a newly identified Drosophila protein with RNA-binding activity and methyltransferase domain. Antibodies raised against a short peptide of the mammalian homologue show a 90-kDa isoform expressed specifically in rat brain and testis and a 55-kDa form expressed ubiquitously. In HeLa cells, the larger isoform of the protein is nuclear and associated with a 600-kDa complex, while the smaller isoform is mainly cytoplasmic and co-localizes to the tubulin network. Inhibition of PIMT/Tgs1 expression by siRNA in HeLa cells resulted in an increase in the percentage of cells in G2/M phases. In yeast two-hybrid and in vitro GST pull down experiments, the conserved C-terminal region of PIMT/Tgs1 interacted with the WD domain containing EED/WAIT-1 that acts as a polycomb-type repressor in the nucleus and also binds to integrins in the cytoplasm. Our experiments, together with earlier data, indicate that isoforms of the PIMT/Tgs1 protein with an RNA methyltransferase domain function both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and associate with both elements of the cytoskeletal network and nuclear factors known to be involved in gene regulation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;309;1;44-51

  • Interaction of PIMT with transcriptional coactivators CBP, p300, and PBP differential role in transcriptional regulation.

    Misra P, Qi C, Yu S, Shah SH, Cao WQ, Rao MS, Thimmapaya B, Zhu Y and Reddy JK

    Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-3008, USA.

    PIMT (PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain), an RNA-binding protein with a methyltransferase domain capable of binding S-adenosylmethionine, has been shown previously to interact with nuclear receptor coactivator PRIP (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-interacting protein) and enhance its coactivator function. We now report that PIMT strongly interacts with transcriptional coactivators, CBP, p300, and PBP but not with SRC-1 and PGC-1alpha under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The PIMT binding sites on CBP and p300 are located in the cysteine-histidine-rich C/H1 and C/H3 domains, and the PIMT binding site on PBP is in the region encompassing amino acids 1101-1560. The N-terminal of PIMT (residues 1-369) containing the RNA binding domain interacts with both C/H1 and C/H3 domains of CBP and p300 and with the C-terminal portion of PBP that encompasses amino acids 1371-1560. The C-terminal of PIMT (residues 611-852), which binds S-adenosyl-l-methionine, interacts respectively with the C/H3 domain of CBP/p300 and with a region encompassing amino acids 1101-1370 of PBP. Immunoprecipitation data showed that PIMT forms a complex in vivo with CBP, p300, PBP, and PRIP. PIMT appeared to be co-localized in the nucleus with CBP, p300, and PBP. PIMT enhanced PBP-mediated transcriptional activity of the PPARgamma, as it did for PRIP, indicating synergism between PIMT and PBP. In contrast, PIMT functioned as a repressor of CBP/p300-mediated transactivation of PPARgamma. Based on these observations, we suggest that PIMT bridges the CBP/p300-anchored coactivator complex with the PBP-anchored coactivator complex but differentially modulates coactivator function such that inhibition of the CBP/p300 effect may be designed to enhance the activity of PBP and PRIP.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA84472, CA88898, R01 CA74403; NIEHS NIH HHS: K08 ES00356; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23750

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;22;20011-9

  • Crystal structure of human L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase.

    Ryttersgaard C, Griffith SC, Sawaya MR, MacLaren DC, Clarke S and Yeates TO

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569, USA.

    The enzyme l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase initiates the repair of damaged proteins by recognizing and methylating isomerized and racemized aspartyl residues in aging proteins. The crystal structure of the human enzyme containing a bound S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine cofactor is reported here at a resolution of 2.1 A. A comparison of the human enzyme to homologs from two other species reveals several significant differences among otherwise similar structures. In all three structures, we find that three conserved charged residues are buried in the protein interior near the active site. Electrostatics calculations suggest that these buried charges might make significant contributions to the energetics of binding the charged S-adenosyl-l-methionine cofactor and to catalysis. We suggest a possible structural explanation for the observed differences in reactivity toward the structurally similar l-isoaspartyl and d-aspartyl residues in the human, archael, and eubacterial enzymes. Finally, the human structure reveals that the known genetic polymorphism at residue 119 (Val/Ile) maps to an exposed region away from the active site.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG18000; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26020

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;10642-6

  • Crystal structure of human L-isoaspartyl-O-methyl-transferase with S-adenosyl homocysteine at 1.6-A resolution and modeling of an isoaspartyl-containing peptide at the active site.

    Smith CD, Carson M, Friedman AM, Skinner MM, Delucas L, Chantalat L, Weise L, Shirasawa T and Chattopadhyay D

    Center for Biophysical Sciences and Technology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-0044, USA. smith@cbse.uab.edu

    Spontaneous formation of isoaspartyl residues (isoAsp) disrupts the structure and function of many normal proteins. Protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) reverts many isoAsp residues to aspartate as a protein repair process. We have determined the crystal structure of human protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase (HPIMT) complexed with adenosyl homocysteine (AdoHcy) to 1.6-A resolution. The core structure has a nucleotide binding domain motif, which is structurally homologous with the N-terminal domain of the bacterial Thermotoga maritima PIMT. Highly conserved residues in PIMTs among different phyla are placed at positions critical to AdoHcy binding and orienting the isoAsp residue substrate for methylation. The AdoHcy is completely enclosed within the HPIMT and a conformational change must occur to allow exchange with adenosyl methionine (AdoMet). An ordered sequential enzyme mechanism is supported because C-terminal residues involved with AdoHcy binding also form the isoAsp peptide binding site, and a change of conformation to allow AdoHcy to escape would preclude peptide binding. Modeling experiments indicated isoAsp groups observed in some known protein crystal structures could bind to the HPIMT active site.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2002;11;3;625-35

  • Assignment of the protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase gene (PCMT1) to human chromosome bands 6q24-->q25 with radiation hybrid mapping.

    DeVry CG and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1569, USA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26020

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1999;84;1-2;130-1

  • Polymorphic forms of the protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase involved in the repair of age-damaged proteins.

    DeVry CG and Clarke S

    Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

    The protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1) can initiate the repair of age-damaged aspartyl and asparaginyl residues of intracellular proteins. The human gene PCMT1 encoding this enzyme has at least four polymorphic sites, one of which results in two major isoforms with either an Ile residue or a Val residue at amino acid position 119. The frequencies of the alleles encoding the Ile119 and Val119 variants are similar in Caucasian populations, but a predominance of the Ile119 allele exists in Asian and African populations. Analyses of the enzymatic activities of the Ile119 and Val119 variants in red blood cell lysates show that the higher specific activity and thermostability of the Ile119 isoform is balanced by the potentially compensating higher substrate affinity of the Val119 isoform. In a preliminary attempt to find an association between genotype frequency at the PCMT1 locus and healthy aging, we compared the distribution of genotypes in a healthy older population of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with that in a younger ethnically matched control group. We found that 65% of the healthy older population had the heterozygous genotype, greater than the 50% expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting a possible selection for having both alleles of the repair methyltransferase in successful aging. Three additional polymorphisms in noncoding regions of the methyltransferase gene were found to be biallelic and demonstrated nonrandom association in a specific haplotype with the codon 119 polymorphism. Finally, we also detected a heterozygous mutation in the splicing branch site of intron 2 that did not appear to affect activity. This study will help define the normal physiological range of activity for this repair methyltransferase and give us a better understanding of its role in the processes of aging and disease.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 26020

    Journal of human genetics 1999;44;5;275-88

  • Structure of the human gene encoding the protein repair L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase.

    DeVry CG, Tsai W and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1569, USA.

    The protein L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl O-methyltransferase (EC catalyzes the first step in the repair of proteins damaged in the aging process by isomerization or racemization reactions at aspartyl and asparaginyl residues. A single gene has been localized to human chromosome 6 and multiple transcripts arising through alternative splicing have been identified. Restriction enzyme mapping, subcloning, and DNA sequence analysis of three overlapping clones from a human genomic library in bacteriophage P1 indicate that the gene spans approximately 60 kb and is composed of 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns. Analysis of intron/exon splice junctions reveals that all of the donor and acceptor splice sites are in agreement with the mammalian consensus splicing sequence. Determination of transcription initiation sites by primer extension analysis of poly(A)+ mRNA from human brain identifies multiple start sites, with a major site 159 nucleotides upstream from the ATG start codon. Sequence analysis of the 5'-untranslated region demonstrates several potential cis-acting DNA elements including SP1, ETF, AP1, AP2, ARE, XRE, CREB, MED-1, and half-palindromic ERE motifs. The promoter of this methyltransferase gene lacks an identifiable TATA box but is characterized by a CpG island which begins approximately 723 nucleotides upstream of the major transcriptional start site and extends through exon 1 and into the first intron. These features are characteristic of housekeeping genes and are consistent with the wide tissue distribution observed for this methyltransferase activity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07185, GM-26020

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1996;335;2;321-32

  • Characterization of three cDNAs encoding two isozymes of an isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase from human erythroid leukemia cells.

    Takeda R, Mizobuchi M, Murao K, Sato M and Takahara J

    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Ehime University School of Medicine.

    Two different sizes (approximately 1.0 and 1.6 kb) of transcripts of an isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PIMT) were detected in eight cell lines derived from human hemopoietic cells on Northern blot analysis. We found three different sizes of cDNAs (907, 1,553, and 1,600 bp) in human erythroid leukemia cells (HEL) and a unique cDNA sequence corresponding to the 1.0 kb transcript was identified. These three cDNA sequences encoded two isozymes consisting of 226 (isozyme I) and 227 (isozyme II) amino acids. The 1.6 kb transcript was translated into two isozymes (isozyme I and II), while the 1.0 kb transcript was only translated into isozyme I. These results suggest that the two isozymes deduced from the cDNAs of the human erythroid leukemia cells may exist in normal human erythrocytes.

    Journal of biochemistry 1995;117;4;683-5

  • Amino acid polymorphisms of the human L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl methyltransferase involved in protein repair.

    Tsai W and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1569.

    We have analyzed DNA from three exons of the human protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase gene in 30 individuals. We present evidence for two polymorphisms in these regions that result in amino acid changes. At a site corresponding to amino acid position 119, we find the ATA codon for Ile at a frequency of 0.77 and the GTA codon for Val at a frequency of 0.23. At the site corresponding to amino acid position 205, we find the AAG codon for Lys at a frequency of 0.98 and the AGG codon for Arg at a frequency of 0.02. These amino acid changes may affect the ability of this enzyme to recognize and catalyze the first step in the repair of proteins spontaneously damaged in the aging process.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 26020

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;203;1;491-7

  • The L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase gene (PCMT1) maps to human chromosome 6q22.3-6q24 and the syntenic region of mouse chromosome 10.

    MacLaren DC, O'Connor CM, Xia YR, Mehrabian M, Klisak I, Sparkes RS, Clarke S and Lusis AJ

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.

    We have mapped the genes for the human and mouse L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (EC using cDNA probes. We determined that the human gene is present in chromosome 6 by Southern blot analysis of DNA from a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids. In situ hybridization studies allowed us to confirm this identification and further localize the human gene (PCMT1) to the 6q22.3-6q24 region. By analyzing the presence of an EcoRI polymorphism in DNA from backcrosses of C57BL/6J and Mus spretus strains of mice, we localized the mouse gene (Pcmt-1) to chromosome 10, at a position 8.2 +/- 3.5 cM proximal to the Myb locus. This region of the mouse chromosome is homologous to the human 6q24 region.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG08109; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26020, T32 GM08375; ...

    Genomics 1992;14;4;852-6

  • Alternative splicing of the human isoaspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase RNA leads to the generation of a C-terminal -RDEL sequence in isozyme II.

    MacLaren DC, Kagan RM and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1569.

    We have isolated two cDNA clones that correspond to the mRNAs for two isozymes of the human L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein carboxyl methyltransferase (EC The DNA sequence of one of these encodes the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal half of the human erythrocyte isozyme I. The other cDNA clone includes the complete coding region of the more acidic isozyme II. With the exception of potential polymorphic sites at amino acid residues 119 and 205, the deduced amino acid sequences differ only at the C-terminus, where the -RWK sequence of isozyme I is replaced by a -RDEL sequence in isozyme II. The latter sequence is identical to a mammalian endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. With the previous evidence for only a single gene for the L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl methyltransferase in humans, and with evidence for consensus sites for alternative splicing in corresponding mouse genomic clones, we suggest that alternative splicing reactions can generate the major isozymes previously identified in human erythrocytes. The presence of alternative splicing leads us to predict the existence of a third isozyme with a -R C-terminus. The calculated isoelectric point of this third form is similar to that of a previously detected but uncharacterized minor methyltransferase activity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26020, T32 GM08375, T32-GM07185

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1992;185;1;277-83

  • Distinct C-terminal sequences of isozymes I and II of the human erythrocyte L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase.

    Ingrosso D, Kagan RM and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1569.

    We have purified the more acidic major isozyme (II) of the human erythrocyte L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl methyltransferase and compared its structure to that of the previously sequenced isozyme I. These isozymes are both monomers of 25,000 molecular weight polypeptides and have similar enzymatic properties, but have isoelectric points that differ by one pH unit. Analysis of 16 tryptic peptides of isozyme II accounting for 89% of the sequence of isozyme I revealed no differences between these enzyme forms. However, analysis of a Staphylococcal V8 protease C-terminal fragment revealed that the last two residues of these proteins differed. The Trp-Lys-COOH terminus of isozyme I is replaced by a Asp-Asp-COOH terminus in isozyme II. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA suggests that the human genome [corrected] may contain only a single gene encoding the enzyme. We propose that the distinct C-termini of isozymes I and II can arise from the generation of multiple mRNA's by alternative splicing.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR05554; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 07185, GM-26020

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1991;175;1;351-8

  • Sequence of the D-aspartyl/L-isoaspartyl protein methyltransferase from human erythrocytes. Common sequence motifs for protein, DNA, RNA, and small molecule S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases.

    Ingrosso D, Fowler AV, Bleibaum J and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1569.

    A widely distributed protein methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to the free carboxyl groups of D-aspartyl and/or L-isoaspartyl derivatives of L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues. This enzyme has been postulated to function in the repair or the catabolism of age-damaged proteins. We present here the complete amino acid sequence of the more basic isozyme I of this enzyme from human erythrocytes. The sequence was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectral analysis of overlapping trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, Pseudomonas fragi endoproteinase Asp-N, cyanogen bromide, and hydroxylamine-generated fragments. The NH2-terminus is modified by acetylation and the protein contains 226 amino acids for a calculated molecular weight of 24,575. This value is in good agreement with the molecular weight determined for the purified protein by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulfate and by gel filtration chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. The identification of 2 different amino acid residues at both positions 22 and 119 may indicate the presence of allelic variants or of two or more closely related structural genes. Finally, comparison of this sequence with those of methyltransferases for RNA, DNA, and small molecules, as well as other S-adenosylmethionine-utilizing enzymes, shows that many of these proteins share elements of three regions of sequence similarity and may be structurally or evolutionarily related.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26020

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;33;20131-9

  • Purification of homologous protein carboxyl methyltransferase isozymes from human and bovine erythrocytes.

    Gilbert JM, Fowler A, Bleibaum J and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.

    We have purified the two major isozymes of the L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase from both human and bovine erythrocytes. These four enzymes all have polypeptide molecular weights of approximately 26,500 and appear to be monomers in solution. Each of these enzymes cross-reacts with antibodies directed against protein carboxyl methyltransferase I from bovine brain. Their structures also appear to be similar when analyzed by dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for the large fragments produced by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease V8 or when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tryptic peptides. The structural relatedness of these enzymes was confirmed by sequence analysis of a total of 433 residues in 32 tryptic fragments of the human erythrocyte isozymes I and II and of the bovine erythrocyte isozyme II. We found sequence identify or probable identity in 111 out of 112 residues when we compared the human isozymes I and II and identities in 127 out of 134 residues when the human and bovine isozymes II were compared. These results suggest that the erythrocyte isozymes from both organisms may have nearly identical structures and confirm the similarities in the function of these methyltransferases that have been previously demonstrated.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26020

    Biochemistry 1988;27;14;5227-33

  • Two major isozymes of the protein D-aspartyl/L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase from human erythrocytes.

    Ota IM, Gilbert JM and Clarke S

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.

    We have been able to separate protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity from human erythrocyte cytosol into two major fractions by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. These isozymes, designated I and II, are characterized by their isoelectric points of approximately 6.6 and 5.5 as determined by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. The ratio of the isozymes (II/I) was found to range from 0.52 to 1.2 in blood samples from 14 individuals. We did not detect differences in this ratio between males and females. We also found no differences between freshly drawn and outdated blood samples. Both isozymes catalyzed the methylation of proteins such as ovalbumin as well as synthetic L-isoaspartyl-containing peptides.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 07185, GM-26020

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;151;3;1136-43

Gene lists (2)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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