G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
triosephosphate isomerase 1
G00000973 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000111669 (Ensembl human gene)
7167 (Entrez Gene)
139 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TPI1 (GeneCards)
190450 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12009 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P60174 (UniProt)

Literature (50)

Pubmed - other

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Analysis of TPI gene promoter variation in three sub-Saharan Africa population samples.

    Manco L, Machado P, Lopes D, Nogueira F, Do Rosário VE, Alonso PL, Varandas L, Trovoada Mde J, Amorim A and Arez AP

    Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. lmanco@antrop.uc.pt

    Population samples from Angola, Mozambique, and S. Tomé e Príncipe were screened for the TPI gene promoter variants -5A-->G, -8G-->A and -24T-->G. Three haplotypes were identified in the three populations: the haplotype -5A-8G-24T (average frequency 65.3%) and two less common haplotypes -5G-8G-24T (average frequency 24.7%) and -5G-8A-24T (average frequency 10.0%). A population sample from Central Portugal showed the haplotype -5A-8G-24T in 139 chromosomes and one subject heterozygous for haplotype -5G-8A-24G. The exact test of sample differentiation among three groups of malaria-infected individuals classified according to the severity of the disease showed no significant differences. We confirmed TPI gene diversity in sub-Saharan Africa, but we could not detect any association between TPI promoter variation and a malarial protective effect. Larger scale epidemiological studies are thus required to clarify this putative mechanism of natural host defense against this worldwide public health problem.

    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council 2009;21;1;118-20

  • Identification of triosephosphate isomerase as an anti-drug resistance agent in human gastric cancer cells using functional proteomic analysis.

    Wang X, Lu Y, Yang J, Shi Y, Lan M, Liu Z, Zhai H and Fan D

    State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

    Aims: Proteomic study was used to explore new multidrug resistance (MDR)-related proteins and clarify novel mechanism of MDR in gastric cancer.

    Methods: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the PDQuest software analysis were applied to compare the differential expression of MDR-related proteins in gastric cancer SGC7901 cells and drug-resistant SGC7901 cells (SGC7901/VCR) induced by vincristine sulfate (VCR). The differential protein dots were excised and further analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF-MS).

    Results: Nine differential expression proteins between the two cell lines were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), a glycolytic pathway enzyme, was identified as a downregulated protein in SGC7901/VCR cells. Further, Western blot analysis and semiquantitative RT-PCR confirmed its decreased expression in SGC7901/VCR cells. Sense vector pcDNA3.1-TPI was constructed and transfected into SGC7901/VCR. The sensitivity of TPI-SGC7901/VCR cells to adriamycin (ADR), VCR, 5-fluorouracil and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum, as well as the accumulation and retention to ADR, were significantly increased when compared to their control cell lines.

    Conclusions: These results provide new MDR-related protein candidates, which are differentially expressed in the MDR cell line and its parental cell line including TPI, which may participate in the VCR-mediated MDR in human gastric cancer. Upregulation of TPI expression could partially reverse multidrug-resistant phenotype of SGC7901/VCR, which suggests that TPI may be an anti-drug resistance agent in gastric cancer and the candidate target to develop novel therapeutics for better treatment of gastric cancer.

    Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2008;134;9;995-1003

  • Structural basis of human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: mutation E104D is related to alterations of a conserved water network at the dimer interface.

    Rodríguez-Almazán C, Arreola R, Rodríguez-Larrea D, Aguirre-López B, de Gómez-Puyou MT, Pérez-Montfort R, Costas M, Gómez-Puyou A and Torres-Larios A

    Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-243, Mexico City 04510, México.

    Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare autosomal disease that causes premature death of homozygous individuals. The most frequent mutation that leads to this illness is in position 104, which involves a conservative change of a Glu for Asp. Despite the extensive work that has been carried out on the E104D mutant enzyme in hemolysates and whole cells, the molecular basis of this disease is poorly understood. Here, we show that the purified, recombinant mutant enzyme E104D, while exhibiting normal catalytic activity, shows impairments in the formation of active dimers and low thermostability and monomerizes under conditions in which the wild type retains its dimeric form. The crystal structure of the E104D mutant at 1.85 A resolution showed that its global structure was similar to that of the wild type; however, residue 104 is part of a conserved cluster of 10 residues, five from each subunit. An analysis of the available high resolution structures of TIM dimers revealed that this cluster forms a cavity that possesses an elaborate conserved network of buried water molecules that bridge the two subunits. In the E104D mutant, a disruption of contacts of the amino acid side chains in the conserved cluster leads to a perturbation of the water network in which the water-protein and water-water interactions that join the two monomers are significantly weakened and diminished. Thus, the disruption of this solvent system would stand as the underlying cause of the deficiency.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;34;23254-63

  • Sequencing and genotypic analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1) locus in a large sample of long-lived Germans.

    Ralser M, Nebel A, Kleindorp R, Krobitsch S, Lehrach H, Schreiber S, Reinhardt R and Timmermann B

    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany. ralser@molgen.mpg.de

    Background: Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) is a central and conserved glycolytic enzyme. In humans, TPI is encoded by a single gene on 12p13, and associated with a rare genetic disorder, TPI deficiency. Reduced TPI activity can increase specific oxidant resistances of model organisms and TPI null-alleles have been hypothesized to promote a heterozygote advantage in man. However, comprehensive genetic information about the TPI1 locus is still lacking.

    Results: Here, we sequenced the TPI1 locus in a sample of 357 German long-lived individuals (LLI) aged 95 to 110 years. We identified 17 different polymorphisms, of which 15 were rare and previously unknown. The two remaining SNPs occurred at much higher frequency and were tested for association with the longevity phenotype in larger samples of LLI (n = 1422) and younger controls (n = 967). Neither of the two markers showed a statistically significant difference in allele or genotype frequency between LLI and control subjects.

    Conclusion: This study marks the TPI1 locus as extraordinarily conserved, even when analyzing intronic and non-coding regions of the gene. None of the identified sequence variations affected the amino acid composition of the TPI protein and hence, are unlikely to impact the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Thus, TPI variants occur less frequent than expected and inactive alleles are not enriched in German centenarians.

    BMC genetics 2008;9;38

  • Triose phosphate isomerase deficiency is caused by altered dimerization--not catalytic inactivity--of the mutant enzymes.

    Ralser M, Heeren G, Breitenbach M, Lehrach H and Krobitsch S

    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by various mutations in the gene encoding the key glycolytic enzyme TPI. A drastic decrease in TPI activity and an increased level of its substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, have been measured in unpurified cell extracts of affected individuals. These observations allowed concluding that the different mutations in the TPI alleles result in catalytically inactive enzymes. However, despite a high occurrence of TPI null alleles within several human populations, the frequency of this disorder is exceptionally rare. In order to address this apparent discrepancy, we generated a yeast model allowing us to perform comparative in vivo analyses of the enzymatic and functional properties of the different enzyme variants. We discovered that the majority of these variants exhibit no reduced catalytic activity per se. Instead, we observed, the dimerization behavior of TPI is influenced by the particular mutations investigated, and by the use of a potential alternative translation initiation site in the TPI gene. Additionally, we demonstrated that the overexpression of the most frequent TPI variant, Glu104Asp, which displays altered dimerization features, results in diminished endogenous TPI levels in mammalian cells. Thus, our results reveal that enzyme deregulation attributable to aberrant dimerization of TPI, rather than direct catalytic inactivation of the enzyme, underlies the pathogenesis of TPI deficiency. Finally, we discovered that yeast cells expressing a TPI variant exhibiting reduced catalytic activity are more resistant against oxidative stress caused by the thiol-oxidizing reagent diamide. This observed advantage might serve to explain the high allelic frequency of TPI null alleles detected among human populations.

    PloS one 2006;1;e30

  • Anti-triosephosphate isomerase antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Sasajima T, Watanabe H, Sato S, Sato Y and Ohira H

    Fukushima Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine II, School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

    We detected anti-triosephosphate isomerase antibodies (anti-TPI) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 5 of 12 neuropsychiatric lupus patients (41.6%) by Western blotting. C3d index was significantly higher in anti-TPI-positive patient (n=5, median 0.446) than in anti-TPI-negative patient (n=7, median 0.098) (p=0.019) CSF samples. TPI was detected from immune complexes (IC) isolated from CSF in 2 of 2 anti-TPI-positive patients tested and was not detected from IC in 5 of 5 anti-TPI-negative patients tested. Our results suggest that anti-TPI form IC in CSF and contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus by activating the complement system.

    Journal of neuroimmunology 2006;181;1-2;150-6

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Triosephosphate isomerase- and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-reactive autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Kolln J, Ren HM, Da RR, Zhang Y, Spillner E, Olek M, Hermanowicz N, Hilgenberg LG, Smith MA, van den Noort S and Qin Y

    Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

    Our previous results revealed that Igs in lesions and single chain variable fragment Abs (scFv-Abs) generated from clonal B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) bind to axons in MS brains. To study the axonal Ags involved in MS, we identified the glycolytic enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and GAPDH, using Igs from the CSF and scFv-Abs generated from clonal B cells in the CSF and in lesions from MS patients. Elevated levels of CSF-Abs to TPI were observed in patients with MS (46%), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS (40%), other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND; 29%), and other noninflammatory neurological diseases (ONIND; 31%). Levels of GAPDH-reactive Abs were elevated in MS patients (60%), in patients with CIS (10%), OIND (14%), and ONIND (8%). The coexistence of both autoantibodies was detected in 10 MS patients (29%), and 1 CIS patient (3%), but not in patients with OIND/ONIND. Two scFv-Abs generated from the CSF and from lesions of a MS brain showed immunoreactivity to TPI and GAPDH, respectively. The findings suggest that TPI and GAPDH may be candidate Ags for an autoimmune response to neurons and axons in MS.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS40534-01A1

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2006;177;8;5652-8

  • wasted away, a Drosophila mutation in triosephosphate isomerase, causes paralysis, neurodegeneration, and early death.

    Gnerer JP, Kreber RA and Ganetzky B

    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, 425-G Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706-1580, USA.

    To identify genes required for maintaining neuronal viability, we screened our collection of Drosophila temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants for those exhibiting shortened lifespan and neurodegeneration. Here, we describe the characterization of wasted away (wstd), a recessive, hypomorphic mutation that causes progressive motor impairment, vacuolar neuropathology, and severely reduced lifespan. We demonstrate that the affected gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi). Mutations causing Tpi deficiency in humans are also characterized by progressive neurological dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and early death. In Tpi-deficient flies and humans, a decrease in ATP levels did not appear to cause the observed phenotypes because ATP levels remained normal. We also found no genetic evidence that the mutant Drosophila Tpi was misfolded or involved in aberrant protein-protein associations. Instead, we favor the hypothesis that mutations in Tpi lead to an accumulation of methylglyoxal and the consequent enhanced production of advanced glycation end products, which are ultimately responsible for the death and dysfunction of Tpi-deficient neurons. Our results highlight an essential protective role of Tpi and support the idea that advanced glycation end products may also contribute to pathogenesis of other neurological disorders.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32GM07133, T32 GM007133; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS015390, R01-NS15390

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;41;14987-93

  • Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.

    Kim SC, Sprung R, Chen Y, Xu Y, Ball H, Pei J, Cheng T, Kho Y, Xiao H, Xiao L, Grishin NV, White M, Yang XJ and Zhao Y

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107943

    Molecular cell 2006;23;4;607-18

  • Identification of novel ARF binding proteins by two-hybrid screening.

    Tompkins V, Hagen J, Zediak VP and Quelle DE

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA.

    The ARF tumor suppressor protects us against cancer through protein-protein interactions in partially defined p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. We performed a two-hybrid screen using ARF as bait and present the identification of several new ARF partners that may regulate its growth inhibitory signaling. The potential physiological roles of these novel ARF binding proteins in regulating ARF signaling are discussed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA090367

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2006;5;6;641-6

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary.

    Beranova-Giorgianni S, Zhao Y, Desiderio DM and Giorgianni F

    Charles B. Stout Neuroscience Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

    The pituitary is the central endocrine gland that regulates the functions of various target organs in the human body. Because of the pivotal regulatory role of the pituitary, it is essential to define on a global scale the components of the pituitary protein machinery, including a comprehensive characterization of the post-translational modifications of the pituitary proteins. Of particular interest is the examination of the phosphorylation status of the pituitary in health and disease. Towards the goal of global profiling of pituitary protein phosphorylation, we report here the application of the in-gel IEF-LC-MS/MS approach to the study of the pituitary phosphoproteome. The analytical strategy combined isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradient strips with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. With this method, a total of 50 phosphorylation sites were characterized in 26 proteins. Because the investigation involved primary tissue, the findings provide a direct glimpse into the phosphoprotein machinery operating within the human pituitary tissue microenvironment.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 42843

    Pituitary 2006;9;2;109-20

  • Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: consequences of an inherited mutation at mRNA, protein and metabolic levels.

    Oláh J, Orosz F, Puskás LG, Hackler L, Horányi M, Polgár L, Hollán S and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1518, P.O. Box 7, Budapest, Hungary.

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a unique glycolytic enzymopathy coupled with neurodegeneration. Two Hungarian compound heterozygote brothers inherited the same TPI mutations (F240L and E145Stop), but only the younger one suffers from neurodegeneration. In the present study, we determined the kinetic parameters of key glycolytic enzymes including the mutant TPI for rational modelling of erythrocyte glycolysis. We found that a low TPI activity in the mutant cells (lower than predicted from the protein level and specific activity of the purified recombinant enzyme) is coupled with an increase in the activities of glycolytic kinases. The modelling rendered it possible to establish the steady-state flux of the glycolysis and metabolite concentrations, which was not possible experimentally due to the inactivation of the mutant TPI and other enzymes during the pre-steady state. Our results showed that the flux was 2.5-fold higher and the concentration of DHAP (dihydroxyacetone phosphate) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate increased 40- and 5-fold respectively in the erythrocytes of the patient compared with the control. Although the rapid equilibration of triosephosphates is not achieved, the energy state of the cells is not 'sick' due to the activation of key regulatory enzymes. In lymphocytes of the two brothers, the TPI activity was also lower (20%) than that of controls; however, the remaining activity was high enough to maintain the rapid equilibration of triosephosphates; consequently, no accumulation of DHAP occurs, as judged by our experimental and computational data. Interestingly, we found significant differences in the mRNA levels of the brothers for TPI and some other, apparently unrelated, proteins. One of them is the prolyl oligopeptidase, the activity decrease of which has been reported in well-characterized neurodegenerative diseases. We found that the peptidase activity of the affected brother was reduced by 30% compared with that of his neurologically intact brother.

    The Biochemical journal 2005;392;Pt 3;675-83

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Antibodies to triosephosphate isomerase in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Watanabe H, Seino T and Sato Y

    Department of Internal Medicine II, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan. chiehiro@fmu.ac.jp

    Sera from patients with neuropsychiatric lupus (NP lupus) were screened for antibodies to mouse choroid plexus cell line ECPC-4 by Western blotting. A 29-kDa protein band detected in NP lupus sera was identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). Using Western blotting with TPI, TPI was confirmed as the reactive molecule in sera (6 of 14 samples) and in cerebrospinal fluids (1 of 2 samples) of patients with NP lupus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with TPI showed that the serum anti-TPI antibody index of 89.8 (SD, 70.1) in NP lupus group was significantly higher than in systemic lupus erythematosus without NP manifestations, 34.6 (29.6); scleroderma, 38.2 (39.9); polymyositis/dermatomyositis, 42.1 (51.5); and control, 31.7 (27.4) groups (p<0.02). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of serum anti-TPI antibody index for NP lupus were 42.9%, 94.7%, 8.1%, and 0.6%, respectively. These results suggest that anti-TPI antibodies are closely associated with NP lupus.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;321;4;949-53

  • Proteomic surveillance of autoimmunity in osteoarthritis: identification of triosephosphate isomerase as an autoantigen in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Xiang Y, Sekine T, Nakamura H, Imajoh-Ohmi S, Fukuda H, Nishioka K and Kato T

    Division of Immunoregulation, Department of Bioregulation, Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8512, Japan.

    Objective: Autoimmunity to proteins, such as type II collagen and cartilage intermediate layer protein, that are produced by chondrocytes has been reported in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) as well as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains to be determined whether the overall specificities of the autoimmunity differ between OA and RA patients. This study sought to clarify the differences by applying proteomic surveillance for the detection of autoantigens comprehensively.

    Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 20 patients with OA, 20 patients with RA, and 20 healthy volunteers. Human chondrocyte proteins were separated from the sera by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and antigenic protein spots were detected by Western blotting. The antigenic proteins were then identified by mass fingerprinting. The antigenicity of the identified proteins was confirmed and the prevalence of the autoantibodies in the OA, RA, and other disease groups was determined with the use of recombinant proteins. In addition, autoepitopes were mapped on the antigens.

    Results: Nineteen protein spots were recognized only by the OA sera, but not by the RA sera. One of these proteins was identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). IgG-type anti-TPI autoantibodies were detected in 24.7% of the serum samples and 24.1% of the synovial fluid samples from the patients with OA, whereas <6% of the RA and systemic lupus erythematosus samples were positive for anti-TPI. In addition, multiple autoepitopes were identified on TPI.

    Conclusion: The overall profile of autoimmunity in OA differs from that in RA, which may reflect the OA-specific pathologic role of autoimmunity. The autoantibody to TPI, detected predominantly in the OA samples and produced by the antigen-driven mechanism, has the potential to be used as a diagnostic marker for OA.

    Arthritis and rheumatism 2004;50;5;1511-21

  • Adverse effects of dopamine potentiation by long-term treatment with selegiline.

    Hollán S, Vécsei L and Magyar K

    Department of Cell Biology, National Blood Transfusion Service, Budapest, Hungary. hollan@ella.hu

    A patient with triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency exhibited worsening of abnormal involuntary movements of the dystonic type and developed psychiatric symptoms while on selegiline. When selegiline was stopped after 9 years of treatment, abnormal involuntary movements improved to pretreatment level and psychiatric behaviour returned to normal. Monoamine oxidase-B platelet activity was low in this patient.

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2004;19;1;107-9

  • Interaction of cofilin with triose-phosphate isomerase contributes glycolytic fuel for Na,K-ATPase via Rho-mediated signaling pathway.

    Jung J, Yoon T, Choi EC and Lee K

    College of Pharmacy, Center for Cell Signaling Research and Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

    We reported previously that cofilin, an actin-binding protein, interacts with Na,K-ATPase and enhances its activity (Lee, K., Jung, J., Kim, M., and Guidotti, G. (2001) Biochem. J. 353, 377-385). To understand the nature of this interaction and the role of cofilin in the regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity, we searched for cofilin-binding proteins in the rat skeletal muscle cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system. Several cDNA clones were isolated, some of which coded for triose-phosphate isomerase, a glycolytic enzyme. The interaction of cofilin with triose-phosphate isomerase as well as Na,K-ATPase was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy in HeLa cells. Cofilin was translocated to the plasma membrane along with triose-phosphate isomerase by the Rho activator lysophosphatidic acid but not by the p160 Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632, suggesting that the phosphorylated form of cofilin bound to TPI interacts with Na,K-ATPase. Ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake showed that Na,K-ATPase activity was increased by the overexpression of cofilin and lysophosphatidic acid treatment, but not by the overexpression of mutant cofilin S3A and Y-27632 treatment. Pretreatment with the glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetic acid caused a remarkable reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity, whereas pretreatment with the oxidative inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone caused no detectable changes, suggesting that the phosphorylated cofilin is involved in feeding glycolytic fuel for Na,K-ATPase activity. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and for the nature of the functional coupling of cellular energy transduction.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48931-7

  • Minor structural changes in a mutated human melanoma antigen correspond to dramatically enhanced stimulation of a CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte line.

    Sundberg EJ, Sawicki MW, Southwood S, Andersen PS, Sette A and Mariuzza RA

    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, W. M. Keck Laboratory for Structural Biology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 9600 Gudelsky Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. sundberg@umbi.umd.edu

    While most immunotherapies for cancer have focused on eliciting specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of tumor cells, a mounting body of evidence suggests that stimulation of anti-tumor CD4+ T cell help may be required for highly effective therapy. Several MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens that specifically activate such CD4+ helper T lymphocytes have now been identified, including one from a melanoma tumor that is caused by a single base-pair mutation in the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. This mutation results in the conversion of a threonine residue to isoleucine within the antigenic epitope, concomitant with a greater than five log-fold increase in stimulation of a CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte line. Here, we present the crystal structures of HLA-DR1 in complex with both wild-type and mutant TPI peptide antigens, the first structures of tumor peptide antigen/MHC class II complexes recognized by CD4+ T cells to be reported. These structures show that very minor changes in the binding surface for T cell receptor correspond to the dramatic differences in T cell stimulation. Defining the structural basis by which CD4+ T cell help is invoked in an anti-tumor immune response will likely aid the design of more effective cancer immunotherapies.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI36900, AI49564

    Journal of molecular biology 2002;319;2;449-61

  • Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: a neurodegenerative misfolding disease.

    Oláh J, Orosz F, Keserü GM, Kovári Z, Kovács J, Hollán S and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 7, Budapest H-1518, Hungary.

    A number of neurodegenerative diseases are mediated by mutation-induced protein misfolding. The resulting genetic defects, however, are expressed in varying phenotypes. Of the several well-established glycolytic enzyme deficiencies, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is the only one in which haemolytic anaemia is coupled with progressive, severe neurological disorder. In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in TPI activity, two germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited two independent (Phe(240)-->Leu and Glu(145)-->stop codon) mutations. We have demonstrated recently [Orosz, Oláh, Alvarez, Keserü, Szabó, Wágner, Kovári, Horányi, Baróti, Martial, Hollán and Ovádi (2001) Blood 98, 3106-3112] that the mutations of TPI explain in themselves neither the severe decrease in the enzyme activity characteristic of TPI deficiency nor the enhanced ability of the mutant enzyme from haemolysate of the propositus to associate with subcellular particles. Here we present kinetic (flux analysis), thermodynamic (microcalorimetry and fluores cence spectroscopy), structural (in silico) and ultrastructural (immunoelectron microscopy) data for characterization of mutant isomerase structures and for the TPI-related metabolic processes in normal and deficient cells. The relationships between mutation-induced TPI misfolding and formation of aberrant protein aggregates are discussed.

    Biochemical Society transactions 2002;30;2;30-8

  • Distinct behavior of mutant triosephosphate isomerase in hemolysate and in isolated form: molecular basis of enzyme deficiency.

    Orosz F, Oláh J, Alvarez M, Keseru GM, Szabó B, Wágner G, Kovári Z, Horányi M, Baróti K, Martial JA, Hollán S and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

    In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu and Glu145stop codon) mutations. The kinetic, thermodynamic, and associative properties of the recombinant human wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes were compared with those of TPIs in normal and deficient erythrocyte hemolysates. The specific activity of the recombinant mutant enzyme relative to the wild type was much higher (30%) than expected from the activity (3%) measured in hemolysates. Enhanced attachment of mutant TPI to erythrocyte inside-out vesicles and to microtubules of brain cells was found when the binding was measured with TPIs in hemolysate. In contrast, there was no difference between the binding of the recombinant wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes. These findings suggest that the missense mutation by itself is not enough to explain the low catalytic activity and "stickiness" of mutant TPI observed in hemolysate. The activity of the mutant TPI is further reduced by its attachment to inside-out vesicles or microtubules. Comparative studies of the hemolysate from a British patient with Glu104Asp homozygosity and with the platelet lysates from the Hungarian family suggest that the microcompartmentation of TPI is not unique for the hemolysates from the Hungarian TPI-deficient brothers. The possible role of cellular components, other than the mutant enzymes, in the distinct behavior of TPI in isolated form versus in hemolysates from the compound heterozygotes and the simple heterozygote family members is discussed.

    Blood 2001;98;10;3106-12

  • Enhanced association of mutant triosephosphate isomerase to red cell membranes and to brain microtubules.

    Orosz F, Wágner G, Liliom K, Kovács J, Baróti K, Horányi M, Farkas T, Hollán S and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 7, H-1518, Budapest, Hungary.

    In a Hungarian family with triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate keto-isomerase, EC deficiency, two germ-line identical, but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers (one of them with neurological disorder) have been identified with the same very low (<5%) TPI activity and 20- or 40-fold higher erythrocyte dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels as compared with normal controls. Our present studies with purified TPI and hemolysates revealed the binding of TPI, and the binding of human wild-type and mutant TPIs in hemolysate, to the red cell membrane, and the interference of binding with other hemolysate proteins. The binding of the mutant TPI is enhanced as compared with the wild-type enzyme. The increased binding is influenced by both the altered structure of the mutant and the changes in the red cell membrane. Compared with binding of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the isomerase binding is much less sensitive to ionic strength or blocking of the N-terminal tail of the band-3 transmembrane protein. The binding of TPIs to the membrane decreases the isomerase activity, resulting in extremely high dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels in deficient cells. In cell-free brain extract, tubulin copolymerizes with TPI and with other cytosolic proteins forming highly decorated microtubules as shown by immunoblot analysis with anti-TPI antibody and by electron microscopic images. The efficacy order of TPI binding to microtubules is propositus > brother without neurological disorder > normal control. This distinct microcompartmentation of mutant proteins may be relevant in the development of the neurodegenerative process in TPI deficiency and in other, more common neurological diseases.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;3;1026-31

  • Compartment-specific isoforms of TPI and GAPDH are imported into diatom mitochondria as a fusion protein: evidence in favor of a mitochondrial origin of the eukaryotic glycolytic pathway.

    Liaud MF, Lichtlé C, Apt K, Martin W and Cerff R

    Institute of Genetics, University of Braunschweig, Germany.

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) are essential to glycolysis, the major route of carbohydrate breakdown in eukaryotes. In animals and other heterotrophic eukaryotes, both enzymes are localized in the cytosol; in photosynthetic eukaryotes, GAPDH and TPI exist as isoenzymes that function in the glycolytic pathway of the cytosol and in the Calvin cycle of chloroplasts. Here, we show that diatoms--photosynthetic protists that acquired their plastids through secondary symbiotic engulfment of a eukaryotic rhodophyte--possess an additional isoenzyme each of both GAPDH and TPI. Surprisingly, these new forms are expressed as an TPI-GAPDH fusion protein which is imported into mitochondria prior to its assembly into a tetrameric bifunctional enzyme complex. Homologs of this translational fusion are shown to be conserved and expressed also in nonphotosynthetic, heterokont-flagellated oomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses show that mitochondrial GAPDH and its N-terminal TPI fusion branch deeply within their respective eukaryotic protein phylogenies, suggesting that diatom mitochondria may have retained an ancestral state of glycolytic compartmentation that existed at the onset of mitochondrial symbiosis. These findings strongly support the view that nuclear genes for enzymes of glycolysis in eukaryotes were acquired from mitochondrial genomes and provide new insights into the evolutionary history (host-symbiont relationships) of diatoms and other heterokont-flagellated protists.

    Molecular biology and evolution 2000;17;2;213-23

  • The consequence of nucleotide substitutions in the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene promoter.

    Humphries A, Ationu A, Wild B and Layton DM

    Department of Haematological Medicine, Guy's School of Medicine, London, UK. ann.humphries@kcl.ac.uk

    Mutations at -5A-->G, -8-->GA within the cap proximal element (CPE), and -24T-->G within the TATA box of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene promoter have been identified in populations with a wide geographical distribution. These mutations lie within, or in close proximity to, known cis-active elements in the TPI gene promoter. To determine the functional significance of mutation at these sites, which remains controversial, their effect on the expression of erythrocyte TPI enzyme activity was studied in 110 healthy unrelated subjects. The -5G mutation did not alter erythrocyte TPI level, whereas the -8A mutation was accompanied by a significant reduction in enzyme activity to around 90% and 76% of normal erythrocyte TPI activity in heterozygotes and homozygotes, respectively. The -8A -24G genotype was associated with 75% of normal TPI activity in a heterozygote studied, implying that substitution of G at position -24 within the canonical TATA motif causes an additive decrease in TPI gene transcription in erythroid cells. A DNA-protein complex of 125kDa which was competitively blocked by specific unlabelled oligomers was demonstrated at the CPE and TATA box by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis. These findings provide direct evidence that TPI promoter mutations are linked to a reduction of TPI enzyme activity in vivo.

    Blood cells, molecules & diseases 1999;25;3-4;210-7

  • The feasibility of replacement therapy for inherited disorder of glycolysis: triosephosphate isomerase deficiency (review).

    Ationu A and Humphries A

    Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI, EC is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the energy-generating glycolytic pathway. Inherited defects in the TPI gene are characterised biochemically by markedly reduced TPI enzyme activity in all tissues resulting in metabolic block in glycolysis, with accumulating DHAP particularly in red cells. Clinical TPI deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive multi-system disorder characterised by non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia, recurrent infections, cardiomyopathy, severe and fatal neuromuscular dysfunctions. Reviews of current literature show that after 30 years since TPI deficiency was first described, the disease still remains without effective therapy. However, several potential therapeutic strategies exist for the treatment of inherited metabolic disorders such as TPI deficiency. Development of an effective therapy for TPI deficiency presents a fascinating and formidable challenge for basic laboratory and clinical research. The major aim of this overview is to discuss the current knowledge of TPI deficiency with special emphasis on research efforts directed towards reversing the metabolic effects of the disorder.

    International journal of molecular medicine 1998;2;6;701-4

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • A two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma proteins.

    Ji H, Reid GE, Moritz RL, Eddes JS, Burgess AW and Simpson RJ

    Joint Protein Structure Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (Melbourne Branch), Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    The master two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma cells currently lists cellular proteins from normal crypts and the colorectal cancer cell lines LIM 1863, LIM 1215 and LIM 1899 (Ward et al., Electrophoresis 1990, 11, 883-891; Ji et al., Electrophoresis 1994, 15, 391-405). Updated two-dimensional electrophoretic (2-DE) maps of cellular proteins from LIM 1215 cells, acquired under both nonreducing and reducing conditions, are presented. Fifteen cellular proteins are identified in the reducing 2-DE gel map, and seven in the nonreducing gel map, along with a tabular listing of their M(r)/pI loci and mode of identification. We also include our mass spectrometric based procedures for identifying 2-DE resolved proteins. This procedure relies on a combination of capillary column (0.10-0.32 mm internal diameter) reversed-phase HPLC peptide mapping of in-gel digested proteins, peptide mass fingerprinting, sequence analysis by either collision-induced dissociation or post-source-decay fragmentation, and protein identification using available database search algorithms. These data, and descriptions of the micro-techniques employed in this laboratory for identifying 2-DE resolved proteins can be accessed via the internet URL: http:(/)/www.ludwig.edu.au.

    Electrophoresis 1997;18;3-4;605-13

  • Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental and computational gene structure determination.

    Ansari-Lari MA, Shen Y, Muzny DM, Lee W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ma029926@bcm.tmc.edu

    The detailed genomic organization of a gene-dense region at human chromosome 12p13, spanning 223 kb of contiguous sequence, was determined. This region is composed of 20 genes and several other expressed sequences. Experimental tools including RT-PCR and cDNA sequencing, combined with gene prediction programs, were utilized in the analysis of the sequence. Various computer software programs were employed for sequence similarity searches and functional predictions. The high number of genes with diverse functions and complex transcriptional patterns make this region ideal for addressing challenges of gene discovery and genomic characterization amenable to large-scale sequence analysis.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG01459

    Genome research 1997;7;3;268-80

  • Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human breast carcinoma proteins: mapping of proteins that bind to the SH3 domain of mixed lineage kinase MLK2.

    Rasmussen RK, Ji H, Eddes JS, Moritz RL, Reid GE, Simpson RJ and Dorow DS

    Joint Protein Structure Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    MLK2, a member of the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family of protein kinases, first reported by Dorow et al. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993, 213, 701-710), comprises several distinct structural domains including an src homology-3 (SH3) domain, a kinase catalytic domain, a unique domain containing two leucine zipper motifs, a polybasic sequence, and a cdc42/rac interactive binding motif. Each of these domains has been shown in other systems to be associated with a specific type of protein interaction in the regulation of cellular signal transduction. To study the role of MLK2 in recruiting specific substrates, we constructed a recombinant cDNA encoding the N-terminal 100 amino acids of MLK2 (MLK2N), including the SH3 domain (residues 23-77), fused to glutathione S-transferase. This fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified using gluthathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography and employed in an affinity approach to isolate MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins from lysates of 35S-labelled MDA-MB231 human breast tumour cells. Electrophoretic analysis of bound proteins revealed that two low-abundance proteins with a molecular weights (Mr) of approximately 31,500 and approximately 34,000, bound consistently to the MLK2N protein. To establish accurately the Mt / isoelectric point (pI) loci of these MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins, a number of abundant proteins in a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) master gel were identified to serve as triangulation marker points. Proteins were identified by (i) direct Edman degradation following electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, (ii) Edman degradation of peptides generated by in-gel proteolysis and fractionation by rapid (approximately 12 min) microbore column (2.1 mm ID) reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (iii) mass spectrometric methods including peptide-mass fingerprinting and electrospray (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS)-MS utilizing capillary (0.2-0.3 mm ID) column chromatography, or (iv) immunoblot analysis. Using this information, a preliminary 2-DE protein database for the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231, comprising 21 identified proteins, has been constructed and can be accessed via the World Wide Web (URL address: http:(/)/ www.ludwig.edu.au/www/jpsl/jpslhome.htm l).

    Electrophoresis 1997;18;3-4;588-98

  • Evidence for founder effect of the Glu104Asp substitution and identification of new mutations in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency.

    Arya R, Lalloz MR, Bellingham AJ and Layton DM

    Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, UK.

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycolysis characterized by multisystem disease and lethality in early childhood. Among seven unrelated Northern European kindreds with clinical TPI deficiency studied, a single missense mutation at codon 104 (GAG;Glu-->GAC;Asp) predominated, accounting for 11/14 (79%) mutant alleles. In three families molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for Glu104Asp and novel missense mutations. In two cases the second mutation was a Cys to Tyr substitution at codon 41 (TGT-->TAT) and in one an Ile to Val substitution at codon 170(ATT-->GTT). The origin of the Glu104Asp mutation was defined by haplotype analysis using a novel G/A polymorphism at nucleotide 2898 of the TPI gene. Cosegregation of the low frequency 2898A allele with the G-->C base change at nucleotide 315 supports a single origin for the Glu104Asp mutation in a common ancestor.

    Human mutation 1997;10;4;290-4

  • A gene-rich cluster between the CD4 and triosephosphate isomerase genes at human chromosome 12p13.

    Ansari-Lari MA, Muzny DM, Lu J, Lu F, Lilley CE, Spanos S, Malley T and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ma029926@bcm.tmc.edu

    The genomic sequence of the human CD4 gene and its neighboring region, located at chromosome 12p13, was generated using the large-scale shotgun sequencing strategy. A total of 117 kb of genomic sequence and approximately 11 kb of cDNA sequence were obtained. Six genes, including CD4, triosephosphate isomerase, B3 subunit of G proteins (GNB3), and ubiquitin isopeptidase T (ISOT), with known functions, and two new genes with unknown functions were identified. Using a battery of strategies, the exon/intron boundaries, splice variants, and tissue expression patterns of the genes were determined. Various computer software was utilized for analyses of the DNA and amino acid sequences. The results of the analyses and sequence-based strategies for gene identification are discussed.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: P30 HG00210, R0I HG00823

    Genome research 1996;6;4;314-26

  • Three hTIM mutants that provide new insights on why TIM is a dimer.

    Mainfroid V, Terpstra P, Beauregard M, Frère JM, Mande SC, Hol WG, Martial JA and Goraj K

    Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique, Université de Liége, Institut de Chimie, Belgium.

    Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM), a dimeric enzyme, was altered by site-directed mutagenesis in order to determine whether it can be dissociated into monomers. Two hTIM mutants were produced, in which a glutamine residue was substituted for either Met14 or Arg98, both of which are interface residuces. These substitutions strongly interfere with TIM subunit association, since these mutant TIMs appear to exist as compact monomers in dynamic equilibrium with dimers. In kinetic studies, the M14Q mutant exhibits significant catalytic activity, while the R98Q enzyme is inactive. The M14Q enzyme is nevertheless much less active than unmutated hTIM. Moreover, its specific activity is concentration dependent, suggesting a dissociation process in which the monomers are inactive. In order to determine the conformational stability of the wild-type and mutant hTIMs, unfolding of all three enzymes was monitored by circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy. In each case, protein stability is concentration dependent, and the unfolding reaction is compatible with a two-state model involving the native dimer and unfolded monomers. The conformational stability of hTIM, as estimated according to this model, is 19.3 (+/-0.4) kcal/mol. The M14Q and R98Q replacements significantly reduce enzyme stability, since the free energies of unfolding are 13.8 and 13.5 (+/- 0.3) kcal/mol respectively, for the mutants, A third mutant, in which the M14Q and R98Q replacements are cumulated, behaves like a monomer. The stability of this mutant is not concentration-dependent, and the unfolding reaction is assigned to a transition from a folded monomer to an unfolded monomer. The conformational stability of this double mutant is estimated 2.5 (+/-0.1) kcal/mol. All these data combined suggest that TIM monomers are thermodynamically unstable. This might explain why TIM occurs only as a dimer.

    Journal of molecular biology 1996;257;2;441-56

  • Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus.

    Watanabe M, Zingg BC and Mohrenweiser HW

    Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA 94550, USA.

    Individuals with 50% of expected triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity have been previously identified in families during the screening of approximately 2,000 newborn children for quantitative variation in activity of 12 erythrocyte enzymes. The frequency of the trait was 9/1,713 individuals in the Caucasian population and 7/168 individuals among the African-American population studied. Genetic transmission of the trait was confirmed in all families. The frequency of the presumptive deficiency allele(s) at the TPI locus was greater than expected, given the reported incidence of clinical TPI deficiency. We report the molecular characterization of the variant alleles from seven African-American and three Caucasian individuals in this group of unrelated individuals. Three amino acid substitutions--a Gly-->Ala substitution at residue 72, a Val-->Met at residue 154, and a previously described Glu-->Asp substitution at residue 104--were identified in the Caucasian individuals. The substitutions occur at residues that are not directly involved in the active site but are highly conserved through evolutionary time, suggesting important roles for these residues in maintenance of subunit structure and conformation. The variant allele in the seven African-American individuals had nucleotide changes at positions -8 and -5 (5' of) from the transcription-initiation site. In three of these individuals, an additional T-->G substitution was detected in a TATA box-like sequence located 24 nucleotides 5' of the transcription-initiation site and on the same chromosome as the -5/-8 substitutions. Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified.

    American journal of human genetics 1996;58;2;308-16

  • Crystal structure of recombinant human triosephosphate isomerase at 2.8 A resolution. Triosephosphate isomerase-related human genetic disorders and comparison with the trypanosomal enzyme.

    Mande SC, Mainfroid V, Kalk KH, Goraj K, Martial JA and Hol WG

    Department of Biological Structure, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.

    The crystal structure of recombinant human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) has been determined complexed with the transition-state analogue 2-phosphoglycolate at a resolution of 2.8 A. After refinement, the R-factor is 16.7% with good geometry. The asymmetric unit contains 1 complete dimer of 53,000 Da, with only 1 of the subunits binding the inhibitor. The so-called flexible loop, comprising residues 168-174, is in its "closed" conformation in the subunit that binds the inhibitor, and in the "open" conformation in the other subunit. The tips of the loop in these 2 conformations differ up to 7 A in position. The RMS difference between hTIM and the enzyme of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, is 1.12 A for 487 C alpha positions with 53% sequence identity. Significant sequence differences between the human and parasite enzymes occur at about 13 A from the phosphate binding site. The chicken and human enzymes have an RMS difference of 0.69 A for 484 equivalent residues and about 90% sequence identity. Complementary mutations ensure a great similarity in the packing of side chains in the core of the beta-barrels of these 2 enzymes. Three point mutations in hTIM have been correlated with severe genetic disorders ranging from hemolytic disorder to neuromuscular impairment. Knowledge of the structure of the human enzyme provides insight into the probable effect of 2 of these mutations, Glu 104 to Asp and Phe 240 to Ile, on the enzyme. The third mutation reported to be responsible for a genetic disorder, Gly 122 to Arg, is however difficult to explain. This residue is far away from both catalytic centers in the dimer, as well as from the dimer interface, and seems unlikely to affect stability or activity. Inspection of the 3-dimensional structure of trypanosomal triosephosphate isomerase, which has a methionine at position 122, only increased the mystery of the effects of the Gly to Arg mutation in the human enzyme.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 1994;3;5;810-21

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency resulting from mutation of Phe-240.

    Chang ML, Artymiuk PJ, Wu X, Hollán S, Lammi A and Maquat LE

    Department of Human Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263.

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketolisomerase [E.C.]) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that typically results in chronic, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and in neuromuscular impairment. The molecular basis of this disease was analyzed for one Hungarian family and for two Australian families by localizing the defects in TPI cDNA and by determining how each defect affects TPI gene expression. The Hungarian family is noteworthy in having the first reported case of an individual, A. Jó., who harbors two defective TPI alleles but who does not manifest neuromuscular disabilities. This family was characterized by two mutations that have never been described. One is a missense mutation within codon 240 (TTC [Phe]-->CTC [Leu]), which creates a thermolabile protein, as indicated by the results of enzyme activity assays using cell extracts. This substitution, which changes a phylogenetically conserved amino acid, may affect enzyme activity by disrupting intersubunit contacts or substrate binding, as deduced from enzyme structural studies. The other mutation has yet to be localized but reduces the abundance of TPI mRNA 10-20-fold. Each of the Australian families was characterized by a previously described mutation within codon 104 (GAG [Glu]-->GAC [Asp]), which also results in thermolabile protein.

    American journal of human genetics 1993;52;6;1260-9

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Human triosephosphate isomerase: substitution of Arg for Gly at position 122 in a thermolabile electromorph variant, TPI-Manchester.

    Perry BA and Mohrenweiser HW

    Biomedical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550.

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses of polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA products and subsequent direct sequencing identified a G-to-A transition causing a replacement of Gly 122 with Arg in an electrophoretic mobility variant of human triosephosphate isomerase, TPI-Manchester. This was the only TPI electromorph variant detected in screening of greater than 3,400 humans in an Ann Arbor, Mich. population. This substitution is at the amino terminus or solvent interaction end of the fifth beta sheet of the alpha/beta barrel structure. The TPI-Manchester variant is a thermolabile enzyme, but the stability of the variant enzyme is not sensitive to other denaturants. This amino acid substitution does not involve residues of the active site and does not detectably alter the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The data provide additional insight into the amino acid residues that are important for the maintenance of the structural characteristics of this very evolutionary constrained protein.

    Human genetics 1992;88;6;634-8

  • Minimal sequence and factor requirements for the initiation of transcription from an atypical, TATATAA box-containing housekeeping promoter.

    Boyer TG and Maquat LE

    Department of Human Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New York State Department of Health, Buffalo 14263.

    We have established the minimal sequence and factor requirements for both constitutive and viral-induced transcription from an atypical, TATATAA box-containing human housekeeping promoter. Utilizing a transient cotransfection protocol, we have found that efficient transactivation of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene transcription by the immediate early proteins of adenovirus and pseudorabies virus is dependent upon the same assembly of sequence elements that collectively confer minimal TPI promoter function in the absence of viral protein. These elements span TPI promoter positions -65 and -6 (where +1 is the transcription initiation site) and include not only a TFIID-responsive TATATAA box (-27 to -21) but a single GC box (-53 to -48) that binds Spl, and a novel cap proximal element (-18 to -6) that binds a 110-kDa nuclear factor that is present in HeLa cells. We demonstrate that these elements function in an interdependent fashion; deleting either GC box 1 or the cap proximal element completely or nearly abolished both basal transcription and viral transactivation. Therefore, these elements and their cognate factors represent the basal transcription initiation complex through which the immediate early protein of adenovirus or pseudorabies virus mediates the stimulation of TPI gene transcription. We discuss the implications of these data for both constitutive and viral-induced transcription.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-33938

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;33;20524-32

  • Transcriptional regulatory sequences of the housekeeping gene for human triosephosphate isomerase.

    Boyer TG, Krug JR and Maquat LE

    Department of Human Genetics, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263.

    To examine the functional organization of the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) promoter, deletion, insertion, and linker scanning mutations were introduced into the TPI promoter of hybrid TPI/beta-globin genes. These genes were transiently expressed in mouse L and human HeLa cells, and the effect of each mutation on the frequency and position of transcription initiation was assayed by S1 nuclease transcript mapping. Multiple positive regulatory elements reside between positions -595 and +1 in L cells and -920 and -7 in HeLa cells and coordinately promote maximum hybrid gene transcription. These elements include an array of GC boxes (positions -126 to -48) that variably conform to the consensus Sp1-binding site, and a canonical TATA box (positions -27 to -21) that is essential for detectable levels of transcription. In an additive yet position-dependent fashion, the GC boxes function in cis to the TATA box to control both the frequency and position of transcription initiation. Additional positive elements reside upstream of position -131 and are required for full promoter function. Also, an inhibitory element(s) residing between position -7200 and either -2800 in L cells or -920 in HeLa cells reduces transcription approximately 7-fold relative to the level of transcription achieved with the maximally active promoter.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 33938

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1989;264;9;5177-87

  • Human triose-phosphate isomerase deficiency: a single amino acid substitution results in a thermolabile enzyme.

    Daar IO, Artymiuk PJ, Phillips DC and Maquat LE

    Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC deficiency is a recessive disorder that results in hemolytic anemia and neuromuscular dysfunction. To determine the molecular basis of this disorder, a TPI allele from two unrelated patients homozygous for TPI deficiency was compared with an allele from a normal individual. Each disease-associated sequence harbors a G X C----C X G transversion in the codon for amino acid-104 and specifies a structurally altered protein in which a glutamate residue is replaced by an aspartate residue. The importance of glutamate-104 to enzyme structure and function is implicated by its conservation in the TPI protein of all species that have been characterized to date. The glutamate-to-aspartate substitution results in a thermolabile enzyme as demonstrated by assays of TPI activity in cultured fibroblasts of each patient and cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were stably transformed with the mutant alleles. Although this substitution conserves the overall charge of amino acid-104, the x-ray crystal structure of chicken TPI indicates that the loss of a side-chain methylene group (-CH2CH2COO- ---- -CH2COO-) is sufficient to disrupt the counterbalancing of charges that normally exists within a hydrophobic pocket of the native enzyme.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM/GM 33938, R01 AM 31747

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1986;83;20;7903-7

  • Characterization of the functional gene and several processed pseudogenes in the human triosephosphate isomerase gene family.

    Brown JR, Daar IO, Krug JR and Maquat LE

    The functional gene and three intronless pseudogenes for human triosephosphate isomerase were isolated from a recombinant DNA library and characterized in detail. The functional gene spans 3.5 kilobase pairs and is split into seven exons. Its promoter contains putative TATA and CCAAT boxes and is extremely rich in G and C residues (76%). The pseudogenes share a high degree of homology with the functional gene but contain mutations that preclude the synthesis of an active triosephosphate isomerase enzyme. Sequence divergence calculations indicate that these pseudogenes arose approximately 18 million years ago. We present evidence that there is a single functional gene in the human triosephosphate isomerase gene family.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM/GM 33938, R01 AM 31747

    Molecular and cellular biology 1985;5;7;1694-706

  • Human triosephosphate isomerase cDNA and protein structure. Studies of triosephosphate isomerase deficiency in man.

    Maquat LE, Chilcote R and Ryan PM

    Nine cDNA clones of human adult liver triosephosphate (TP) isomerase have been isolated and characterized. All nine appear to be derived from a single mRNA species. DNA sequencing of one clone, designated pHTPI-5a, defined the last two nucleotides of the methionine initiation codon, the entire 744-nucleotide coding region of the mature polypeptide, and the entire 448-nucleotide 3' untranslated region. The frequency of TP isomerase clones in the cDNA library suggests that TP isomerase mRNA is present in adult liver at approximately 25 copies/cell. A single, low abundance TP isomerase mRNA species was detected in RNA isolated from normal human fibroblast cell lines. Analysis of TP isomerase mRNA levels in cultured fibroblasts of individuals that are homozygous for TP isomerase deficiency revealed normal levels in one and approximately 40% of normal levels in another. From this small patient sampling, it can be concluded that the genetic basis for TP isomerase deficiency is heterogeneous.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM31747

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1985;260;6;3748-53

  • Primary structure of human triosephosphate isomerase.

    Lu HS, Yuan PM and Gracy RW

    Human placental triosephosphate isomerase was isolated by an improved procedure and recovered with the highest specific activity ever reported. Employing this purification procedure, sufficient amounts of the enzyme were obtained for detailed primary structural studies. For sequences analysis, the enzyme was reduced and carboxymethylated and subjected to tryptic and chymotryptic digestions. The peptide mixtures were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography using octyl or alkylphenyl reverse-phase columns and trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution systems. Sequence analyses of the intact enzyme, tryptic, chymotryptic, and cyanogen bromide peptides were accomplished using high-sensitivity solid-phase sequencing procedures with either 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-isothiocyanate or phenylisothiocyanate. The primary structure of human triosephosphate isomerase is constructed from the alignment of the tryptic peptides with the analysis of the overlapping chymotryptic peptides. The enzyme is a dimeric molecule consisting of two identical polypeptide chains with 248 amino acid residues and a calculated subunit molecular mass of 26,750 daltons. A comparison of the amino acid sequences from the human placental enzyme and from other species such as rabbit, chicken, and coelacanth muscles showed relatively high sequence homology, indicating that the evolution of the enzyme is very conservative. The amino acids of the active-site pocket and the subunit-subunit contact sites exhibit few changes.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 01274; NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 14638

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1984;259;19;11958-68

  • 12pter to 12p12.2: possible assignment of human triose phosphate isomerase.

    Rethoré MO, Kaplan JC, Junien C and Lejeune J

    Red cell triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) was determined, together with other enzymes, in three patients with chromosome 12 abnormalities. In patient No. 1 (trisomy of the segment 12 pter leads to 12q 12) and in patient No. 2 (trisomy of the segment 12pter leads to 12p 12.1), the TPI activity was significantly increased. In patient No. 3 (deletion of the segment 12 p 11 leads to 12 p 12.2), the TPI activity was in the normal range. These results suggest that the human TPI locus is located on the chromosome 12 short arm, between 12p ter and 12 p 12.2.

    Human genetics 1977;36;2;235-7

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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