G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002218
Gene symbol
TRIO (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
triple functional domain (PTPRF interacting)
Orthologue
G00000969 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000038382 (Ensembl human gene)
7204 (Entrez Gene)
711 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TRIO (GeneCards)
Literature
601893 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12303 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O75962 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • ARHGEF23

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Mutation of ARHGAP9 in patients with coronary spastic angina.

    Takefuji M, Asano H, Mori K, Amano M, Kato K, Watanabe T, Morita Y, Katsumi A, Itoh T, Takenawa T, Hirashiki A, Izawa H, Nagata K, Hirayama H, Takatsu F, Naoe T, Yokota M and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

    Coronary artery spasm has an important function in the etiology of variant angina and other acute coronary syndromes. Abnormal activation of Rho-family GTPases has been observed in cardiovascular disorders, but the function of genetic variability in Rho-family GTPases remains to be evaluated in cardiovascular disorders. We examined the genetic variability of Rho-family GTPases and their regulators in coronary artery spasm. We performed a comprehensive candidate gene analysis of 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms with amino-acid substitution in Rho-family GTPases and their regulators in 103 unrelated Japanese patients with acetylcholine-induced coronary artery spasm and 102 control Japanese subjects without acetylcholine-induced coronary artery spasm. We noted an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism of ARHGAP9 (rs11544238, Ala370Ser) with coronary artery spasm (odds ratio =2.67). We found that ARHGAP9 inactivated Rac as RacGAP and that the mRNA level of ARHGAP9 was strongly detected in hematopoietic cells. ARHGAP9 negatively regulated cell migration. The Ala370Ser polymorphism counteracted ARHGAP9-reduced cell migration, spreading and adhesion. The Ala370Ser polymorphism in the ARHGAP9 gene is associated with coronary artery spasm. These data suggest that the polymorphism of ARHGAP9 has a critical function in the infiltration of hematopoietic cells into the endothelium and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction.

    Journal of human genetics 2010;55;1;42-9

  • Assembly of high order G alpha q-effector complexes with RGS proteins.

    Shankaranarayanan A, Thal DM, Tesmer VM, Roman DL, Neubig RR, Kozasa T and Tesmer JJ

    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2216, USA.

    Transmembrane signaling through G alpha(q)-coupled receptors is linked to physiological processes such as cardiovascular development and smooth muscle function. Recent crystallographic studies have shown how G alpha(q) interacts with two activation-dependent targets, p63RhoGEF and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). These proteins bind to the effector-binding site of G alpha(q) in a manner that does not appear to physically overlap with the site on G alpha(q) bound by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which function as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Herein we confirm the formation of RGS-G alpha(q)-GRK2/p63RhoGEF ternary complexes using flow cytometry protein interaction and GAP assays. RGS2 and, to a lesser extent, RGS4 are negative allosteric modulators of Galpha(q) binding to either p63RhoGEF or GRK2. Conversely, GRK2 enhances the GAP activity of RGS4 but has little effect on that of RGS2. Similar but smaller magnitude responses are induced by p63RhoGEF. The fact that GRK2 and p63RhoGEF respond similarly to these RGS proteins supports the hypothesis that GRK2 is a bona fide G alpha(q) effector. The results also suggest that signal transduction pathways initiated by GRK2, such as the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors, and by p63RhoGEF, such as the activation of gene transcription, can be regulated by RGS proteins via both allosteric and GAP mechanisms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL071818, HL086865; NIDA NIH HHS: DA23252; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM076821, GM61454

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;50;34923-34

  • The guanine nucleotide exchange factors trio, Ect2, and Vav3 mediate the invasive behavior of glioblastoma.

    Salhia B, Tran NL, Chan A, Wolf A, Nakada M, Rutka F, Ennis M, McDonough WS, Berens ME, Symons M and Rutka JT

    Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, Cancer and Cell Biology Division, The Hospital for Sick Children, the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by their ability to invade normal brain tissue. We have previously shown that the small GTPase Rac1 plays a role in both migration and invasion in gliomas. Here, we aim to identify Rac-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that mediate glioblastoma invasiveness. Using a brain tumor expression database, we identified three GEFs, Trio, Ect2, and Vav3, that are expressed at higher levels in glioblastoma versus low-grade glioma. The expression of these GEFs is also associated with poor patient survival. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses on an independent set of tumors confirmed that these GEFs are overexpressed in glioblastoma as compared with either nonneoplastic brain or low-grade gliomas. In addition, depletion of Trio, Ect2, and Vav3 by siRNA oligonucleotides suppresses glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Depletion of either Ect2 or Trio also reduces the rate of cell proliferation. These results suggest that targeting GEFs may present novel strategies for anti-invasive therapy for malignant gliomas.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: F32 CA112986, F32 CA112986-01; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-060023, NS-42262, R01 NS042262, R21 NS060023

    The American journal of pathology 2008;173;6;1828-38

  • Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results.

    Uhl GR, Liu QR, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Rose JE, David SP, Niaura R and Lerman C

    Molecular Neurobiology Research Branch, National Institutes of Health-Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 333 Cassell Dr, Ste 3510, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. guhl@intra.nida.nih.gov

    Context: Smoking remains a major public health problem. Twin studies indicate that the ability to quit smoking is substantially heritable, with genetics that overlap modestly with the genetics of vulnerability to dependence on addictive substances.

    Objectives: To identify replicated genes that facilitate smokers' abilities to achieve and sustain abstinence from smoking (herein after referred to as quit-success genes) found in more than 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of successful vs unsuccessful abstainers, and, secondarily, to nominate genes for selective involvement in smoking cessation success with bupropion hydrochloride vs nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

    Design: The GWA results in subjects from 3 centers, with secondary analyses of NRT vs bupropion responders.

    Setting: Outpatient smoking cessation trial participants from 3 centers.

    Participants: European American smokers who successfully vs unsuccessfully abstain from smoking with biochemical confirmation in a smoking cessation trial using NRT, bupropion, or placebo (N = 550).

    Quit-success genes, reproducibly identified by clustered nominally positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2 independent samples with significant P values based on Monte Carlo simulation trials. The NRT-selective genes were nominated by clustered SNPs that display much larger t values for NRT vs placebo comparisons. The bupropion-selective genes were nominated by bupropion-selective results.

    Results: Variants in quit-success genes are likely to alter cell adhesion, enzymatic, transcriptional, structural, and DNA, RNA, and/or protein-handling functions. Quit-success genes are identified by clustered nominally positive SNPs from more than 2 samples and are unlikely to represent chance observations (Monte Carlo P< .0003). These genes display modest overlap with genes identified in GWA studies of dependence on addictive substances and memory.

    Conclusions: These results support polygenic genetics for success in abstaining from smoking, overlap with genetics of substance dependence and memory, and nominate gene variants for selective influences on therapeutic responses to bupropion vs NRT. Molecular genetics should help match the types and/or intensity of antismoking treatments with the smokers most likely to benefit from them.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA084719, P50CA/DA84718, P50CA84719, R01 CA063562, R01CA 63562; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL32318; NIDA NIH HHS: 1K08 DA14276-05, DA08511, K08 DA014276, K08 DA014276-01A2, K08 DA014276-02, K08 DA014276-03, K08 DA014276-04, K08 DA014276-05

    Archives of general psychiatry 2008;65;6;683-93

  • Galphaq directly activates p63RhoGEF and Trio via a conserved extension of the Dbl homology-associated pleckstrin homology domain.

    Rojas RJ, Yohe ME, Gershburg S, Kawano T, Kozasa T and Sondek J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    The coordinated cross-talk from heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho GTPases is essential during a variety of physiological processes. Emerging data suggest that members of the Galpha(12/13) and Galpha(q/11) families of heterotrimeric G proteins signal downstream to RhoA via distinct pathways. Although studies have elucidated mechanisms governing Galpha(12/13)-mediated RhoA activation, proteins that functionally couple Galpha(q/11) to RhoA activation have remained elusive. Recently, the Dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) p63RhoGEF/GEFT has been described as a novel mediator of Galpha(q/11) signaling to RhoA based on its ability to synergize with Galpha(q/11) resulting in enhanced RhoA signaling in cells. We have used biochemical/biophysical approaches with purified protein components to better understand the mechanism by which activated Galpha(q) directly engages and stimulates p63RhoGEF. Basally, p63RhoGEF is autoinhibited by the Dbl homology (DH)-associated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain; activated Galpha(q) relieves this autoinhibition by interacting with a highly conserved C-terminal extension of the PH domain. This unique extension is conserved in the related Dbl-family members Trio and Kalirin and we show that the C-terminal Rho-specific DH-PH cassette of Trio is similarly activated by Galpha(q).

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM065533, P01-GM65533, R01 GM062299, R01 GM062299-05A1, R01 GM6145408, R01-GM62299

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;40;29201-10

  • The DH and PH domains of Trio coordinately engage Rho GTPases for their efficient activation.

    Chhatriwala MK, Betts L, Worthylake DK and Sondek J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, USA.

    Rho-family GTPases are activated by the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, a process that is catalyzed by Dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The catalytic unit of Dbl-family GEFs consists of a Dbl homology (DH) domain followed almost invariantly by a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain. The majority of the catalytic interface forms between the switch regions of the GTPase and the DH domain, but full catalytic activity often requires the associated PH domain. Although PH domains are usually characterized as lipid-binding regions, they also participate in protein-protein interactions. For example, the DH-associated PH domain of Dbs must contact its cognate GTPases for efficient exchange. Similarly, the N-terminal DH/PH fragment of Trio, which catalyzes exchange on both Rac1 and RhoG, is fourfold more active in vitro than the isolated DH domain. Given continued uncertainty regarding functional roles of DH-associated PH domains, we have undertaken structural and functional analyses of the N-terminal DH/PH cassette of Trio. The crystal structure of this fragment of Trio bound to nucleotide-depleted Rac1 highlights the engagement of the PH domain with Rac1 and substitution of residues involved in this interface substantially diminishes activation of Rac1 and RhoG. Also, these mutations significantly reduce the ability of full-length Trio to induce neurite outgrowth dependent on RhoG activation in PC-12 cells. Overall, these studies substantiate a general role for DH-associated PH domains in engaging Rho GTPases directly for efficient guanine nucleotide exchange and support a parsimonious explanation for the essentially invariant linkage between DH and PH domains.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM62299, GM65533, P01 GM065533, R01 GM062299

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;368;5;1307-20

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Frequent amplifications and abundant expression of TRIO, NKD2, and IRX2 in soft tissue sarcomas.

    Adamowicz M, Radlwimmer B, Rieker RJ, Mertens D, Schwarzbach M, Schraml P, Benner A, Lichter P, Mechtersheimer G and Joos S

    Division of Molecular Genetics (B060), German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

    Copy number gains and high-level amplifications of the short arm of chromosome 5 are frequently observed in soft tissue sarcomas. To identify genes from this region possibly involved in tumor progression, we analyzed 34 soft tissue sarcomas (10 pleomorphic and 8 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, 6 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, and 10 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST)) using a DNA microarray including 418 BAC clones representing 99% of chromosome arm 5p. In seven tumors, distinct high-level amplifications were identified affecting four different subregions. From these regions, genes TERT, TRIO, SKP2, FBXO32, NKD2, SLC6A3, IRX2, POLS, FYB, PTGER4, and FGF10 were selected for detailed quantitative expression analysis (RQ-PCR) based on their potential tumorigenic function. Of these, TRIO, coding for a guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, was consistently overexpressed in all cases, while IRX2 and NKD2, both involved in the regulation of developmental processes via the WNT pathway, showed a characteristic expression only in MPNSTs. Detailed nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis further showed that the expression of TRIO, IRX2, and NKD2 strongly correlated with the gene copy number. In conclusion, we found TRIO, IRX2, and NKD2 frequently affected by high-level amplifications as well as up-regulated in a gene-dosage dependent manner. Thus, these genes represent candidate targets of 5p amplifications in soft tissue sarcomas and might play a crucial role during the progression of this disease.

    Genes, chromosomes & cancer 2006;45;9;829-38

  • Identification of novel neuronal isoforms of the Rho-GEF Trio.

    Portales-Casamar E, Briançon-Marjollet A, Fromont S, Triboulet R and Debant A

    CRBM-CNRS, FRE 2593, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France.

    The large family of GEFs (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors) for Rho GTPases activate the GTPases by accelerating their GDP/GTP exchange. The multidomain protein Trio is the founding member of an intriguing subfamily of Rho-GEFs exhibiting two Rho-GEF and numerous additional domains. The members of the Trio family play an important role in neuronal physiology, and their structural organization is very well conserved through evolution. It has previously been shown that all the members, except mammalian Trio, display several isoforms, the functions of which have been well established.

    Results: In this study, we have identified, by a combination of different approaches, novel Trio isoforms that have been generated by alternative splicing, giving rise to proteins that exhibit one or two Rho-GEF domains (GEFDs). These isoforms are specifically expressed in the nervous system, at a higher level than the full-length Trio, which is ubiquitously expressed. In addition, we show that all the GEFD1-containing isoforms induce neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells.

    Conclusions: We have identified neuronal specific isoforms of Trio which could be essential for Trio function in neuronal morphology.

    Biology of the cell 2006;98;3;183-93

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • An alternative transcript derived from the trio locus encodes a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor with mouse cell-transforming potential.

    Yoshizuka N, Moriuchi R, Mori T, Yamada K, Hasegawa S, Maeda T, Shimada T, Yamada Y, Kamihira S, Tomonaga M and Katamine S

    Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, 852-8523, Japan.

    By screening cDNA expression libraries derived from fresh leukemic cells of adult T-cell leukemia for the potential to transform murine fibroblasts, NIH3T3, we have identified a novel transforming gene, designated Tgat. Expression of Tgat in NIH3T3 resulted in the loss of contact inhibition, increase of saturation density, anchorage-independent growth in a semisolid medium, tumorigenicity in nude mice, and increased invasiveness. Sequence comparison revealed that an alternative RNA splicing of the Trio gene was involved in the generation of Tgat. The Tgat cDNA encoded a protein product consisting of the Rho-guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain of a multifunctional protein, TRIO, and a unique C-terminal 15-amino acid sequence, which were derived from the exons 38-46 of the Trio gene and a novel exon located downstream of its last exon (exon 58), respectively. A Tgat mutant cDNA lacking the C-terminal coding region preserved Rho-GEF activity but lost the transforming potential, indicating an indispensable role of the unique sequence. On the other hand, treatment of Tgat-transformed NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, a pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase, abrogated their transforming phenotypes, suggesting the coinvolvement of Rho-GEF activity. Thus, alternative RNA splicing, resulting in the fusion protein with the Rho-GEF domain and the unique 15 amino acids, is the mechanism generating the novel oncogene, Tgat.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;42;43998-4004

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The C-terminal basic tail of RhoG assists the guanine nucleotide exchange factor trio in binding to phospholipids.

    Skowronek KR, Guo F, Zheng Y and Nassar N

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8661, USA.

    The multidomain protein Trio regulates among others neuronal outgrowth and axonal guidance in vertebrates and invertebrates. Trio contains two Dbl-homology/pleckstrin homology (DH/PH) tandem domains that activate several RhoGTPases. Here, we present the x-ray structure of the N-terminal DH/PH, hereafter TrioN, refined to 1.7-A resolution. We show that the relative orientations of the DH and PH domains of TrioN and free Dbs are similar. However, this relative orientation is dissimilar to Dbs in the Dbs/Cdc42 structure. In vitro nucleotide exchange experiments catalyzed by TrioN show that RhoG is approximately 3x more efficiently exchanged than Rac and support the conclusion that RhoG is likely the downstream target of TrioN. Residues 54 and 69, which are not conserved between the two GTPases, are responsible for this specificity. Dot-blot assay reveals that the TrioN-PH domain does not detectably bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, PtdIns(3,4)P(2), or other phospholipids. This finding is supported by our three-dimensional structure and affinity binding experiments. Interestingly, the presence of RhoG but not Rac or a C-terminal-truncated RhoG mutant allows TrioN to bind PtdIns(3,4)P(2) with a micromolar affinity constant. We conclude the variable C-terminal basic tail of RhoG specifically assists the recruitment of the TrioN-PH domain to specific membrane-bound phospholipids. Our data suggest a role for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI 3-kinase, in modulating the Trio/RhoG signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR-01646; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32-DK07521-16

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;36;37895-907

  • TRIO amplification and abundant mRNA expression is associated with invasive tumor growth and rapid tumor cell proliferation in urinary bladder cancer.

    Zheng M, Simon R, Mirlacher M, Maurer R, Gasser T, Forster T, Diener PA, Mihatsch MJ, Sauter G and Schraml P

    Institute of Pathology, University of Basel, Schoenbeinstrasse 40, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    Studies by comparative genome hybridization have suggested that 5p amplification is related to tumor progression in urinary bladder cancer. In this study seven genes (TAS2R, ADCY2, DNAH5, CTNND2, TRIO, ANKH, and MYO10) located to 5p15.31-5p15.1 were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a tissue microarray containing samples from tumors and cell lines with known 5p amplification by comparative genome hybridization. Amplification frequency was highest for TRIO, which maps to 5p15.2 and encodes a protein with a putative role in cell-cycle regulation. To further investigate the role of TRIO amplification in bladder cancer, a tissue microarray containing samples from 2317 bladder tumors was used for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. TRIO amplification was strongly associated with invasive tumor phenotype, high tumor grade, and rapid tumor cell proliferation (Ki67 LI) (P < 0.0001 each). Only 7 of 456 pTaG1/G2 tumors (1.5%) but 62 of 485 pT1-4 carcinomas (12.8%) had TRIO amplification. TRIO amplification was not associated with poor prognosis. Using a frozen bladder tumor tissue microarray RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that TRIO is up-regulated in amplified tumors. It is concluded that TRIO up-regulation through amplification has a potential role in bladder cancer progression.

    The American journal of pathology 2004;165;1;63-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Ten years on: mediation of cell death by the common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR).

    Rabizadeh S and Bredesen DE

    The Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945-1400, USA. srabizadeh@buckinstitute.org

    The common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) remains one of the most enigmatic of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily: on the one hand, it displays a death domain and has been shown to be capable of mediating programmed cell death (PCD) upon ligand binding; on the other hand, its death domain is of type II (unlike that of Fas or TNFR I), and it has also been shown to be capable of mediating cell death in response to the withdrawal of ligand. Thus, p75(NTR) may function as a death receptor-similar to Fas or TNFR I-or a dependence receptor-similar to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) or uncoordinated gene-5 homologues 1-3 (UNC5H1-3). Here, we review the data relating to the mediation of PCD by p75(NTR), and suggest that one reasonable model for the apparently paradoxical effects of p75(NTR) is that this receptor functions as a "quality control" in that it is capable of mediating PCD in at least four situations: (1). withdrawal of neurotrophins; (2). exposure to mismatched neurotrophins; (3). exposure to unprocessed neurotrophins; and (4). exposure of inappropriately immature cells to neurotrophins. Results to date suggest that these functions are mediated through different underlying mechanisms, and that their respective signaling pathways are cell type and co-receptor dependent.

    Cytokine & growth factor reviews 2003;14;3-4;225-39

  • Signaling between focal adhesion kinase and trio.

    Medley QG, Buchbinder EG, Tachibana K, Ngo H, Serra-Pagès C and Streuli M

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Quintas_Medley@dcfi.harvard.edu

    The Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor functions in neural development in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila and in the development of neural tissues and skeletal muscle in mouse. The association of Trio with the Lar tyrosine phosphatase led us to study the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in Trio function using focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The Lar-interacting domain of Trio is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated when expressed in COS-7 cells and was highly phosphorylated when it was co-transfected with FAK. Co-precipitation studies indicated that Trio binds to the FAK amino-terminal domain and to the FAK kinase domain via its SH3 and kinase domains, respectively. Tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK and Trio were present mainly in the detergent-insoluble fraction of cell lysates, and co-expression of Trio and FAK resulted in increased amounts of Trio present in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Immunofluorescence of cells co-transfected with FAK and Trio revealed significant co-localization of the proteins at the cell periphery, indicating that they form a stable complex in vivo. A FAK phosphorylation site, tyrosine residue 2737, was identified in subdomain I of the Trio kinase domain. Additionally, in vitro phosphorylation assays and in vivo co-expression studies indicated that Trio enhances FAK kinase activity. These results suggest Trio may be involved in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics in addition to effecting changes in the actin cytoskeleton through the activation of Rho family GTPases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55547, CA75091

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;15;13265-70

  • NRAGE, a p75 neurotrophin receptor-interacting protein, induces caspase activation and cell death through a JNK-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    Salehi AH, Xanthoudakis S and Barker PA

    Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) mediates signaling events leading to activation of the JNK pathway and cell death in a variety of cell types. We recently identified NRAGE, a protein that directly interacts with the p75NTR cytosolic region and facilitates p75NTR-mediated cell death. For the present study, we developed an inducible recombinant NRAGE adenovirus to dissect the mechanism of NRAGE-mediated apoptosis. Induced NRAGE expression resulted in robust activation of the JNK pathway that was not inhibited by the pharmacological mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitor CEP1347. NRAGE induced cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c, activation of Caspases-3, -9 and -7, and caspase-dependent cell death. Blocking JNK and c-Jun action by overexpression of the JNK-binding domain of JIP1 or dominant-negative c-Jun ablated NRAGE-mediated caspase activation and NRAGE-induced cell death. These findings identify NRAGE as a p75NTR interactor capable of inducing caspase activation and cell death through a JNK-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48043-50

  • Activation of Rac GTPase by p75 is necessary for c-jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis.

    Harrington AW, Kim JY and Yoon SO

    Neurobiotech Center and Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    The neurotrophin receptor p75 can induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms by which p75 induces apoptosis have remained mostly unknown. Here, we report that p75 activates Rac GTPase, which in turn activates c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), including an injury-specific JNK3, in an NGF-dependent manner. N17Rac blocks this JNK activation and subsequent NGF-dependent apoptosis, indicating that activation of Rac GTPase is required for JNK activation and apoptosis induced by p75. In addition, p75-mediated Rac activation is modulated by coactivation of Trk, identifying Rac GTPase as one of the key molecules whose activity is critical for cell survival and death in neurotrophin signaling. The crucial role of the JNK pathway in p75 signaling is further confirmed by the results that blocking p75 from signaling via the JNK pathway or suppressing the JNK activity itself led to inhibition of NGF-dependent death. Together, these results indicate that the apoptotic machinery of p75 comprises Rac GTPase and JNK.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS39472-01

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;1;156-66

  • Trp(56) of rac1 specifies interaction with a subset of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Gao Y, Xing J, Streuli M, Leto TL and Zheng Y

    Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

    Signaling specificity of Rho GTPase pathways is achieved in part by selective interaction between members of the Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and their Rho GTPase substrates. For example, Trio, GEF-H1, and Tiam1 are a subset of GEFs that specifically activate Rac1 but not the closely related Cdc42. The Rac1 specificity of these GEFs appears to be governed by Rac1-GEF binding interaction. To understand the detailed mechanism underlying the GEF specificity issue, we have analyzed a panel of chimeras made between Rac1 and Cdc42 and examined a series of point mutants of Rac1 made at the switch I, switch II, and beta(2)/beta(3) regions for their ability to interact with and to be activated by the GEFs. The results reveal that Rac1 residues of both the switch I and switch II regions are involved in GEF docking and GEF-mediated nucleotide disruption, because mutation of Asp(38), Asn(39), Gln(61), Tyr(64), or Arg(66)/Leu(67) into Ala results in the loss of GEF binding, whereas mutation at Tyr(32), Asp(65), or Leu(70)/Ser(71) leads to the loss of GEF catalysis while retaining the binding capability. The region between amino acids 53-72 of Rac1 is required for specific recognition and activation by the GEFs, and Trp(56) in beta(3) appears to be the critical determinant. Introduction of Trp(56) to Cdc42 renders it fully responsive to the Rac-specific GEF in vitro and in cells. Further, a polypeptide derived from the beta(3) region of Rac1 including the Trp(56) residue serves as a specific inhibitor for Rac1 interaction with the GEFs. Taken together, these results indicate that Trp(56) is the necessary and sufficient determinant of Rac1 for discrimination by the subset of Rac1-specific GEFs and suggest that a compound mimicking Trp(56) action could be explored as an interfering reagent specifically targeting Rac1 activation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 53943, GM 60523

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;50;47530-41

  • The Rac1- and RhoG-specific GEF domain of Trio targets filamin to remodel cytoskeletal actin.

    Bellanger JM, Astier C, Sardet C, Ohta Y, Stossel TP and Debant A

    CRBM-CNRS, UPR 1086, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cédex 5, France.

    Rho GTPases control actin reorganization and many other cellular functions. Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) activate Rho GTPases by promoting their exchange of GDP for GTP. Trio is a unique Rho GEF, because it has separate GEF domains, GEFD1 and GEFD2, that control the GTPases RhoG/Rac1 and RhoA, respectively. Dbl-homology (DH) domains that are common to GEFs catalyse nucleotide exchange, and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains localize Rho GEFs near their downstream targets. Here we show that Trio GEFD1 interacts through its PH domain with the actin-filament-crosslinking protein filamin, and localizes with endogenous filamin in HeLa cells. Trio GEFD1 induces actin-based ruffling in filamin-expressing, but not filamin-deficient, cells and in cells transfected with a filamin construct that lacks the Trio-binding domain. In addition, Trio GEFD1 exchange activity is not affected by filamin binding. Our results indicate that filamin, as a molecular target of Trio, may be a scaffold for the spatial organization of Rho-GTPase-mediated signalling pathways.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL19429

    Nature cell biology 2000;2;12;888-92

  • The trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor is a RhoA target. Binding of RhoA to the trio immunoglobulin-like domain.

    Medley QG, Serra-Pagès C, Iannotti E, Seipel K, Tang M, O'Brien SP and Streuli M

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Trio is a complex protein containing two guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains each with associated pleckstrin homology domains, a serine/threonine kinase domain, two SH3 domains, an immunoglobulin-like domain, and spectrin-like repeats. Trio was originally identified as a LAR tyrosine phosphatase-binding protein and is involved in actin remodeling, cell migration, and cell growth. Herein we provide evidence that Trio not only activates RhoA but is also a RhoA target. The RhoA-binding site was mapped to the Trio immunoglobulin-like domain. RhoA isoprenylation is necessary for the RhoA-Trio interaction, because mutation of the RhoA carboxyl-terminal cysteine residue blocked binding. The existence of an intramolecular functional link between RhoA activation and RhoA binding is suggested by the finding that Trio exchange activity enhanced RhoA binding to Trio. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies of HeLa cells showed that although ectopically expressed Trio was evenly distributed within the cell, co-expression of Trio with RhoA resulted in relocalization of Trio into punctate structures. Relocalization was not observed with Trio constructs lacking the immunoglobulin-like domain, indicating that RhoA acts to regulate Trio localization via binding to the immunoglobulin-like domain. We propose that Trio-mediated RhoA activation and subsequent RhoA-mediated relocalization of Trio functions to modulate and coordinate Trio signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55547, CA75091

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36116-23

  • Trio amino-terminal guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain expression promotes actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell migration and anchorage-independent cell growth.

    Seipel K, Medley QG, Kedersha NL, Zhang XA, O'Brien SP, Serra-Pages C, Hemler ME and Streuli M

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Michel_Streuli@dfci. harvard.edu

    Rho family GTPases regulate diverse cellular processes, including extracellular signal-mediated actin cytoskeleton reorganization and cell growth. The functions of GTPases are positively regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which promote the exchange of GDP for GTP. Trio is a complex protein possessing two guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains, each with adjacent pleckstrin homology and SH3 domains, a protein serine/threonine kinase domain with an adjacent immunoglobulin-like domain and multiple spectrin-like domains. To assess the functional role of the two Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains, NIH 3T3 cell lines stably expressing the individual guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains were established and characterized. Expression of the amino-terminal guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain results in prominent membrane ruffling, whereas cells expressing the carboxy-terminal guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain have lamellae that terminate in miniruffles. Moreover, cells expressing the amino-terminal guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain display more rapid cell spreading, haptotactic cell migration and anchorage-independent growth, suggesting that Trio regulates both cell motility and cell growth. Expression of full-length Trio in COS cells also alters actin cytoskeleton organization, as well as the distribution of focal contact sites. These findings support a role for Trio as a multifunctional protein that integrates and amplifies signals involved in coordinating actin remodeling, which is necessary for cell migration and growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55547, CA75091; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM46526

    Journal of cell science 1999;112 ( Pt 12);1825-34

  • NMR structure and mutagenesis of the N-terminal Dbl homology domain of the nucleotide exchange factor Trio.

    Liu X, Wang H, Eberstadt M, Schnuchel A, Olejniczak ET, Meadows RP, Schkeryantz JM, Janowick DA, Harlan JE, Harris EA, Staunton DE and Fesik SW

    Pharmaceutical Discovery Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064, USA.

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho family of GTPases contain a Dbl homology (DH) domain responsible for catalysis and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain whose function is unknown. Here we describe the solution structure of the N-terminal DH domain of Trio that catalyzes nucleotide exchange for Rac1. The all-alpha-helical protein has a very different structure compared to other exchange factors. Based on site-directed mutagenesis, functionally important residues of the DH domain were identified. They are all highly conserved and reside in close proximity on two a helices. In addition, we have discovered a unique capability of the PH domain to enhance nucleotide exchange in DH domain-containing proteins.

    Cell 1998;95;2;269-77

  • Assignment of TRIO, the Trio gene (PTPRF interacting) to human chromosome bands 5p 15.1-->p 14 by in situ hybridization.

    Taviaux S, Diriong S, Bellanger JM, Streuli M and Debant A

    CRBM-CNRS, BP 5051, Montpellier, France.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55547

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1997;76;1-2;107-8

  • The multidomain protein Trio binds the LAR transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, contains a protein kinase domain, and has separate rac-specific and rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor domains.

    Debant A, Serra-Pagès C, Seipel K, O'Brien S, Tang M, Park SH and Streuli M

    Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    rho-like GTP binding proteins play an essential role in regulating cell growth and actin polymerization. These molecular switches are positively regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote the exchange of GDP for GTP. Using the interaction-trap assay to identify candidate proteins that bind the cytoplasmic region of the LAR transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PT-Pase), we isolated a cDNA encoding a 2861-amino acid protein termed Trio that contains three enzyme domains: two functional GEF domains and a protein serine/threonine kinase (PSK) domain. One of the Trio GEF domains (Trio GEF-D1) has rac-specific GEF activity, while the other Trio GEF domain (Trio GEF-D2) has rho-specific activity. The C-terminal PSK domain is adjacent to an Ig-like domain and is most similar to calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, such as smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase which similarly contains associated Ig-like domains. Near the N terminus, Trio has four spectrin-like repeats that may play a role in intracellular targeting. Northern blot analysis indicates that Trio has a broad tissue distribution. Trio appears to be phosphorylated only on serine residues, suggesting that Trio is not a LAR substrate, but rather that it forms a complex with LAR. As the LAR PTPase localizes to the ends of focal adhesions, we propose that LAR and the Trio GEF/PSK may orchestrate cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 55547

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;11;5466-71

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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