G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 2
G00000955 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000149182 (Ensembl human gene)
84364 (Entrez Gene)
892 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ZNF289 (GeneCards)
606908 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:13504 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8N6H7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • FLJ14576
  • IRZ
  • Zfp289

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • Three homologous ArfGAPs participate in coat protein I-mediated transport.

    Saitoh A, Shin HW, Yamada A, Waguri S and Nakayama K

    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Career-Path Promotion Unit for Young Life Scientists, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

    ArfGAP1 is a prototype of GTPase-activating proteins for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and has been proposed to be involved in retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by regulating the uncoating of coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles. Depletion of ArfGAP1 by RNA interference, however, causes neither a discernible phenotypic change in the COPI localization nor a change in the Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. Therefore, we also examined ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3, closely related homologues of ArfGAP1. Cells in which ArfGAP1, ArfGAP2, and ArfGAP3 are simultaneously knocked down show an increase in the GTP-bound ARF level. Furthermore, in these cells proteins resident in or cycling through the cis-Golgi, including ERGIC-53, beta-COP, and GM130, accumulate in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport is blocked. The phenotypes observed in the triple ArfGAP knockdown cells are similar to those seen in beta-COP-depleted cells. Both the triple ArfGAP- and beta-COP-depleted cells accumulate characteristic vacuolar structures that are visible under electron microscope. Furthermore, COPI is concentrated at rims of the vacuolar structures in the ArfGAP-depleted cells. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that ArfGAP1, ArfGAP2, and ArfGAP3 have overlapping roles in regulating COPI function in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;20;13948-57

  • Differential roles of ArfGAP1, ArfGAP2, and ArfGAP3 in COPI trafficking.

    Weimer C, Beck R, Eckert P, Reckmann I, Moelleken J, Brügger B and Wieland F

    Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

    The formation of coat protein complex I (COPI)-coated vesicles is regulated by the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), which in its GTP-bound form recruits coatomer to the Golgi membrane. Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) catalyzed GTP hydrolysis in Arf1 triggers uncoating and is required for uptake of cargo molecules into vesicles. Three mammalian ArfGAPs are involved in COPI vesicle trafficking; however, their individual functions remain obscure. ArfGAP1 binds to membranes depending on their curvature. In this study, we show that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 do not bind directly to membranes but are recruited via interactions with coatomer. In the presence of coatomer, ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 activities are comparable with or even higher than ArfGAP1 activity. Although previously speculated, our results now demonstrate a function for coatomer in ArfGAP-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Arf1. We suggest that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 are coat protein-dependent ArfGAPs, whereas ArfGAP1 has a more general function.

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;183;4;725-35

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Two human ARFGAPs associated with COP-I-coated vesicles.

    Frigerio G, Grimsey N, Dale M, Majoul I and Duden R

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom.

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are critical regulators of vesicular trafficking pathways and act at multiple intracellular sites. ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase-activating proteins (ARFGAPs) are proposed to contribute to site-specific regulation. In yeast, two distinct proteins, Glo3p and Gcs1p, together provide overlapping, essential ARFGAP function required for coat protein (COP)-I-dependent trafficking. In mammalian cells, only the Gcs1p orthologue, named ARFGAP1, has been characterized in detail. However, Glo3p is known to make the stronger contribution to COP I traffic in yeast. Here, based on a conserved signature motif close to the carboxy terminus, we identify ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 as the human orthologues of yeast Glo3p. By immunofluorescence (IF), ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 are closely colocalized with coatomer subunits in NRK cells in the Golgi complex and peripheral punctate structures. In contrast to ARFGAP1, both ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 are associated with COP-I-coated vesicles generated from Golgi membranes in the presence of GTP-gamma-S in vitro. ARFGAP2 lacking its zinc finger domain directly binds to coatomer. Expression of this truncated mutant (DeltaN-ARFGAP2) inhibits COP-I-dependent Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport of cholera toxin (CTX-K63) in vivo. Silencing of ARFGAP1 or a combination of ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 in HeLa cells does not decrease cell viability. However, silencing all three ARFGAPs causes cell death. Our data provide strong evidence that ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 function in COP I traffic.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 047578

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2007;8;11;1644-55

  • Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly.

    Schmid EM, Ford MG, Burtey A, Praefcke GJ, Peak-Chew SY, Mills IG, Benmerah A and McMahon HT

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    Adaptor protein complex 2 alpha and beta-appendage domains act as hubs for the assembly of accessory protein networks involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation. We identify a large repertoire of beta-appendage interactors by mass spectrometry. These interact with two distinct ligand interaction sites on the beta-appendage (the "top" and "side" sites) that bind motifs distinct from those previously identified on the alpha-appendage. We solved the structure of the beta-appendage with a peptide from the accessory protein Eps15 bound to the side site and with a peptide from the accessory cargo adaptor beta-arrestin bound to the top site. We show that accessory proteins can bind simultaneously to multiple appendages, allowing these to cooperate in enhancing ligand avidities that appear to be irreversible in vitro. We now propose that clathrin, which interacts with the beta-appendage, achieves ligand displacement in vivo by self-polymerisation as the coated pit matures. This changes the interaction environment from liquid-phase, affinity-driven interactions, to interactions driven by solid-phase stability ("matricity"). Accessory proteins that interact solely with the appendages are thereby displaced to areas of the coated pit where clathrin has not yet polymerised. However, proteins such as beta-arrestin (non-visual arrestin) and autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein, which have direct clathrin interactions, will remain in the coated pits with their interacting receptors.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0100100, MC_U105178795

    PLoS biology 2006;4;9;e262

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Gamma-COP appendage domain - structure and function.

    Watson PJ, Frigerio G, Collins BM, Duden R and Owen DJ

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research & Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK.

    COPI-coated vesicles mediate retrograde transport from the Golgi back to the ER and intra-Golgi transport. The cytosolic precursor of the COPI coat, the heptameric coatomer complex, can be thought of as composed of two subcomplexes. The first consists of the beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-COP subunits which are distantly homologous to AP clathrin adaptor subunits. The second consists of the alpha-, beta'- and epsilon-COP subunits. Here, we present the structure of the appendage domain of gamma-COP and show that it has a similar overall fold as the alpha-appendage of AP2. Again, like the alpha-appendage the gamma-COP appendage possesses a single protein/protein interaction site on its platform subdomain. We show that in yeast this site binds to the ARFGAP Glo3p, and in mammalian gamma-COP this site binds to a Glo3p orthologue, ARFGAP2. On the basis of mutations in the yeast homologue of gamma-COP, Sec21p, a second binding site is proposed to exist on the gamma-COP appendage that interacts with the alpha,beta',epsilon COPI subcomplex.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2004;5;2;79-88

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Neuroblastoma oligo-capping cDNA project: toward the understanding of the genesis and biology of neuroblastoma.

    Ohira M, Morohashi A, Nakamura Y, Isogai E, Furuya K, Hamano S, Machida T, Aoyama M, Fukumura M, Miyazaki K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Hirato J and Nakagawara A

    Division of Biochemistry, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuoh-ku, 260-8717 Chiba, Japan.

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a common pediatric cancer originated from the neuronal precursor cells of sympathoadrenal lineage. NBLs show a variety of clinical phenotypes from spontaneous regression to malignant progression with acquirement of resistance to therapy. To understand the molecular mechanism of the genesis, progression, and regression of NBL, we need to identify key molecules determining the neuronal development of sympathoadrenal lineage. To this end, we have performed the NBL cDNA project. It includes (1) mass-cloning of the expressed genes from oligo-capping cDNA libraries derived from primary NBLs with different clinical and biological features; (2) mass-identification of differentially expressed genes between favorable and unfavorable subsets; and (3) molecular and functional analyses of the novel genes, which could be useful prognostic indicators. To date, 10,000 cDNA clones in total, approximately 40% of which contained novel sequences, were randomly picked up and DNA sequenced. We have identified approximately 500 differentially expressed genes between favorable and unfavorable subsets of NBL, among which more than 250 were the genes with unknown function.

    Cancer letters 2003;197;1-2;63-8

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a zinc finger protein involved in Id-1-stimulated mammary epithelial cell growth.

    Singh J, Itahana Y, Parrinello S, Murata K and Desprez PY

    Geraldine Brush Cancer Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.

    Id proteins are dominant negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that constitutive expression of Id-1 in SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cells inhibits their differentiation and induces proliferation, invasion, and migration. Id-1 expression also correlates with the invasive and aggressive potential of human breast cancer cells. However, little is known about Id-1 target genes that are important for regulating normal and transformed breast epithelial cell phenotypes. Now we report the cloning of a novel zinc finger protein, Zfp289, using degenerate primers to specifically amplify cDNAs from Id-1-transfected SCp2 cells. Zfp289 has homology with a yeast zinc finger protein, the GTPase-activating protein Gcs-1, which was initially identified as a gene required for the re-entry of cells into the cell cycle after stationary phase growth. Zfp289 mRNA expression pattern correlates with Id-1 expression in SCp2 mammary epithelial cells under various experimental conditions as well as in the mouse mammary gland at different stages of development. It is predominantly present in the cytoplasm of the cells as evident from green fluorescent protein fusion protein localization. SCp2 mammary epithelial cells with constitutive expression of Zfp289 have a higher S-phase index, compared with control cells, when cultured in a serum-free medium. We conclude that the novel zinc finger protein Zfp289, which may represent the mammalian homologue of Gcs-1, is potentially an important mediator of the Id-1-induced proliferation pathway in mammary epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA82548

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;15;11852-8

Gene lists (4)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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