G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
citrate synthase
G00000940 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000062485 (Ensembl human gene)
1431 (Entrez Gene)
809 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CS (GeneCards)
118950 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2422 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O75390 (UniProt)

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Identification and characterization of the mitochondrial targeting sequence and mechanism in human citrate synthase.

    Cheng TL, Liao CC, Tsai WH, Lin CC, Yeh CW, Teng CF and Chang WT

    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan 701, ROC.

    Citrate synthase (CS), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays a decisive role in regulating energy generation of mitochondrial respiration. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm as preproteins with an amino (N)-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) that directs mitochondria-specific sorting of the preprotein. However, the MTS and targeting mechanism of the human CS protein are not fully characterized. The human CS gene is a single nuclear gene which transcribes into two mRNA variants, isoform a (CSa) and b (CSb), by alternative splicing of exon 2. CSa encodes 466 amino acids, including a putative N-terminal MTS, while CSb expresses 400 residues with a shorter N terminus, lacking the MTS. Our results indicated that CSa is localized in the mitochondria and the N-terminal 27 amino acids, including a well-conserved RXY downward arrow (S/A) motif (the RHAS sequence), can efficiently target the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into the mitochondria. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the conserved basic amino acids and serine/threonine residues revealed that the R9 residue is essential but all serine/threonine residues are dispensable in the mitochondrial targeting function. Moreover, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing of the preprotein import receptors, including TOM20, TOM22, and TOM70, showed that all three preprotein import receptors are required for transporting CSa into the mitochondria. In conclusion, we have experimentally identified the mitochondrial targeting sequence of human CSa and elucidated its targeting mechanism. These results provide an important basis for the study of mitochondrial dysfunction due to aberrant CSa trafficking.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2009;107;5;1002-15

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in succinate dehydrogenase subunits and citrate synthase genes: association results for impaired spermatogenesis.

    Bonache S, Martínez J, Fernández M, Bassas L and Larriba S

    Medical and Molecular Genetics Centre-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

    Evaluation of the possible implication of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and CS genes in non-obstructive male infertility was performed on the basis that sperm concentration in the ejaculate has been previously correlated with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme activities (the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase/complex II of the respiratory chain and citrate synthase). We performed an exhaustive analysis of the five genes for the presence of sequence variants that could be associated with impairment of sperm production. blastn searches in the genomic sequence NCBI database evidenced the presence of highly homologous sequences elsewhere on the genome that can interfere with polymerase chain reaction experiments. Therefore, a careful design of the analytical strategy to search for sequence variants was performed. In this report, we provide primer sequences that allowed selective amplification of coding and immediate flanking regions of the five genes. Fifty-five sequence variations in the five genes were identified in infertile and normozoospermic fertile individuals as controls and only one of them (SDHA c.456+32G>A) showed significant genotype association with impairment of sperm production. Moreover, new single nucleotide polymorphisms identified should be useful in future association studies for other human diseases related to nuclear-encoded genes, leading to mitochondrial respiratory chain activity impairment revealing the physiological role of these genes.

    International journal of andrology 2007;30;3;144-52

  • Housekeeping genes for phylogenetic analysis of eutherian relationships.

    Kullberg M, Nilsson MA, Arnason U, Harley EH and Janke A

    Division of Evolutionary Molecular Systematics, Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.

    The molecular relationship of placental mammals has attracted great interest in recent years. However, 2 crucial and conflicting hypotheses remain, one with respect to the position of the root of the eutherian tree and the other the relationship between the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares), and Primates. Although most mitochondrial (mt) analyses have suggested that rodents have a basal position in the eutherian tree, some nuclear data in combination with mt-rRNA genes have placed the root on the so-called African clade or on a branch that includes this clade and the Xenarthra (e.g., anteater and armadillo). In order to generate a new and independent set of molecular data for phylogenetic analysis, we have established cDNA sequences from different tissues of various mammalian species. With this in mind, we have identified and sequenced 8 housekeeping genes with moderately fast rate of evolution from 22 placental mammals, representing 11 orders. In order to determine the root of the eutherian tree, the same genes were also sequenced for 3 marsupial species, which were used as outgroup. Inconsistent with the analyses of nuclear + mt-rRNA gene data, the current data set did not favor a basal position of the African clade or Xenarthra in the eutherian tree. Similarly, by joining rodents and lagomorphs on the same basal branch (Glires hypothesis), the data set is also inconsistent with the tree commonly favored in mtDNA analyses. The analyses of the currently established sequences have helped examination of problematic parts in the eutherian tree at the same time as they caution against suggestions that have claimed that basal eutherian relationships have been conclusively settled.

    Molecular biology and evolution 2006;23;8;1493-503

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Detection of citrate synthase-reacting autoantibodies after heart transplantation: an epitope mapping study.

    Petrohai A, Nagy G, Bosze S, Hudecz F, Zsiros E, Paragh G, Nyárády Z, Németh P and Berki T

    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Semmelweis University, Városmajor út 68, 1122, Budapest, Hungary.

    Autoimmune mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of allograft vasculopathy following heart transplantation, but the autoantigens involved have been only sparsely studied. Citrate synthase (CS) enzyme is a conserved molecule, and, as an important mitochondrial autoantigen, it is protected by the "immunological homunculus". Tissue destruction and alteration of the immune regulatory mechanisms can induce pathological immune response against CS in other autoimmune diseases. In our present study we aimed to detect CS-specific autoantibodies in heart transplant patients, therefore, prospective, randomised clinical tests were conducted on 33 heart transplant patients and compared with 130 healthy blood donors. The level and isotype of CS antibodies were detected by simple binding indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The epitope specificities of the autoantibodies were measured on synthetic overlapping peptide sequences of CS enzyme by an indirect multi-pin ELISA method. Mainly IgM isotype CS autoantibodies were found in healthy controls, while IgG was found at higher levels and frequency (four-times higher) in heart transplant patients. Autoantibodies of IgG isotype recognise different epitopes than do autoantibodies of IgM isotype, even within the same group and individual. New epitope-specific IgG and IgM isotype autoantibodies appeared in heart transplant patients when compared with the controls. Our findings suggest a possible role of CS-specific autoantibodies in the pathomechanism of allograft vasculopathy.

    Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation 2005;17;12;834-40

  • Enhanced citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic cancer.

    Schlichtholz B, Turyn J, Goyke E, Biernacki M, Jaskiewicz K, Sledzinski Z and Swierczynski J

    Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

    Objectives: Assuming that a high flux of carbohydrate is strictly connected with lipid synthesis in neoplastic cells, one can hypothesize that the activity of citrate synthase, which plays an important role in glucose to lipid conversion, is enhanced in pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to verify this hypothesis.

    Methods: The activity of citrate synthase (as well as lactate and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenases) was measured using tissue extract prepared from specimens (pancreatic cancer and control specimens taken from the adjacent pancreatic normal tissue) obtained from 24 patients with ductal carcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy or total pancreatomy.

    Results: The average of citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma is significantly higher comparing with adjacent nonneoplastic tissue: 40.2 +/- 27.2 and 18.3 +/- 13.6 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively (P = 0.001). The lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma were also higher than in adjacent nonneoplastic tissues.

    Conclusion: It is likely that enhanced citrate synthase activity contributes to the conversion of glucose to lipids in pancreatic cancer providing substrate for membrane lipids synthesis.

    Pancreas 2005;30;2;99-104

  • Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    Otsuki T, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Hayashi K, Suzuki Y, Yamamoto J, Wakamatsu A, Kimura K, Sakamoto K, Hatano N, Kawai Y, Ishii S, Saito K, Kojima S, Sugiyama T, Ono T, Okano K, Yoshikawa Y, Aotsuka S, Sasaki N, Hattori A, Okumura K, Nagai K, Sugano S and Isogai T

    Helix Research Institute, Yana, Kisarazu-shi, Chiba, Japan.

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2005;12;2;117-26

  • Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes.

    Aboulaich N, Vainonen JP, Strålfors P and Vener AV

    Division of Cell Biology and Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE58185 Linköping, Sweden.

    Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;383;Pt 2;237-48

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Citrate synthase expression and enzyme activity after endurance training in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    Siu PM, Donley DA, Bryner RW and Alway SE

    Laboratory of Muscle, Sarcopenia and Muscle Diseases, Division of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown 26506-9227, USA.

    The present study was designed to examine the acute and chronic effects of endurance treadmill training on citrate synthase (CS) gene expression and enzymatic activity in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adult rats were endurance trained for 8 wk on a treadmill. They were killed 1 h (T(1), n = 8) or 48 h (T(48), n = 8) after their last bout of exercise training. Eight rats were sedentary controls (C) during the training period. CS mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of the soleus and ventricle muscles were determined. Training resulted in higher CS mRNA levels in both the soleus muscles (21% increase in T(1); 18% increase in T(48), P < 0.05) and ventricle muscles (23% increase in T(1); 17% increase in T(48), P < 0.05) when compared with the C group. The CS enzyme activities were 42 (P < 0.01) and 25% (P < 0.01) greater in the soleus muscles of T(1) and T(48) groups, respectively, when compared with that of the C group. Soleus CS enzyme activity was significantly greater in the T(1) vs. T(48) groups (P < 0.05). However, no appreciable alterations in CS enzyme activities were observed in the ventricle muscles in both training groups. These findings suggest differential responses of skeletal and cardiac muscles in CS enzymatic activity but similar responses in CS gene expression at 1 and 48 h after the last session of endurance training. Moreover, our data support the existence of an acute effect of exercise on the training-induced elevation in CS activity in rat soleus but not ventricle muscles.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG-17143

    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 2003;94;2;555-60

  • Diffusion of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix in vivo. Evidence for restricted mobility of a multienzyme complex.

    Haggie PM and Verkman AS

    Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California-San Francisco, 1246 Health Sciences East Tower, San Francisco, CA 94143-0521, USA. haggie@itsa.ucsf.edu

    It has been proposed that enzymes in many metabolic pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, are physically associated to facilitate substrate channeling and overcome diffusive barriers. We have used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to measure the diffusional mobilities of chimeras consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C terminus of four tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes: malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and succinyl-CoA synthetase. The GFP-enzyme chimeras were localized selectively in the mitochondrial matrix in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and COS7 cells. Laser photobleaching using a 0.7-microm diameter spot demonstrated restricted diffusion of the GFP-enzyme chimeras. Interestingly, all four chimeras had similar diffusional characteristics, approximately 45% of each chimera was mobile and had a diffusion coefficient of 4 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s. In contrast, unconjugated GFP in the mitochondrial matrix (targeted using COX8 leader sequence) diffused freely (nearly 100% mobility) with a greater diffusion coefficient of 20 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s. The mobility of the GFP-enzyme chimeras was insensitive to substrate source, ATP depletion, or inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase. These results indicate similar mobility characteristics of unrelated tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes having different sizes and physical properties, providing biophysical evidence for a diffusible multienzyme complex in the mitochondrial matrix.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 13574; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 59198, HL 60288; NIBIB NIH HHS: EB 00415; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 35124

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;43;40782-8

  • Interaction of human recombinant alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins with early and late unfolding intermediates of citrate synthase on its thermal denaturation.

    Rajaraman K, Raman B, Ramakrishna T and Rao CM

    Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, 500 007, Hyderabad, India.

    We have investigated the role of recombinant human alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in the heat-induced inactivation and aggregation of citrate synthase. Homo-multimers of both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins confer protection against heat-induced inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner and also prevent aggregation. Interaction of crystallins with early unfolding intermediates of citrate synthase reduces their partitioning into aggregation-prone intermediates. This appears to result in enhanced population of early unfolding intermediates that can be reactivated by its substrate, oxaloacetate. Both these homo-multimers do not form a stable complex with the early unfolding intermediates. However, they can form a soluble, stable complex with aggregation-prone late unfolding intermediates. This soluble complex formation prevents aggregation. Thus, it appears that the chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin involves both transient and stable interactions depending on the nature of intermediates on the unfolding pathway; one leads to reactivation of the enzyme activity while the other prevents aggregation.

    FEBS letters 2001;497;2-3;118-23

  • [Cloning and tissue expression pattern analysis of the human citrate synthase cDNA].

    Liu Q, Yu L, Han XF, Fu Q, Zhang JX, Tang H and Zhao SY

    Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Genetics Engineering, Shanghai 200433.

    Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an important way to generate ATP, which is widely distributed in the cells of animal, plant or microorganism. It catalyses the catabolism of sugar as well as protein and fat. Citrate synthase plays a key role in regulating TCA cycle and is responsible for catalysing the synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA. Screening of genomic informatics was performed by using pig citrate synthase cDNA as a probe and a contig which is 1636 bp long and has highly homologous to the pig citrate synthase cDNA was obtained from selected ESTs with the ASSEMBLY program. According to the sequence of this contig, a pair of primers was designed and used to amplify cDNA libraries. A 1492 bp cDNA containing an open reading frame encoding 466 amino acids was cloned from human testis and skeletal muscle cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA showed 95%, 92% and 60.9% identity to pig, chicken and yeast citrate synthase respectively. Because the deduced amino acids sequence contains a highly conserved motif of citrate synthase from three different species, it is believed that this cDNA may be a transcript of human citrate synthase gene. Northern analysis showed that the human citrate synthase was expressed at high level in heart and muscle, at middle level in brain, kidney and pancreas tissues, not detectable in thymus and small intestine tissues, and at low level in other nine tested human tissues.

    Shi yan sheng wu xue bao 2000;33;3;207-14

  • Interaction between citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Substrate channeling of oxaloacetate.

    Morgunov I and Srere PA

    Research Service of the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75216, USA.

    The interactions between pig heart citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or cytosolic malate dehydrogenase were studied using the frontal analysis method of gel filtration and by precipitation in polyethylene glycol. This method showed that an interaction between citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase occurred but no interaction between citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Channeling of oxaloacetate in the malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase-coupled systems was tested using polyethylene glycol precipitates of citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. The effectiveness of large amounts of aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase, as competing enzymes for the intermediate oxaloacetate, was examined. Aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase were less effective competitors for oxaloacetate when precipitated citrate synthase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol was used at low ionic strength compared with free enzymes in the absence of polyethylene glycol or with a co-precipitate of citrate synthase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Substrate channeling of oxaloacetate with citrate synthase-mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase precipitate was inefficient at high ionic strength. These effects could be explained through electrostatic interactions of mitochondrial but not cytosolic malate dehydrogenase with citrate synthase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;45;29540-4

  • Cloning and molecular analysis of the human citrate synthase gene.

    Goldenthal MJ, Marin-Garcia J and Ananthakrishnan R

    Molecular Cardiology Institute, Highland Park, NJ 08904, USA.

    The nucleotide sequence encoding the citrate synthase (CS) gene was determined from the sequencing of the CS cDNA isolated from a human heart cDNA library. The primary sequence of CS deduced from its nucleotide sequence reveals a highly conserved, albeit slightly larger, protein of 466 amino acids, with 95% homology to its pig homologue. The data also indicate that the human genomic CS gene contains no introns, and confirms the location of the human CS gene on chromosome 12.

    Genome 1998;41;5;733-8

  • Human mitochondrial function during cardiac growth and development.

    Marin-Garcia J, Ananthakrishnan R and Goldenthal MJ

    The Molecular Cardiology Institute, Highland Park, NJ 08904, USA.

    Little information is presently available concerning mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation function in the normal human heart during growth and development. We investigated the levels of specific mitochondrial enzyme activities and content during cardiac growth and development from the early neonatal period (10-20 days) to adulthood (67 years). Biochemical analysis of enzyme specific activities and content and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was performed with left ventricular tissues derived from 30 control individuals. The levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and complex V specific activity, mtDNA copy number and COX subunit II content remained unchanged in contrast to increased citrate synthase (CS) activity and content. The developmental increase in CS activity paralleled increasing CS polypeptide content, but was neither related to overall increases in mitochondrial number nor coordinately regulated with mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities. Our findings of unchanged levels of cardiac mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity during the progression from early childhood to older adult contrasts with the age-specific regulation found with CS, a Krebs cycle mitochondrial enzyme.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1998;179;1-2;21-6

  • Demonstration of physical interactions between consecutive enzymes of the citric acid cycle and of the aspartate-malate shuttle. A study involving fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthesis and aspartate aminotransferase.

    Beeckmans S and Kanarek L

    By means of covalently immobilized fumarase and mitochondrial or cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase we were able to detect physical interactions between different enzymes of the citric acid cycle (fumarase with malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase with citrate synthase and fumarase with citrate synthase) and between the enzymes of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic halves of the aspartate-malate shuttle (aspartate amino-transferase and malate dehydrogenase). The interactions between fumarase and malate dehydrogenase were also investigated by immobilizing one enzyme indirectly through antibodies bound to Sepharose-protein A. Our results are consistent with a model in which maximally four molecules of malate dehydrogenase are bound to one fumarase molecule. This complex is able to bind either citrate synthase or aspartate aminotransferase. We propose that these enzymes bind alternatively, in order to allow the cell to perform citric acid cycle or shuttle reactions, according to its needs. The physiological meaning and implications on the regulation of metabolism of the existence of a large citric acid cycle/malate-aspartate shuttle multienzyme complex are discussed.

    European journal of biochemistry 1981;117;3;527-35

  • Chromosomal assignment and regional localization of CS, ENO2, GAPDH, LDHB, PEPB, and TPI in man-rodent cell hybrids.

    Herbschleb-Voogt E, Monteba-van Heuvel M, Wijnen LM, Westerveld A, Pearson PL and Meera Khan P

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;482-6

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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