G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2)
G00000937 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000073095 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000125166 (Ensembl human gene)
2806 (Entrez Gene)
129 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GOT2 (GeneCards)
138150 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4433 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P00505 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • KAT4
  • mitAAT

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Sequential use of transcriptional profiling, expression quantitative trait mapping, and gene association implicates MMP20 in human kidney aging.

    Wheeler HE, Metter EJ, Tanaka T, Absher D, Higgins J, Zahn JM, Wilhelmy J, Davis RW, Singleton A, Myers RM, Ferrucci L and Kim SK

    Department of Genetics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California, USA.

    Kidneys age at different rates, such that some people show little or no effects of aging whereas others show rapid functional decline. We sequentially used transcriptional profiling and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping to narrow down which genes to test for association with kidney aging. We first performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling to find 630 genes that change expression with age in the kidney. Using two methods to detect eQTLs, we found 101 of these age-regulated genes contain expression-associated SNPs. We tested the eQTLs for association with kidney aging, measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using combined data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) and the InCHIANTI study. We found a SNP association (rs1711437 in MMP20) with kidney aging (uncorrected p = 3.6 x 10(-5), empirical p = 0.01) that explains 1%-2% of the variance in GFR among individuals. The results of this sequential analysis may provide the first evidence for a gene association with kidney aging in humans.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG025941, R01 AG025941-01A2; NIMHD NIH HHS: 263 MD 821336, 263 MD 9164, R01 MD009164

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;10;e1000685

  • Common variants at ten loci influence QT interval duration in the QTGEN Study.

    Newton-Cheh C, Eijgelsheim M, Rice KM, de Bakker PI, Yin X, Estrada K, Bis JC, Marciante K, Rivadeneira F, Noseworthy PA, Sotoodehnia N, Smith NL, Rotter JI, Kors JA, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Heckbert SR, O'Donnell CJ, Uitterlinden AG, Psaty BM, Lumley T, Larson MG and Stricker BH

    Center for Human Genetic Research, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. cnewtoncheh@chgr.mgh.harvard.edu

    QT interval duration, reflecting myocardial repolarization on the electrocardiogram, is a heritable risk factor for sudden cardiac death and drug-induced arrhythmias. We conducted a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in 13,685 individuals of European ancestry from the Framingham Heart Study, the Rotterdam Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study, as part of the QTGEN consortium. We observed associations at P < 5 x 10(-8) with variants in NOS1AP, KCNQ1, KCNE1, KCNH2 and SCN5A, known to be involved in myocardial repolarization and mendelian long-QT syndromes. Associations were found at five newly identified loci, including 16q21 near NDRG4 and GINS3, 6q22 near PLN, 1p36 near RNF207, 16p13 near LITAF and 17q12 near LIG3 and RFFL. Collectively, the 14 independent variants at these 10 loci explain 5.4-6.5% of the variation in QT interval. These results, together with an accompanying paper, offer insights into myocardial repolarization and suggest candidate genes that could predispose to sudden cardiac death and drug-induced arrhythmias.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR00069; NHLBI NIH HHS: K23 HL080025, K23 HL080025-04, K23-HL-080025, N01 HC-55222, N01 HC015103, N01 HC035129, N01 HC045133, N01-HC-25195, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-85079, N01-HC-85080, N01-HC-85081, N01-HC-85082, N01-HC-85083, N01-HC-85084, N01-HC-85085, N01-HC-85086, N01HC25195, N01HC55222, N01HC75150, N01HC85079, N01HC85086, N02-HL-64278, R01 HL087652, U01 HL080295; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK063491, P30 DK063491, P30 DK063491-019004, P30 DK063491-029004, P30 DK063491-039004, P30 DK063491-049004, P30 DK063491-05

    Nature genetics 2009;41;4;399-406

  • Phospholipid transfer protein activity is determined by type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, and is positively associated with serum transaminases.

    Dullaart RP, de Vries R, Dallinga-Thie GM, Sluiter WJ and van Tol A

    Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. r.p.f.dullaart@int.umcg.nl

    Background: The extent to which plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity is affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still unknown. PLTP is synthesized in the liver, and elevated serum transaminases are considered to predict nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma PLTP activity and liver enzymes in subjects with and without DM and MetS.

    Design: Plasma PLTP activity, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 71 subjects without DM or MetS, 21 without DM but with MetS, 26 with DM but without MetS and 55 with DM and MetS (WHO and NCEP-ATP III criteria).

    Results: After controlling for age, sex and alcohol intake, PLTP activity was positively related to both MetS (P < 0.001) and DM (P = 0.001). Serum ALT (P = 0.006) and AST (P = 0.04) were both associated with MetS, but only ALT was associated with DM (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression models, serum ALT and AST were positively and independently associated with PLTP activity (P < 0.01 for all), even when the presence of MetS and DM was taken into account, as well as after controlling for glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), insulin resistance, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFA), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin and adiponectin.

    Conclusions: Plasma PLTP activity is determined by MetS and by diabetes per se. Serum transaminases are independently associated with PLTP activity. We suggest that this lipid transfer protein may be a marker for NAFLD.

    Clinical endocrinology 2008;68;3;375-81

  • Association study of GOT2 genetic polymorphisms and schizophrenia.

    Tsai SJ, Hong CJ, Liou YJ and Liao DL

    Psychiatric genetics 2007;17;5;314

  • Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain.

    Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E and Schwarcz R

    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.

    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is produced enzymatically by the irreversible transamination of l-kynurenine, is an antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and may thus modulate cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Two kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I and II) are currently considered the major biosynthetic enzymes of KYNA in the brain. In this study, we report the existence of a third enzyme displaying KAT activity in the mammalian brain. The novel KAT had a pH optimum of 8.0 and a low capacity to transaminate glutamine or alpha-aminoadipate (the classic substrates of KAT I and KAT II, respectively). The enzyme was inhibited by aspartate, glutamate, and quisqualate but was insensitive to blockade by glutamine or anti-KAT II antibodies. After purification to homogeneity, the protein was sequenced and the enzyme was identified as mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mitAAT). Finally, the relative contributions of KAT I, KAT II, and mitAAT to total KAT activity were determined in mouse, rat, and human brain at physiological pH using anti-mitAAT antibodies. KAT II was most abundant in rat and human brain, while mitAAT played the major role in mouse brain. It remains to be seen if mitAAT participates in cerebral KYNA synthesis under physiological and/or pathological conditions in vivo.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD16596; NINDS NIH HHS: NS16102, NS42487

    Journal of neurochemistry 2007;102;1;103-11

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Phosphoproteome analysis of HeLa cells using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC).

    Amanchy R, Kalume DE, Iwahori A, Zhong J and Pandey A

    McKusick-Nathans Institute for Genetic Medicine and the Department of Biological Chemistry and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, 733 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Identification of phosphorylated proteins remains a difficult task despite technological advances in protein purification methods and mass spectrometry. Here, we report identification of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins by coupling stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to mass spectrometry. We labeled HeLa cells with stable isotopes of tyrosine, or, a combination of arginine and lysine to identify tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. This allowed identification of 118 proteins, of which only 45 proteins were previously described as tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. A total of 42 in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation sites were mapped, including 34 novel ones. We validated the phosphorylation status of a subset of novel proteins including cytoskeleton associated protein 1, breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3, chromosome 3 open reading frame 6, WW binding protein 2, Nice-4 and RNA binding motif protein 4. Our strategy can be used to identify potential kinase substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling pathways and can also be applied to profiling to specific kinases in cells. Because of its sensitivity and general applicability, our approach will be useful for investigating signaling pathways in a global fashion and for using phosphoproteomics for functional annotation of genomes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 88843; NHLBI NIH HHS: HV 28180

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;5;1661-71

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Ethanol up-regulates fatty acid uptake and plasma membrane expression and export of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in HepG2 cells.

    Zhou SL, Gordon RE, Bradbury M, Stump D, Kiang CL and Berk PD

    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    To explain the increased plasma mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAspAT) observed in alcoholics, we cultured HepG2 hepatoma cells in ethanol. Acute (24 hour) exposure to 0, 20, 40, or 80 mmol/L ethanol produced a dose-dependent (r = .98) increase in mAspAT messenger RNA (mRNA) of < or = thirteen-fold, with no significant change in the cellular content of mAspAT or of several other enzymes. The recovery of mAspAT in the medium over 24 hours of ethanol exposure correlated with both ethanol concentration and with mAspAT mRNA (r = .90), reaching 808% of cellular enzyme content/24 hours at 80 mmol/L. Recovery of all other enzymes studied was < or = 20% of cellular content and unaffected by ethanol. Plasma membrane mAspAT content also correlated with mAspAT mRNA (r = .96) and mitochondrial levels were unchanged. No mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities were observed at any ethanol concentration studied. In cells cultured chronically at 0 to 80 mmol/L ethanol, fatty acid uptake Vmax increased in parallel with plasma membrane expression of mAspAT (r = .98). Cellular triglyceride content was highly correlated with Vmax. Thus, the data suggest that: 1) the increased plasma mAspAT observed in alcoholics may reflect pharmacologic upregulation of mAspAT mRNA and of mAspAT synthesis by ethanol; and 2) increased mAspAT-mediated fatty acid uptake may contribute to alcoholic fatty liver.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-26438, DK-52401

    Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 1998;27;4;1064-74

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70.

    Lain B, Iriarte A, Mattingly JR, Moreno JI and Martinez-Carrion M

    Division of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Kansas City 64110-2499, USA.

    The precursor (pmAspAT) and mature (mAspAT) forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase interact with hsp70 very early during translation when synthesized in either rabbit reticulocyte lysate or wheat germ extract (Lain, B., Iriarte, A., and Martinez-Carrion. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15588-15596). The nature of the structural elements responsible for recognition and binding of this protein to hsp70 has been studied by examining the folding and potential association with the chaperone of several engineered forms of this enzyme. Whereas pmAspAT and mAspAT bind hsp70 very early during translation, the cytosolic form of this enzyme (cAspAT) does not interact with hsp70. A fusion protein consisting of the mitochondrial presequence peptide attached to the amino terminus of cAspAT associates with hsp70 only after the protein has acquired its native-like conformation, apparently through binding to the presequence exposed on the surface of the folded protein. Deletion of the amino-terminal segment of mAspAT or its replacement with the corresponding domain from the cytosolic isozyme eliminates the cotranslational binding of hsp70 to the mitochondrial protein. We conclude that both the presequence and NH2-terminal region of pmAspAT represent recognition signals for binding of hsp70 to the newly synthesized mitochondrial precursor. Results from competition studies with synthetic peptides support this conclusion. The ability of hsp70 to discriminate between these two highly homologous proteins probably involves the recognition of specific sequence elements in the NH2-terminal portion of the mitochondrial protein and may relate to their separate localization in the cell. A slower folding rate and higher affinity for cytosolic chaperones may represent evolutionary adaptations of translocated mitochondrial proteins to ensure their efficient importation into the organelle.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-38412; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-38341

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;42;24732-9

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Interactions between pyruvate carboxylase and other mitochondrial enzymes.

    Fahien LA, Davis JW and Laboy J

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706.

    Although pyruvate carboxylase associated with both mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase, it had a higher affinity for the amino-transferase. Furthermore, the aminotransferase enhanced dissociation of malate dehydrogenase from pyruvate carboxylase. Glutamate dehydrogenase did not associate with pyruvate carboxylase alone, but it apparently associated with the pyruvate carboxylase-aminotransferase complex, and malate dehydrogenase associated with the resulting ternary complex. Citrate synthase and other proteins tested did not associate with pyruvate carboxylase. However, citrate synthase associated with the pyruvate carboxylase-malate dehydrogenase complex. Apparently as a consequence of these heteroenzyme interactions, the rate of the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was slightly greater when coupled with malate dehydrogenase or both malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase than when coupled with citrate synthase alone. In addition, in the presence of both coupling enzymes, the rate of conversion of pyruvate to citrate was higher than predicted on the basis of the Michaelis-Menten relationship of the two coupling enzymes. Therefore, binding of malate dehydrogenase to pyruvate carboxylase enhances pyruvate carboxylase activity. Association of citrate synthase with the malate dehydrogenase-pyruvate carboxylase binary complex does not alter activation of pyruvate carboxylase but results in citrate synthase being more reactive than free citrate synthase with oxalacetate.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40445

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1993;268;24;17935-42

  • New automated measurement of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with use of protease 401.

    Watazu Y, Uji Y, Sugiuchi H, Okabe H and Murao S

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kumamoto University Medical School, Japan.

    Total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (EC, the sum of apo- and holo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity in human serum, was measured by using a proteolytic method: inactivation of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase-inactivating protease 401 from Streptomyces violaceochromogenes. Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase is completely inactivated, and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is completely activated by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate within 5 min. Results by the proposed method correlated well with those by an immunochemical method (r = 0.994, n = 145) and showed excellent inhibitory activity of the protease for holo- and apo-cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase up to 5000 U/L and activation of mitochondrial apo-aspartate aminotransferase up to 2000 U/L in the presence of 100 mumol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate per liter. Within-run Cvs were good (1.13-7.49%). Mean values for total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum of the healthy subjects were 4.8 (SD 0.9) and 1.8 (SD 0.8) U/L, respectively (n = 154). Various common interferents tested did not affect this assay.

    Clinical chemistry 1990;36;4;687-9

  • Chromosomal localization of human aspartate aminotransferase genes by in situ hybridization.

    Pol S, Bousquet-Lemercier B, Pavé-Preux M, Bulle F, Passage E, Hanoune J, Mattei MG and Barouki R

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U-99, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

    The localization of the human genes for cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) has been determined by chromosomal in situ hybridization with specific human cDNA probes previously characterized in our laboratory. The cytosolic AspAT gene is localized on chromosome 10 at the interface of bands q241-q251. Mitochondrial AspAT is characterized by a multigene family located on chromosomes 12 (p131-p132), 16 (q21), and 1 (p32-p33 and q25-q31). Genomic DNA from ten blood donors was digested by ten restriction enzymes, and Southern blots were hybridized with the two specific probes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was revealed in only one case for cytosolic AspAT, with PvuII, while no polymorphism for mitochondrial AspAT was found.

    Human genetics 1989;83;2;159-64

  • Effects of therapeutic coronary reperfusion on aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in sera of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Panteghini M, Pagani F and Cuccia C

    1. Laboratorio Analisi Chimico-Cliniche, Brescia, Italy.

    We examined the kinetics of the catalytic activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC isoenzymes in serum of 28 patients with myocardial infarction who were to receive either intracoronary urokinase--reperfusion angiographically proved--or conventional therapy (control group). Cytosolic (soluble) AST (s-AST) activity in serum increased rapidly immediately after recanalization, reaching a maximum 12 h after the onset of infarction. In the control group, this peak was reached 28 h after the onset (P less than 0.001). Peak s-AST activity was similar in the two groups. Peak activity and peak time for mitochondrial AST (m-AST) were the same for the two groups of patients; intervention that affects myocardial perfusion caused only a slight additional increase in m-AST activity in the early post-infarct period. There may be advantages to measuring m-AST, which is briefly influenced by reperfusion, instead of the usual cytosolic enzymes for assessment of myocardial damage in patients with myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy.

    Clinical chemistry 1989;35;6;909-12

  • Serum mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity: not useful as a marker of excessive alcohol consumption in an unselected population.

    Schiele F, Artur Y, Varasteh A, Wellman M and Siest G

    Laboratoire du Centre de Médecine Préventive et Centre du Médicament (URA CNRS no. 597), Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.

    Using an immunochemical method, we measured the activity of the mitochondrial isoenzyme (mAST) of aspartate amino-transferase (EC, AST) in the serum of 687 subjects attending the Centre for Preventive Medicine for a health examination. The distributions of the activities were asymmetrical, with mean values of 1.8 U/L (SD 2.0) for men and 1.4 U/L (SD 1.6) for women. The average ratio of mitochondrial to total AST activity was 0.051 (range 0-0.42). In this unselected population we found no change in the mitochondrial activity or in the mitochondrial-to-total ratio attributable to alcohol consumption, even in subjects who consumed more than 88 g per day. Of 35 men with an alcohol consumption greater than 88 g/d, 19 had a serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity of greater than or equal to 60 U/L, 17 had glutamate dehydrogenase values greater than or equal to 5 U/L, and only nine had an mAST activity greater than or equal to 3 U/L (values corresponding to the 80th percentiles of the total population). We conclude that the test is not particularly useful as a screening procedure in an unselected population under present-day conditions of measurement.

    Clinical chemistry 1989;35;6;926-30

  • Nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of the human mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase mRNA.

    Pol S, Bousquet-Lemercier B, Pave-Preux M, Pawlak A, Nalpas B, Berthelot P, Hanoune J and Barouki R

    Inserm U-99, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Creteil, France.

    The cDNA of human mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (E.C. was isolated from a human liver cDNA library using a rat mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase cDNA as probe. The sequence of this cDNA gives a predicted aminoacid sequence for the human presequence and for the human mature protein exhibiting respectively 93% and 95% homology with rat sequences. A Northern blot of total RNA, isolated from various human tissues and hybridized with this cDNA, revealed a single 2.4 Kb RNA band. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase RNA was clearly detected in human kidney, placenta, stomach and spleen as well as in both fetal and adult liver.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;157;3;1309-15

  • Regulation of malate dehydrogenase activity by glutamate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and multienzyme interaction.

    Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, MacDonald MJ, Fibich B and Mandic M

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53706.

    Binding experiments indicate that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can associate with the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and that mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase can associate with this binary complex to form a ternary complex. Formation of this ternary complex enables low levels of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, in the presence of the aminotransferase, to reverse inhibition of malate oxidation by glutamate. Thus, glutamate can react with the aminotransferase in this complex without glutamate inhibiting production of oxalacetate by the malate dehydrogenase in the complex. The conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate could also be facilitated because in the trienzyme complex, oxalacetate might be directly transferred from malate dehydrogenase to the aminotransferase. In addition, association of malate dehydrogenase with these other two enzymes enhances malate dehydrogenase activity due to a marked decrease in the Km of malate. The potential ability of the aminotransferase to transfer directly alpha-ketoglutarate to the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in this multienzyme system plus the ability of succinyl-CoA, a product of this transfer, to inhibit citrate synthase could play a role in preventing alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate from accumulating in high levels. This would maintain the catalytic activity of the multienzyme system because alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate allosterically inhibit malate dehydrogenase and dissociate this enzyme from the multienzyme system. In addition, citrate also competitively inhibits fumarase. Consequently, when the levels of alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate are high and the multienzyme system is not required to convert glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, it is inactive. However, control by citrate would be expected to be absent in rapidly dividing tumors which characteristically have low mitochondrial levels of citrate.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40445; NIADDK NIH HHS: AM28348

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;22;10687-97

  • The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart.

    Martini F, Angelaccio S, Barra D, Pascarella S, Maras B, Doonan S and Bossa F

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC from human heart has been determined based mainly on analysis of peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin and by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide. Comparison of the sequence with those of the isotopic isoenzymes from pig, rat and chicken showed 27, 29 and 55 differences, respectively, out of a total of 401 amino acid residues. Evidence for structural microheterogeneity at position 317 has also been obtained.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1985;832;1;46-51

  • Regulation of aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase interactions by carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, Mg2+ plus leucine versus citrate and malate.

    Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, Woldegiorgis G, Evenson M, Shrago E and Marshall M

    Citrate, malate, and high levels of ATP dissociate the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase complex and have an inhibitory effect on the latter enzyme. These effects are opposed by Mg2+, leucine, Mg2+ plus ATP, and carbamyl phosphate synthase-I. In addition, Mg2+ directly facilitates formation of a complex between glutamate dehydrogenase and the aminotransferase and displaces the aminotransferase from the inner mitochondrial membrane which could enable it to interact with glutamate dehydrogenase in the matrix. Zn2+ also favors an aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase complex. It, however, is a potent inhibitor of and has a high affinity for glutamate dehydrogenase. Leucine, however, enhances binding of Mg2+ and decreases binding of and the effect of Zn2+ on the enzyme. Thus, since both metal ions enhance enzyme-enzyme interaction and Zn2+ is a more potent inhibitor, the addition of leucine in the presence of both metal ions results in activation of glutamate dehydrogenase without disruption of the enzyme-enzyme complex. Furthermore, the combination of leucine plus Mg2+ produces slightly more activation than leucine alone. These results indicate that leucine, carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, and its substrate and cofactor, ATP and Mg2+, operate synergistically to facilitate glutamate dehydrogenase activity and interaction between this enzyme and the aminotransferase. Alternatively, Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and malate, have opposing effects.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM 17587

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1985;260;10;6069-79

  • Structural and genetic relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes.

    Doonan S, Barra D and Bossa F

    The most common type of genetic relationship between cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes will probably be found to be divergent evolution from a common ancestral form. This is firmly established for the aspartate aminotransferases and less directly so in other cases. The two isoenzymes of aspartate aminotransferase have evolved at roughly equal rates at the level of total amino acid sequence but certain limited surface regions of the mitochondrial form have been much more highly conserved than corresponding regions in the cytosolic protein; these regions probably play a role in topogenesis of the mitochondrial isoenzyme. It is of interest that nearly all mitochondrial proteins are initially synthesised as precursors of molecular weight greater than the mature forms. In the case of aspartate aminotransferase, and possibly of other such isoenzymes, the N-terminus of the mature protein is nearly coincident with that of the cytosolic isoenzyme. Hence during evolution either the gene for the mitochondrial isoenzyme has gained an extra coding region for this N-terminal extension or, less likely, the structural gene for the cytosolic form has suffered a sizeable terminal deletion. Cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutases have not shared a common ancestral form as shown by the fact that their primary structures are completely unrelated. On the other hand, the mitochondrial and prokaryotic enzymes are clearly related. There is now, however, evidence to suggest that some prokaryotes possess a copper/zinc enzyme related to the eukaryotic cytosolic form. Hence the possibility arises that primitive prokaryotes possessed both proteins. The copper/zinc superoxide dismutase has been retained in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells and a few bacterial species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    The International journal of biochemistry 1984;16;12;1193-9

  • Mapping studies on human mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

    Jeremiah SJ, Povey S, Burley MW, Kielty C, Lee M, Spowart G, Corney G and Cook PJ

    Data from six primary hybrids and twenty-two subclones have confirmed the assignment of the mitochondrial form of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase to chromosome 16. Family studies have provided independent confirmation of this and have suggested the gene order PGP-16qh-GOT2-HP. These studies were made easier by the development of a new stain for the detection of GOT activity.

    Annals of human genetics 1982;46;Pt 2;145-52

  • Assignment to chromosome 16 of a gene necessary for the expression of human mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C.

    Tolley E, van Heyningen V, Brown R, Bobrow M and Craig IW

    A gene necessary for the expression of human mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT-2) has been assigned to chromosome 16 on the basis of an immunochemical analysis of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. Mitochondrial GOT cosegregates with adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (E.C.

    Biochemical genetics 1980;18;9-10;947-54

  • Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase.

    Ford GC, Eichele G and Jansonius JN

    X-ray diffraction studies to 2.8-A resolution have yielded the three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC, an isologous alpha 2 dimer (Mr = 2 x 45,000). The subunits are rich in secondary structure and contain two domains, one of which anchors the coenzyme, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Each active site lies between the subunits and is composed of residues from both of them.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1980;77;5;2559-63

  • Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged lecithin liposomes.

    Furuya E, Yoshida Y and Tagawa K

    Several kinds of hydrophilic proteins were examined to determine their interaction with artificial liposomes. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (m-GOT) [EC], as well as cytochrome c, was found to interact strongly with negatively charged liposomes. In each case, an appreciable amount of the protein bound to liposomes remained unreleased after raising the salt concentration in the medium. The m-GOT tightly bound to the liposomes was also found to become latent in its enzymatic activity, and could be reversibly activated by solubilization of the liposomes with detergent. This is also the case for cytochrome c, which ceases to be reducible by external reductant, such as dithionite. Furthermore, the tightly bound m-GOT was not susceptible to the proteolytic action of trypsin, or that of Nagarse. From these observations it can be inferred that these basic proteins interact with acidic liposomes not only electrostatically but also hydrophobically. This kind of hydrophobic interaction was not observed in the combination of positively charged liposomes and acidic proteins, including s-GOT. Mitochondrial GOT was shown to be bound to isolated intact mitochondrial, but the bound enzyme was fully active, in contrast to the case of acidic liposomes. The hydrophobic interaction of water-soluble protein with liposomes is discussed in connection with the penetration of matrix enzyme through mitochondrial membranes.

    Journal of biochemistry 1979;85;5;1157-63

  • Assignment of a gene necessary for the expression of mitochondrial glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase in human-mouse hybrid cells.

    Craig IW, Tolley E, Bobrow M and van Heyningen V

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;190-4

  • Genetic polymorphisms of human mitochondrial glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase.

    Davidson RG, Cortner JA, Rattazzi MC, Ruddle FH and Lubs HA

    In a survey of 860 unselected human placental extracts, three variants of mitochondrial glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were found, all of which were common enough to be considered polymorphisms. Family studies showed that this enzyme is under the control of nuclear rather than mitochondrial DNA.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1970;169;3943;391-2

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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