G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002185
Gene symbol
ACO2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
aconitase 2, mitochondrial
Orthologue
G00000936 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000030544 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000100412 (Ensembl human gene)
50 (Entrez Gene)
804 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ACO2 (GeneCards)
Literature
100850 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:118 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1097 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q99798 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • ACONM

Literature (27)

Pubmed - other

  • Role of mitochondrial hOGG1 and aconitase in oxidant-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis.

    Panduri V, Liu G, Surapureddi S, Kondapalli J, Soberanes S, de Souza-Pinto NC, Bohr VA, Budinger GR, Schumacker PT, Weitzman SA and Kamp DW

    Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, 240 E. Huron, McGaw M-330, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) repairs 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxyguanine (8-oxoG), one of the most abundant DNA adducts caused by oxidative stress. In the mitochondria, Ogg1 is thought to prevent activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in response to oxidative stress by augmenting DNA repair. However, the predominance of the beta-Ogg1 isoform, which lacks 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase activity, suggests that mitochondrial Ogg1 functions in a role independent of DNA repair. We report here that overexpression of mitochondria-targeted human alpha-hOgg1 (mt-hOgg1) in human lung adenocarcinoma cells with some alveolar epithelial cell characteristics (A549 cells) prevents oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by preserving mitochondrial aconitase. Importantly, mitochondrial alpha-hOgg1 mutants lacking 8-oxoG DNA repair activity were as effective as wild-type mt-hOgg1 in preventing oxidant-induced caspase-9 activation, reductions in mitochondrial aconitase, and apoptosis, suggesting that the protective effects of mt-hOgg1 occur independent of DNA repair. Notably, wild-type and mutant mt-hOgg1 coprecipitate with mitochondrial aconitase. Furthermore, overexpression of mitochondrial aconitase abolishes oxidant-induced apoptosis whereas hOgg1 silencing using shRNA reduces mitochondrial aconitase and augments apoptosis. These findings suggest a novel mechanism that mt-hOgg1 acts as a mitochondrial aconitase chaperone protein to prevent oxidant-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis that might be important in the molecular events underlying oxidant-induced toxicity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL35440, HL67835-01, K08 HL067835, R01 HL035440; NIEHS NIH HHS: R01 ES013995, R01 ES013995-03

    Free radical biology & medicine 2009;47;6;750-9

  • Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Maccarrone G, Hunyadi-Gulyás E, Eberlin MN, Souza GH, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, SP, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pools from 9 schizophrenia and 7 healthy control patients' dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aiming to identify, by mass spectrometry, alterations in protein expression that could be related to the disease. In schizophrenia-derived samples, our analysis revealed 10 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins. These included alterations previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as oligodendrocyte-related proteins (myelin basic protein and transferrin), as well as malate dehydrogenase, aconitase, ATP synthase subunits and cytoskeleton-related proteins. Also, six new putative disease markers were identified, including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton and cell signaling proteins. Our data not only reinforces the involvement of proteins previously implicated in schizophrenia, but also suggests new markers, providing further information to foster the comprehension of this important disease.

    Journal of psychiatric research 2009;43;11;978-86

  • Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Novello JC, Marangoni S, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Rua Dr, Ovídio Pires de Campos, no 785, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. martins@mpipsykl.mpg.de

    Background: Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing.

    Methods: We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area - BA22p) identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease.

    Results: Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex.

    Conclusion: Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

    BMC psychiatry 2009;9;17

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Characterization of the mitochondrial aconitase promoter and the identification of transcription factor binding.

    Yu Z, Costello LC, Feng P and Franklin RB

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    Background: Mitochondrial (m) aconitase plays an important role in the unique pathway of citrate accumulation in prostate epithelial cells through its limited activity. In the current study, we characterized the human m-aconitase gene promoter.

    Methods: A 1,411-bp 5'-flanking fragment of the human m-aconitase gene was cloned, followed by 5' serial deletion analysis of promoter activity. Transcriptional start sties and transcription factors bound to the promoter were identified by 5' RACE, DNA pull-down assay and transcription factor array analysis.

    Results: Two transcriptional start sites were identified. The promoter fragment pulled down 15 transcription factors, some without consensus sequences in the promoter. Deletion of one Sp1 site eliminated all promoter activity.

    Conclusions: The m-aconitase promoter is contained in a 153-bp 5' fragment lacking a TATA or CAAT sequence. Sp1 binding to a specific Sp1 site is required for promoter activity while other transcription factors are recruited through protein-protein interactions.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA71207; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK42839

    The Prostate 2006;66;10;1061-9

  • Manganese antagonizes iron blocking mitochondrial aconitase expression in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Tsui KH, Chang PL and Juang HH

    Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, China.

    Aim: To investigate the possible role of manganese in the regulation of mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) activity human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3 cells.

    Methods: The mACON enzymatic activities of human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3 cells were determined using a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coupled assay. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assays were used to study gene expression of the mACON. The putative response element for gene expression was identified using reporter assays with site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays.

    Results: In vitro study revealed that manganese chloride (MnCl2) treatment for 16 h inhibited the enzymatic activity of mACON, which induced the inhibition of citrate utility and cell proliferation of PC-3 cells. Although results from transient gene expression assays showed that MnCl2 treatment upregulated gene translation by approximately 5-fold through the iron response element pathway, immunoblot and reporter assays showed that MnCl2 treatments inhibited protein and gene expression of mACON. This effect was reversed by co-treatment with ferric ammonium citrate. Additional reporter assays with site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggested that a putative metal response element in the promoter of the mACON gene was involved in the regulation of MnCl2 on the gene expression of mACON.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that manganese acts as an antagonist of iron, disrupting the enzymatic activity and gene expression of mACON and citrate metabolism in the prostate.

    Asian journal of andrology 2006;8;3;307-15

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Modulation of mitochondrial aconitase on the bioenergy of human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Juang HH

    Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC. hhj143@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    A bioenergetic theory of prostate malignancy proposed that normal citrate-producing prostate epithelial cell become citrate-oxidizing cells, in which mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) is not limiting, providing the energy required for the onset and progression of malignancy and metastasis. However, no direct evidence has been approved to support the hypothesis. A full-length cDNA encoding human skeletal muscle mACON cDNA was cloned and sequenced. mACON cDNA contains 19-bp 5' untranslated region, a 2343-bp coding segment, and 376-bp 3' untranslated region. This precursor enzyme contains mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acid residues and mature enzyme of 753 amino acids residues. A human anti-mACON overexpression vector containing the 1171-bp mACON cDNA fragment in the reverse orientation was stable transfected into human prostate carcinoma cells, PC-3 and DU145 cells. Results showed that mACON antisense blocked 40-60% mACON expression and enzymatic activity which induced decrease in the intracellular ATP biosynthesis but increase citrate secretion in the human prostate carcinoma cells. mACON antisense-transfected cells have lower cell proliferation ratio than the mock of DNA-transfected cells. Our study demonstrated the key role of the mACON in the cellular bioenergy and cell proliferation of human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2004;81;3;244-52

  • A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome.

    Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM and Dunham I

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

    We have developed a systematic approach to generating cDNA clones containing full-length open reading frames (ORFs), exploiting knowledge of gene structure from genomic sequence. Each ORF was amplified by PCR from a pool of primary cDNAs, cloned and confirmed by sequencing. We obtained clones representing 70% of genes on human chromosome 22, whereas searching available cDNA clone collections found at best 48% from a single collection and 60% for all collections combined.

    Genome biology 2004;5;10;R84

  • Mutation and LOH analysis of ACO2 in colorectal cancer: no evidence of biallelic genetic inactivation.

    Laiho P, Hienonen T, Mecklin JP, Järvinen H, Karhu A, Launonen V and Aaltonen LA

    Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedicum Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, PO Box 63, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

    Journal of medical genetics 2003;40;5;e73

  • Lon protease preferentially degrades oxidized mitochondrial aconitase by an ATP-stimulated mechanism.

    Bota DA and Davies KJ

    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, and Division of Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0191, USA.

    Mitochondrial aconitase is sensitive to oxidative inactivation and can aggregate and accumulate in many age-related disorders. Here we report that Lon protease, an ATP-stimulated mitochondrial matrix protein, selectively recognizes and degrades the oxidized, hydrophobic form of aconitase after mild oxidative modification, but that severe oxidation results in aconitase aggregation, which makes it a poor substrate for Lon. Similarly, a morpholino oligodeoxynucleotide directed against the lon gene markedly decreases the amount of Lon protein, Lon activity and aconitase degradation in WI-38 VA-13 human lung fibroblasts and causes accumulation of oxidatively modified aconitase. The ATP-stimulated Lon protease may be an essential defence against the stress of life in an oxygen environment. By recognizing minor oxidative changes to protein structure and rapidly degrading the mildly modified protein, Lon protease may prevent extensive oxidation, aggregation and accumulation of aconitase, which could otherwise compromise mitochondrial function and cellular viability. Aconitase is probably only one of many mitochondrial matrix proteins that are preferentially degraded by Lon protease after oxidative modification.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG16256; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES03598

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;9;674-80

  • Identification of novel transcribed sequences on human chromosome 22 by expressed sequence tag mapping.

    Hirosawa M, Nagase T, Murahashi Y, Kikuno R and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. hirosawa@kazusa.or.jp

    To identify sequences on the human genome that are actually transcribed, we mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of long cDNAs ranging from 4 kb to 7 kb along a 33.4-Mb sequence of human chromosome 22, the first human chromosome entirely sequenced. By the EST mapping of 30,683 long cDNAs in silico, 603 cDNA sequences were found to locate on chromosome 22 and classified into 169 clusters. Comparison of the genomic loci of these cDNA sequences with 679 genes already annotated on chromosome 22q revealed that 46 clusters represented newly identified transcribed sequences. To further characterize these sequences, we sequenced 12 cDNAs in their entirety out of 46 clusters. Of these 12 cDNAs, 6 were predicted to include a protein-coding region while the remaining 6 were unlikely to encode proteins. Interestingly, 3 out of the 12 cDNAs had the nucleotide sequences of the opposite strands of the genes previously annotated, which suggested that these genomic regions were transcribed bi-directionally. In addition to these newly identified 12 cDNAs, another 12 cDNAs were entirely sequenced since these cDNAs were likely to contain new information about the predicted protein-coding sequences previously annotated. In the cases of KIAA1670 and KIAA1672, these single cDNA sequences covered two separately annotated transcribed regions. For example, the sequence of a clone for KIAA1670 indicated that the CHKL and CPT1B genes were co-transcribed as a contiguous transcript without making both the protein-coding regions fused. In conclusion, the mapping of ESTs derived from long cDNAs followed by sequencing of the entire cDNAs provided indispensable information for the precise annotation of genes on the genome together with ESTs derived from short cDNAs.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2001;8;1;1-9

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22.

    Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP et al.

    Sanger Centre, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. id1@sanger.ac.uk

    Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.

    Nature 1999;402;6761;489-95

  • Characterization of the human mitochondrial aconitase gene (ACO2).

    Mirel DB, Marder K, Graziano J, Freyer G, Zhao Q, Mayeux R and Wilhelmsen KC

    Ernest Gallo Clinic, Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, Building 1, Room 101, 1001 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

    We have cloned and characterized the ACO2 gene on human chromosome 22q13, which encodes the essential iron-dependent metabolic enzyme mitochondrial aconitase. We determined that the ACO2 gene comprises 18 translated exons distributed over approximately 35 kilobasepairs (kbp) of DNA. We have shown that the ACO2 mRNA is 2.7kb in length and is expressed ubiquitously, and we can detect multiple isoforms of the ACO2 protein. As others had reported the existence of biochemically active electrophoretic variants of mitochondrial aconitase, we wished to find common ACO2 gene allozymes, functional polymorphisms that might be associated with susceptibility to human genetic diseases. We looked for ACO2 allozymes by DNA sequencing and genotyping in a population of 217 subjects, many of which had idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). We studied patients with IPD because this movement disorder is thought to arise from defects in neuronal iron and energy metabolism, two properties with which aconitase is involved. Furthermore, reports of associations between alleles of the CYP2D6 locus (nearby on 22q13) and IPD, although inconsistent, indicated that an IPD susceptibility locus might be in strong linkage disequilibrium with CYP2D6. We found three functionally silent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in transcribed sequences that exist in similar frequencies in IPD patients and healthy controls. These ACO2 SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium with each other, providing evidence for distinct ACO2 haplotypes. We have, as yet, not detected polymorphisms that would lead to ACO2 allozymes, nor have we observed differences in ACO2 isoform prevalence or distribution in our population of IPD patients and controls. We conclude it is unlikely that polymorphism in the ACO2 gene or post-translational modification of the enzyme predispose to IPD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG07232; NINDS NIH HHS: NS35257

    Gene 1998;213;1-2;205-18

  • The aconitase family: three structural variations on a common theme.

    Gruer MJ, Artymiuk PJ and Guest JR

    Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK.

    The aconitase family contains a diverse group of iron-sulphur (Fe-S) isomerases and two types of iron regulatory protein (IRP). Structural comparisons have revealed three architecturally distinct variants in which one of the four structural domains is covalently linked at either the amino- or carboxy-terminal end of a single polypeptide or else this domain exists as an independent subunit.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Trends in biochemical sciences 1997;22;1;3-6

  • A double life: cytosolic aconitase as a regulatory RNA binding protein.

    Klausner RD and Rouault TA

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1993;4;1;1-5

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Purification and partial amino acid sequence of human aconitase.

    Baldwin GS, Seet KL, Callaghan J, Toncich G, Toh BH, Moritz RL, Rubira MR and Simpson R

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne Tumour Biology Branch, Victoria, Australia.

    Aconitase has been purified from membranes prepared from both the human gastric carcinoma cell line Okajima and from porcine gastric mucosa by chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Automated Edman degradation of the intact proteins yielded no N-terminal amino acid sequence due, presumably, to N-terminal blockage. Sequence analysis of tryptic peptides derived from S-carboxymethyl porcine and human aconitases established the positions of 95 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. The amino acid sequence data for porcine aconitase was in perfect agreement with the previously reported cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence [Zheng et al. (1990) J Biol Chem 265:2814-2821]. Comparison of the human amino acid sequence data with the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of porcine aconitase indicated that these two proteins have 95% amino acid sequence identity within the sequenced region.

    Protein sequences & data analysis 1991;4;2;63-7

  • Regional localization of the genes coding for human ACO2, ARSA, and NAGA on chromosome 22.

    Geurts van Kessel AH, Westerveld A, de Groot PG, Meera Khan P and Hagemeijer A

    The segregation of the chromosome 22 markers ACO2, ARSA, and NAGA was studied in somatic cell hybrid clones. These hybrids were isolated following fusion of Chinese hamster (E36 or a3) cells with leucocytes of donors carrying an (X;22) or (1;22) translocation. The results suggest the assignment of ARSA and NAGA to the region 22q13 leads to 22qter and of ACO2 to the region 22q11 leads to 22q13.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1980;28;3;169-72

  • Aconitase (E.C. 4.2.1.3) mitochondrial locus (ACONM) mapped to human chromosome 22.

    Sparkes RS, Mohandas T, Sparkes MC and Shulkin JD

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;226-7

  • Assignment of the locus ACONM to chromosome 22.

    Slaughter CA, Povey S, Carritt B, Solomon E and Bobrow M

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;223-5

  • Assignment of the mitochondrial aconitase gene (ACONM) to human chromosome 22.

    Meera Khan P, Wijnen LM and Pearson PL

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1978;22;1-6;212-4

  • The distribution and properties of aconitase isozymes in man.

    Slaughter CA, Hopkinson DA and Harris H

    Annals of human genetics 1977;40;4;385-401

  • Aconitase polymorphism in man.

    Slaughter CA, Hopkinson DA and Harris H

    1. An electrophoretic method is described which resolves two groups of aconitase isozymes in human tissues, one group corresponding to the mitochondrial and the other to the soluble enzyme. This method has been used to screen human populations for electrophoretic variation. 2. Variant phenotypes of both the mitochondrial and the soluble aconitase are described, and family studies and sib-pair data demonstrate that the variation is genetically determined. 3. The variant isozyme patterns are accounted for in terms of allelic variation at two independent gene loci, ACONM and ACONS, which encode the mitochondrial and the soluble aconitase respectively. The electrophoretic survey has so far revealed two alleles at ACONM and seven alleles at ACONS. 4. The electrophoretic patterns shown by heterozygous individuals indicate that both soluble and mitochondrial aconitase are monomeric. The variant patterns also indicate that certain minor aconitase components resolved under the electrophoretic conditions employed represent 'secondary' isozymes of the primary translation products. 5. Population data on Europenas and Nigerians are presented and it is shown that both rare and common electrophoretic variants are segregating in the human species. The variation due to the three most common ACONS alleles in the Nigerians constitues a polymorphism.

    Annals of human genetics 1975;39;2;193-202

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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