G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
propionyl CoA carboxylase, alpha polypeptide
G00000932 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017284 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000175198 (Ensembl human gene)
5095 (Entrez Gene)
773 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PCCA (GeneCards)
232000 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8653 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P05165 (UniProt)

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • Decreased levels of metabolic enzymes in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    MacDonald MJ, Longacre MJ, Langberg EC, Tibell A, Kendrick MA, Fukao T and Ostenson CG

    Children's Diabetes Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, USA. mjmacdon@wisc.edu

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is defective in patients with type 2 diabetes. We sought to acquire new information about enzymes of glucose metabolism, with an emphasis on mitochondrial enzymes, by comparing pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetes patients with those of non-diabetic controls.

    Methods: Expression of genes encoding 13 metabolic enzymes was estimated with microarrays and activities of up to nine metabolic enzymes were measured.

    Results: The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT) were decreased by 73%, 65% and 92%, respectively, in the diabetic compared with the non-diabetic islets. ATP citrate lyase, a cytosolic enzyme of the mitochondrial citrate pyruvate shuttle, was decreased 57%. Activities of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, cytosolic malic enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase were not significantly different from those of the control. The low activities of PC and SCOT were confirmed with western blots, which showed that their protein levels were low. The correlation of relative mRNA signals with enzyme activities was good in four instances, moderate in four instances and poor in one instance. In diabetic islets, the mRNA signal of the islet cell-enriched transcription factor musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, which regulates expression of islet genes, including the PC gene, was decreased to 54% of the control level. PC activity and protein levels in the non-diabetic islets were significantly lower than in islets from non-diabetic rodents.

    Low levels of certain islet metabolic enzymes, especially mitochondrial enzymes, are associated with human type 2 diabetes.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK28348, R01 DK028348, R01 DK028348-16, R01 DK028348-17, R01 DK028348-18, R01 DK028348-19, R01 DK028348-20, R01 DK028348-21, R01 DK028348-22, R01 DK028348-23, R01 DK028348-24, R01 DK028348-25, R01 DK028348-26, R01 DK028348-27

    Diabetologia 2009;52;6;1087-91

  • High frequency of large genomic deletions in the PCCA gene causing propionic acidemia.

    Desviat LR, Sanchez-Alcudia R, Pérez B, Pérez-Cerdá C, Navarrete R, Vijzelaar R and Ugarte M

    Centro de Diagnóstico de Enfermedades Moleculares, UAM-CSIC, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. lruiz@cbm.uam.es

    Mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB genes are responsible for propionic acidemia (PA), one of the most frequent organic acidemias inherited in autosomal recessive fashion. Most of the mutations detected to date in both genes are missense. In the case of PCCA deficient patients, a high number of alleles remain uncharacterized, some of them suspected to carry an exonic deletion. We have now employed multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and long-PCR in some cases to screen for genomic rearrangements in the PCCA gene in 20 patients in whom standard mutation detection techniques had failed to complete genotype analysis. Eight different deletions were found, corresponding to a frequency of 21.3% of the total PCCA alleles genotyped at our center. Two of the exonic deletions were frequent, one involving exons 3-4 and another exon 23 although in the first case two different chromosomal breakpoints were identified. Absence of exons 3 and 4 which is also the consequence of the novel splicing mutation c.231+1g>c present in two patients, presumably results in an in-frame deletion covering 39 aminoacids, which was expressed in a eukaryotic system confirming its pathogenicity. This work describes for the first time the high frequency of large genomic deletions in the PCCA gene, which could be due to the characteristics of the PCCA gene structure and its abundance in intronic repetitive elements. Our data underscore the need of using gene dosage analysis to complement routine genetic analysis in PCCA patients.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2009;96;4;171-6

  • N- and C-terminal domains in human holocarboxylase synthetase participate in substrate recognition.

    Hassan YI, Moriyama H, Olsen LJ, Bi X and Zempleni J

    Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, 316 Ruth Leverton Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583-0806, USA.

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of the vitamin biotin to carboxylases and histones. Carboxylases mediate essential steps in macronutrient metabolism. For example, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) catalyzes the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA in the metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids. HCS comprises four putative domains, i.e., the N-terminus, the biotin transfer/ATP-binding domain, a putative linker domain, and the C-terminus. Both N- and C-termini are essential for biotinylation of carboxylases by HCS, but the exact functions of these two domains in enzyme catalysis are unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that N- and C-termini play roles in substrate recognition by HCS. Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were used to study interactions between the four domains of human HCS with p67, a PCC-based polypeptide and HCS substrate. Both N- and C-termini interacted with p67 in Y2H assays, whereas the biotin transfer/ATP-binding and the linker domains did not interact with p67. The essentiality of N- and C-termini for interactions with carboxylases was confirmed in rescue experiments with mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using constructs of truncated human HCS. Finally, a computational biology approach was used to model the 3D structure of human HCS and identify amino acid residues that interact with p67. In silico predictions were consistent with observations from Y2H assays and yeast rescue experiments, and suggested docking of p67 near Arg508 and Ser515 within the central domain of HCS.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK063945, DK077816, R01 DK063945, R01 DK063945-05A1, R01 DK077816, R01 DK077816-01A2; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES015206, R21 ES015206, R21 ES015206-02; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM62484, R01 GM062484

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2009;96;4;183-8

  • Propionic and methylmalonic acidemia: antisense therapeutics for intronic variations causing aberrantly spliced messenger RNA.

    Rincón A, Aguado C, Desviat LR, Sánchez-Alcudia R, Ugarte M and Pérez B

    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universitad Autónoma de Madrid, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.

    We describe the use of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to restore normal splicing caused by intronic molecular defects identified in methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA). The three new point mutations described in deep intronic regions increase the splicing scores of pseudoexons or generate consensus binding motifs for splicing factors, such as SRp40, which favor the intronic inclusions in MUT (r.1957ins76), PCCA (r.1284ins84), or PCCB (r.654ins72) messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Experimental confirmation that these changes are pathogenic and cause the activation of the pseudoexons was obtained by use of minigenes. AMOs were targeted to the 5? or 3? cryptic splice sites to block access of the splicing machinery to the pseudoexonic regions in the pre-mRNA. Using this antisense therapeutics, we have obtained correctly spliced mRNA that was effectively translated, and propionyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (PCC) or methylmalonylCoA mutase (MCM) activities were rescued in patients' fibroblasts. The effect of AMOs was sequence and dose dependent. In the affected patient with MUT mutation, close to 100% of MCM activity, measured by incorporation of (14)C-propionate, was obtained after 48 h, and correctly spliced MUT mRNA was still detected 15 d after treatment. In the PCCA-mutated and PCCB-mutated cell lines, 100% of PCC activity was measured after 72 h of AMO delivery, and the presence of biotinylated PCCA protein was detected by western blot in treated PCCA-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the aberrant inclusions of the intronic sequences are disease-causing mutations in these patients. These findings provide a new therapeutic strategy in these genetic disorders, potentially applicable to a large number of cases with deep intronic changes that, at the moment, remain undetected by standard mutation-detection techniques.

    American journal of human genetics 2007;81;6;1262-70

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • New splicing mutations in propionic acidemia.

    Desviat LR, Clavero S, Perez-Cerdá C, Navarrete R, Ugarte M and Perez B

    Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

    Propionic acidemia results from mutations in either of the two genes, PCCA or PCCB, that encode the two subunits of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme. In this study, we report the identification and analysis of seven novel splicing mutations involving consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. Most of them were identified in patients with a Central Asian origin, and some present in several alleles, probably reflecting founder effects. The functional consequences of the splicing mutations were analyzed in patients' fibroblasts, as well as transcript quantification using real-time PCR methods. In the PCCA gene, two mutations were demonstrated to affect 5' splice sites (c.231+1G>C and c.1209+3A>G) and two 3' acceptor splice sites (c.1210delG and c.1430G>T), all causing skipping of the exons involved, with no detectable levels of normally spliced transcript. In the PCCB gene, all three mutations involved 5' donor splice sites-two affected exon 1 splicing (c.154_183+17del46 and c.183+2T>C), the latter activating a cryptic splice site in intron 1, and the remaining mutation (c.1498+2T>C) resulted in exon 14 skipping. The results highlight the necessity to perform transcript analysis in addition to genomic DNA sequencing to characterize the effect of splicing mutations and add relevant information on the genetic epidemiology of the disease.

    Journal of human genetics 2006;51;11;992-7

  • Characterization of four variant forms of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Jiang H, Rao KS, Yee VC and Kraus JP

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of propionyl-CoA to D-methylmalonyl-CoA. PCC consists of two heterologous subunits, alpha PCC and beta PCC, which are encoded by the nuclear PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. Deficiency of PCC results in a metabolic disorder, propionic acidemia, which is sufficiently severe to cause neonatal death. We have purified three PCCs containing pathogenic mutations in the beta subunit (R165W, E168K, and R410W) and one PCCB polymorphism (A497V) to homogeneity to elucidate the potential structural and functional effects of these substitutions. We observed no significant difference in Km values for propionyl-CoA between wild-type and the variant enzymes, which indicated that these substitutions had no effect on the affinity of the enzyme for this substrate. Furthermore, the kinetic studies indicated that mutation R410W was not involved in propionyl-CoA binding in contrast to a previous report. The three mutant PCCs had half the catalytic efficiency of wild-type PCC as judged by the kcat/Km ratios. No significant differences have been observed in molecular mass or secondary structure among these enzymes. However, the variant PCCs were less thermostable than the wild-type. Following incubation at 47 degrees C, blue native-PAGE revealed a lower oligomeric form (alpha2beta2) in the three mutants not detectable in wild-type and the polymorphism. Interestingly, the lower oligomeric form was also observed in the corresponding crude Escherichia coli extracts. Our biochemical data and the structural analysis using a beta PCC homology model indicate that the pathogenic nature of these mutations is more likely to be due to a lack of assembly rather than disruption of catalysis. The strong favorable effect of the co-expressed chaperone proteins on PCC folding, assembly, and activity suggest that propionic acidemia may be amenable to chaperone therapy.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P01HD08315

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;30;27719-27

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Mutation spectrum of the PCCA and PCCB genes in Japanese patients with propionic acidemia.

    Yang X, Sakamoto O, Matsubara Y, Kure S, Suzuki Y, Aoki Y, Yamaguchi S, Takahashi Y, Nishikubo T, Kawaguchi C, Yoshioka A, Kimura T, Hayasaka K, Kohno Y, Iinuma K and Ohura T

    Department of Medical Genetics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. This enzyme is composed of two non-identical subunits, alpha and beta, which are encoded by the PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. An enzyme deficiency can result from mutations in either PCCA or PCCB. To elucidate the mutation spectrum in Japanese patients, we have performed a mutation analysis of 30 patients with PA, which included nine previously reported patients. The study revealed that 15 patients were alpha-subunit deficient and 15 patients were beta-subunit deficient. Seven novel mutations were found (IVS18-6C >G, 1746G >A, C398R, G197E and IVS18+1G >A in the PCCA; A153P and IVS9+1G >T in the PCCB). Among these Japanese patients with alpha-subunit deficiencies, 923-924insT, IVS18-6C >G, and R399Q mutations were frequent and the total allelic frequency of these three mutations combined was 56% (17/30). This is in sharp contrast to the mutation spectrum found in Caucasian patients, where no prevalent mutations have been identified. Among the beta-subunit deficiencies, there were three frequent mutations; R410W, T428I, and A153P, whose allelic frequencies were 30, 26.7, and 13.3%, respectively. In conclusion, a limited number of mutations are predominant in both PCCA and PCCB genes among Japanese patients with propionic acidemia.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2004;81;4;335-42

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Propionic acidemia: identification of twenty-four novel mutations in Europe and North America.

    Pérez B, Desviat LR, Rodríguez-Pombo P, Clavero S, Navarrete R, Perez-Cerdá C and Ugarte M

    Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa," Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autònoma de Madrid, CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited metabolic disease caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial protein propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), one of the four biotin-dependent enzymes. PCC is a multimeric protein composed of two different alpha- and beta-PCC subunits, nuclearly encoded by the PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. Mutations in either gene cause the clinically heterogeneous disease propionic acidemia. In this work we describe the mutational analysis of PCCA and PCCB deficient patients from different European countries (Spain, Italy, Belgium, Croatia, and Austria) and from America (mainly USA). We report 24 novel PA mutations, nine affecting the PCCA gene and 15 affecting the PCCB gene. They include six missense mutations, one nonsense mutation, one point exonic mutation affecting splicing, seven splicing mutations affecting splice sequences, and nine short insertions or deletions, only two in-frame. We have found a highly heterogenous spectrum of PCCA mutations, most of the PCCA deficient patients are homozygous carrying a unique genotype. The PCCA mutational spectrum includes a high proportion of short insertions or deletions affecting one nucleotide. In the PCCA mutant alleles analyzed we have also found one single nucleotide change, a novel nonsynonymous SNP. On the other hand, the PCCB deficient patients carry a more reduced spectrum of mutations, 50% of them are missense. This work represents an extensive update of the mutational study of propionic acidemia providing important information about the worldwide distribution of PA mutations and representing another essential part in the study of the phenotype-genotype correlations for the prediction of the metabolic outcome and for the implementation of treatments tailored to each PA patient.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2003;78;1;59-67

  • Functional characterization of PCCA mutations causing propionic acidemia.

    Clavero S, Martínez MA, Pérez B, Pérez-Cerdá C, Ugarte M and Desviat LR

    Dpto. Biología Molecular, Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

    Propionic acidemia (PA, MIM 232000 and 232050) is caused by a deficiency of mitochondrial biotin-dependent propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC, EC, a heteropolymeric enzyme composed of alpha and beta subunits, which are encoded by the PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. The PCCA protein (alpha subunit) is responsible for the formation of carboxybiotin upon hydrolysis of ATP and contains a C-terminal biotin-binding domain and a biotin carboxylase domain, defined by homology with other biotin-dependent carboxylases, some of them characterized structurally. More than 24 mutations have been found in the PCCA gene in patients with PA, among them 14 missense mutations and one in-frame deletion, for which the precise molecular effect is unknown. In this study, we have established the pathogenicity of 11 PCCA mutations (10 missense and an in-frame deletion) by expression studies in deficient fibroblasts and in a cell-free in vitro system, and analyzed the effect of each mutation on PCC activity, protein stability and domain structure. The results show that most mutant proteins show an increased turnover and are functionally deficient, suggesting that the structural alterations they cause are incompatible with normal assembly to produce a stable, functional PCC oligomer. These results are discussed in the context of the genotype-phenotype correlations in PCCA-deficient PA patients.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002;1588;2;119-25

  • Emerging links between initiation of translation and human diseases.

    Kozak M

    Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA. kozakma@umdnj.edu

    Some diseases are caused by mutations that perturb the initiation step of translation by changing the context around the AUG(START) codon or introducing upstream AUG codons. The scanning mechanism provides a framework for understanding the effects of these and other structural changes in mRNAs derived from oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and other key regulatory genes. In mRNAs from mutated as well as normal genes, translation sometimes initiates from an internal AUG codon. Sanctioned mechanisms that allow this, including leaky scanning and reinitiation, are discussed. Thrombopoietin mRNA is an example in which translation normally initiates from an internal position via an inefficient reinitiation mechanism. Mutations that restructure this mRNA in ways that elevate production of thrombopoietin cause hereditary thrombocythemia, demonstrating that some mRNAs are designed deliberately with upstream AUG codons to preclude efficient translation and thus to prevent harmful overproduction of potent proteins. While upstream AUG codons in certain mRNAs thus play an important regulatory role, the frequency of upstream AUG codons tends to be exaggerated when cDNA sequences are compiled and analyzed. Because the discovery of mutations that perturb translation usually begins with cDNA analysis, some misunderstandings vis-a-vis the interpretation of cDNA sequences are discussed.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33915

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2002;13;8;401-10

  • Effect of PCCB gene mutations on the heteromeric and homomeric assembly of propionyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Muro S, Pérez B, Desviat LR, Rodríguez-Pombo P, Pérez-Cerdá C, Clavero S and Ugarte M

    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a dodecameric enzyme composed of alpha-PCC and beta-PCC subunits (encoded by genes PCCA and PCCB) that have been associated with a number of mutations responsible for this disease. To clarify the molecular effect associated with gene alterations causing propionic acidemia, 12 different mutations affecting the PCCB gene (R67S, S106R, G131R, R165W, R165Q, E168K, G198D, A497V, R512C, L519P, W531X, and N536D) were analyzed for their involvement in alpha-beta heteromeric and beta-beta homomeric assembly. The experiments were performed using the mammalian two-hybrid system, which was assayed at two different temperatures to distinguish between mutations directly involved in interaction and those probably affecting polypeptide folding, thus indirectly affecting the correct assembly. Mutations R512C, L519P, W531X, and N536D, located at the carboxyl-terminal end of the PCCB gene, were found to inhibit alpha-beta heteromeric and/or the beta-beta homomeric interaction independently of the cultivation temperature, reflecting their primary effect on the assembly. Two mutations A497V and R165Q did not affect either heteromeric or homomeric assembly. The remaining mutations (R67S, S106R, G131D, R165W, E168K, and G198D), located in the amino-terminal region of the beta-polypeptide, resulted in normal interaction levels only when expressed at the lower temperature, suggesting that these changes could be considered as folding defects. From these results and the clinical manifestations associated with patients bearing the mutations described above, several genotype-phenotype correlations may be established. In general, the temperature-sensitive mutations are associated with a less severe, although variable phenotype. This could correlate with the recent hypothesis that the effect of folding mutations can be influenced by the capacity of the cellular protein quality control machinery, which provides clues to our understanding of the variability of the clinical symptoms observed among the patients bearing these mutations.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2001;74;4;476-83

  • Structure of the PCCA gene and distribution of mutations causing propionic acidemia.

    Campeau E, Desviat LR, Leclerc D, Wu X, Pérez B, Ugarte M and Gravel RA

    Department of Biology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, H3H 1P3, Canada.

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC, EC is a mitochondrial, biotin-dependent enzyme that functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, fatty acids with odd-numbered chain lengths, and other metabolites. It catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of propionyl-CoA to d-methylmalonyl-CoA. PCC is composed of two types of subunits, likely as alpha4beta4 or alpha6beta6, with the alpha subunit containing the covalently bound biotin prosthetic group. A genetic deficiency of PCC activity causes propionic acidemia, a potentially fatal disease with onset in severe cases in the newborn period. Affected patients may have mutations of either the PCCA or PCCB gene. In this study, we have determined the structure of the human PCCA gene which, at the present time, is only partially represented in the databases. Based on reported ESTs and confirmed by RT-PCR, we also redefine the translation initiation codon to a position 75 nucleotides upstream of the currently accepted initiation codon. We show the distribution of mutations, including three identified in this study, and renumber all reported mutations to count from the new initiation codon. The gene spans more than 360 kb and consists of 24 exons ranging from 37 to 335 bp in length. The introns range in size from 104.bp to 66 kb. We have also determined the nucleotide sequence of approximately 1 kb of the 5'-flanking region upstream of the ATG translation initiation site. The proximal 400 bp of the 5'-flanking region shows a high G + C content (67%) and is part of a putative 1-kb CpG island that extends into exon 1 and part of intron 1. The putative promoter lacks a TATA box but contains two AP-1 sites and a conservatively defined consensus GC box, the latter characteristic of the core binding sequence of the Sp1 transcription factor.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2001;74;1-2;238-47

  • Changes in the carboxyl terminus of the beta subunit of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase affect the oligomer assembly and catalysis: expression and characterization of seven patient-derived mutant forms of PCC in Escherichia coli.

    Chloupková M, Ravn K, Schwartz M and Kraus JP

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA.

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of propionyl-CoA to d-methylmalonyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix. Human PCC is a dodecamer composed of pairs of nonidentical alpha and beta subunits encoded by PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. Deficiency of PCC results in propionic acidemia (PA), a metabolic disorder characterized by severe metabolic ketoacidosis, vomiting, lethargy, and hypotonia. To date, almost 60 mutations have been reported in both genes. Exon 15 of the beta subunit is one of the two sites where a number of mutations have been identified in PA patients. In the primary betaPCC sequence, these mutations lead to three substitutions (R512C, L519P, and N536D), three truncations (R499X, R514X, and W531X), and one insertion (A51_R514insP). We expressed these mutant proteins in Escherichia coli in which the GroESL complex was overexpressed. The only mutation that does not impact the stability of mutant betaPCC in bacteria is W531X. The remaining mutations lead to either complete (L519P, N536D) or partial (R499X, R512C, A513_R514insP, and R514X) degradation of the mutant subunits. Size-exclusion chromatography revealed that R512C and W531X do not affect the assembly of alphaPCC and betaPCC to active oligomers. Specific activities for these mutant proteins, however, were only 3.9 and 10% of the wild type, respectively. Taken together, the carboxyl-terminal portion of 40 amino acid residues of the beta subunit affects the stability and the assembly of the alpha and beta subunits as well as the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P01HD08315

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 2000;71;4;623-32

  • Coding sequence mutations in the alpha subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in patients with propionic acidemia.

    Campeau E, Dupuis L, León-Del-Rio A and Gravel R

    Department of Human Genetics, McGill University-Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute, 4060 Ste-Catherine West, Montréal, Québec, H3Z 2Z3, Canada.

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of intermediary metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC, EC, a heteropolymeric protein composed of two subunits, alpha and beta. PCC requires ATP and biotin as cofactors for the reaction, the latter enzymatically added onto the alpha subunit. We investigated coding sequence mutations in the alpha subunit of PCC by analyzing fibroblast RNA from propionic acidemia patients deficient in alpha subunit function by single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. Five missense mutations and one short in-frame deletion were found among different patients. Four mutations were located in the putative biotin carboxylase domain, whereas the two others were within the 67-amino-acid C-terminal domain previously shown to be required to obtain biotinylation of the alpha subunit. We analyzed fibroblast extracts for the presence of a biotinylated alpha subunit by Western blot analysis using streptavidin coupled to alkaline phosphatase. Four of five cell lines failed to show a biotinylated alpha subunit, regardless of the position of the mutations within the coding sequence. Two mutations located in the biotinylation domain were expressed in an Escherichia coli-based system and shown to abolish biotinylation of the domain. The results suggest that most mutations have a severe impact on the stability or the functionality of the alpha subunit.

    Molecular genetics and metabolism 1999;67;1;11-22

  • Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein.

    Richard E, Desviat LR, Pérez B, Pérez-Cerdá C and Ugarte M

    Departamento de Biología Molecular and Centro de Biología Molecular 'Severo Ochoa', CSIC-UAM, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

    The inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA) can result from mutations in either of the genes PCCA or PCCB, which encode the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl CoA-carboxylase. In this work we have analyzed the molecular basis of PCCA gene defects, studying mRNA levels and identifying putative disease causing mutations. A total of 10 different mutations, none predominant, are present in a sample of 24 mutant alleles studied. Five novel mutations are reported here for the first time. A neutral polymorphism and a variant allele present in the general population were also detected. To examine the effect of a point mutation (M348K) involving a highly conserved residue, we have carried out in vitro expression of normal and mutant PCCA cDNA and analyzed the mitochondrial import and stability of the resulting proteins. Both wild-type and mutant proteins were imported into mitochondria and processed into the mature form with similar efficiency, but the mature mutant M348K protein decayed more rapidly than did the wild-type, indicating a reduced stability, which is probably the disease-causing mechanism.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999;1453;3;351-8

  • Overview of mutations in the PCCA and PCCB genes causing propionic acidemia.

    Ugarte M, Pérez-Cerdá C, Rodríguez-Pombo P, Desviat LR, Pérez B, Richard E, Muro S, Campeau E, Ohura T and Gravel RA

    Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa," CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain. mugarte@cbm.uam.es

    Propionic acidemia is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a heteropolymeric mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of branched chain amino acids, odd-numbered chain length fatty acids, cholesterol, and other metabolites. The enzyme is composed of alpha and beta subunits which are encoded by the PCCA and PCCB genes, respectively. Mutations in both genes can cause propionic acidemia. The identification of the responsible gene, previous to mutation analysis, can be performed by complementation assay or, in some instances, can be deduced from peculiarities relevant to either gene, including obtaining normal enzyme activity in the parents of many patients with PCCB mutations, observing combined absence of alpha and beta subunits by Western blot of many PCCA patients, as well as conventional mRNA-minus result of Northern blots for either gene or beta subunit deficiency in PCCB patients. Mutations in both the PCCA and PCCB genes have been identified by sequencing either RT-PCR products or amplified exonic fragments, the latter specifically for the PCCB gene for which the genomic structure is available. To date, 24 mutations in the PCCA gene and 29 in the PCCB gene have been reported, most of them single base substitutions causing amino acid replacements and a variety of splicing defects. A greater heterogeneity is observed in the PCCA gene-no mutation is predominant in the populations studied-while for the PCCB gene, a limited number of mutations is responsible for the majority of the alleles characterized in both Caucasian and Oriental populations. These two populations show a different spectrum of mutations, only sharing some involving CpG dinucleotides, probably as recurrent mutational events. Future analysis of the mutations identified, of their functional effect and their clinical relevance, will reveal potential genotype-phenotype correlations for this clinically heterogeneous disorder.

    Human mutation 1999;14;4;275-82

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • A pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile.

    Gress TM, Müller-Pillasch F, Geng M, Zimmerhackl F, Zehetner G, Friess H, Büchler M, Adler G and Lehrach H

    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Ulm, Germany.

    We present an approach making use of technology established in the context of the genome project to describe a pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile and to identify new potential disease genes or disease-associated-genes. By use of gridded arrays of pancreatic cancer cDNA libraries and differential hybridizations we show that 4% the gridded cDNA library clones contain sequences preferentially expressed in pancreatic cancer. EST-sequencing of 369 distinct (408 total), differentially expressed sequences identified novel genes (32.5%) or homologs to EST-sequences with unknown function (26.3%). Homologies to known genes allow to determine a pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile, which provides for the first time evidence for complex primary and secondary alterations of gene expression responsible for the development of the phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells. In addition this has led to the identification of novel differentially expressed genes, which represent potential oncogenes or disease-associated markers and may be helpful for the development of therapeutic or diagnostic modalities.

    Oncogene 1996;13;8;1819-30

  • [A preliminary study on metastasis-associated gene screened by monoclonal antibodies HIL].

    Qi T, Wang W and Xu M

    Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University.

    The cDNA expression libraries derived from a highly metastatic cell subline Anip[973] and from the poorly metastatic, parental cell line, AGZY-83a were screened by monoclonal antibodies HIL. A positive clone (H4-D) from the Anip[973] cDNA library was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This clone contained 978 bp with an open reading frame of 318 bp encoding a polypeptide consisting of 106 amino acids. The H4-D cDNA sequence showed 85% homology with a human propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha-chain. In western blotting analysis, the MoAb H4 recognized 2 bands (15KD and 27KD) of Anip[973] cell membrane proteins. The mRNA expression of H4-D was higher in Anip[973] cells than in AGZY-83a cells. The metastatic potential of Anip[973] cells was markedly decreased after being pretreated with MoAb H4. The above findings indicate that H4-D has a certain relationship with the metastatic phenotype of Anip[973] cells.

    Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] 1995;17;3;163-6

  • Correction of the metabolic defect in propionic acidemia fibroblasts by microinjection of a full-length cDNA or RNA transcript encoding the propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit.

    Lamhonwah AM, Leclerc D, Loyer M, Clarizio R and Gravel RA

    McGill University, Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is a mitochondrial, biotin-dependent enzyme, composed of an equal number of alpha and beta subunits, that functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids and other metabolites. Mutations of the PCCA (alpha subunit) or PCCB (beta subunit) gene cause the inherited metabolic disease, propionic acidemia. We report the cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding the beta subunit of human PCC. The open reading frame encodes a pre-beta polypeptide of 539 amino acids (58,205 Da). The cDNA was introduced into the expression vector, pRc/CMV, and microinjected into the nucleus or, as ribotranscripts, into the cytoplasm of fibroblast lines from patients with defects of the beta subunit. The restoration of function was monitored by autoradiography of PCC-dependent [14C]-propionate incorporation into cellular protein. These results confirm the completeness of the clone and demonstrate the capacity for beta subunits derived from the microinjected cDNA or RNA to be transported into mitochondria and assembled with endogenously derived alpha subunits to form functional PCC.

    Genomics 1994;19;3;500-5

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Cloning of functional alpha propionyl CoA carboxylase and correction of enzyme deficiency in pccA fibroblasts.

    Stankovics J and Ledley FD

    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030.

    Propionyl CoA carboxylase (PPC) is a heteromeric enzyme composed of alpha subunits (PCCA) and beta (PCCB) subunits. We describe cDNA clones expressing human PCCA and complementation of the genetic defect in pccA fibroblasts by DNA-mediated gene transfer. Two cDNA clones were constructed. The first corresponds to the previously reported, putatively full-length, open reading frame. The second encodes a chimera composed of the mitochondrial leader sequence of human methylmalonyl CoA mutase and the mature PCCA protein. Both clones reconstitute propionate flux to normal levels in fibroblasts from patients genetically deficient in PCCA (pccA). The maximal level of propionate flux approached, but never exceeded, the levels seen in control plates of normal cells. In contrast, the maximal level of PPC holoenzyme activity reached only 10%-20% that of normal controls, which corresponded roughly to the fraction of cells actually transformed with the recombinant gene. These data suggest that the level of PCCA expression in fibroblasts does not normally limit PCC holoenzyme activity or propionate flux. The fact that a small fraction of cells reconstitutes propionate flux to normal levels suggests that metabolic cooperation between cells is capable of increasing the metabolic capacity of recombinant enzyme in a subpopulation of cells. These factors may have important implications for the rational design of somatic gene therapy for PCCA deficiency.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-24064, HD-24186

    American journal of human genetics 1993;52;1;144-51

  • Assignment of the human gene propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase, alpha-chain, (PCCA) to chromosome 13q32 by in situ hybridization.

    Kennerknecht I, Klett C and Hameister H

    Abteilung Klinische Genetik der Universität, Ulm, Germany.

    Genomics 1992;14;2;550-1

  • Human mitochondrial propionyl-CoA carboxylase: localization of the N-terminus of the pro- and mature alpha chains in the deduced primary sequence of a full-length cDNA.

    Lamhonwah AM, Mahuran D and Gravel RA

    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Nucleic acids research 1989;17;11;4396

  • Propionicacidemia: absence of alpha-chain mRNA in fibroblasts from patients of the pccA complementation group.

    Lamhonwah AM and Gravel RA

    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

    Propionicacidemia is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease resulting from a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) activity. The enzyme has the structure alpha 4 beta 4, with the alpha chain containing a covalently bound biotin prosthetic group. Patients have been placed into two major complementation groups, pccA and pccBC, that may correspond to the genes encoding the alpha and beta chains of PCC. The pccBC group is further divided into two subgroups, pccB and pccC, apparently owing to intragenic complementation. We previously reported combined alpha- and beta-chain deficiency in pccA mutants and absence of beta chain in pccC and pccBC mutants after isotope-tracer labeling and immunoprecipitation of cultured-fibroblast extracts. Using cDNA clones coding for the alpha and beta chains as probes, we found absence of alpha mRNA in four of six pccA strains and presence of beta mRNA in all pccA mutants studied. We also found presence of both alpha and beta mRNAs in three pccBC, two pccB, and three pccC mutants. From these data, we confirm the gene assignments of the complementation groups (PCCA gene = pccA complementation group; PCCB gene = pccBC and subgroups) and support the view that pccA patients synthesize a normal beta chain that is rapidly degraded in the absence of complexing with alpha chains.

    American journal of human genetics 1987;41;6;1124-31

  • Sequence homology around the biotin-binding site of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase.

    Lamhonwah AM, Quan F and Gravel RA

    Biotin-dependent carboxylases require covalently bound biotin for enzymatic activity. The biotin is attached through a lysine residue, which in a number of bacterial, avian, and mammalian carboxylases, is found within the conserved sequence Ala-Met-Lys-Met. We have determined the partial nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones for human propionyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. The predicted amino acid sequence of both these proteins contains the conserved tetrapeptide 35 residues from the carboxy terminus. In addition, both proteins contain the tripeptide, Pro-Met-Pro, 26 residues toward the amino terminus from the biotin attachment site. The overall amino acid homology through this region is 43%. Similar findings have been made for the biotin-containing polypeptides of transcarboxylase of Propionibacterium shermanii and acetyl-CoA carboxylase of Escherichia coli (W. L. Maloy, B. U. Bowien, G. K. Zwolinski, K. G. Kumar, and H. G. Wood (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 11615-11622). The implications of this sequence conservation with regard to the function and evolution of biotin-dependent carboxylases is discussed. We propose that the 60 amino acids surrounding the biotin site are bounded by a proline "hinge" and the carboxy terminus has remained conserved as a result of constraints imposed by biotinylation of the enzyme.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1987;254;2;631-6

  • Isolation of cDNA clones coding for the alpha and beta chains of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase: chromosomal assignments and DNA polymorphisms associated with PCCA and PCCB genes.

    Lamhonwah AM, Barankiewicz TJ, Willard HF, Mahuran DJ, Quan F and Gravel RA

    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase [PCC, propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC] is a biotin-dependent enzyme involved in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, fatty acids with odd-numbered chain lengths, and other metabolites. Inherited deficiency of the enzyme results in propionic acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder showing considerable clinical heterogeneity. To facilitate investigations of enzyme structure and the nature of mutation in propionic acidemia, we have isolated cDNA clones coding for the alpha and beta polypeptides of human PCC. Sequences of two peptides derived from human liver PCC were used to specify oligonucleotide probes that were then used to screen a human fibroblast cDNA library. Two classes of cDNA clones were thus identified. One class contained the anticipated Ala-Met-Lys-Met sequence, corresponding to the biotin binding site found in several biotin-dependent carboxylases, thus confirming the alpha-chain assignment of these clones. In addition, they contained the deduced amino acid sequence of two of the sequenced peptides, including that of one of the oligonucleotide probes. The second class, coding for the beta polypeptide, contained the sequences of four peptides, including the sequence corresponding to the other oligonucleotide probe. Blot hybridization of RNA from normal human fibroblasts revealed a single mRNA species of 2.9 kilobases coding for the alpha polypeptide and two species of 4.5 and 2.0 kilobases detected for the beta polypeptide. By use of a panel of somatic mouse-human hybrids, the human gene encoding the alpha polypeptide (PCCA) was localized to chromosome 13, while the gene encoding the beta polypeptide (PCCB) was assigned to chromosome 3. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were identified, at both PCCA and PCCB, that should prove useful to individual families at risk for propionic acidemia.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1986;83;13;4864-8

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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