G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002143
Gene symbol
ARHGEF7 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 7
Orthologue
G00000894 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000102606 (Ensembl human gene)
8874 (Entrez Gene)
560 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ARHGEF7 (GeneCards)
Literature
605477 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:15607 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q14155 (UniProt)

Synonyms (13)

  • BETA-PIX
  • COOL1
  • DKFZp686C12170
  • DKFZp761K1021
  • KIAA0142
  • Nbla10314
  • P50
  • P50BP
  • P85
  • P85COOL1
  • P85SPR
  • PAK3
  • PIXB

Literature (60)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association meta-analysis for total serum bilirubin levels.

    Johnson AD, Kavousi M, Smith AV, Chen MH, Dehghan A, Aspelund T, Lin JP, van Duijn CM, Harris TB, Cupples LA, Uitterlinden AG, Launer L, Hofman A, Rivadeneira F, Stricker B, Yang Q, O'Donnell CJ, Gudnason V and Witteman JC

    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's The Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Avenue, Suite #2, Framingham, MA 01702, USA.

    Variation in serum bilirubin is associated with altered cardiovascular disease risk and drug metabolism. We aimed to identify genetic contributors to variability in serum bilirubin levels by combining results from three genome-wide association studies (Framingham heart study, n = 3424; Rotterdam study, n = 3847; Age, Gene, Environment and Susceptibility-Reykjavik, n = 2193). Meta-analysis showed strong replication for a genetic influence on serum bilirubin levels of the UGT1A1 locus (P < 5 x 10(-324)) and a 12p12.2 locus. The peak signal in the 12p12.2 region was a non-synonymous SNP in SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, P = 6.7 x 10(-13)), which gives rise to a valine to alanine amino acid change leading to reduced activity for a hepatic transporter with known affinity for bilirubin. There were also suggestive associations with several other loci. The top variants in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 explain approximately 18.0 and approximately 1.0% of the variation in total serum bilirubin levels, respectively. In a conditional analysis adjusted for individual genotypes for the top UGT1A1 variant, the top SLCO1B1 variant remained highly significant (P = 7.3 x 10(-13)), but no other variants achieved genome-wide significance. In one of the largest genetic studies of bilirubin to date (n = 9464), we confirm the substantial genetic influence of UGT1A1 variants, consistent with past linkage and association studies, and additionally provide strong evidence of a role for allelic variation in SLCO1B1. Given the involvement of bilirubin in a number of physiological and disease processes, and the roles for UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 in drug metabolism, these genetic findings have potential clinical importance. In analyses for association with gallbladder disease or gallstones, top bilirubin SNPs in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 were not associated.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-25195, N02-HL-6-4278; NIA NIH HHS: N01-AG-12100

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;14;2700-10

  • Loci at chromosomes 13, 19 and 20 influence age at natural menopause.

    Stolk L, Zhai G, van Meurs JB, Verbiest MM, Visser JA, Estrada K, Rivadeneira F, Williams FM, Cherkas L, Deloukas P, Soranzo N, de Keyzer JJ, Pop VJ, Lips P, Lebrun CE, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Witteman J, Hofman A, Pols HA, Laven JS, Spector TD and Uitterlinden AG

    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for age at natural menopause in 2,979 European women and identified six SNPs in three loci associated with age at natural menopause: chromosome 19q13.4 (rs1172822; -0.4 year per T allele (39%); P = 6.3 × 10(-11)), chromosome 20p12.3 (rs236114; +0.5 year per A allele (21%); P = 9.7 × 10(-11)) and chromosome 13q34 (rs7333181; +0.5 year per A allele (12%); P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). These common genetic variants regulate timing of ovarian aging, an important risk factor for breast cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 077011

    Nature genetics 2009;41;6;645-7

  • BetaPIX and GIT1 regulate HGF-induced lamellipodia formation and WAVE2 transport.

    Morimura S, Suzuki K and Takahashi K

    Molecular Cell Biology Division, Kanagawa Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1-2 Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama 241-0815, Japan. smorimur@gancen.asahi.yokohama.jp

    Formation of lamellipodia is the first step during cell migration, and involves actin reassembly at the leading edge of migrating cells through the membrane transport of WAVE2. However, the factors that regulate WAVE2 transport to the cell periphery for initiating lamellipodia formation have not been elucidated. We report here that in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the association between the constitutive complex of betaPIX and GIT1 with WAVE2, which was concomitant with the induction of lamellipodia formation and WAVE2 transport. Although depletion of betaPIX by RNA interference abrogated the HGF-induced WAVE2 transport and lamellipodia formation, GIT1 depletion caused HGF-independent WAVE2 transport and lamellipodia formation. Collectively, we suggest that betaPIX releases cells from the GIT1-mediated suppression of HGF-independent responses and recruits GIT1 to WAVE2, thereby facilitating HGF-induced WAVE2 transport and lamellipodia formation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;382;3;614-9

  • Altered adhesive structures and their relation to RhoGTPase activation in merlin-deficient Schwannoma.

    Flaiz C, Ammoun S, Biebl A and Hanemann CO

    Department of Clinical Neurobiology, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula College for Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK.

    Schwannomas are Schwann cell tumors of the nervous system that occur spontaneously and in patients with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and lack the tumor suppressor merlin. Merlin is known to bind paxillin, beta1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase, members of focal contacts, multi-protein complexes that mediate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Moreover, merlin-deficient Schwannomas show pathological adhesion to the extracellular matrix making the characterization of focal contacts indispensable. Using our Schwannoma in vitro model of human primary Schwann and Schwannoma cells, we here show that Schwannoma cells display an increased number of mature and stable focal contacts. In addition to an involvement of RhoA signaling via the Rho kinase ROCK, Rac1 plays a significant role in the pathological adhesion of Schwannoma cells. The Rac1 guanine exchange factor- beta-Pix, localizes to focal contacts in human primary Schwannoma cells, and we show that part of the Rac1 activation, an effect of merlin-deficiency, occurs at the level of focal contacts in human primary Schwannoma cells. Our results help explaining the pathological adhesion of Schwannoma cells, further strengthen the importance of RhoGTPase signaling in Schwannoma development, and suggest that merlin's role in tumor suppression is linked to focal contacts.

    Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) 2009;19;1;27-38

  • Preso, a novel PSD-95-interacting FERM and PDZ domain protein that regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis.

    Lee HW, Choi J, Shin H, Kim K, Yang J, Na M, Choi SY, Kang GB, Eom SH, Kim H and Kim E

    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Synaptogenesis and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    PSD-95 is an abundant postsynaptic density (PSD) protein involved in the formation and regulation of excitatory synapses and dendritic spines, but the underlying mechanisms are not comprehensively understood. Here we report a novel PSD-95-interacting protein Preso that regulates spine morphogenesis. Preso is mainly expressed in the brain and contains WW (domain with two conserved Trp residues), PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1), FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin), and C-terminal PDZ-binding domains. These domains associate with actin filaments, the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor betaPix, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, and the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, respectively. Preso overexpression increases the density of dendritic spines in a manner requiring WW, PDZ, FERM, and PDZ-binding domains. Conversely, knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Preso decreases spine density, excitatory synaptic transmission, and the spine level of filamentous actin. These results suggest that Preso positively regulates spine density through its interaction with the synaptic plasma membrane, actin filaments, PSD-95, and the betaPix-based Rac1 signaling pathway.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2008;28;53;14546-56

  • Deregulation of scribble promotes mammary tumorigenesis and reveals a role for cell polarity in carcinoma.

    Zhan L, Rosenberg A, Bergami KC, Yu M, Xuan Z, Jaffe AB, Allred C and Muthuswamy SK

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Watson School of Biological Sciences, One Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.

    Loss of cell polarity proteins such as Scribble induces neoplasia in Drosophila by promoting uncontrolled proliferation. In mammals, the role that polarity proteins play during tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of Scribble in mammary epithelia disrupts cell polarity, blocks three-dimensional morphogenesis, inhibits apoptosis, and induces dysplasia in vivo that progress to tumors after long latency. Loss of Scribble cooperates with oncogenes such as c-myc to transform epithelial cells and induce tumors in vivo by blocking activation of an apoptosis pathway. Like depletion, mislocalization of Scribble from cell-cell junction was sufficient to promote cell transformation. Interestingly, spontaneous mammary tumors in mice and humans possess both downregulated and mislocalized Scribble. Thus, we demonstrate that scribble inhibits breast cancer formation and that deregulation of polarity pathways promotes dysplastic and neoplastic growth in mammals by disrupting morphogenesis and inhibiting cell death.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA098830, CA105388, R01 CA098830, R56 CA098830, R56 CA098830-05A1, U01 CA105388

    Cell 2008;135;5;865-78

  • Beta-PIX and Rac1 GTPase mediate trafficking and negative regulation of NOD2.

    Eitel J, Krüll M, Hocke AC, N'Guessan PD, Zahlten J, Schmeck B, Slevogt H, Hippenstiel S, Suttorp N and Opitz B

    Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

    The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein NOD2 serves as a cytoplasmic pattern recognition molecule sensing bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP), whereas TLR2 mediates cell surface recognition of bacterial lipopeptides. In this study, we show that NOD2 stimulation activated Rac1 in human THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes. Rac1 inhibition or knock-down, or actin cytoskeleton disruption increased MDP-stimulated IL-8 secretion and NF-kappaB activation, whereas TLR2-dependent cell activation was suppressed by Rac1 inhibition. p21-activated kinase [Pak]-interacting exchange factor (beta-PIX) plays a role in this negative regulation, because knock-down of beta-PIX also led to increased NOD2-mediated but not TLR2-mediated IL-8 secretion, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that NOD2 interacted with beta-PIX as well as Rac1 upon MDP stimulation. Moreover, knock-down of beta-PIX or Rac1 abrogated membrane recruitment of NOD2, and interaction of NOD2 with its negative regulator Erbin. Overall, our data indicate that beta-PIX and Rac1 mediate trafficking and negative regulation of NOD2-dependent signaling which is different from Rac1's positive regulatory role in TLR2 signaling.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2008;181;4;2664-71

  • Endothelin-1 couples betaPix to p66Shc: role of betaPix in cell proliferation through FOXO3a phosphorylation and p27kip1 down-regulation independently of Akt.

    Chahdi A and Sorokin A

    Kidney Disease Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

    The phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a by Akt is critical regulator of cell proliferation induced by serum. We show that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulation of primary human mesangial cells (HMCs) induces betaPix and p66Shc up-regulation, resulting in the formation of the betaPix/p66Shc complex. In transformed HMCs, ET-1 induces a biphasic phosphorylation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The second phase leads to p27(kip1) down-regulation independently of Akt. Depletion of betaPix blocks the second phase of p66Shc and FOXO3a phosphorylation and prevents p27(kip1) down-regulation induced by ET-1. Depletion of either betaPix or p66Shc inhibits ET-1-induced cell proliferation. The expression of beta(1)Pix induces FOXO3a phosphorylation through activation of Rac1, ERK1/2, and p66Shc. Using either p66Shc- or Akt-depleted cells; we show that beta(1)Pix-induced FOXO3a phosphorylation requires p66Shc but not Akt. beta(1)Pix-induced p27(kip1) down-regulation was blocked by U0126 but not by wortmannin. Endogenous betaPix and FOXO3a are constitutively associated with endogenous p66Shc. FOXO3a and p66Shc binding requires beta(1)Pix homodimerization. Expression of beta(1)Pix homodimerization deficient mutant abrogates beta(1)Pix-induced p27(kip1) down-regulation and cell proliferation. Our results identify p66Shc and FOXO3a as novel partners of beta(1)Pix and represent the first direct evidence of beta(1)Pix in cell proliferation via Erk/p66Shc-dependent and Akt-independent mechanisms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 022563, R01 HL022563; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 041684, R01 DK041684

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;6;2609-19

  • Affixin activates Rac1 via betaPIX in C2C12 myoblast.

    Matsuda C, Kameyama K, Suzuki A, Mishima W, Yamaji S, Okamoto H, Nishino I and Hayashi YK

    Neuroscience Research Institute, AIST, Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan. c-matsuda@aist.go.jp

    Affixin/beta-parvin is an integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-binding focal adhesion protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. To elucidate the possible role of affixin in skeletal muscle, we established stable C2C12 cell line expressing T7-tagged human affixin (C2C12-affixin cells). Exogenous expression of affixin promotes lamellipodium formation where affixin, ILK alphap21-activated kinase (PAK)-interactive exchange factor (PIX) and betaPIX accumulate. The association of affixin and betaPIX was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assay. In C2C12-affixin cells, an increased level of activated Rac1 but not Cdc42 was observed, and mutant betaPIX lacking guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity inhibited lamellipodium formation. These results suggest that affixin is involved in reorganization of subsarcolemmal cytoskeletal actin by activation of Rac1 through alpha and betaPIXs in skeletal muscle.

    FEBS letters 2008;582;8;1189-96

  • Protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation modulates beta1Pix guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity through 14-3-3beta binding.

    Chahdi A and Sorokin A

    Division of Nephrology and Kidney Disease Center, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. sorokin@mcw.edu

    beta(1)Pix is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 which has been shown to mediate signaling pathways leading to cytoskeletal reorganization. In the present study, we show that the basal association between endogenous betaPix and endogenous 14-3-3beta was increased after forskolin stimulation and significantly inhibited by protein kinase A inhibitor. However, forskolin stimulation failed to increase the interaction between 14-3-3beta and a beta(1)Pix mutant that is insensitive to protein kinase A phosphorylation, beta(1)Pix(S516A, T526A). We present evidence indicating that forskolin-induced binding of 14-3-3beta to beta(1)Pix results in inhibition of Rac1 GTP loading in 293 cells and in vitro. Furthermore, we show that deletion of 10 amino acid residues within the leucine zipper domain is sufficient to block beta(1)Pix homodimerization and 14-3-3beta binding and modulates beta(1)Pix-GEF activity. These residues also play a crucial role in beta(1)Pix intracellular localization. These results indicate that 14-3-3beta negatively affects the GEF activity of dimeric beta(1)Pix only. Altogether, these results provide a mechanistic insight into the role of 14-3-3beta in modulating beta(1)Pix-GEF activity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL22563, R01 HL022563

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;5;1679-87

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Role of phospholipase Cgamma1 in cell spreading requires association with a beta-Pix/GIT1-containing complex, leading to activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Jones NP and Katan M

    Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, United Kingdom.

    The significance of multiprotein signaling complexes in cell motility is becoming increasingly important. We have previously shown that phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) is critical for integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility (N. Jones et al., J. Cell Sci. 118:2695-2706, 2005). In the current study we show that, on a basement membrane-type matrix, PLCgamma1 associates with the adaptor protein GIT1 and the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine exchange factor beta-Pix; GIT1 and beta-Pix form tight complexes independently of PLCgamma1. The association of PLCgamma1 with the complex requires both GIT1 and beta-Pix and the specific array region (gammaSA) of PLCgamma1. Mutations of PLCgamma1 within the gammaSA region reveal that association with this complex is essential for the phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 and the progression to an elongated morphology after integrin engagement. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of either beta-Pix or GIT1 inhibited cell spreading in a fashion similar to that seen with siRNA against PLCgamma1. Furthermore, siRNA depletion of PLCgamma1, beta-Pix, or GIT1 inhibited Cdc42 and Rac1 activation, while constitutively active forms of Cdc42 or Rac1, but not RhoA, were able to rescue the elongation of these cells. Signaling of the PLCgamma1/GIT1/beta-Pix complex to Cdc42/Rac1 was found to involve the activation of calpains, calcium-dependent proteases. Therefore, we propose that the association of PLCgamma1 with complexes containing GIT1 and beta-Pix is essential for its role in integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility. As a component of this complex, PLCgamma1 is also involved in the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;16;5790-805

  • Tiam1 and betaPIX mediate Rac-dependent endothelial barrier protective response to oxidized phospholipids.

    Birukova AA, Malyukova I, Mikaelyan A, Fu P and Birukov KG

    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (OxPAPC) exhibits potent barrier protective effects on pulmonary endothelium, which are mediated by small GTPases Rac and Cdc42. However, upstream mechanisms of OxPAPC-induced small GTPase activation are not known. We studied involvement of Rac/Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) Tiam1 and betaPIX in OxPAPC-induced Rac activation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and barrier protective responses in the human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC). OxPAPC induced membrane translocation of Tiam1, betaPIX, Cdc42, and Rac, but did not affect intracellular distribution of Rho and Rho-specific GEF p115-RhoGEF. Protein depletion of Tiam1 and betaPIX using siRNA approach abolished OxPAPC-induced activation of Rac and its effector PAK1. EC transfection with Tiam1-, betaPIX-, or PAK1-specific siRNA dramatically attenuated OxPAPC-induced barrier enhancement, peripheral actin cytoskeletal enhancement, and translocation of actin-binding proteins cortactin and Arp3. These results show for the first time that Tiam1 and betaPIX mediate OxPAPC-induced Rac activation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and barrier protective response in pulmonary endothelium.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL075349, HL076259

    Journal of cellular physiology 2007;211;3;608-17

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene product SAP associates with PAK-interacting exchange factor and participates in T cell activation.

    Gu C, Tangye SG, Sun X, Luo Y, Lin Z and Wu J

    Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, China.

    SLAM (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule)-associated protein (SAP) is a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing adaptor expressed in T cells and natural killer cells. Its essential role in immune responses is underscored by the recent finding that mutations in SAP result in a rare but fatal X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). Although SAP is known to associate with SLAM-family receptors, the exact molecular mechanism by which SAP regulates lymphocyte signaling remains elusive. We here report that in T cells, SAP associates with the PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for Rac/Cdc42 GTPases. Moreover, SAP, PIX, and an activated form of Cdc42 form a complex in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that the SAP-PIX interaction is specific and is mediated by the C-terminal region of the SAP SH2 domain and the PIX SH3 domain. We further show that SAP is required for the recruitment of PIX to the SLAM-family receptors. Interestingly, overexpression of SAP, but not its homolog EAT-2, leads to a synergistic activation of nuclear factor of activating T cells (NFAT) in combination with a calcium signal in T cells. This SAP-mediated activation appears to be receptor-dependent and can be blocked by a dominant negative form of PIX. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that, in addition to the known SAP-interacting kinase Fyn, PIX may be another key player in SAP-mediated T cell activation.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;39;14447-52

  • Cbl escapes Cdc42-mediated inhibition by downregulation of the adaptor molecule betaPix.

    Schmidt MH, Husnjak K, Szymkiewicz I, Haglund K and Dikic I

    Institute of Biochemistry II, University Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    The Pix/Cool proteins are involved in the regulation of cell morphology by binding to small Rho GTPases and kinases of the Pak family. Recently, it has been shown that betaPix/Cool-1 associates with the ubiquitin ligase Cbl, which appears to be a critical step in Cdc42-mediated inhibition of epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) ubiquitylation and downregulation. Here we show that the SH3 domain of betaPix specifically interacts with a proline-arginine motif (PxxxPR) present within the ubiquitin ligase Cbl and Pak1 kinase. Owing to targeting of the same sequence, Cbl and Pak1 compete for binding to betaPix. In this complex, Cbl mediates ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of betaPix. Our findings reveal a double feedback loop in which the Cdc42/betaPix complex blocks Cbl's ability to downregulate EGFR, while Cbl in turn promotes degradation of betaPix in order to escape this inhibition. Such a relationship provides a mechanism to fine-tune the kinetics of RTK endocytosis and degradation depending on the pool of active Cdc42 and the duration of EGFR signaling.

    Oncogene 2006;25;21;3071-8

  • GIT2 represses Crk- and Rac1-regulated cell spreading and Cdc42-mediated focal adhesion turnover.

    Frank SR, Adelstein MR and Hansen SH

    Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02115, USA.

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactors (GITs) regulate focal adhesion (FA) turnover, cell spreading, and motility through direct interaction with paxillin and the Rac-exchange factor Pak-interacting exchange factor beta (betaPIX). However, it is not clear whether GITs function to activate or repress motility or if the predominant GIT forms, GIT1 and GIT2, serve distinct or redundant roles. Here we demonstrate an obligatory role for endogenous GIT2 in repression of lamellipodial extension and FA turnover by Rac1- and Cdc42-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. Moreover, we show that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk is an essential target of GIT2 inhibition. Unexpectedly, we find that betaPIX is dispensable for the effects elicited by knockdown of GIT2. Finally, we show that loss of GIT2 is sufficient to induce migration of the nontransformed epithelial cell line MCF10A. These results suggest that inactivation of GIT2 function is a required step for induction of cell motility and that GIT2 may be a target of oncogenic signaling pathways that regulate cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA092354, R01 CA092354-04

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;9;1848-59

  • Targeting and activation of Rac1 are mediated by the exchange factor beta-Pix.

    ten Klooster JP, Jaffer ZM, Chernoff J and Hordijk PL

    Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are critical regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and control complex functions such as cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and cell division. It is generally accepted that localized GTPase activation is required for the proper initiation of downstream signaling events, although the molecular mechanisms that control targeting of Rho GTPases are unknown. In this study, we show that the Rho GTPase Rac1, via a proline stretch in its COOH terminus, binds directly to the SH3 domain of the Cdc42/Rac activator beta-Pix (p21-activated kinase [Pak]-interacting exchange factor). The interaction with beta-Pix is nucleotide independent and is necessary and sufficient for Rac1 recruitment to membrane ruffles and to focal adhesions. In addition, the Rac1-beta-Pix interaction is required for Rac1 activation by beta-Pix as well as for Rac1-mediated spreading. Finally, using cells deficient for the beta-Pix-binding kinase Pak1, we show that Pak1 regulates the Rac1-beta-Pix interaction and controls cell spreading and adhesion-induced Rac1 activation. These data provide a model for the intracellular targeting and localized activation of Rac1 through its exchange factor beta-Pix.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM54168, R01 GM054168

    The Journal of cell biology 2006;172;5;759-69

  • Identification of preferred protein interactions by phage-display of the human Src homology-3 proteome.

    Kärkkäinen S, Hiipakka M, Wang JH, Kleino I, Vähä-Jaakkola M, Renkema GH, Liss M, Wagner R and Saksela K

    Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Biokatu 8, Tampere 33014, Finland.

    We have determined the human genome to contain 296 different Src homology-3 (SH3) domains and cloned them into a phage-display vector. This provided a powerful and unbiased system for simultaneous assaying of the complete human SH3 proteome for the strongest binding to target proteins of interest, without the limitations posed by short linear peptide ligands or confounding variables of more indirect methods for protein interaction screening. Studies involving three ligand proteins, human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef, p21-activated kinase (PAK)2 and ADAM15, showed previously reported as well as novel SH3 partners with nanomolar affinities specific for them. This argues that SH3 domains may have a more dominant role in directing cellular protein interactions than has been assumed. Besides showing potentially important new SH3-directed interactions, these studies also led to the discovery of novel signalling proteins, such as the PAK2-binding adaptor protein POSH2 and the ADAM15-binding sorting nexin family member SNX30.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;2;186-91

  • Molecular interaction of NADPH oxidase 1 with betaPix and Nox Organizer 1.

    Park HS, Park D and Bae YS

    Center for Cell Signaling Research, Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea.

    It is well established that growth-factor-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as second messengers in cell signaling. We have previously reported that betaPix, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, interacts with NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) leading to EGF-induced ROS generation. Here, we report the identification of the domains of Nox1 and betaPix responsible for the interaction between the two proteins. GST pull-down assays show that the PH domain of betaPix binds to the FAD-binding region of Nox1. We also show that overexpression of the PH domain of betaPix results in inhibition of superoxide anion generation in response to EGF. Additionally, NADPH oxidase Organizer 1 (NoxO1) is shown to interact with the NADPH-binding region of Nox1. These results suggest that the formation of the complex consisting of Nox1, betaPix, and NoxO1 is likely to be a critical step in EGF-induced ROS generation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;339;3;985-90

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Nef-mediated lipid raft exclusion of UbcH7 inhibits Cbl activity in T cells to positively regulate signaling.

    Simmons A, Gangadharan B, Hodges A, Sharrocks K, Prabhakar S, García A, Dwek R, Zitzmann N and McMichael A

    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom. alison.simmons@molecular-medicine.oxford.ac.uk

    Lentiviral Nef increases T cell signaling activity, but the molecular nature of the stimulus involved is incompletely described. We explored CD4 T cell lipid raft composition in the presence and absence of Nef. Here, the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH7, which acts in conjunction with c-Cbl, is absent from lipid rafts. This Nef-mediated exclusion is associated with failure of ubiquitination of activated Vav. In the presence of Nef, lipid raft Cdc42 is activated and forms a ternary complex between the c-Cbl-interacting protein p85Cool-1/betaPix and c-Cbl, displacing UbcH7 from rafts. Suppression of p85Cool-1/betaPix expression restores UbcH7 raft localization and Vav ubiquitination and diminishes Cdc42 activity. Moreover, p85Cool-1/betaPix knockdown attenuates HIV replication. Thresholds for activation of signaling involve the intricate balance of positive and negative regulators. Here we provide evidence for Nef disruption of a negative regulator of T cell signaling in promoting HIV replication.

    Immunity 2005;23;6;621-34

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Structural analysis of the SH3 domain of beta-PIX and its interaction with alpha-p21 activated kinase (PAK).

    Mott HR, Nietlispach D, Evetts KA and Owen D

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, UK. mott@bioc.cam.ac.uk

    The PAK Ser/Thr kinases are important downstream effectors of the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, partly mediating the role of these G proteins in cell proliferation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. As well as small G proteins, PAK interacts with the Cdc42/Rac exchange factor beta-PIX via the PIX SH3 domain and a nontypical Pro-rich region in PAK. This interaction is thought to affect the localization of PAK, as well as increased GTP/GDP exchange of Rac and Cdc42. We have determined the structure of the PIX-SH3/PAK peptide complex and shown that it differs from typical Src-like SH3/peptide complexes. The peptide makes contacts through the Pro-rich sequence in a similar way to standard SH3/peptide complexes, even though the Pro residue positions are not conserved. In addition, there are interactions with a Pro and Lys in the PAK, which are C-terminal to the conserved Arg found in all SH3-binding sequences. These contact a fourth binding pocket on the SH3 domain. We have measured the affinity of PIX-SH3 for the PAK peptide and found that it is of intermediate affinity. When PAK is activated, Ser-199 in the PIX-binding site is phosphorylated. This phosphorylation is sufficient to reduce the affinity for PIX 6-fold.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Biochemistry 2005;44;33;10977-83

  • hScrib interacts with ZO-2 at the cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells.

    Métais JY, Navarro C, Santoni MJ, Audebert S and Borg JP

    Molecular Pharmacology, UMR 599 Inserm-Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 27 boulevard Leï Roure, 13009 Marseille, France.

    In Drosophila, the tumor suppressor Scribble is localized at the septate junctions of epithelial cells. Its mammalian homologue, hScrib, is a basolateral protein likely associated to proteins of the cell-cell junctions. We report the direct interaction between hScrib and ZO-2, a junction-associated protein. This interaction relies on two PDZ domains of hScrib and on the C-terminal motif of ZO-2. Both proteins localise at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells. A point mutation in the LRR of hScrib delocalises the protein from the plasma membrane and abrogates the interaction with ZO-2 but not with betaPIX. Tyrosine phosphorylation of hScrib does not impair the interaction with ZO-2. We show a direct link between two junctional proteins that are down-regulated during cancer progression.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;17;3725-30

  • Dynamic recruitment of PAK1 to the immunological synapse is mediated by PIX independently of SLP-76 and Vav1.

    Phee H, Abraham RT and Weiss A

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California San Francisco, 94143, USA.

    T cell receptor engagement activates p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) through a LAT-SLP-76-Nck-Vav-Rac-dependent pathway. A second independent pathway involving a GIT-PIX-PAK1 trimolecular complex is also activated by T cell receptor ligation. Here we show a Vav-independent pathway exists that leads to PAK1 activation. In addition, PAK1, PIX and GIT1 were recruited to the T cell-antigen-presenting cell contact site independently of SLP-76 and Vav1. PAK1 recruitment to the T cell-antigen-presenting cell interface required interaction with PIX, which also led to optimal PLC-gamma1 activation and T cell receptor-dependent transcriptional responses. These data indicate that a pathway involving the GIT-PIX-PAK1 complex has a crucial function in PAK1 activation by recruiting PAK1 to the immunological synapse.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA72531

    Nature immunology 2005;6;6;608-17

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • The Cool-2/alpha-Pix protein mediates a Cdc42-Rac signaling cascade.

    Baird D, Feng Q and Cerione RA

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Background: Cloned-out of library-2 (Cool-2)/PAK-interactive exchange factor (alpha-Pix) was identified through its ability to bind the Cdc42/Rac target p21-activated kinase (PAK) and has been implicated in certain forms of X-linked mental retardation as well as in growth factor- and chemoattractant-coupled signaling pathways. We recently found that the dimeric form of Cool-2 is a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, whereas monomeric Cool-2 is a GEF for Cdc42 as well as Rac. However, unlike many GEFs, Cool-2 binds to activated forms of Cdc42 and Rac. Thus, we have investigated the functional consequences of these interactions.

    Results: We show that the binding of activated Cdc42 to the Cool-2 dimer markedly enhances its ability to associate with GDP bound Rac1, resulting in a significant activation of Rac-GEF activity. While the Rac-specific GEF activity of Cool-2 is mediated through the Dbl homology (DH) domain from one monomer and the Pleckstrin homology domain from the other, activated Cdc42 interacts with the DH domain, most likely opposite the DH domain binding site for GDP bound Rac. Activated Rac also binds to Cool-2; however, it strongly inhibits the GEF activity of dimeric Cool-2.

    Conclusions: We provide evidence for novel mechanisms of allosteric regulation of the Rac-GEF activity of the Cool-2 dimer, involving stimulatory effects by Cdc42 and feedback inhibition by Rac. These findings demonstrate that by serving as a target for GTP bound Cdc42 and a GEF for Rac, Cool-2 mediates a GTPase cascade where the activation of Cdc42 is translated into the activation of Rac.

    Current biology : CB 2005;15;1;1-10

  • Alternative splice variants encoding unstable protein domains exist in the human brain.

    Homma K, Kikuno RF, Nagase T, Ohara O and Nishikawa K

    Laboratory of Gene-Product Informatics, Center for Information Biology-DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.

    Alternative splicing has been recognized as a major mechanism by which protein diversity is increased without significantly increasing genome size in animals and has crucial medical implications, as many alternative splice variants are known to cause diseases. Despite the importance of knowing what structural changes alternative splicing introduces to the encoded proteins for the consideration of its significance, the problem has not been adequately explored. Therefore, we systematically examined the structures of the proteins encoded by the alternative splice variants in the HUGE protein database derived from long (>4 kb) human brain cDNAs. Limiting our analyses to reliable alternative splice junctions, we found alternative splice junctions to have a slight tendency to avoid the interior of SCOP domains and a strong statistically significant tendency to coincide with SCOP domain boundaries. These findings reflect the occurrence of some alternative splicing events that utilize protein structural units as a cassette. However, 50 cases were identified in which SCOP domains are disrupted in the middle by alternative splicing. In six of the cases, insertions are introduced at the molecular surface, presumably affecting protein functions, while in 11 of the cases alternatively spliced variants were found to encode pairs of stable and unstable proteins. The mRNAs encoding such unstable proteins are much less abundant than those encoding stable proteins and tend not to have corresponding mRNAs in non-primate species. We propose that most unstable proteins encoded by alternative splice variants lack normal functions and are an evolutionary dead-end.

    Journal of molecular biology 2004;343;5;1207-20

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The GIT/PIX complex: an oligomeric assembly of GIT family ARF GTPase-activating proteins and PIX family Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Premont RT, Perry SJ, Schmalzigaug R, Roseman JT, Xing Y and Claing A

    Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. richard.premont@duke.educ

    GIT proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTP-binding proteins, and interact with the PIX family of Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. GIT and PIX transiently localize p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) to remodeling focal adhesions through binding to paxillin. To understand the role of these interactions, the association of GIT and PIX proteins was examined in detail. Two separable binding interactions link GIT and PIX proteins, GIT and PIX proteins each dimerize and a beta-PIX fragment containing the GIT-binding region failed to inhibit the association of the GIT and PIX proteins. Endogenous GIT and PIX co-fractionate at a very high molecular size. Purified 6xHis-tagged beta-PIX from Sf9 cells co-expressing untagged GIT1 yields recombinant GIT1/beta-PIX complexes that have equal amounts of beta-PIX and GIT1 and co-fractionate at the same large size as native GIT/PIX complexes. Thus, GIT and PIX proteins are tightly associated as a multimeric nexus capable of linking together important signaling molecules, including PAKs.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 59989

    Cellular signalling 2004;16;9;1001-11

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Mammalian Scribble forms a tight complex with the betaPIX exchange factor.

    Audebert S, Navarro C, Nourry C, Chasserot-Golaz S, Lécine P, Bellaiche Y, Dupont JL, Premont RT, Sempéré C, Strub JM, Van Dorsselaer A, Vitale N and Borg JP

    Molecular Pharmacology, Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer de Marseille, Unite mixte de recherche 599 Inserm-Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 27 Boulevard Leï Roure, 13009 Marseille, France.

    Drosophila Scribble is implicated in the development of normal synapse structure and epithelial tissues, but it remains unclear how it plays a role and which process it controls. The mammalian homolog of Scribble, hScrib, has a primary structure and subcellular localization similar to that of its fly homolog, but its function remains unknown. Here we have used tandem mass spectrometry to identify major components of the hScrib network. We show that it includes betaPIX (also called Cool-1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), and its partner GIT1 (also called p95-APP1), a GTPase activating protein (GAP). betaPIX directly binds to the hScrib PDZ domains, and the hScrib/betaPIX complex is efficiently recovered in epithelial and neuronal cells and tissues. In cerebellar granule cell cultures, hScrib and betaPIX are both partially localized at neuronal presynaptic compartments. Furthermore, we show that hScrib is required to anchor betaPIX at the cell cortex and that dominant-negative betaPIX or hScrib proteins can each inhibit Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells, demonstrating a functional relationship between these proteins. These data reveal the existence of a tight hScrib/betaPIX interaction and suggest that this complex potentially plays a role in neuronal transmission.

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;11;987-95

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • Basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates activation of Rac1 through a p85 betaPIX phosphorylation-dependent pathway.

    Shin EY, Woo KN, Lee CS, Koo SH, Kim YG, Kim WJ, Bae CD, Chang SI and Kim EG

    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute and Biotechnology Research Institute, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, San 48, Gaesin-dong, Heungduk-ku, Cheongju 361-763, Korea..

    In a previous study (Shin, E. Y., Shin, K. S., Lee, C. S., Woo, K. N., Quan, S. H., Soung, N. K., Kim, Y. G., Cha, C. I., Kim, S. R., Park, D., Bokoch, G. M., and Kim, E. G. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 44417-44430) we reported that phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1/Cdc42, is a signal for translocation of the PIX complex to neuronal growth cones and is associated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced neurite outgrowth. However, the issue of whether p85 betaPIX phosphorylation affects GEF activity on Rac1/Cdc42 is yet to be explored. Here we show that Rac1 activation occurs in a p85 betaPIX phosphorylation-dependent manner. A GST-PBD binding assay reveals that Rac1 is activated in a dose- and time-dependent manner in PC12 cells in response to bFGF. Inhibition of ERK or PAK2, the kinases upstream of p85 betaPIX in the bFGF signaling, prevents Rac1 activation, suggesting that phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX functions upstream of Rac1 activation. To directly address this issue, transfection studies with wild-type and mutant p85 betaPIX (S525A/T526A, a non-phosphorylatable form) were performed. Expression of mutant PIX markedly inhibits both bFGF- and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced activation of Rac1, indicating that phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX is responsible for activation of this G protein. Both wild-type and mutant p85 betaPIX displaying negative GEF activity (L238R/L239S) are similarly recruited to growth cones, suggesting that Rac1 activation is not essential for translocation of the PIX complex (PAK2-p85 betaPIX-Rac1). However, expression of mutant p85 betaPIX (L238R/L239S) results in retraction of the pre-existing neurites. Our results provide evidence that bFGF- and NGF-induced phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX mediates Rac1 activation, which in turn regulates cytoskeletal reorganization at growth cones, but not translocation of the PIX complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;3;1994-2004

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Regulation of SPIN90 phosphorylation and interaction with Nck by ERK and cell adhesion.

    Lim CS, Kim SH, Jung JG, Kim JK and Song WK

    Department of Life Science, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, Korea.

    SPIN90 is a widely expressed Nck-binding protein that contains one Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, three Pro-rich motifs, and a serine/threonine-rich region, and is known to participate in sarcomere assembly during cardiac myocyte differentiation. We used in vitro binding assays and yeast two-hybrid screening analysis to identify Nck, betaPIX, Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), and ERK1 as SPIN90-binding proteins. It appears that betaPIX, WASP, and SPIN90 form a complex that interacts with Nck in a manner dependent upon cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. The betaPIX.WASP.SPIN90.Nck interaction was abolished in suspended and cytochalasin D-treated cells, but was recovered when cells were replated on fibronectin-coated dishes. The SPIN90.betaPIX.WASP complex was stable, even in suspended cells, suggesting SPIN90 serves as an adaptor molecule to recruit other proteins to Nck at focal adhesions. In addition, we found that overexpression of the SPIN90 SH3 domain or Pro-rich region, respectively, abolished SPIN90.Nck and SPIN90.betaPIX interactions, resulting in detachment of cells from extracellular matrix. SPIN90 was phosphorylated by ERK1, which was, itself, activated by cell adhesion and platelet-derived growth factor. Such phosphorylation of SPIN90 likely promotes the interaction of the SPIN90.betaPIX.WASP complex and Nck. It thus appears that the interaction of the betaPIX.WASP.SPIN90 complex with Nck is crucial for stable cell adhesion and can be dynamically modulated by SPIN90 phosphorylation that is dependent on cell adhesion and ERK activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;52;52116-23

  • Activated Cdc42 sequesters c-Cbl and prevents EGF receptor degradation.

    Wu WJ, Tu S and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Cdc42 is a Ras-related protein that has been implicated in the control of normal cell growth, and when improperly regulated, in cellular transformation and invasiveness. A variety of extracellular stimuli, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), activate Cdc42. Here, we show that activation of Cdc42 protects the EGF receptor from the negative regulatory activity of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase. Activated Cdc42 binds to p85Cool-1 (for cloned-out-of-library)/beta-Pix (for Pak-interactive exchange factor), a protein that directly associates with c-Cbl. This inhibits the binding of Cbl by the EGF receptor and thus prevents Cbl from catalyzing receptor ubiquitination. The role played by Cdc42 in regulating the timing of EGF receptor-Cbl interactions is underscored by the fact that constitutively active Cdc42(F28L), by persistently blocking the binding of Cbl to these receptors, leads to their aberrant accumulation and sustained EGF-stimulated ERK activation, thus resulting in cellular transformation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    Cell 2003;114;6;715-25

  • The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins.

    Flanders JA, Feng Q, Bagrodia S, Laux MT, Singavarapu A and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Veterinary Medical Center, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Members of the Cool protein family contain SH3, Dbl, and pleckstrin homology domains and are binding partners for the p21-activated kinase (PAK). Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Cbl-b as a Cool family binding partner. We co-immunoprecipitated endogenous Cool and Cbl-b from a variety of breast cancer cell lines. The Cool-Cbl-b interaction requires the SH3 domain of Cool and competes with the binding of PAK to Cool proteins. Expression of Cbl-b effectively blocks the ability of Cool-2 to stimulate PAK, thus providing an additional mechanism, aside from catalyzing receptor ubiquitination, by which Cbl-b acts as a negative regulator for signaling activities requiring PAK activation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    FEBS letters 2003;550;1-3;119-23

  • Computational identification of protein coding potential of conserved sequence tags through cross-species evolutionary analysis.

    Mignone F, Grillo G, Liuni S and Pesole G

    Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica Generali, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy.

    The identification of conserved sequence tags (CSTs) through comparative genome analysis may reveal important regulatory elements involved in shaping the spatio-temporal expression of genetic information. It is well known that the most significant fraction of CSTs observed in human-mouse comparisons correspond to protein coding exons, due to their strong evolutionary constraints. As we still do not know the complete gene inventory of the human and mouse genomes it is of the utmost importance to establish if detected conserved sequences are genes or not. We propose here a simple algorithm that, based on the observation of the specific evolutionary dynamics of coding sequences, efficiently discriminates between coding and non-coding CSTs. The application of this method may help the validation of predicted genes, the prediction of alternative splicing patterns in known and unknown genes and the definition of a dictionary of non-coding regulatory elements.

    Funded by: Telethon: TI_GP0101Y01

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;15;4639-45

  • Retrotransposon-mediated restoration of Chlorella telomeres: accumulation of Zepp retrotransposons at termini of newly formed minichromosomes.

    Yamamoto Y, Fujimoto Y, Arai R, Fujie M, Usami S and Yamada T

    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530, Japan.

    To elucidate the contribution of LINE-like retrotransposon Zepp elements to the formation and maintenance of chromosomal telomeres, newly formed minichromosomes in irradiated Chlorella vulgaris cells were isolated and structurally characterized. A minichromosome (miniV4) of approximately 700 kb in size contained a Zepp cluster taking the place of the telomeric repeats on one terminus, whereas the other end of this chromosome consisted of canonical telomeric repeats. The Zepp copies in this cluster were in a tandem array with their poly(A) tails towards the centromere. Another minichromosome Y32 ( approximately 400 kb in size) was shown to have several copies of Zepp elements on both termini. On the right arm terminus, two copies of Zepp were found in a tandem array with poly(A) tracts facing towards the chromosomal end. The poly(A) tail and the 3'-end of approximately 400 bp of the distal copy were replaced by the telomeric repeats. On the 5'-side of the proximal copy was another Zepp element in the reverse orientation. These newly formed telomeric structures are very similar to those previously found in the left arm of chromosome I and the terminus of an unidentified chromosome and support the model of Zepp-mediated restoration and maintenance of Chlorella telomeres.

    Nucleic acids research 2003;31;15;4646-53

  • Ten years on: mediation of cell death by the common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR).

    Rabizadeh S and Bredesen DE

    The Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945-1400, USA. srabizadeh@buckinstitute.org

    The common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) remains one of the most enigmatic of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily: on the one hand, it displays a death domain and has been shown to be capable of mediating programmed cell death (PCD) upon ligand binding; on the other hand, its death domain is of type II (unlike that of Fas or TNFR I), and it has also been shown to be capable of mediating cell death in response to the withdrawal of ligand. Thus, p75(NTR) may function as a death receptor-similar to Fas or TNFR I-or a dependence receptor-similar to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) or uncoordinated gene-5 homologues 1-3 (UNC5H1-3). Here, we review the data relating to the mediation of PCD by p75(NTR), and suggest that one reasonable model for the apparently paradoxical effects of p75(NTR) is that this receptor functions as a "quality control" in that it is capable of mediating PCD in at least four situations: (1). withdrawal of neurotrophins; (2). exposure to mismatched neurotrophins; (3). exposure to unprocessed neurotrophins; and (4). exposure of inappropriately immature cells to neurotrophins. Results to date suggest that these functions are mediated through different underlying mechanisms, and that their respective signaling pathways are cell type and co-receptor dependent.

    Cytokine & growth factor reviews 2003;14;3-4;225-39

  • The Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins interacts with and promotes synaptic accumulation of the beta PIX guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42.

    Park E, Na M, Choi J, Kim S, Lee JR, Yoon J, Park D, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The Shank/ProSAP family of multidomain proteins is known to play an important role in organizing synaptic multiprotein complexes. Here we report a novel interaction between Shank and beta PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rac1 and Cdc42 small GTPases. This interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of Shank and the C-terminal leucine zipper domain and the PDZ domain-binding motif at the extreme C terminus of beta PIX. Shank colocalizes with beta PIX at excitatory synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Shank forms a complex with beta PIX and beta PIX-associated signaling molecules including p21-associated kinase (PAK), an effector kinase of Rac1/Cdc42. Importantly, overexpression of Shank in cultured neurons promotes synaptic accumulation of beta PIX and PAK. Considering the involvement of Rac1 and PAK in spine dynamics, these results suggest that Shank recruits beta PIX and PAK to spines for the regulation of postsynaptic structure.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;21;19220-9

  • The GIT family of proteins forms multimers and associates with the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Piccolo.

    Kim S, Ko J, Shin H, Lee JR, Lim C, Han JH, Altrock WD, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED, Premont RT, Kaang BK and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The cytoskeletal matrix assembled at active zones (CAZ) is implicated in defining neurotransmitter release sites. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the CAZ is organized. Here we report a novel interaction between Piccolo, a core component of the CAZ, and GIT proteins, multidomain signaling integrators with GTPase-activating protein activity for ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPases. A small region (approximately 150 amino acid residues) in Piccolo, which is not conserved in the closely related CAZ protein Bassoon, mediates a direct interaction with the Spa2 homology domain (SHD) domain of GIT1. Piccolo and GIT1 colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Piccolo forms a complex with GIT1 and various GIT-associated proteins, including betaPIX, focal adhesion kinase, liprin-alpha, and paxillin. Point mutations in the SHD of GIT1 differentially interfere with the association of GIT1 with Piccolo, betaPIX, and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that these proteins bind to the SHD by different mechanisms. Intriguingly, GIT proteins form homo- and heteromultimers through their C-terminal G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-binding domain in a tail-to-tail fashion. This multimerization enables GIT1 to simultaneously interact with multiple SHD-binding proteins including Piccolo and betaPIX. These results suggest that, through their multimerization and interaction with Piccolo, the GIT family proteins are involved in the organization of the CAZ.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01-AG06569; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS39471

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;8;6291-300

  • Interaction of alphaPIX (ARHGEF6) with beta-parvin (PARVB) suggests an involvement of alphaPIX in integrin-mediated signaling.

    Rosenberger G, Jantke I, Gal A and Kutsche K

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Butenfeld 42, 22529 Hamburg, Germany.

    Members of the Rho GTPase family are key regulatory molecules that link surface receptors to the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. It is now well established that these small GTPases are also crucial for neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity. Moreover, mutations in ARHGEF6 (also known as alphaPIX or Cool-2 ), encoding a Rac1/Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, have been implicated in X-linked mental retardation. In an attempt to get insight into the biological function of ARHGEF6 and the upstream signaling cascades leading to its activation, we used the full-length coding region of ARHGEF6 as bait in yeast-two hybrid screens and identified PARVB (beta-parvin or affixin) as a novel binding partner. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down. We showed by immunofluorescence that ARHGEF6 and PARVB co-localize at the cell periphery to lamellipodia and ruffles in well-spread and actively spreading cells adhered to fibronectin. In addition, interaction of ARHGEF6 to ARHGEF7 (betaPIX or Cool-1), a close homolog of ARHGEF6, was confirmed. In in vivo assays, two ARHGEF6 mutations identified previously in patients with X-linked non-specific mental retardation, ARHGEF6 deltaaa56-83 and deltaaa396-776, abolished interaction of ARHGEF6 to PARVB. Binding between ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7 was not affected by ARHGEF6 deltaaa56-83 but did not occur with ARHGEF6 deltaaa396-776. These data suggest that both the N-terminal calponin homology (CH) and C-terminal coiled-coil domains are necessary for the ARHGEF6-PARVB binding. In contrast, it seems that only the coiled-coil domain is required for the interaction and heterodimerization of ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7. PARVB is known to interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and is involved in the early stage of cell-substrate interaction through integrins. The identification of PARVB as an ARHGEF6 interacting partner together with the co-localization of ARHGEF6 and ILK in spreading cells suggest that ARHGEF6 is involved in integrin-mediated signaling leading to activation of the GTPases Rac1 and/or Cdc42.

    Human molecular genetics 2003;12;2;155-67

  • NRAGE, a p75 neurotrophin receptor-interacting protein, induces caspase activation and cell death through a JNK-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    Salehi AH, Xanthoudakis S and Barker PA

    Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) mediates signaling events leading to activation of the JNK pathway and cell death in a variety of cell types. We recently identified NRAGE, a protein that directly interacts with the p75NTR cytosolic region and facilitates p75NTR-mediated cell death. For the present study, we developed an inducible recombinant NRAGE adenovirus to dissect the mechanism of NRAGE-mediated apoptosis. Induced NRAGE expression resulted in robust activation of the JNK pathway that was not inhibited by the pharmacological mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitor CEP1347. NRAGE induced cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c, activation of Caspases-3, -9 and -7, and caspase-dependent cell death. Blocking JNK and c-Jun action by overexpression of the JNK-binding domain of JIP1 or dominant-negative c-Jun ablated NRAGE-mediated caspase activation and NRAGE-induced cell death. These findings identify NRAGE as a p75NTR interactor capable of inducing caspase activation and cell death through a JNK-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;50;48043-50

  • Phosphorylation of p85 beta PIX, a Rac/Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, via the Ras/ERK/PAK2 pathway is required for basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

    Shin EY, Shin KS, Lee CS, Woo KN, Quan SH, Soung NK, Kim YG, Cha CI, Kim SR, Park D, Bokoch GM and Kim EG

    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea.

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) have been implicated in growth factor-induced neuronal differentiation through the activation of small GTPases. Although phosphorylation of these GEFs is considered an activation mechanism, little is known about the upstream of PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX), a member of the Dbl family of GEFs. We report here that phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX/Cool/p85SPR is mediated via the Ras/ERK/PAK2 pathway. To understand the role of p85 betaPIX in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced neurite outgrowth, we established PC12 cell lines that overexpress the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in a tetracycline-inducible manner. Treatment with bFGF induces the phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX, as determined by metabolic labeling and mobility shift upon gel electrophoresis. Interestingly, phosphorylation of p85 betaPIX is inhibited by PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of the ERK cascade. PAK2, a major PAK isoform in PC12 cells as well as a binding partner of p85 betaPIX, also functions upstream of p85 betaPIX phosphorylation. Surprisingly, PAK2 directly binds to ERK, and its activation is dependent on ERK. p85 betaPIX specifically localizes to the lamellipodia at neuronal growth cones in response to bFGF. A mutant form of p85 betaPIX (S525A/T526A), in which the major phosphorylation sites are replaced by alanine, shows significant defect in targeting. Moreover, expression of the mutant p85 betaPIX efficiently blocks PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. Our study defines a novel signaling pathway for bFGF-induced neurite outgrowth that involves activation of the PAK2-p85 betaPIX complex via the ERK cascade and subsequent translocation of this complex.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM39434

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;46;44417-30

  • Paxillin-dependent paxillin kinase linker and p21-activated kinase localization to focal adhesions involves a multistep activation pathway.

    Brown MC, West KA and Turner CE

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse 13210, USA.

    The precise temporal-spatial regulation of the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase PAK at the plasma membrane is required for proper cytoskeletal reorganization and cell motility. However, the mechanism by which PAK localizes to focal adhesions has not yet been elucidated. Indirect binding of PAK to the focal adhesion protein paxillin via the Arf-GAP protein paxillin kinase linker (PKL) and PIX/Cool suggested a mechanism. In this report, we demonstrate an essential role for a paxillin-PKL interaction in the recruitment of activated PAK to focal adhesions. Similar to PAK, expression of activated Cdc42 and Rac1, but not RhoA, stimulated the translocation of PKL from a generally diffuse localization to focal adhesions. Expression of the PAK regulatory domain (PAK1-329) or the autoinhibitory domain (AID 83-149) induced PKL, PIX, and PAK localization to focal adhesions, indicating a role for PAK scaffold activation. We show PIX, but not NCK, binding to PAK is necessary for efficient focal adhesion localization of PAK and PKL, consistent with a PAK-PIX-PKL linkage. Although PAK activation is required, it is not sufficient for localization. The PKL amino terminus, containing the PIX-binding site, but lacking paxillin-binding subdomain 2 (PBS2), was unable to localize to focal adhesions and also abrogated PAK localization. An identical result was obtained after PKLDeltaPBS2 expression. Finally, neither PAK nor PKL was capable of localizing to focal adhesions in cells overexpressing paxillinDeltaLD4, confirming a requirement for this motif in recruitment of the PAK-PIX-PKL complex to focal adhesions. These results suggest a GTP-Cdc42/GTP-Rac triggered multistep activation cascade leading to the stimulation of the adaptor function of PAK, which through interaction with PIX provokes a functional PKL PBS2-paxillin LD4 association and consequent recruitment to focal adhesions. This mechanism is probably critical for the correct subcellular positioning of PAK, thereby influencing the ability of PAK to coordinate cytoskeletal reorganization associated with changes in cell shape and motility.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;5;1550-65

  • The p21-activated kinase PAK is negatively regulated by POPX1 and POPX2, a pair of serine/threonine phosphatases of the PP2C family.

    Koh CG, Tan EJ, Manser E and Lim L

    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 30 Medical Drive, 117609, Singapore, Singapore. mcbkohcg@imcb.nus.edu.sg

    The Rho GTPases are involved in many signaling pathways and cellular functions, including the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, regulation of transcription, cell motility, and cell division. The p21 (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase PAK mediates a number of biological effects downstream of these Rho GTPases (reviewed by [1]). The phosphorylation state of mammalian PAK is highly regulated: upon binding of GTPases, PAK is potently activated by autophosphorylation at multiple sites, although the mechanisms of PAK downregulation are not known. We now report two PP2C-like serine/threonine phosphatases (POPX1 and POPX2) that efficiently inactivate PAK. POPX1 was isolated as a binding partner for the PAK interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor PIX. The dephosphorylating activity of POPX correlates with an ability to block the in vivo effects of active PAK. Consonant with these effects on PAK, POPX can also inhibit actin stress fiber breakdown and morphological changes driven by active Cdc42(V12). The association of the POPX phosphatases with PAK complexes may allow PAK to cycle rapidly between active and inactive states; it represents a unique regulatory component of the signaling pathways of the PAK kinase family.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;4;317-21

  • Activation of Rac GTPase by p75 is necessary for c-jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis.

    Harrington AW, Kim JY and Yoon SO

    Neurobiotech Center and Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    The neurotrophin receptor p75 can induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms by which p75 induces apoptosis have remained mostly unknown. Here, we report that p75 activates Rac GTPase, which in turn activates c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), including an injury-specific JNK3, in an NGF-dependent manner. N17Rac blocks this JNK activation and subsequent NGF-dependent apoptosis, indicating that activation of Rac GTPase is required for JNK activation and apoptosis induced by p75. In addition, p75-mediated Rac activation is modulated by coactivation of Trk, identifying Rac GTPase as one of the key molecules whose activity is critical for cell survival and death in neurotrophin signaling. The crucial role of the JNK pathway in p75 signaling is further confirmed by the results that blocking p75 from signaling via the JNK pathway or suppressing the JNK activity itself led to inhibition of NGF-dependent death. Together, these results indicate that the apoptotic machinery of p75 comprises Rac GTPase and JNK.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS39472-01

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;1;156-66

  • A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor independent of Nck, Slp-76 and LAT.

    Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L and Weiss A

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0414, USA.

    Given the importance of the Rho GTPase family member Rac1 and the Rac1/Cdc42 effector PAK1 in T-cell activation, we investigated the requirements for their activation by the T-cell receptor (TCR). Rac1 and PAK1 activation required the tyrosine kinases ZAP-70 and Syk, but not the cytoplasmic adaptor Slp-76. Surprisingly, PAK1 was activated in the absence of the transmembrane adaptor LAT while Rac1 was not. However, efficient PAK1 activation required its binding sites for Rho GTPases and for PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases. The overexpression of ssPIX that either cannot bind PAK1 or lacks GEF function blocked PAK1 activation. These data suggest that a PAK1-PIX complex is recruited to appropriate sites for activation and that PIX is required for Rho family GTPase activation upstream of PAK1. Furthermore, we detected a stable trimolecular complex of PAK1, PIX and the paxillin kinase linker p95PKL. Taken together, these data show that PAK1 contained in this trimolecular complex is activated by a novel LAT- and Slp-76-independent pathway following TCR stimulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA72531, R01 CA072531

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;3;457-65

  • The GIT family of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating proteins. Functional diversity of GIT2 through alternative splicing.

    Premont RT, Claing A, Vitale N, Perry SJ and Lefkowitz RJ

    Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. richard.premont@duke.edu

    We recently characterized a novel protein, GIT1, that interacts with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possesses ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein activity. A second ubiquitously expressed member of the GIT protein family, GIT2, has been identified in data base searches. GIT2 undergoes extensive alternative splicing and exists in at least 10 and potentially as many as 33 distinct forms. The longest form of GIT2 is colinear with GIT1 and shares the same domain structure, whereas one major splice variant prominent in immune tissues completely lacks the carboxyl-terminal domain. The other 32 potential variants arise from the independent alternative splicing of five internal regions in the center of the molecule but share both the amino-terminal ARF GTPase-activating protein domain and carboxyl-terminal domain. Both the long and short carboxyl-terminal variants of GIT2 are active as GTPase-activating proteins for ARF1, and both also interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and with p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factors complexed with p21-activated kinase but not with paxillin. Cellular overexpression of the longest variant of GIT2 leads to inhibition of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor sequestration, whereas the shortest splice variant appears inactive. Although GIT2 shares many properties with GIT1, it also exhibits both structural and functional diversity due to tissue-specific alternative splicing.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL16037

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;29;22373-80

  • A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that binds to an important regulatory region on the cool family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins.

    Bagrodia S, Bailey D, Lenard Z, Hart M, Guan JL, Premont RT, Taylor SJ and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-6401, USA.

    The p21-activated kinases (Pak) are major targets of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. We, and others, recently identified a family of proteins termed Cool/Pix, which interact with Pak3. In cells, p50(Cool-1) suppresses Pak activation by upstream activators; p85(Cool-1) has a permissive effect on Pak activation, and we now show that the closely related Cool-2 stimulates Pak kinase activity. To understand the differential regulation of Pak by Cool proteins, we screened for Cool-interacting proteins by affinity purification and microsequencing. This has led to the identification of two closely related proteins called Cat (Cool-associated, tyrosine phosphorylated), which contain a zinc finger followed by three ankyrin repeats. Cat-1 is identical to the recently identified binding partner for the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK or GRK-2), which was shown to have Arf-GAP activity. Cat-1 and Cat-2 both bind to the COOH-terminal region of p85(Cool-1) and p85(Cool-2) but do not bind to p50(Cool-1). Cat-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated in growing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and its tyrosine phosphorylation is increased following cell spreading on fibronectin, decreased in cells arrested in mitosis, and increased in the ensuing G(1) phase. Cat proteins are tyrosine-phosphorylated when co-expressed in cells with the focal adhesion kinase Fak and Src. These findings suggest that in addition to playing a role in Cool/Pak interactions, Cat proteins may serve as points of convergence between G protein-coupled receptors, integrins, Arf GTPases, cell cycle regulators, and Cdc42/Rac/Pak signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;32;22393-400

  • Paxillin LD4 motif binds PAK and PIX through a novel 95-kD ankyrin repeat, ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling.

    Turner CE, Brown MC, Perrotta JA, Riedy MC, Nikolopoulos SN, McDonald AR, Bagrodia S, Thomas S and Leventhal PS

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, State University of New York, Health Science Center, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA. turnerc@vax.cs.hscsyr.edu

    Paxillin is a focal adhesion adaptor protein involved in the integration of growth factor- and adhesion-mediated signal transduction pathways. Repeats of a leucine-rich sequence named paxillin LD motifs (Brown M.C., M.S. Curtis, and C.E. Turner. 1998. Nature Struct. Biol. 5:677-678) have been implicated in paxillin binding to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vinculin. Here we demonstrate that the individual paxillin LD motifs function as discrete and selective protein binding interfaces. A novel scaffolding function is described for paxillin LD4 in the binding of a complex of proteins containing active p21 GTPase-activated kinase (PAK), Nck, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, PIX. The association of this complex with paxillin is mediated by a new 95-kD protein, p95PKL (paxillin-kinase linker), which binds directly to paxillin LD4 and PIX. This protein complex also binds to Hic-5, suggesting a conservation of LD function across the paxillin superfamily. Cloning of p95PKL revealed a multidomain protein containing an NH2-terminal ARF-GAP domain, three ankyrin-like repeats, a potential calcium-binding EF hand, calmodulin-binding IQ motifs, a myosin homology domain, and two paxillin-binding subdomains (PBS). Green fluorescent protein- (GFP-) tagged p95PKL localized to focal adhesions/complexes in CHO.K1 cells. Overexpression in neuroblastoma cells of a paxillin LD4 deletion mutant inhibited lamellipodia formation in response to insulin-like growth fac- tor-1. Microinjection of GST-LD4 into NIH3T3 cells significantly decreased cell migration into a wound. These data implicate paxillin as a mediator of p21 GTPase-regulated actin cytoskeletal reorganization through the recruitment to nascent focal adhesion structures of an active PAK/PIX complex potentially via interactions with p95PKL.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47607, R01 GM047607

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;145;4;851-63

  • A novel regulator of p21-activated kinases.

    Bagrodia S, Taylor SJ, Jordon KA, Van Aelst L and Cerione RA

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-6401, USA.

    Proteins of the p21-activated kinase (Pak) family have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal architecture, and apoptosis. Although the ability of Cdc42 and Rac GTPases to activate Pak is well established, relatively little else is known about Pak regulation or the identity of Pak cellular targets. Here we report the identification of two closely related Pak3-binding proteins, possibly arising from alternative splicing, designated p50 and p85(Cool-1) (cloned out of library). Both isoforms of Cool contain a Src homology 3 domain that directly mediates interaction with Pak3 and tandem Dbl homology and pleckstrin homology domains. Despite the presence of the Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology motif, a characteristic of Rho family activators, activation of Cdc42 or Rac by Cool is not detectable. Instead binding of p50(Cool-1), but not p85(Cool-1), to Pak3 represses its activation by upstream activators such as the Dbl oncoprotein, indicating a novel mechanism of regulation of Pak signaling.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM40654, GM47458

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;37;23633-6

  • PAK kinases are directly coupled to the PIX family of nucleotide exchange factors.

    Manser E, Loo TH, Koh CG, Zhao ZS, Chen XQ, Tan L, Tan I, Leung T and Lim L

    Glaxo-IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore.

    The PAK family of kinases are regulated through interaction with the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1, but little is known of the signaling components immediately upstream or downstream of these proteins. We have purified and cloned a new class of Rho-p21 guanine nucleotide exchange factor binding tightly through its N-terminal SH3 domain to a conserved proline-rich PAK sequence with a Kd of 24 nM. This PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX), which is widely expressed and enriched in Cdc42- and Rac1-driven focal complexes, is required for PAK recruitment to these sites. PIX can induce membrane ruffling, with an associated activation of Rac1. Our results suggest a role for PIX in Cdc42-to-Rac1 signaling, involving the PIX/PAK complex.

    Molecular cell 1998;1;2;183-92

  • Cloning of a SH3 domain-containing proline-rich protein, p85SPR, and its localization in focal adhesion.

    Oh WK, Yoo JC, Jo D, Song YH, Kim MG and Park D

    Department of Life Science, Kwang-Ju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea.

    A mouse thymus cDNA expression library was screened with monoclonal antibody (mAb), B16-5 which binds to common epitope in SH3 domains of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1) and Nck. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of one of several positive clones. The 4,172 bp cDNA clone (GenBank Accession No. U96634) encodes a SH3 domain-containing protein of 646 amino acids. Besides the SH3 domain, the predicted protein has a proline-rich region, nuclear localization signals, and leucine zipper motifs. The expressed protein in Sf9 insect cell exhibits a polypeptide of 85 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein is widely distributed in rat tissue with an especially high level of expression in brain and testis. Interestingly, the specific antibodies detected four related proteins of different size (75, 85, 90 and 105 kDa) in brain. In A431 cell, p85SPR is enriched at focal adhesion points indicating that the protein may interact with protein(s) in focal complexes.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;235;3;794-8

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IV. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0121-KIAA0160) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1.

    Nagase T, Seki N, Tanaka A, Ishikawa K and Nomura N

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    In this series of projects regarding the accumulation of sequence information of unidentified human genes, we newly deduced the sequences of 40 full-length cDNA clones of human cell line KG-1, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0121 to 0160. The results of a computer search of public databases indicated that the sequences of 13 genes were unrelated to any reported genes, while the remaining 27 genes carried sequences which showed some similarities to known genes. Obvious unique sequences noted were as follows. A stretch of triplet repeats was contained in each of three genes: These were GAG(Glu) in KIAA0122 and KIAA0147, and TCC(Ser) in KIAA0150. A stretch of 10 amino acid-residues was repeated 21 times in KIAA0139, and a homologous sequence of 76-78 nucleotides was found repeated 6 times in the untranslated region of KIAA0125. Northern hybridization analysis demonstrated that 13 genes were expressed in a cell- or tissue-specific manner. Although a vast number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been registered for comprehensive analysis of cDNA clones, our sequence data indicated that their distribution is very unbalanced: e.g. while no EST hit 7 genes, 85 ESTs fell in a single gene.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1995;2;4;167-74, 199-210

  • The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression.

    Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A and Matsubara K

    Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan.

    Large-scale sequencing of a 3'-cDNA library permits one to analyse gene expression profiles in various tissues. However, many such sequences lack enough information about the encoded proteins. To overcome this problem, we tested a new library, consisting of a 3'-directed cDNA sequence fused to a to a 5' sequence of about 300 bp. Such 'joint molecules' of about 600 bp were amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. About 40% of these joint molecules included the 5' and 3' terminal portions of the mRNA, and most of the remaining clones contained the middle portion and 3' end of the mRNA. The upstream sequences contained sufficient information with which to search for similarity, ORFs, motifs and hydropathy, thus allowing the mRNAs to be categorized and their functions predicted. The rapid categorization of the cDNAs will help to sort those clones that merit further analysis.

    Gene 1994;146;2;199-207

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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