G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein kinase N1
G00000885 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000123143 (Ensembl human gene)
5585 (Entrez Gene)
513 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PKN1 (GeneCards)
601032 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9405 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q16512 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • DBK
  • MGC46204
  • PAK1
  • PKN
  • PRK1

Literature (63)

Pubmed - other

  • PRK1 distribution in normal tissues and carcinomas: overexpression and activation in ovarian serous carcinoma.

    Galgano MT, Conaway M, Spencer AM, Paschal BM and Frierson HF

    Robert E. Fechner Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. molly.galgano@gmail.com

    Protein kinase C-related kinases are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rho family GTPases. The isoform PRK1 has been characterized in detail in prostate cancer, but not in other carcinomas. We analyzed our prior microarray data for PRK1 gene expression in 175 carcinomas and evaluated tissue microarrays for protein expression in 251 carcinomas and a comprehensive group of normal tissues. We also used immunoblotting to determine the levels and phosphoactivation status of PRK1, PRK2, and PDK1 in 12 ovarian serous carcinomas, SKOV3 cells, and 3 samples of normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The highest average level of PRK1 messenger RNA was observed in ovarian serous carcinomas compared with all other carcinomas, including those of the prostate, bladder/ureter, breast, colon, stomach/esophagus, kidney, liver, pancreas, and lung (P = .05). By immunohistochemistry, PRK1 was observed in selected normal cells, including epithelium from the gynecologic tract and hematolymphoid elements. All serous ovarian and endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas were immunoreactive for PRK1. The findings in nonserous ovarian and most carcinomas from the prostate, breast, and pancreas were also positive but less consistently so. In comparison with OSE, the serous carcinomas typically had greater pPRK1/total PRK1 (P = .02) as well as greater pPDK/total PDK (P = .01). The relative phosphorylation status of these 2 kinases correlated within each sample. In summary, PRK1 is present in various malignancies, but especially in serous carcinomas, where the increased activation status of PRK1 and its upstream regulator, PDK, as compared with normal OSE suggests a role in ovarian cancer development or progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA104106, P01 CA104106-04, P01 CA104106-049003

    Human pathology 2009;40;10;1434-40

  • Protein kinase C-related kinase and ROCK are required for thrombin-induced endothelial cell permeability downstream from Galpha12/13 and Galpha11/q.

    Gavard J and Gutkind JS

    Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. julie.gavard@inserm.fr

    Increase in vascular permeability occurs under many physiological conditions such as wound repair, inflammation, and thrombotic reactions and is central in diverse human pathologies, including tumor-induced angiogenesis, ocular diseases, and septic shock. Thrombin is a pro-coagulant serine protease, which causes the local loss of endothelial barrier integrity thereby enabling the rapid extravasation of plasma proteins and the local formation of fibrin-containing clots. Available information suggests that thrombin induces endothelial permeability by promoting actomyosin contractility through the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. Here we took advantage of pharmacological inhibitors, knockdown approaches, and the emerging knowledge on how permeability factors affect endothelial junctions to investigate in detail the mechanism underlying thrombin-induced endothelial permeability. We show that thrombin signals through PAR-1 and its coupled G proteins Galpha(12/13) and Galpha(11/q) to induce RhoA activation and intracellular calcium elevation, and that these events are interrelated. In turn, this leads to the stimulation of ROCK, which causes actin stress-fiber formation. However, this alone is not sufficient to account for thrombin-induced permeability. Instead, we found that protein kinase C-related kinase, a Rho-dependent serine/threonine kinase, is activated in endothelial cells upon thrombin stimulation and that its expression is required for endothelial permeability and the remodeling of cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Our results demonstrate that the signal initiated by thrombin bifurcates at the level of RhoA to promote changes in the cytoskeletal architecture through ROCK, and the remodeling of focal adhesion components through protein kinase C-related kinase. Ultimately, both pathways converge to cause cell-cell junction disruption and provoke vascular leakage.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;44;29888-96

  • Deregulation of PKN1 activity disrupts neurofilament organisation and axonal transport.

    Manser C, Stevenson A, Banner S, Davies J, Tudor EL, Ono Y, Leigh PN, McLoughlin DM, Shaw CE and Miller CCJ

    MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Department of Neuroscience P037, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE58AF, United Kingdom.

    Neurofilaments are synthesised in neuronal cell bodies and then transported through axons. Damage to neurofilament transport is seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we show that PKN1, a neurofilament head-rod domain kinase is cleaved and activated in SOD1G93A transgenic mice that are a model of ALS. Moreover, we demonstrate that glutamate, a proposed toxic mechanism in ALS leads to caspase cleavage and disruption of PKN1 in neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that a cleaved form of PKN1 but not wild-type PKN1 disrupts neurofilament organisation and axonal transport. Thus, deregulation of PKN1 may contribute to the pathogenic process in ALS.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000749, G0500289, G0501573; Wellcome Trust: 078662

    FEBS letters 2008;582;15;2303-2308

  • Negative regulation of constitutive NF-kappaB and JNK signaling by PKN1-mediated phosphorylation of TRAF1.

    Kato T, Gotoh Y, Hoffmann A and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. tkato@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    Inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) are stress inducible kinases that critically regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes. Transient activation of the downstream transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, allows for stress inducible, inflammatory and innate immune gene expression programs. However, elevated chronic activity is associated with cancer and chronic inflammatory disease. Despite its relevance to human health, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control constitutive activity of IKK and JNK. Here, we demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase PKN1 plays a critical role in regulating constitutive IKK/JNK activity in unstimulated cells and report on the molecular mechanism. We identify TRAF1 as a substrate of PKN1 kinase activity in vitro and in vivo, and show that this phosphorylation event is required for attenuating downstream kinase activities. Furthermore, this silencing was dependent on TNFR2. Mutagenesis of the phospho-acceptor residue in TRAF1 abrogated PKN1-dependent recruitment to TNFR2. Our results suggest a model by which the stoichiometric ratio of TRAF1 and TRAF2 heteromeric complexes associated with TNFR2 control the tonic activity of JNK and IKK. TRAF1 phosphorylation by the ubiquitously expressed kinase PKN1 thereby plays a critical role in the negative regulation of tonic activity of the two central inflammatory signaling pathways.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2008;13;5;509-20

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Up-regulation of myometrial RHO effector proteins (PKN1 and DIAPH1) and CPI-17 (PPP1R14A) phosphorylation in human pregnancy is associated with increased GTP-RHOA in spontaneous preterm labor.

    Lartey J, Smith M, Pawade J, Strachan B, Mellor H and López Bernal A

    Clinical Sciences at South Bristol, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 3NY, United Kingdom.

    RHO GTP-binding proteins are important regulators of actin-myosin interactions in uterine smooth muscle cells. Active (GTP-bound) RHOA binds to RHO-associated protein kinase (ROCK1), which inhibits the myosin-binding subunit (PPP1R12A) of myosin light chain phosphatase, leading to calcium-independent increases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and tension, which are termed "calcium sensitization." The RHO effector protein kinase N (PKN1) also increases calcium sensitization by phosphorylating the protein kinase C (PRKCB)-dependent protein CPI-17 (PPP1R14A) to inhibit the PPP1c subunit of myosin phosphatase. Moreover, other RHO proteins, such as RHOB, RHOD, and their effectors (DIAPH1 and DIAPH2), may modulate PKN1/ ROCK1 signaling to effect changes in myosin phosphatase activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation. The increases in contractile activity observed in term and preterm labor may be due to an increase in RHO activity and/or changes in RHO-related proteins. We found that the RHOA and RHOB mRNA levels in the myometrium were increased in pregnancy, although the expression levels of the RHOA and RHOB proteins did not change with pregnancy or labor. GTP-bound RHOA was increased in pregnancy, and this increase was significant in spontaneous preterm labor myometrium. PKN1 expression and PPP1R14A phosphorylation were dramatically increased in the pregnant myometrium. We also observed increases in DIAPH1 expression in spontaneous term and preterm labor myometrial tissues. The present study shows that human pregnancy is characterized by increases in PKN1 expression and PPP1R14A phosphorylation in the myometrium. Moreover, increases in GTP-bound RHOA and DIAPH1 expression may contribute to the increase in uterine activity in idiopathic preterm labor.

    Biology of reproduction 2007;76;6;971-82

  • Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by target class-selective prefractionation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wissing J, Jänsch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Kéri G, Wehland J and Daub H

    Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Protein kinases constitute a large superfamily of enzymes with key regulatory functions in nearly all signal transmission processes of eukaryotic cells. However, due to their relatively low abundance compared with the vast majority of cellular proteins, currently available proteomics techniques do not permit the comprehensive biochemical characterization of protein kinases. To address these limitations, we have developed a prefractionation strategy that uses a combination of immobilized low molecular weight inhibitors for the selective affinity capture of protein kinases. This approach resulted in the direct purification of cell type-specific sets of expressed protein kinases, and more than 140 different members of this enzyme family could be detected by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore the enrichment technique combined with phosphopeptide fractionation led to the identification of more than 200 different phosphorylation sites on protein kinases, which often remain occluded in global phosphoproteome analysis. As the phosphorylation states of protein kinases can provide a readout for the signaling activities within a cellular system, kinase-selective phosphoproteomics based on the procedures described here has the potential to become an important tool in signal transduction analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;3;537-47

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • A Salmonella type III secretion effector interacts with the mammalian serine/threonine protein kinase PKN1.

    Haraga A and Miller SI

    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    Essential to salmonellae pathogenesis is an export device called the type III secretion system (TTSS), which mediates the transfer of bacterial effector proteins from the bacterial cell into the host cell cytoplasm. Once inside the host cell, these effectors are then capable of altering a variety of host cellular functions in order to promote bacterial survival and colonization. SspH1 is a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TTSS effector that localizes to the mammalian nucleus and down-modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-dependent gene expression. To identify mammalian binding partners of SspH1 a yeast two-hybrid screen against a human spleen cDNA library was performed. It yielded a serine/threonine protein kinase called protein kinase N 1 (PKN1). The leucine-rich repeat domain of SspH1 was demonstrated to mediate this interaction and also inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. This suggested that PKN1 may play a role in modulation of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. Indeed, we found that expression of constitutively active PKN1 in mammalian cells results in a decrease, while depletion of PKN1 by RNA interference causes an increase in NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression. These data indicate that SspH1 may inhibit the host's inflammatory response by interacting with PKN1.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI48683; PHS HHS: T32 G07270

    Cellular microbiology 2006;8;5;837-46

  • Pkn is a novel partner of cyclin T2a in muscle differentiation.

    Cottone G, Baldi A, Palescandolo E, Manente L, Penta R, Paggi MG and De Luca A

    Department for the Development of Therapeutic Programs, Center for Experimental Research, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

    With the aim to find novel partners of human Cyclin T2a, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using the full-length cDNA of this cyclin as bait, and a human heart cDNA library as preys source. Upon several interesting genes selected, our attention has been focused on the cDNA coding for PKNalpha, a fatty acid- and Rho-activated serine/threonine protein kinase, having a catalytic domain homologous to protein kinase C family. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro pull-down assays independently confirmed the interaction between the two proteins. Luciferase assays, performed on NIH3T3 cell extracts after transfection with a MyoD-responsive promoter, pointed out that PKNalpha was able to enhance MyoD-dependent transcription, and that this effect was further increased when cyclin T2a was co-overexpressed. Finally, overexpression of both Cyclin T2a and PKNalpha in C2C12 cells strongly enhanced the expression of myogenic differentiation markers, such as Myogenin and Myosin Heavy Chain, during starvation-induced differentiation. Taken together, our data strengthen the hypothesis that Cyclin T2a plays a role in muscle differentiation, and propose PKNalpha as a novel partner of Cyclin T2a in this process.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2006;207;1;232-7

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Involvement of protein kinase PKN1 in G2/M delay caused by arsenite.

    Isagawa T, Takahashi M, Kato T, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Japan.

    PKN1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has been reported to mediate cellular response to stress. We show here that in response to arsenite exposure, PKN1 kinase activity was stimulated, which was associated with increased binding of PKN1 to Cdc25C and delayed mitotic entry. A role for PKN1 in mediating arsenite-induced G(2)/M delay was supported by the finding that expression of a constitutively active form of PKN1 (PKN1AF3) in HeLa cells delayed the mitotic entry of cell cycle. Further experiments indicate that PKN1 directly phosphorylated serine 216 (Ser216) in Cdc25C, which then facilitated association between Cdc25C and 14-3-3. Significantly, expression of a phosphorylation mutant of Cdc25C (S216A) partially abrogated the cell-cycle arrest in response to arsenite. Together, our results suggest that PKN1 mediates arsenite-induced delay of the G(2)/M transition by binding to and phoshorylating Cdc25C.

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2005;43;1;1-12

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with Rac1-dependent protein kinase N-gamma promotes phospholipase Cgamma1 activation, Ca(2+) signaling, and cortactin-cytoskeleton function leading to keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation.

    Bourguignon LY, Singleton PA and Diedrich F

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA. lillyb@itsa.ucsf.edu

    In this study we have investigated hyaluronan (HA)-CD44 interaction with protein kinase N-gamma (PKNgamma), a small GTPase (Rac1)-activated serine/threonine kinase in human keratinocytes. By using a variety of biochemical and molecular biological techniques, we have determined that CD44 and PKNgamma kinase (molecular mass approximately 120 kDa) are physically linked in vivo. The binding of HA to keratinocytes promotes PKNgamma kinase recruitment into a complex with CD44 and subsequently stimulates Rac1-mediated PKNgamma kinase activity. The Rac1-activated PKNgamma in turn increases threonine (but not serine) phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) gamma1 and up-regulates PLCgamma1 activity leading to the onset of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. HA/CD44-activated Rac1-PKNgamma also phosphorylates the cytoskeletal protein, cortactin, at serine/threonine residues. The phosphorylation of cortactin by Rac1-PKNgamma attenuates its ability to cross-link filamentous actin in vitro. Further analyses indicate that the N-terminal antiparallel coiled-coil (ACC) domains of PKNgamma interact directly with Rac1 in a GTP-dependent manner. The binding of HA to CD44 induces PKNgamma association with endogenous Rac1 and its activity in keratinocytes. Transfection of keratinocytes with PKNgamma-ACCcDNA reduces HA-mediated recruitment of endogenous Rac1 to PKNgamma and blocks PKNgamma activity. These findings suggest that the PKNgamma-ACC fragment acts as a potent competitive inhibitor of endogenous Rac1 binding to PKNgamma in vivo. Most important, the PKNgamma-ACC fragment functions as a strong dominant-negative mutant that effectively inhibits HA/CD44-mediated PKNgamma phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 and cortactin as well as keratinocyte signaling (e.g. Ca(2+) mobilization and cortactin-actin binding) and cellular functioning (e.g. cell-cell adhesion and differentiation). Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with Rac1-PKNgamma plays a pivotal role in PLCgamma1-regulated Ca(2+) signaling and cortactin-cytoskeleton function required for keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA 78633, R01 CA66163; NIAMS NIH HHS: P01 AR39448

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;28;29654-69

  • Protein kinase PKN1 associates with TRAF2 and is involved in TRAF2-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Gotoh Y, Oishi K, Shibata H, Yamagiwa A, Isagawa T, Nishimura T, Goyama E, Takahashi M, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, 657-8501, Kobe, Japan.

    PKN1 is a fatty acid and Rho-activated serine/threonine protein kinase whose catalytic domain is highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC) family. In yeast two-hybrid screening for PKN1 binding proteins, we identified tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). TRAF2 is one of the major mediators of TNF receptor superfamily transducing TNF signal to various functional targets, including activation of NF-kappaB, JNK, and apoptosis. FLAG-tagged PKN1 was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous TRAF2 from HEK293 cell lysate, and in vitro binding assay using the deletion mutants of TRAF2 showed that PKN1 directly binds to the TRAF domain of TRAF2. PKN1 has the TRAF2-binding consensus sequences PXQX (S/T) at amino acid residues 580-584 (PIQES), and P580AQ582A mutant was not co-immunoprecipitated with TRAF2. Furthermore, the reduced expression of PKN1 by RNA interference (RNAi) down-regulated TRAF2-induced NF-kappaB activation in HEK293T cells. These results suggest that PKN1 is involved in TRAF2-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;314;3;688-94

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Molecular dissection of the interaction between the small G proteins Rac1 and RhoA and protein kinase C-related kinase 1 (PRK1).

    Owen D, Lowe PN, Nietlispach D, Brosnan CE, Chirgadze DY, Parker PJ, Blundell TL and Mott HR

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, United Kingdom. do@bioc.cam.ac.uk

    PRK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the protein kinase C superfamily. It can be activated either by members of the Rho family of small G proteins, by proteolysis, or by interaction with lipids. Here we investigate the binding of PRK1 to RhoA and Rac1, two members of the Rho family. We demonstrate that PRK1 binds with a similar affinity to RhoA and Rac1. We present the solution structure of the second HR1 domain from the regulatory N-terminal region of PRK1, and we show that it forms an anti-parallel coiled-coil. In addition, we have used NMR to map the binding contacts of the HR1b domain with Rac1. These are compared with the contacts known to form between HR1a and RhoA. We have used mutagenesis to define the residues in Rac that are important for binding to HR1b. Surprisingly, as well as residues adjacent to Switch I, in Switch II, and in helix alpha5, it appears that the C-terminal stretch of basic amino acids in Rac is required for a high affinity interaction with HR1b.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;50;50578-87

  • RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling.

    Riento K, Guasch RM, Garg R, Jin B and Ridley AJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

    RhoE belongs to the Rho GTPase family, the members of which control actin cytoskeletal dynamics. RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly in a variety of cell types, whereas RhoA stimulates stress fiber assembly. The similarity of RhoE and RhoA sequences suggested that RhoE might compete with RhoA for interaction with its targets. Here, we show that RhoE binds ROCK I but none of the other RhoA targets tested. The interaction of RhoE with ROCK I was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins, and the two proteins colocalized on the trans-Golgi network in COS-7 cells. Although RhoE and RhoA were not able to bind ROCK I simultaneously, RhoE bound to the amino-terminal region of ROCK I encompassing the kinase domain, at a site distant from the carboxy-terminal RhoA-binding site. Overexpression of RhoE inhibited ROCK I-induced stress fiber formation and phosphorylation of the ROCK I target myosin light chain phosphatase. These data suggest that RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly by directly binding ROCK I and inhibiting it from phosphorylating downstream targets.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;12;4219-29

  • Regulation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, MLTK by PKN.

    Takahashi M, Gotoh Y, Isagawa T, Nishimura T, Goyama E, Kim HS, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center and Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    PKNalpha is a fatty acid- and Rho-activated serine/threonine protein kinase having a catalytic domain homologous to members of the protein kinase C family. Recently it was reported that PKNalpha is involved in the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. To date, however, how PKNalpha regulates the p38gamma MAPK signaling pathway is unclear. Here we demonstrate that PKNalpha efficiently phosphorylates MLTKalpha (MLK-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase), which was recently identified as a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) for the p38 MAPK cascade. Phosphorylation of MLTKalpha by PKNalpha enhances its kinase activity in vitro. Expression of the kinase-negative mutant of PKNalpha inhibited the mobility shift of MLTKalpha caused by osmotic shock in SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, PKNalpha associates with each member of the p38gamma MAPK signaling pathway (p38gamma, MKK6, and MLTKalpha). These results suggest that PKNalpha functions as not only an upstream activator of MLTKalpha but also a putative scaffold protein for the p38gamma MAPK signaling pathway.

    Journal of biochemistry 2003;133;2;181-7

  • A novel inducible transactivation domain in the androgen receptor: implications for PRK in prostate cancer.

    Metzger E, Müller JM, Ferrari S, Buettner R and Schüle R

    Universitäts-Frauenklinik und Zentrum für Klinische Forschung, Klinikum der Universität Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 66, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.

    In addition to the classical activation by ligands, nuclear receptor activity is also regulated by ligand-independent signalling. Here, we unravel a novel signal transduction pathway that links the RhoA effector protein kinase C-related kinase PRK1 to the transcriptional activation of the androgen receptor (AR). Stimulation of the PRK signalling cascade results in a ligand-dependent superactivation of AR. We show that AR and PRK1 interact both in vivo and in vitro. The transactivation unit 5 (TAU-5) located in the N-terminus of AR suffices for activation by PRK1. Thus, TAU-5 defines a novel, signal-inducible transactivation domain. Furthermore, PRK1 promotes a functional complex of AR with the co-activator TIF-2. Importantly, PRK signalling also stimulates AR activity in the presence of adrenal androgens, which are still present in prostate tumour patients subjected to testicular androgen ablation therapy. Moreover, PRK1 activates AR even in the presence of the AR antagonist cyproterone acetate that is used in the clinical management of prostate cancer. Since prostate tumours strongly overexpress PRK1, our data support a model in which AR activity is controlled by PRK signalling.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;2;270-80

  • Involvement of aberrant glycosylation in phosphorylation of tau by cdk5 and GSK-3beta.

    Liu F, Iqbal K, Grundke-Iqbal I and Gong CX

    Department of Neurochemistry, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island 10314, USA.

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, glycosylated, and aggregated in affected neurons in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found that the glycosylation might precede hyperphosphorylation of tau in AD. In this study, we investigated the effect of glycosylation on phosphorylation of tau catalyzed by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). The phosphorylation of the longest isoform of recombinant human brain tau, tau(441), at various sites was detected by Western blots and by radioimmuno-dot-blot assay with phosphorylation-dependent and site-specific tau antibodies. We found that cdk5 phosphorylated tau(441) at Thr-181, Ser-199, Ser-202, Thr-205, Thr-212, Ser-214, Thr-217, Thr-231, Ser-235, Ser-396, and Ser-404, but not at Ser-262, Ser-400, Thr-403, Ser-409, Ser-413, or Ser-422. GSK-3beta phosphorylated all the cdk5-catalyzed sites above except Ser-235. Deglycosylation by glycosidases depressed the subsequent phosphorylation of AD-tau (i) with cdk5 at Thr-181, Ser-199, Ser-202, Thr-205, and Ser-404, but not at Thr-212; and (ii) with GSK-3beta at Thr-181, Ser-202, Thr-205, Ser-217, and Ser-404, but not at Ser-199, Thr-212, Thr-231, or Ser-396. These data suggest that aberrant glycosylation of tau in AD might be involved in neurofibrillary degeneration by promoting abnormal hyperphosphorylation by cdk5 and GSK-3beta.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG16760, AG19158; NINDS NIH HHS: MN/NS 31862

    FEBS letters 2002;530;1-3;209-14

  • Nanomolar amyloid beta protein activates a specific PKC isoform mediating phosphorylation of MARCKS in Neuro2A cells.

    Tanimukai S, Hasegawa H, Nakai M, Yagi K, Hirai M, Saito N, Taniguchi T, Terashima A, Yasuda M, Kawamata T and Tanaka C

    Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, 520 Saisho-ko, Himeji 670-0981, Japan.

    Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a protein associated with cell growth, neurosecretion and macrophage activation, is activated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. We reported that amyloid beta protein (Abeta) activated MARCKS through a tyrosine kinase and PKC-delta in rat cultured microglia. Here we report that Abeta signaling pathway through a specific PKC isoform is involved in the phosphorylation of MARCKS in Neuro2A cells. Selective PKC inhibitors but not tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of MARCKS induced by Abeta. Abeta selectively activated PKC-alpha among the four PKC isoforms localized in Neuro2A cells. PKC-alpha activated by Abeta directly phosphorylated a recombinant MARCKS in vitro, Translocation of PKC-alpha from the cytoplasm to the membrane and accumulation of phospho-MARCKS in the cytoplasm were induced by Abeta. These results suggest involvement of a phosphoinositide signaling system through PKC-alpha in the phosphorylation of MARCKS in neurons, an event which may be associated with mechanisms underlying neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of Abeta.

    Neuroreport 2002;13;4;549-53

  • Pathological shear stress stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha-actinin associated with the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    Feng S, Reséndiz JC, Christodoulides N, Lu X, Arboleda D, Berndt MC and Kroll MH

    Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine and Rice University, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    Shear-induced platelet responses are triggered by VWF binding to the platelet GpIb-IX complex, and there is evidence that this ligand-receptor coupling stimulates transmembranous signaling through the cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein (Gp) Ib alpha. To investigate the mechanism by which signaling is effected, new molecular interactions involving GpIb-IX that develop in response to pathological shearing stress were examined in intact human platelets. Exposure to shear, but not alpha-thrombin, results in the co-immunoprecipitation of the actin cross-linking protein alpha-actinin with the GpIb-IX complex. Blockers of VWF binding to GpIb alpha or actin polymerization inhibit the association of alpha-actinin with the GpIb-IX complex, but the association of alpha-actinin with the GpIb-IX complex is not affected by inhibiting VWF binding to platelet integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (GpIIb-IIIa). alpha-Actinin becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to pathological shear stress, and phosphorylated alpha-actinin associates with GpIb-IX. In resting platelets, class IA heterodimeric phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and protein kinase N (PKN) associate with nonphosphorylated alpha-actinin. Shear stress causes PI 3-K to disassociate from alpha-actinin, while it stimulates PKN binding to alpha-actinin. These results demonstrate that shear-induced VWF binding to GpIb alpha causes enhanced binding of cytoskeletal alpha-actinin to GpIb-IX and suggest that alpha-actinin, perhaps through tyrosine phosphorylation, serves as an adapter for a signaling complex that could regulate VWF-induced platelet aggregation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL18454, HL65967

    Biochemistry 2002;41;4;1100-8

  • Aberrant glycosylation modulates phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase A and dephosphorylation of tau by protein phosphatase 2A and 5.

    Liu F, Zaidi T, Iqbal K, Grundke-Iqbal I and Gong CX

    Department of Neurochemistry, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, , Staten Island, NY 10314, USA.

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, glycosylated, and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found that the aberrant tau glycosylation precedes tau hyperphosphorylation in AD brain. In the present study, we developed assays to determine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tau at specific phosphorylation sites by using glycosylated tau purified from AD brain as a substrate. We then studied the effects of the aberrant glycosylation on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tau at each specific phosphorylation site. We found that deglycosylation of the aberrantly glycosylated tau decreased the subsequent phosphorylation of tau at Ser214, Ser262, and Ser356 in vitro by protein kinase A. On the other hand, deglycosylation of tau positively modulated the subsequent dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase 5 in vitro at the phosphorylation sites Ser198, Ser199, and Ser202. Our results suggest that the aberrant glycosylation may modulate tau protein at a substrate level so that it is easier to be phosphorylated and more difficult to be dephosphorylated at some phosphorylation sites in AD brain. The combined impact of this modulation may be to make tau more susceptible to becoming abnormally hyperphosphorylated.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG05892, AG08076, AG16760; NINDS NIH HHS: MN/NS31862, NS18105

    Neuroscience 2002;115;3;829-37

  • PKNbeta interacts with the SH3 domains of Graf and a novel Graf related protein, Graf2, which are GTPase activating proteins for Rho family.

    Shibata H, Oishi K, Yamagiwa A, Matsumoto M, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science,Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    PKNbeta is a novel isoform of PKNalpha, which is one of the target protein kinases for the small GTPase Rho. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a human embryonic kidney 293 cell cDNA library with the PKNbeta linker region containing proline-rich motifs as a bait, clones encoding Graf (GAP for Rho Associated with Focal adhesion kinase) and a novel Graf-related protein, termed Graf2, were isolated. The full length of Graf2 contains a putative PH domain, a RhoGAP domain, and an SH3 domain as well as Graf. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Graf2 is expressed in several tissues, with the highest expression in skeletal muscle. Recombinant Graf2 exhibited GTPase-activating activity toward the small GTPase RhoA and Cdc42Hs, but not toward Rac1, in vitro. The SH3 domains of Graf and Graf2 purified from Escherichia coli bound directly to PKNbeta. Graf or Graf2 was co-immunoprecipitated with PKNbeta in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with Graf or Graf2 and PKNbeta expression constructs. The catalytically active form of PKNbeta phosphorylated Graf and Graf2 in vitro. The interplay of PKNbeta and the GTPase-activating proteins, Graf and Graf2, may offer a novel mechanism regulating the Rho-mediated signaling.

    Journal of biochemistry 2001;130;1;23-31

  • PKN regulates phospholipase D1 through direct interaction.

    Oishi K, Takahashi M, Mukai H, Banno Y, Nakashima S, Kanaho Y, Nozawa Y and Ono Y

    Graduate School of Science and Technology, and the Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    The association of phospholipase (PLD)-1 with protein kinase C-related protein kinases, PKNalpha and PKNbeta, was analyzed. PLD1 interacted with PKNalpha and PKNbeta in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with PLD1 and PKNalpha or PKNbeta expression constructs. The interactions between endogenous PLD1 and PKNalpha or PKNbeta were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from mammalian cells. In vitro binding studies using the deletion mutants of PLD1 indicated that PKNalpha directly bound to residues 228-598 of PLD1 and that PKNbeta interacted with residues 1-228 and 228-598 of PLD1. PKNalpha stimulated the activity of PLD1 in the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in vitro, whereas PKNbeta had a modest effect on the stimulation of PLD1 activity. The stimulation of PLD1 activity by PKNalpha was slightly enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that the PKN family functions as a novel intracellular player of PLD1 signaling pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;21;18096-101

  • Phosphorylation of tau is regulated by PKN.

    Taniguchi T, Kawamata T, Mukai H, Hasegawa H, Isagawa T, Yasuda M, Hashimoto T, Terashima A, Nakai M, Mori H, Ono Y and Tanaka C

    Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji 670-0981, Japan. tanigu@hiabcd.go.jp

    For the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein, tau plays a pivotal role in regulating microtubule networks in neurons. Tau promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules. The potential for tau to bind to microtubules is down-regulated after local phosphorylation. When we investigated the effects of PKN activation on tau phosphorylation, we found that PKN triggers disruption of the microtubule array both in vitro and in vivo and predominantly phosphorylates tau in microtubule binding domains (MBDs). PKN has a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that phosphorylates Ser-313 (= Ser-324, the number used in this study) in MBDs. Thus, we identified the phosphorylation sites of PKN and PKC subtypes (PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -lambda) in MBDs. PKN phosphorylates Ser-258, Ser-320, and Ser-352, although all PKC subtypes phosphorylate Ser-258, Ser-293, Ser-324, and Ser-352. There is a PKN-specific phosphorylation site, Ser-320, in MBDs. HIA3, a novel phosphorylation-dependent antibody recognizing phosphorylated tau at Ser-320, showed immunoreactivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the active form of PKN, but not in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the inactive form of PKN. The immunoreactivity for phosphorylated tau at Ser-320 increased in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor, FK506 treatment, which means that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) may be involved in dephosphorylating tau at Ser-320 site. We also noted that PKN reduces the phosphorylation recognized by the phosphorylation-dependent antibodies AT8, AT180, and AT270 in vivo. Thus PKN serves as a regulator of microtubules by specific phosphorylation of tau, which leads to disruption of tubulin assembly.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;13;10025-31

  • PKN delays mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C: possible involvement of PKN in the regulation of cell division.

    Misaki K, Mukai H, Yoshinaga C, Oishi K, Isagawa T, Takahashi M, Ohsumi K, Kishimoto T and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center and Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    The role of PKN, a fatty acid- and Rho small GTPase-activated protein kinase, in cell-cycle regulation was analyzed. Microinjection of the active form of PKN into a Xenopus embryo caused cleavage arrest, whereas normal cell division proceeded in the control embryo microinjected with buffer or the inactive form of PKN. Exogenous addition of the active form of PKN delayed mitotic timing in Xenopus egg cycling extracts judging by morphology of sperm nuclei and Cdc2/cyclin B histone H1 kinase activity. The kinase-negative form of PKN did not affect the timing, suggesting that delayed mitotic timing depends on the kinase activity of PKN. The dephosphorylation of Tyr-15 of Cdc2 was also delayed in correlation with Cdc2/cyclin B histone H1 kinase activation in extracts containing active PKN. The Cdc25C activity for the dephosphorylation of Tyr-15 in Cdc2 was suppressed by pretreatment with the active form of PKN. Furthermore, PKN efficiently phosphorylated Cdc25C in vitro, indicating that PKN directly inhibits Cdc25C activity by phosphorylation. These results suggest that PKN plays a significant role in the control of mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;1;125-9

  • Further evidence that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is required for the stability and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms.

    Balendran A, Hare GR, Kieloch A, Williams MR and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation, MSI/WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, DD1 5EH, Dundee, UK.

    The multi-site phosphorylation of the protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily plays an important role in the regulation of these enzymes. One of the key phosphorylation sites required for the activation of all PKC isoforms lies in the T-loop of the kinase domain. Recent in vitro and transfection experiments indicate that phosphorylation of this residue can be mediated by the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). In this study, we demonstrate that in embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking PDK1 (PDK1-/- cells), the intracellular levels of endogenously expressed PKCalpha, PKCbetaI, PKCgamma, PKCdelta, PKCepsilon, and PKC-related kinase-1 (PRK1) are vastly reduced compared to control ES cells (PDK1+/+ cells). The levels of PKCzeta and PRK2 protein are only moderately reduced in the PDK1-/- ES cells. We demonstrate that in contrast to PKCzeta expressed PDK1+/+ ES cells, PKCzeta in ES cells lacking PDK1 is not phosphorylated at its T-loop residue. This provides the first genetic evidence that PKCzeta is a physiological substrate for PDK1. In contrast, PRK2 is still partially phosphorylated at its T-loop in PDK1-/- cells, indicating the existence of a PDK1-independent mechanism for the phosphorylation of PRK2 at this residue.

    FEBS letters 2000;484;3;217-23

  • Cloning and characterization of AWP1, a novel protein that associates with serine/threonine kinase PRK1 in vivo.

    Duan W, Sun B, Li TW, Tan BJ, Lee MK and Teo TS

    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, 119260, Singapore, Singapore.

    We describe the cloning and expression of cDNAs encoding a novel human protein of 208 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 22.6kDa and its mouse homologue. We name this protein as AWP1 (associated with PRK1). AWP1 is a ubiquitously expressed protein, and the Awp1 gene is switched on during early human and mouse development. When expressed in COS-1 cells, the Myc-tagged AWP1 has an apparent molecular mass higher than that deduced from its amino acid sequence. AWP1 possesses a conserved zf-A20 zinc finger domain at its N-terminal and a zf-AN1 zinc finger domain at its C-terminal. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that mouse AWP1 specifically interacts with a rat serine/threonine protein kinase PRK1 in vivo. Hence, AWP1 may play a regulatory role in mammalian signal transduction pathways.

    Gene 2000;256;1-2;113-21

  • A 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) docking site is required for the phosphorylation of protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta ) and PKC-related kinase 2 by PDK1.

    Balendran A, Biondi RM, Cheung PC, Casamayor A, Deak M and Alessi DR

    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Division of Signal Transduction Therapy, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    Members of the AGC subfamily of protein kinases including protein kinase B, p70 S6 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are activated and/or stabilized by phosphorylation of two residues, one that resides in the T-loop of the kinase domain and the other that is located C-terminal to the kinase domain in a region known as the hydrophobic motif. Atypical PKC isoforms, such as PKCzeta, and the PKC-related kinases, like PRK2, are also activated by phosphorylation of their T-loop site but, instead of possessing a phosphorylatable Ser/Thr in their hydrophobic motif, contain an acidic residue. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK1) activates many members of the AGC subfamily of kinases in vitro, including PKCzeta and PRK2 by phosphorylating the T-loop residue. In the present study we demonstrate that the hydrophobic motifs of PKCzeta and PKCiota, as well as PRK1 and PRK2, interact with the kinase domain of PDK1. Mutation of the conserved residues of the hydrophobic motif of full-length PKCzeta, full-length PRK2, or PRK2 lacking its N-terminal regulatory domain abolishes or significantly reduces the ability of these kinases to interact with PDK1 and to become phosphorylated at their T-loop sites in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of the hydrophobic motif of PRK2 in cells prevents the T-loop phosphorylation and thus inhibits the activation of PRK2 and PKCzeta. These findings indicate that the hydrophobic motif of PRK2 and PKCzeta acts as a "docking site" enabling the recruitment of PDK1 to these substrates. This is essential for their phosphorylation by PDK1 in cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;27;20806-13

  • The Rho effector, PKN, regulates ANF gene transcription in cardiomyocytes through a serum response element.

    Morissette MR, Sah VP, Glembotski CC and Brown JH

    Department of Pharmacology and Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA.

    The low-molecular-weight GTP-binding protein RhoA mediates hypertrophic growth and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene expression in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Neither the effector nor the promoter elements through which Rho exerts its regulatory effects on ANF gene expression have been elucidated. When constitutively activated forms of Rho kinase and two protein kinase C-related kinases, PKN (PRK1) and PRK2, were compared, only PKN generated a robust stimulation of a luciferase reporter gene driven by a 638-bp fragment on the ANF promoter. This ANF promoter fragment contains a proximal serum response element (SRE) and an Sp-1-like element required for the transcriptional response to phenylephrine (PE). This response was inhibited by dominant negative Rho. The ability of dominant negative Rho to inhibit the response to PE and the ability of PKN to stimulate ANF reporter gene expression were both lost when the SRE was mutated. Mutation of the Sp-1-like element also attenuated the response to PKN. A minimal promoter driven by ANF SRE sequences was sufficient to confer Rho- and PKN-mediated gene expression. Interestingly, PKN preferentially stimulated the ANF versus the c-fos SRE reporter gene. Thus PKN and Rho are able to regulate transcriptional activation of the ANF SRE by a common element that could implicate PKN as a downstream effector of Rho in transcriptional responses associated with hypertrophy.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-28143, HL-46345

    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 2000;278;6;H1769-74

  • PKN binds and phosphorylates human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein.

    Gao Q, Kumar A, Srinivasan S, Singh L, Mukai H, Ono Y, Wazer DE and Band V

    Department of Radiation Oncology, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.

    The high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with carcinomas of cervix and other genital tumors. Previous studies have identified two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which are expressed in the majority of HPV-associated carcinomas. The ability of high risk HPV E6 protein to immortalize human mammary epithelial cells has provided a single gene model to study the mechanisms of E6-induced oncogenic transformation. In recent years, it has become clear that in addition to E6-induced degradation of p53 tumor suppressor protein, other targets of E6 are required for mammary epithelial cells immortalization. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel interaction of HPV16 E6 with protein kinase PKN, a fatty acid- and Rho small G protein-activated serine/threonine kinase with a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C. We demonstrate direct binding of high risk HPV E6 proteins to PKN in wheat-germ lysate in vitro and in 293T cells in vivo. Importantly, E6 proteins of high risk HPVs but not low risk HPVs were able to bind PKN. Furthermore, all the immortalization-competent and many immortalization-non-competent E6 mutants bind PKN. These data suggest that binding to PKN may be required but not sufficient for immortalizing normal mammary epithelial cells. Finally, we show that PKN phosphorylates E6, demonstrating for the first time that HPV E6 is a phosphoprotein. Our finding suggests a novel link between HPV E6 mediated oncogenesis and regulation of a well known phosphorylation cascade.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA64823, CA70195

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;20;14824-30

  • Phosphorylation of protein kinase N by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 mediates insulin signals to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Dong LQ, Landa LR, Wick MJ, Zhu L, Mukai H, Ono Y and Liu F

    Department of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

    Growth factors such as insulin regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in many types of cells. However, the mechanism by which the insulin signal is transmitted to the actin cytoskeleton remains largely unknown. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase downstream effector phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) interacted with protein kinase N (PKN), a Rho-binding Ser/Thr protein kinase potentially implicated in a variety of cellular events, including phosphorylation of cytoskeletal components. PDK1 and PKN interacted in vitro and in intact cells, and this interaction was mediated by the kinase domain of PDK1 and the carboxyl terminus of PKN. In addition to a direct interaction, PDK1 also phosphorylated Thr(774) in the activation loop and activated PKN. Insulin treatment or ectopic expression of the wild-type PDK1 or PKN, but not protein kinase Czeta, induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization and membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and Rat1 cells that stably express the insulin receptor (Rat1-IR). However, the insulin-stimulated actin cytoskeleton reorganization in Rat1-IR cells was prevented by expression of kinase-defective PDK1 or PDK1-phosphorylation site-mutated PKN. Thus, phosphorylation by PDK1 appears to be necessary for PKN to transduce signals from the insulin receptor to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52933, R01 DK052933

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;10;5089-94

  • Rho GTPase control of protein kinase C-related protein kinase activation by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase.

    Flynn P, Mellor H, Casamassima A and Parker PJ

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom.

    The protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs) have been shown to be under the control of the Rho GTPases and influenced by autophosphorylation. In analyzing the relationship between these inputs, it is shown that activation in vitro and in vivo involves the activation loop phosphorylation of PRK1/2 by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Rho overexpression in cultured cells is shown to increase the activation loop phosphorylation of endogenous PRKs and is demonstrated to influence this process by controlling the ability of PRKs to bind to PDK1. The interaction of PRK1/2 with PDK1 is shown to be dependent upon Rho. Direct demonstration of ternary (Rho.PRK.PDK1) complex formation in situ is provided by the observation that PDK1 is recruited to RhoB-containing endosomes only if PRK is coexpressed. Furthermore, this in vivo complex is maintained after phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. The control of PRKs by PDK1 thus evidences a novel strategy of substrate-directed control involving GTPases.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;15;11064-70

  • Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2.

    Shibata H, Oda H, Mukai H, Oishi K, Misaki K, Ohkubo H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.

    By the yeast two-hybrid screening of a human brain cDNA library with the amino-terminal regulatory region of PKN as a bait, a clone encoding a neuron-specific basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2 was isolated. NDRF/NeuroD2 was co-precipitated with PKN from the lysate of COS-7 cells transfected with both expression constructs for NDRF/NeuroD2 and PKN. In vitro binding studies using the deletion mutants of NDRF/NeuroD2 synthesized in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate indicated that the internal region containing the bHLH domain of NDRF/NeuroD2 was necessary and sufficient for the interaction with PKN. In addition, recombinant NDRF/NeuroD2 purified from Escherichia coli could bind PKN, suggesting the direct interaction between NDRF/NeuroD2 and PKN. Transient transfection assays using P19 cells revealed that expression of NDRF/NeuroD2 increased the transactivation of the rat insulin promoter element 3 (RIPE3) enhancer up to approximately 12-fold and that co-expression of catalytically active form of PKN, but not kinase-deficient derivative, resulted in a further threefold increase of NDRF/NeuroD2-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that PKN may contribute to transcriptional responses through the post-translational modification of the NDRF/NeuroD2-dependent transcriptional machinery.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;74;1-2;126-34

  • The structural basis of Rho effector recognition revealed by the crystal structure of human RhoA complexed with the effector domain of PKN/PRK1.

    Maesaki R, Ihara K, Shimizu T, Kuroda S, Kaibuchi K and Hakoshima T

    Division of Structural Biology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.

    The small G protein Rho has emerged as a key regulator of cellular events involving cytoskeletal reorganization. Here we report the 2.2 A crystal structure of RhoA bound to an effector domain of protein kinase PKN/PRK1. The structure reveals the antiparallel coiled-coil finger (ACC finger) fold of the effector domain that binds to the Rho specificity-determining regions containing switch I, beta strands B2 and B3, and the C-terminal alpha helix A5, predominantly by specific hydrogen bonds. The ACC finger fold is distinct from those for other small G proteins and provides evidence for the diverse ways of effector recognition. Sequence analysis based on the structure suggests that the ACC finger fold is widespread in Rho effector proteins.

    Molecular cell 1999;4;5;793-803

  • Mutational analysis of the regulatory mechanism of PKN: the regulatory region of PKN contains an arachidonic acid-sensitive autoinhibitory domain.

    Yoshinaga C, Mukai H, Toshimori M, Miyamoto M and Ono Y

    Graduate School of Science and Technology Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, 657-8501, Japan.

    PKN is a fatty acid- and Rho GTPase-activated protein kinase whose catalytic domain in the carboxyl terminus is homologous to those of protein kinase C (PKC) family members. The amino terminal region of PKN is suggested to function as a regulatory domain, since tryptic cleavage or the binding of Rho GTPase to this region results in protein kinase activation of PKN. The structural basis for the regulation of PKN was investigated by analyzing the activity of a series of deletion/site-directed mutants expressed in insect cells. The amino-terminally truncated form of PKN (residue 455-942) showed low basal activity similar to that of the wild-type enzyme, and was arachidonic acid-dependent. However, further deletion (residue 511-942) resulted in a marked increase in the basal activity and a decrease in the arachidonic acid dependency. A (His)(6)-tagged protein comprising residues 455-511 of PKN (designated His-Ialpha) inhibited the kinase activity of the catalytic fragment of PKN in a concentration-dependent manner in competition with substrate (K(i) = 0.6+/-0.2 microM). His-Ialpha also inhibited the activity of the catalytic fragment of PRK2, an isoform of PKN, but had no inhibitory effect on protein kinase A or protein kinase Cdelta. The IC(50) value obtained in the presence of 40 microM arachidonic acid was two orders of magnitude greater than that in the absence of the modifier. These results indicate that this protein fragment functions as a specific inhibitor of PKN and PRK2, and that arachidonic acid relieves the catalytic activity of wild-type PKN from autoinhibition by residues 455-511 of PKN. Autophosphorylation of wild-type PKN increased the protein kinase activity, however, substitution of Thr64, Ser374, or Thr531 in the regulatory region of PKN with alanine, abolished this effect. Substitution of Thr774 in the activation loop of the catalytic domain of PKN with alanine completely abolished the protein kinase activity. These results suggest that these phosphorylation sites are also important in the regulation of the PKN kinase activity. Potential differences in the mechanism of activation between the catalytic regions of PKN and PRK2 are also discussed.

    Journal of biochemistry 1999;126;3;475-84

  • Biochemical and crystallographic characterization of a Rho effector domain of the protein serine/threonine kinase N in a complex with RhoA.

    Maesaki R, Shimizu T, Ihara K, Kuroda S, Kaibuchi K and Hakoshima T

    Division of Structural Biology, Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0101, Japan.

    The effector domain of human protein serine/threonine kinase N (PKN), an effector protein for the small GTP-binding protein Rho, was expressed and purified for protein characterization and crystallization in a complex form with human RhoA. In solution, RhoA binds to the PKN effector domain with 1:2 stoichiometry in a GTP-dependent manner. The obtained complex crystals diffract to 2.2 A resolution.

    Journal of structural biology 1999;126;2;166-70

  • Characterization of a novel giant scaffolding protein, CG-NAP, that anchors multiple signaling enzymes to centrosome and the golgi apparatus.

    Takahashi M, Shibata H, Shimakawa M, Miyamoto M, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    A novel 450-kDa coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was identified as a protein that interacted with the regulatory region of the protein kinase PKN, having a catalytic domain homologous to that of protein kinase C. CG-NAP contains two sets of putative RII (regulatory subunit of protein kinase A)-binding motif. Indeed, CG-NAP tightly bound to RIIalpha in HeLa cells. Furthermore, CG-NAP was coimmunoprecipitated with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), when one of the B subunit of PP2A (PR130) was exogenously expressed in COS7 cells. CG-NAP also interacted with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in HeLa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells revealed that CG-NAP was localized to centrosome throughout the cell cycle, the midbody at telophase, and the Golgi apparatus at interphase, where a certain population of PKN and RIIalpha were found to be accumulated. These data indicate that CG-NAP serves as a novel scaffolding protein that assembles several protein kinases and phosphatases on centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, where physiological events, such as cell cycle progression and intracellular membrane traffic, may be regulated by phosphorylation state of specific protein substrates.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;24;17267-74

  • New phosphorylation sites identified in hyperphosphorylated tau (paired helical filament-tau) from Alzheimer's disease brain using nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    Hanger DP, Betts JC, Loviny TL, Blackstock WP and Anderton BH

    Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, London, England, UK.

    Paired helical filaments (PHFs) are the structural constituents of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and are composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau (PHF-tau). Pathological hyperphosphorylation of tau is believed to be an important contributor to the destabilisation of microtubules and their subsequent disappearance from tangle-bearing neurons in Alzheimer's disease, making elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate tau phosphorylation an important research goal. Thus, it is essential to identify, preferably by direct sequencing, all of the sites in PHF-tau that are phosphorylated, a task that is incomplete because of the difficulty to date of purifying insoluble PHF-tau to homogeneity and in sufficient quantities for structural analysis. Here we describe the solubilisation of PHF-tau followed by its purification by Mono Q chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Phosphopeptides from proteolytically digested PHF-tau were sequenced by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. We identified 22 phosphorylation sites in PHF-tau, including five sites not previously identified. The combination of our new data with previous reports shows that PHF-tau can be phosphorylated on at least 25 different sites.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;71;6;2465-76

  • Proteolytic activation of PKN by caspase-3 or related protease during apoptosis.

    Takahashi M, Mukai H, Toshimori M, Miyamoto M and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    PKN, a fatty acid- and Rho-activated serine/threonine kinase having a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC), was cleaved at specific sites in apoptotic Jurkat and U937 cells on Fas ligation and treatment with staurosporin or etoposide, respectively. The cleavage of PKN occurred with a time course similar to that of PKCdelta, a known caspase substrate. This proteolysis was inhibited by a caspase inhibitor, acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde. The cleavage fragments were generated in vitro from PKN by treatment with recombinant caspase-3. Site-directed mutagenesis of specific aspartate residues prevented the appearance of these fragments. These results indicate that PKN is cleaved by caspase-3 or related protease during apoptosis. The major proteolysis took place between the amino-terminal regulatory domain and the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain, and it generated a constitutively active kinase fragment. The cleavage of PKN may contribute to signal transduction, eventually leading to apoptosis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;20;11566-71

  • PKN interacts with a paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration-associated antigen, which is a potential transcription factor.

    Takanaga H, Mukai H, Shibata H, Toshimori M and Ono Y

    Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, 657, Japan.

    PKN is a fatty acid-activated serine/threonine protein kinase, having a catalytic domain homologous to protein kinase C family. PKN has been recently reported to interact with a small GTP-binding protein Rho and cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament and alpha-actinin. To identify the new components of the PKN-signaling pathway, the yeast two-hybrid system was employed. Using the amino-terminal regulatory domain of PKN as a bait, cDNA encoding a neural antigen PCD17, which is recognized by characteristic antibodies of patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, was isolated from a human brain cDNA library. The interaction between PKN and PCD17 was also determined by the in vitro binding analysis. PCD17 was coimmunoprecipitated with PKN from the lysate of COS7 cells transfected with both expression constructs for PKN and the amino-terminal region of PCD17. PCD17 was phosphorylated by PKN, and the extent of this phosphorylation was enhanced by addition of 40 microM arachidonic acid. The amino-terminal region of PCD17 could form a homodimer in vitro, and PCD17 fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain showed the transcriptional transactivation of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene linked to 5 Gal4 binding sites and minimal promoter in rat C6 glioma cells. These results suggest the participation of PCD17 in gene expression and lead to a clue for elucidating the PKN signaling pathway from the cytosol to the nucleus.

    Experimental cell research 1998;241;2;363-72

  • Analysis of RhoA-binding proteins reveals an interaction domain conserved in heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits and the yeast response regulator protein Skn7.

    Alberts AS, Bouquin N, Johnston LH and Treisman R

    Transcription Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom. alberts@cc.ucsf.edu

    To identify potential RhoA effector proteins, we conducted a two-hybrid screen for cDNAs encoding proteins that interact with a Gal4-RhoA.V14 fusion protein. In addition to the RhoA effector ROCK-I we identified cDNAs encoding Kinectin, mDia2 (a p140 mDia-related protein), and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mNET1. ROCK-I, Kinectin, and mDia2 can bind the wild type forms of both RhoA and Cdc42 in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Comparison of the ROCK-I and Kinectin sequences revealed a short region of sequence homology that is both required for interaction in the two-hybrid assay and sufficient for weak interaction in vitro. Sequences related to the ROCK-I/Kinectin sequence homology are present in heterotrimeric G protein beta subunits and in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 protein. We show that beta2 and Skn7 can interact with mammalian RhoA and Cdc42 and yeast Rho1, both in vivo and in vitro. Functional assays in yeast suggest that the Skn7 ROCK-I/Kinectin homology region is required for its function in vivo.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;15;8616-22

  • The protein kinase N (PKN) gene PRKCL1/Prkcl1 maps to human chromosome 19p12-p13.1 and mouse chromosome 8 with close linkage to the myodystrophy (myd) mutation.

    Bartsch JW, Mukai H, Takahashi N, Ronsiek M, Fuchs S, Jockusch H and Ono Y

    Developmental Biology Unit, University of Bielefeld, Germany. joerg.bartsch@biologie.uni-bielefeld.de

    Protein kinase N (PKN) is a fatty acid- and Rho-activated serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of cell motility by association with cytoskeletal components such as neurofilament and alpha-actinin. We determined the chromosomal location of the human PKN gene PRKCL1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by radiation hybrid mapping. The corresponding mouse gene Prkcl1 was mapped by segregation analysis. We found by FISH that PRKCL1 is localized to chromosome 19p12-p13.1 and, more precisely, by radiation hybrid mapping, about 11 cR from EST WI-6344 in subband 19p12. Prkcl1 maps to mouse chromosome 8 between D8Mit6 and junb. This region of mouse Chr 8 shows a scrambled syntenic conservation to human chromosomes 4q, 8p, and 19p. As the mouse mutation myodystrophy myd has been mapped to the same region, Prkcl1 is a candidate gene for myd.

    Genomics 1998;49;1;129-32

  • Sequential phosphorylation of Tau by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and protein kinase A at Thr212 and Ser214 generates the Alzheimer-specific epitope of antibody AT100 and requires a paired-helical-filament-like conformation.

    Zheng-Fischhöfer Q, Biernat J, Mandelkow EM, Illenberger S, Godemann R and Mandelkow E

    Max-Planck-Unit for Structural Molecular Biology, Hamburg, Germany.

    AT100 is a monoclonal antibody highly specific for phosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer paired helical filaments. Here we show that the epitope is generated by a complex sequence of sequential phosphorylation, first of Ser199, Ser202 and Thr205 (around the epitope of antibody AT8), next of Thr212 by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta (a proline-directed kinase), then of Ser214 by protein kinase A (PKA). Conversely, if Ser214 is phosphorylated first it protects Thr212 and the Ser-Pro motifs around the AT8 site against phosphorylation, and the AT100 epitope is not formed. The generation of the AT100 epitope requires a conformation of tau induced by polyanions such as heparin, RNA or poly(Glu), conditions which also favor the formation of paired helical filaments. The Alzheimer-like phosphorylation can be induced by brain extracts. In the extract, the kinases responsible for generating the AT100 epitope are GSK-3beta and PKA, which can be inhibited by their specific inhibitors LiCl and RII, respectively. A cellular model displaying the reaction with AT100 is presented by Sf9 insect cells transfected with Tau. Knowledge of the events and kinases generating the AT100 epitope in cells might allow us to study the degeneration of the cytoskeleton in Alzheimer's disease.

    European journal of biochemistry 1998;252;3;542-52

  • Multiple interactions of PRK1 with RhoA. Functional assignment of the Hr1 repeat motif.

    Flynn P, Mellor H, Palmer R, Panayotou G and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, United Kingdom.

    PRK1 (PKN) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to be activated by RhoA (Amano, M., Mukai, H., Ono, Y., Chihara, K., Matsui, T., Hamajima, Y., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., and Kaibuchi, K. (1996) Science 271, 648-650). Detailed analysis of the PRK1 region involved in RhoA binding has revealed that two homologous sequences within the HR1 domain (HR1a and HR1b) both bind to RhoA; the third repeat within this domain, HR1cPRK1, does not bind RhoA. The related HR1 motif is also found to confer RhoA binding activity to the only other fully cloned member of this kinase family, PRK2. Furthermore, the predictive value of this motif is established for an HR1a sequence derived from a Caenorhabditis elegans open reading frame encoding a protein kinase of unknown function. Interestingly, the HR1aPRK1 and HR1bPRK1 subdomains are shown to display a distinctive nucleotide dependence for RhoA binding. HRIaPRK1 is entirely GTP-dependent, while HR1bPRK1 binds both GTP- and GDP-bound forms of RhoA. This distinction indicates that there are two sites of contact between RhoA and PRK1, one contact through a region that is conformationally dependent upon the nucleotide-bound state of RhoA and one that is not. Analysis of binding to Rho/Rac chimera provides evidence for a HR1aPRK1 but not HR1bPRK1 interaction in the central third of Rho. Additionally, it is observed that the V14RhoA mutant binds HR1a but does not bind HR1b. This distinct binding behavior corroborates the conclusion that there are independent contacts on RhoA for the HR1aPRK1 and HR1bPRK1 motifs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;5;2698-705

  • Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau by stress-activated protein kinases.

    Goedert M, Hasegawa M, Jakes R, Lawler S, Cuenda A and Cohen P

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    The paired helical filament, which comprises the major fibrous element of the neurofibrillary lesions of Alzheimer's disease, is composed of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. Many of the hyperphosphorylated sites in tau are serine/threonine-prolines. Here we show that the stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases SAPK1gamma (also called JNK1), SAPK2a (also called p38, RK, CSBPs, Mpk2 and Mxi2), SAPK2b (also called p38beta), SAPK3 (also called ERK6 and p38gamma) and SAPK4 phosphorylate tau at many serine/threonine-prolines, as assessed by the generation of the epitopes of phosphorylation-dependent anti-tau antibodies. Based on initial rates of phosphorylation, tau was found to be a good substrate for SAPK4 and SAPK3, a reasonable substrate for SAPK2b and a relatively poor substrate for SAPK2a and SAPK1gamma. Phosphorylation of tau by SAPK3 and SAPK4 resulted in a marked reduction in its ability to promote microtubule assembly. These findings double the number of candidate protein kinases for the hyperphosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    FEBS letters 1997;409;1;57-62

  • Domain-specific phosphorylation of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein by PKN.

    Matsuzawa K, Kosako H, Inagaki N, Shibata H, Mukai H, Ono Y, Amano M, Kaibuchi K, Matsuura Y, Azuma I and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

    PKN is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to the protein kinase C family and unique N-terminal leucine zipper-like sequences. Using analyses with the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro binding assay, we found that the regulatory domain of PKN interacted with vimentin. We then examined whether PKN would phosphorylate vimentin in vitro. Vimentin proved to be an excellent substrate for PKN, and the phosphorylation of vimentin by PKN occurred in the head domain with the result of a nearly complete inhibition of its filament formation in vitro. Similar results were also obtained with another type III intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These results raise the possibility that PKN may regulate filament structures of vimentin and GFAP by domain-specific phosphorylation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;234;3;621-5

  • Interaction of PKN with alpha-actinin.

    Mukai H, Toshimori M, Shibata H, Takanaga H, Kitagawa M, Miyahara M, Shimakawa M and Ono Y

    Radioisotope Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657, Japan.

    PKN is a fatty acid- and Rho-activated serine/threonine protein kinase, having a catalytic domain homologous to protein kinase C family. To identify components of the PKN-signaling pathway such as substrates and regulatory proteins of PKN, the yeast two-hybrid strategy was employed. Using the N-terminal region of PKN as a bait, cDNAs encoding actin cross-linking protein alpha-actinin, which lacked the N-terminal actin-binding domain, were isolated from human brain cDNA library. The responsible region for interaction between PKN and alpha-actinin was determined by in vitro binding analysis using the various truncated mutants of these proteins. The N-terminal region of PKN outside the RhoA-binding domain was sufficiently shown to associate with alpha-actinin. PKN bound to the third spectrin-like repeats of both skeletal and non-skeletal muscle type alpha-actinin. PKN also bound to the region containing EF-hand-like motifs of non-skeletal muscle type alpha-actinin in a Ca2+-sensitive manner and bound to that of skeletal muscle type alpha-actinin in a Ca2+-insensitive manner. alpha-Actinin was co-immunoprecipitated with PKN from the lysate of COS7 cells transfected with both expression constructs for PKN and alpha-actinin lacking the actin-binding domain. In vitro translated full-length alpha-actinin containing the actin-binding site hardly bound to PKN, but the addition of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate, which is implicated in actin reorganization, stimulated the binding activity of the full-length alpha-actinin with PKN. We therefore propose that PKN is linked to the cytoskeletal network via a direct association between PKN and alpha-actinin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;8;4740-6

  • Detailed map of a region commonly amplified at 11q13-->q14 in human breast carcinoma.

    Bekri S, Adélaïde J, Merscher S, Grosgeorge J, Caroli-Bosc F, Perucca-Lostanlen D, Kelley PM, Pébusque MJ, Theillet C, Birnbaum D and Gaudray P

    Instabilité et Altérations des Génomes, UNSA/CNRS UMR 6549, Nice, France.

    Amplification of loci present on band q13 of human chromosome 11 is a feature of a subset of estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas prone to metastasis. As many as five distinct amplification units have been described on 11q13. They include particularly a genomic area encompassing the GARP gene at 11q13.5-->q14.1. We have reassessed our current knowledge of this region, located telomeric to CCND1 and EMS1, which is amplified in 7-10% of mammary tumors. The loose definition of the driving forces of these amplification events led us to map accurately the boundaries of the amplifiable region, and thus to contribute a physical and transcriptional map of a 3-Mb region of chromosome 11. Four new genes were placed on the regional map, namely CBP2, CLNS1A, UVRAG, and PAK1. We have narrowed the core of the 11q13-->q14 amplicon to a 350-kb area encompassing D11S533, mostly on its telomeric side. The map reported here represents an indispensable step toward sequencing the entire region, and thus toward uncovering gene(s) which play(s) a critical role in breast cancer progression.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1997;79;1-2;125-31

  • Translocation of PKN from the cytosol to the nucleus induced by stresses.

    Mukai H, Miyahara M, Sunakawa H, Shibata H, Toshimori M, Kitagawa M, Shimakawa M, Takanaga H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Japan.

    Effects of environmental stresses on the subcellular localization of PKN were investigated in NIH 3T3, BALB/c 3T3, and Rat-1 cells. The immunofluorescence of PKN resided prominently in the cytoplasmic region in nonstressed cells. When these cells were treated at 42 degrees C, there was a time-dependent decrease of the immunofluorescence of PKN in the cytoplasmic region that correlated with an increase within the nucleus as observed by confocal microscope. After incubation at 37 degrees C following beat shock, the immunofluorescence of PKN returned to the perinuclear and cytoplasmic regions from the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of PKN by heat shock was supported by the biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting. The nuclear localization of PKN was also observed when the cells were exposed to other stresses such as sodium arsenite and serum starvation. These results raise the possibility that there is a pathway mediating stress signals from the cytosol to the nucleus through PKN.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996;93;19;10195-9

  • Human Ste20 homologue hPAK1 links GTPases to the JNK MAP kinase pathway.

    Brown JL, Stowers L, Baer M, Trejo J, Coughlin S and Chant J

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

    Background: The Rho-related GTP-binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 have been shown to regulate signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal reorganization and stress-responsive JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) activation. However, to date, the GTPase targets that mediate these effects have not been identified. PAK defines a growing family of mammalian kinases that are related to yeast Ste20 and are activated in vitro through binding to Cdc42 and Rac1 (PAK: p21 Cdc42-/Rac-activated kinase). Clues to PAK function have come from studies of Ste20, which controls the activity of the yeast mating mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, in response to a heterotrimeric G protein and Cdc42.

    Results: To initiate studies of mammalian Ste20-related kinases, we identified a novel human PAK isoform, hPAK1. When expressed in yeast, hPAK1 was able to replace Ste20 in the pheromone response pathway. Chemical mutagenesis of a plasmid encoding hPAK1, followed by transformation into yeast, led to the identification of a potent constitutively active hPAK1 with a substitution of a highly conserved amino-acid residue (L107F) in the Cdc42-binding domain. Expression of the hPAK1(L107F) allele in mammalian cells led to specific activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase MAP kinase pathway, but not the mechanistically related extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase pathway.

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that hPAK1 is a GTPase effector controlling a downstream MAP kinase pathway in mammalian cells, as Ste20 does in yeast. Thus, PAK and Ste20 kinases play key parts in linking extracellular signals from membrane components, such as receptor-associated G proteins and Rho-related GTPases, to nuclear responses, such as transcriptional activation.

    Current biology : CB 1996;6;5;598-605

  • PKN associates and phosphorylates the head-rod domain of neurofilament protein.

    Mukai H, Toshimori M, Shibata H, Kitagawa M, Shimakawa M, Miyahara M, Sunakawa H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Japan.

    PKN is a fatty acid-activated serine/threonine kinase that has a catalytic domain highly homologous to that of protein kinase C in the carboxyl terminus and a unique regulatory region in the amino terminus. Recently, we reported that the small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to the amino-terminal region of PKN and activates PKN in a GTP-dependent manner, and we suggested that PKN is located on the downstream of Rho in the signal transduction pathway (Amano, M., Mukai, H., Ono, Y., Chihara, K., Matsui, T., Hamajima, Y., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., and Kaibuchi, K. (1996) Science 271, 648-650; Watanabe, G., Saito, Y., Madaule, P., Ishizaki, T., Fujisawa, K., Morii, N., Mukai, H., Ono, Y. Kakizuka, A., and Narumiya, S. (1996) Science 271, 645-648). To identify other components of the PKN pathway such as substrates and regulatory proteins of PKN, the yeast two-hybrid strategy was employed. By this screening, a clone encoding the neurofilament L protein, a subunit of neuron-specific intermediate filament, was isolated. The amino-terminal regulatory region of PKN was shown to associate with the head-rod domains of other subunits of neurofilament (neurofilament proteins M and H) as well as neurofilament L protein in yeast cells. The direct binding between PKN and each subunit of neurofilament was confirmed by using the in vitro translated amino-terminal region of PKN and glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the head-rod domain of each subunit of neurofilament. PKN purified from rat testis phosphorylated each subunit of the native neurofilament purified from bovine spinal cord and the bacterially synthesized head-rod domain of each subunit of neurofilament. Polymerization of neurofilament L protein in vitro was inhibited by phosphorylation of neurofilament L protein by PKN. The identification and characterization of the novel interaction with PKN may contribute toward the elucidation of mechanisms regulating the function of neurofilament.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;16;9816-22

  • Identification of a putative target for Rho as the serine-threonine kinase protein kinase N.

    Amano M, Mukai H, Ono Y, Chihara K, Matsui T, Hamajima Y, Okawa K, Iwamatsu A and Kaibuchi K

    Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Japan.

    Rho, a Ras-like small guanosine triphosphatase, has been implicated in cytoskeletal responses to extracellular signals such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to form stress fibers and focal contacts. The form of RhoA bound to guanosine triphosphate directly bound to and activated a serine-threonine kinase, protein kinase N (PKN). Activated RhoA formed a complex with PKN and activated it in COS-7 cells. PKN was phosphorylated in Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated with LPA, and this phosphorylation was blocked by treatment of cells with botulinum C3 exoenzyme. Activation of Rho may be linked directly to a serine-threonine kinase pathway.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1996;271;5249;648-50

  • PRK1 phosphorylates MARCKS at the PKC sites: serine 152, serine 156 and serine 163.

    Palmer RH, Schönwasser DC, Rahman D, Pappin DJ, Herget T and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK.

    The 80kDa Myristolated Alanine-Rich C-Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) is a major in vivo substrate of protein kinase C (PKC). Here we report that MARCKS is a major substrate for the lipid-activated PKC-related kinase (PRK1) in cell extracts. Furthermore, PRK1 is shown to phosphorylate MARCKS on the same sites as PKC in vitro. Thus, control of MARCKS phosphorylation on these previously identified 'PKC' sites may be regulated under certain circumstances by PRK as well as PKC mediated signalling pathways. The implications for MARCKS as a marker of PKC activation and as a point of signal convergence are discussed.

    FEBS letters 1996;378;3;281-5

  • Cloning and expression patterns of two members of a novel protein-kinase-C-related kinase family.

    Palmer RH, Ridden J and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, England.

    The cDNA clones for two members of a novel protein kinase family were isolated and sequenced. These protein-kinase-C-related kinases, PRK1 and PRK2, display extensive identity to each other, revealing non-kinase domain similar regions. HR1 and HR2. HR1 contains a motif repeated three times (HR1a-c), while HR2 shows similarity to the amino-terminal sequence of protein-kinase-C epsilon and eta isotypes. Both PRK1 and PRK2, expressed in COS 1 cells, are autophosphorylated in immunoprecipitates, indicating intrinsic kinase activity. PRK1 and PRK2, as well as a third member of this family, PRK3, show distinct patterns of expression in adult tissues.

    European journal of biochemistry 1995;227;1-2;344-51

  • Identification of multiple, novel, protein kinase C-related gene products.

    Palmer RH, Ridden J and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK.

    A PCR approach has been employed to screen two cDNA libraries for PKC(-related) sequences. In each case multiple cDNAs were identified, including known PKC isotypes, a previously unknown PKC-eta related sequence and three members of what appears to be a protein kinase C related kinase (PRK 1-3) family. The origin and relationships of these predicted proteins is discussed.

    FEBS letters 1994;356;1;5-8

  • Identification and characterization of DBK, a novel putative serine/threonine protein kinase from human endothelial cells.

    Chu W, Presky DH, Danho W, Swerlick RA and Burns DK

    Department of Inflammation/Autoimmune Diseases, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Roche Research Center, Nutley NJ 07110-1199.

    Protein kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways and play important roles in the regulation of cell functions. cDNA clones encoding a novel serine/threonine protein kinase sequence, designated as DBK, were isolated from cDNA libraries made from human endothelial cells. The compiled nucleotide sequence is 1636 base pairs long, consisting of an open reading frame encoding a 479-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 53 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a protein kinase catalytic domain of 263 residues which includes all the characteristic features of a serine/threonine protein kinase. The invariant amino acid residues scattered throughout the catalytic domain of almost all known protein kinases are also found in DBK. Sequence comparison of DBK catalytic domain shows approximately 51% sequence identities to that of human protein kinase C family members. DBK shares the highest sequence identity, 53%, to that of Drosophila PKC. Northern blot analysis of various human tissues and cultured cell lines with a DBK gene-specific cDNA probe demonstrated a single band of 2.0 kb that is expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined. Although the expression of DBK kinase was detected in all human tissues analyzed, the levels of expression varied significantly, with the highest expression detected in lung and heart, and the lowest expression found in brain and liver. Anti-DBK peptide-specific rabbit antisera were prepared, and were capable of immunoprecipitating DBK protein from COS cells transfected with DBK cDNA. The DBK gene is a single-copy gene, and is highly conserved across species from human to yeast. Using somatic cell hybrids, the DBK gene has been localized to human chromosome 14. The ubiquitous expression and high degree of conservation of DBK across species suggest that DBK may play an important role in cell functions.

    European journal of biochemistry 1994;225;2;695-702

  • A novel protein kinase with leucine zipper-like sequences: its catalytic domain is highly homologous to that of protein kinase C.

    Mukai H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Japan.

    A novel protein kinase, designated PKN, was identified by molecular cloning from a human hippocampus cDNA library. PKN consists of 942 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 103,925 daltons. PKN has leucine zipper-like sequences in its amino terminal region and contains a catalytic domain that shows strong similarity to that of protein kinase C family. Northern blot analysis indicates PKN is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. Antisera against PKN identified a 120K dalton protein on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis when PKN was expressed in the insect cells or COS7 cells. Recombinant PKN revealed an intrinsic protein kinase activity associated with a 120K protein. This activity was abolished by mutation of the lysine residue in the potential ATP binding site.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;199;2;897-904

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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