G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
immunoglobulin superfamily, member 8
G00000830 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000024075 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000162729 (Ensembl human gene)
93185 (Entrez Gene)
1267 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
IGSF8 (GeneCards)
606644 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17813 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q969P0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • CD316
  • CD81P3
  • EWI2
  • PGRL

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • Glioblastoma inhibition by cell surface immunoglobulin protein EWI-2, in vitro and in vivo.

    Kolesnikova TV, Kazarov AR, Lemieux ME, Lafleur MA, Kesari S, Kung AL and Hemler ME

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    EWI-2, a cell surface IgSF protein, is highly expressed in normal human brain but is considerably diminished in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. Moreover, loss of EWI-2 expression correlated with a shorter survival time in human glioma patients, suggesting that EWI-2 might be a natural inhibitor of glioblastoma. In support of this idea, EWI-2 expression significantly impaired both ectopic and orthotopic tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. In vitro assays provided clues regarding EWI-2 functions. Expression of EWI-2 in T98G and/or U87-MG malignant glioblastoma cell lines failed to alter two-dimensional cell proliferation but inhibited glioblastoma colony formation in soft agar and caused diminished cell motility and invasion. At the biochemical level, EWI-2 markedly affects the organization of four molecules (tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MT1-MMP), which play key roles in the biology of astrocytes and gliomas. EWI-2 causes CD9 and CD81 to become more associated with each other, whereas CD81 and other tetraspanins become less associated with MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. We propose that EWI-2 inhibition of glioblastoma growth in vivo is at least partly explained by the capability of EWI-2 to inhibit growth and/or invasion in vitro. Underlying these functional effects, EWI-2 causes a substantial molecular reorganization of multiple molecules (CD81, CD9, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP) known to affect proliferation and/or invasion of astrocytes and/or glioblastomas.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42368, K08 CA124804, K08CA124804, R01 CA042368; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903, R01 GM038903

    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 2009;11;1;77-86, 4p following 86

  • The CD81 partner EWI-2wint inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.

    Rocha-Perugini V, Montpellier C, Delgrange D, Wychowski C, Helle F, Pillez A, Drobecq H, Le Naour F, Charrin S, Levy S, Rubinstein E, Dubuisson J and Cocquerel L

    Institut de Biologie de Lille (UMR8161), CNRS, Universités de Lille I et Lille II, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France.

    Two to three percent of the world's population is chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and thus at risk of developing liver cancer. Although precise mechanisms regulating HCV entry into hepatic cells are still unknown, several cell surface proteins have been identified as entry factors for this virus. Among these molecules, the tetraspanin CD81 is essential for HCV entry. Here, we have identified a partner of CD81, EWI-2wint, which is expressed in several cell lines but not in hepatocytes. Ectopic expression of EWI-2wint in a hepatoma cell line susceptible to HCV infection blocked viral entry by inhibiting the interaction between the HCV envelope glycoproteins and CD81. This finding suggests that, in addition to the presence of specific entry factors in the hepatocytes, the lack of a specific inhibitor can contribute to the hepatotropism of HCV. This is the first example of a pathogen gaining entry into host cells that lack a specific inhibitory factor.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    PloS one 2008;3;4;e1866

  • EWI-2/CD316 is an inducible receptor of HSPA8 on human dendritic cells.

    Kettner S, Kalthoff F, Graf P, Priller E, Kricek F, Lindley I and Schweighoffer T

    Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research Vienna, A-1230 Vienna, Austria.

    The activation of dendritic cells is marked by changes both on their cell surfaces and in their functions. We define EWI-2/CD316 as an early activation marker of dendritic cells upregulated by Toll-like receptor ligands clearly before CD86 and CD83. By expression cloning, human heat shock protein A8 (HSPA8), a member of the hsp70 family, was identified as the ligand for EWI-2. Soluble EWI-2 bound both to cells expressing HSPA8 and also to immobilized HSPA8 protein. Although heat shock proteins are evolutionarily well conserved, other members of this class, including human hsp60 and mycobacterial hsp65, did not bind to EWI-2. The ligation of EWI-2 enhanced the CCL21/SLC-dependent migration of activated mature dendritic cells but attenuated their antigen-specific stimulatory capacities. Important functions of recently activated dendritic cells are thus critically modulated by the newly discovered HSPA8-EWI-2 interaction.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2007;27;21;7718-26

  • EWI-2 and EWI-F link the tetraspanin web to the actin cytoskeleton through their direct association with ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins.

    Sala-Valdés M, Ursa A, Charrin S, Rubinstein E, Hemler ME, Sánchez-Madrid F and Yáñez-Mó M

    Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, UAM, Madrid 28006, Spain.

    EWI-2 and EWI-F, two members of a novel subfamily of Ig proteins, are direct partners of tetraspanins CD9 (Tspan29) and CD81 (Tspan28). These EWI proteins contain a stretch of basic charged amino acids in their cytoplasmic domains that may act as binding sites for actin-linking ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that EWI-2 and EWI-F colocalized with ERM proteins at microspikes and microvilli of adherent cells and at the cellular uropod in polarized migrating leukocytes. Immunoprecipitation studies showed the association of EWI-2 and EWI-F with ERM proteins in vivo. Moreover, pulldown experiments and protein-protein binding assays with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the cytoplasmic domains of EWI proteins corroborated the strong and direct interaction between ERMs and these proteins. The active role of ERMs was further confirmed by double transfections with the N-terminal domain of moesin, which acts as a dominant negative form of ERMs, and was able to delocalize EWIs from the uropod of polarized leukocytes. In addition, direct association of EWI partner CD81 C-terminal domain with ERMs was also demonstrated. Functionally, silencing of endogenous EWI-2 expression by short interfering RNA in lymphoid CEM cells augmented cell migration, cellular polarity, and increased phosphorylation of ERMs. Hence, EWI proteins, through their direct interaction with ERM proteins, act as linkers to connect tetraspanin-associated microdomains to actin cytoskeleton regulating cell motility and polarity.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;28;19665-75

  • Contrasting effects of EWI proteins, integrins, and protein palmitoylation on cell surface CD9 organization.

    Yang XH, Kovalenko OV, Kolesnikova TV, Andzelm MM, Rubinstein E, Strominger JL and Hemler ME

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    CD9, a tetraspanin protein, makes crucial contributions to sperm egg fusion, other cellular fusions, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, cell motility, and tumor suppression. Here we characterize a low affinity anti-CD9 antibody, C9BB, which binds preferentially to homoclustered CD9. Using mAb C9BB as a tool, we show that cell surface CD9 homoclustering is promoted by expression of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 integrins and by palmitoylation of the CD9 and beta4 proteins. Conversely, CD9 is shifted toward heteroclusters upon expression of CD9 partner proteins (EWI-2 and EWI-F) or other tetraspanins, or upon ablation of CD9 palmitoylation. Furthermore, unpalmitoylated CD9 showed enhanced EWI-2 association, thereby demonstrating a previously unappreciated role for tetraspanin palmitoylation, and underscoring how depalmitoylation and EWI-2 association may collaborate to shift CD9 from homo- to heteroclusters. In conclusion, we have used a novel molecular probe (mAb C9BB) to demonstrate the existence of multiple types of CD9 complex on the cell surface. A shift from homo- to heteroclustered CD9 may be functionally significant because the latter was especially obvious on malignant epithelial tumor cells. Hence, because of its specialized properties, C9BB may be more useful than other anti-CD9 antibodies for monitoring CD9 during tumor progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42368; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;18;12976-85

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • EWI-2 modulates lymphocyte integrin alpha4beta1 functions.

    Kolesnikova TV, Stipp CS, Rao RM, Lane WS, Luscinskas FW and Hemler ME

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The most prominent cell-surface integrin alpha4beta1 partner, a 70-kDa protein, was isolated from MOLT-4 T leukemia cells, using anti-alpha4beta1 integrin antibody-coated beads. By mass spectrometry, this protein was identified as EWI-2, a previously described cell-surface partner for tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81. Wild-type EWI-2 overexpression had no effect on MOLT-4 cell tethering and adhesion strengthening on the alpha4beta1 ligand, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), in shear flow assays. However, EWI-2 markedly impaired spreading and ruffling on VCAM-1. In contrast, a mutant EWI-2 molecule, with a different cytoplasmic tail, neither impaired cell spreading nor associated with alpha4beta1 and CD81. The endogenous wild-type EWI-2-CD81-alpha4beta1 complex was fully soluble, and highly specific as seen by the absence of other MOLT-4 cell-surface proteins. Also, it was relatively small in size (0.5 x 10(6) Da to 4 x 10(6) Da), as estimated by size exclusion chromatography. Overexpression of EWI-2 in MOLT-4 cells caused reorganization of cell-surface CD81, increased the extent of CD81-CD81, CD81-alpha4beta1, and alpha4beta1-alpha4beta1 associations, and increased the apparent size of CD81-alpha4beta1 complexes. We suggest that EWI-2-dependent reorganization of alpha4beta1-CD81 complexes on the cell surface is responsible for EWI-2 effects on integrin-dependent morphology and motility functions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903

    Blood 2004;103;8;3013-9

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • EWI-2 regulates alpha3beta1 integrin-dependent cell functions on laminin-5.

    Stipp CS, Kolesnikova TV and Hemler ME

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    EWI-2, a cell surface immunoglobulin SF protein of unknown function, associates with tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 with high stoichiometry. Overexpression of EWI-2 in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells did not alter cell adhesion or spreading on laminin-5, and had no effect on reaggregation of cells plated on collagen I (alpha2beta1 integrin ligand). However, on laminin-5 (alpha3beta1 integrin ligand), A431 cell reaggregation and motility functions were markedly impaired. Immunodepletion and reexpression experiments revealed that tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 physically link EWI-2 to alpha3beta1 integrin, but not to other integrins. CD81 also controlled EWI-2 maturation and cell surface localization. EWI-2 overexpression not only suppressed cell migration, but also redirected CD81 to cell filopodia and enhanced alpha3beta1-CD81 complex formation. In contrast, an EWI-2 chimeric mutant failed to suppress cell migration, redirect CD81 to filopodia, or enhance alpha3beta1-CD81 complex formation. These results show how laterally associated EWI-2 might regulate alpha3beta1 function in disease and development, and demonstrate how tetraspanin proteins can assemble multiple nontetraspanin proteins into functional complexes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42368, R01 CA042368; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903, R01 GM038903

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;163;5;1167-77

  • EWI-2 is a new component of the tetraspanin web in hepatocytes and lymphoid cells.

    Charrin S, Le Naour F, Labas V, Billard M, Le Caer JP, Emile JF, Petit MA, Boucheix C and Rubinstein E

    INSERM U268, Institut André Lwoff, Hôpital Paul Brousse, 14 Av Paul Vaillant Couturier, Villejuif 94807 Cedex, France.

    Several tetraspanins bind directly to a few molecular partners to form primary complexes, which might assemble through tetraspanin-tetraspanin interactions to form a network of molecular interactions, the tetraspanin web. We have produced a monoclonal antibody directed to a 63 kDa molecule (determined under non-reducing conditions) associated with CD9. This molecule was first identified by MS as a molecule with four Ig domains, EWI-2. Like the related molecule CD9P-1, EWI-2 was found to be a partner not only for CD9, but also for CD81, a tetraspanin required for hepatic infection by the parasite responsible for malaria, and also a putative hepatitis C virus receptor. Using chimaeric CD9/CD82 molecules, two separate regions of CD9 of 40 and 47 amino acids were demonstrated to confer the ability to interact with EWI-2. Both EWI-2 and CD9P-1 were detected in the human liver at the surface of hepatocytes and were found to associate with CD81 on freshly isolated hepatocytes. EWI-2 also co-localized with CD81 in the liver. CD9P-1 was not detected on most peripheral blood cells, whereas EWI-2 was expressed on the majority of B-, T- and natural killer cells and was not detected on monocytes, polynuclear cells or platelets. This distribution is identical to that of CD81. Finally, EWI-2 associated with all tetraspanins studied after lysis under conditions preserving tetraspanin-tetraspanin interactions, showing that EWI-2 is a new component of the tetraspanin web.

    The Biochemical journal 2003;373;Pt 2;409-21

  • EWI2/PGRL associates with the metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 and inhibits the migration of prostate cancer cells.

    Zhang XA, Lane WS, Charrin S, Rubinstein E and Liu L

    Vascular Biology Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. xazhang@utmem.edu

    Cancer metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily and inversely correlates with the metastatic potential of a variety of cancers. The mechanism of KAI1/CD82-mediated metastasis suppression remains unclear. In this study, we found a M(r) 68,00 cell-surface protein physically associated with KAI1/CD82 and named it KASP: a KAI1/CD82-associated surface protein. Distinctive from known KAI1/CD82 associations that usually occur in the context of "tetraspanin web," the KAI1/CD82-KASP association is likely to be direct because it is: (a) highly stoichiometric; (b) stabilized by chemical cross-linking; and (c) independent of cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts. Therefore, KASP is one of the major transmembrane proteins that associates with KAI1/CD82. Consistent with the wide distribution of KAI1/CD82, KASP is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues. Through peptide sequencing, KASP was identified as an immunoglobulin superfamily member called EWI2 or PGRL. Although EWI2/PGRL has been found to associate with tetraspanins CD9 and CD81, it forms distinct complexes with different tetraspanins, and its association with KAI1/CD82 could be independent of CD81 and CD9. Overexpression of EWI2/PGRL in Du145 metastatic prostate cancer cells inhibits cell migration on both fibronectin- and laminin-coated substratum, indicating that EWI2/PGRL directly regulates cell migration. Furthermore, EWI2/PGRL synergizes KAI1/CD82 in inhibiting cell migration, indicating that EWI2/PGRL is likely required for the function of KAI1/CD82. In summary, we identified a major KAI1/CD82-associated protein, EWI2/PGRL, that is important for KAI1/CD82-mediated suppression of cancer cell migration.

    Cancer research 2003;63;10;2665-74

  • Identification of novel genes for secreted and membrane-anchored proteins in human keratinocytes.

    Bonkobara M, Das A, Takao J, Cruz PD and Ariizumi K

    Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas South-western Medical Center and Dermatology Section (Medical Service), Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

    Background: Both intercellular and intracellular signals are transduced primarily by interactions of secreted and/or membrane-anchored polypeptides, and they play a pivotal role in regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of keratinocytes within the epidermis. Despite recent identification of these polypeptides, it is likely that several important molecules remain undisclosed.

    Objectives: To identify novel genes encoding secreted or membrane-anchored polypeptides expressed by human keratinocytes.

    Methods: We employed a signal sequence (SS) trap of a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library prepared from primary cultured human keratinocytes. Gene expression analysis was performed using Northern blotting. R Screening of 4018 cDNA clones yielded 82 positive clones (57 independent genes), most of which encoded SSs in their N-termini. Most of the positive clones were known genes registered in the GenBank database. Seven genes were identified in the EST database, four of which encoded novel membrane-anchored polypeptides with features of type I transmembrane proteins; the other three genes encoded novel non-type I transmembrane polypeptides. These EST genes were expressed differentially by keratinocytes subjected to low vs. high calcium concentrations and by basal vs. squamous cell carcinomas.

    Conclusions: Using the SS trap, we isolated many genes known to be involved in constituting epidermal structures and others that had not previously been associated with keratinocytes. In addition, we identified novel genes (EST genes) that differ in kinetics of gene expression in keratinocyte differentiation. Our results validate the effective use of this SS trap method for identifying secreted and membrane-anchored polypeptides expressed by human keratinocytes. The identification will better illuminate the molecular mechanisms responsible for co-ordinated regulation of epidermal homeostasis.

    The British journal of dermatology 2003;148;4;654-64

  • EWI-2 is a major CD9 and CD81 partner and member of a novel Ig protein subfamily.

    Stipp CS, Kolesnikova TV and Hemler ME

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mssachusetts 02115, USA.

    A novel Ig superfamily protein, EWI-2, was co-purified with tetraspanin protein CD81 under relatively stringent Brij 96 detergent conditions and identified by mass spectrometric protein sequencing. EWI-2 associated specifically with CD9 and CD81 but not with other tetraspanins or with integrins. Immunodepletion experiments indicated that EWI-2-CD9/CD81 interactions are highly stoichiometric, with approximately 70% of CD9 and CD81 associated with EWI-2 in an embryonic kidney cell line. The EWI-2 molecule was covalently cross-linked (in separate complexes) to both CD81 and CD9, suggesting that association is direct. EWI-2 is part of a novel Ig subfamily that includes EWI-F (F2alpha receptor regulatory protein (FPRP), CD9P-1), EWI-3 (IgSF3), and EWI-101 (CD101). All four members of this Ig subfamily contain a Glu-Trp-Ile (EWI) motif not seen in other Ig proteins. As shown previously, the EWI-F molecule likewise forms highly proximal, specific, and stoichiometric complexes with CD9 and CD81. Human and murine EWI-2 protein sequences are 91% identical, and transcripts in the two species are expressed in virtually every tissue tested. Thus, EWI-2 potentially contributes to a variety of CD9 and CD81 functions seen in different cell and tissue types.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38903

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;44;40545-54

  • PGRL is a major CD81-associated protein on lymphocytes and distinguishes a new family of cell surface proteins.

    Clark KL, Zeng Z, Langford AL, Bowen SM and Todd SC

    Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

    CD81 exerts a range of interesting effects on T cells including early thymocyte differentiation, LFA-1 activation, and provision of costimulation. To better understand the mechanisms by which CD81 influences T cell function we evaluated CD81 molecular complexes on T cells. The most prominent CD81-associated cell surface protein on thymocytes as well as a number of T cell and B cell lines has an apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa. The 75-kDa protein was purified and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by postsource-decay profiling. p75 is a novel type I transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily which is most similar to FPRP. We cloned and sequenced both human and mouse PG regulatory-like protein (PGRL) and characterized mouse PGRL expression in both lymphocytes and nonlymphoid tissues. The discovery of PGRL allows for the clustering of a small family of related proteins including PGRL, FPRP, V7/CD101, and IGSF3. Expression constructs containing various domains of PGRL with an epitope tag were coexpressed with CD81 and used to determine that the interaction of CD81 with PGRL requires the membrane distal Ig3-Ig4 domains of PGRL. Although it remains to be determined whether PGRL possesses PG regulatory functions, transwell chamber experiments show that PGs and CD81 coordinately regulate T cell motility.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR15563-01

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;167;9;5115-21

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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