G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002068
Gene symbol
ATG16L1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
ATG16 autophagy related 16-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)
Orthologue
G00000819 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000085978 (Ensembl human gene)
55054 (Entrez Gene)
1243 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ATG16L1 (GeneCards)
Literature
610767 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:21498 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q676U5 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • ATG16A
  • FLJ10035
  • WDR30

Literature (59)

Pubmed - other

  • Variants at the 3p21 locus influence susceptibility and phenotype both in adults and early-onset patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Latiano A, Palmieri O, Corritore G, Valvano MR, Bossa F, Cucchiara S, Castro M, Riegler G, De Venuto D, D'Incà R, Andriulli A and Annese V

    Division of Gastroenterology & Endoscopy, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Background: To date, a number of high-profile studies have yielded over 50 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) disease genes/loci. The polymorphisms rs9858542 (BSN) and rs3197999 (MST1), on 3p21 locus, have been found associated with susceptibility to IBD. We aimed to replicate these associations in adult and early-onset cohorts of IBD Italian patients, by analyzing also potential gene-gene interactions with variants in NOD2/CARD15, IL23R, ATG16L1, and IRGM genes, and investigating genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Methods: In all, 1808 patients with IBD, 855 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 953 with ulcerative colitis (UC), including 539 patients with their initial diagnosis <19 years of age, and 651 controls were analyzed for SNPs rs9858542 and rs3197999.

    Results: BSN and MST1 were significantly associated with either CD (P(rs9858542) 2.5 x 10(-7); P(rs3197999) 3.9 x 10(-7)), and UC (P(rs9858542) = 3.1 x 10(-4); P(rs3197999) = 8 x 10(-4)). Prevalence of these variants was significantly increased in both adult and early-onset IBD patients. After stepwise logistic regression, the 2 variants were associated in adult UC with distal colitis (P(rs9858542) = 0.013, odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-3.59; P(rs3197999) = 0.018, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.3), while the rs3197999 variant was inversely associated with occurrence of extraintestinal manifestations in adult CD(P = 0.017, OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9).

    Conclusions: We confirmed the association of BSN and MST1 with IBD susceptibility, either in the adult or the early-onset cohorts. These variants appeared to influence either the distal location of the disease in the UC cohort and extraintestinal manifestations in CD patients.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2010;16;7;1108-17

  • Interaction of the major inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility alleles in Crohn's disease patients.

    Csöngei V, Járomi L, Sáfrány E, Sipeky C, Magyari L, Faragó B, Bene J, Polgár N, Lakner L, Sarlós P, Varga M and Melegh B

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Pécs, Pécs 7624, Hungary.

    Aim: To investigate the interaction of interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) (rs1004819 and rs2201841), autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) (rs2241880), caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) genes, and IBD5 locus in Crohn's disease (CD) patients.

    Methods: A total of 315 unrelated subjects with CD and 314 healthy controls were genotyped. Interactions and specific genotype combinations of a total of eight variants were tested. The variants of IBD5 locus (IGR2198a_1 rs11739135 and IGR2096a_1 rs12521868), CARD15 (R702W rs2066845 and L1007fs rs2066847), ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and IL23R (rs1004819, rs2201841) genes were genotyped by PCR-RFLP, the G908R (rs2066844) in CARD15 was determined by direct sequencing.

    Results: The association of ATG16L1 T300A with CD was confirmed [P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.19-2.41], and both IL23R variants were found to represent significant risk for the disease (P = 0.008, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.20-3.50 for rs1004819 AA; P < 0.001, OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.65-5.33 for rs2201841 CC). Logistic regression analysis of pairwise interaction of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) loci indicated that IL23R, ATG16L1, CARD15 and IBD5 (IGR2198a_1) contribute independently to disease risk. We also analysed the specific combinations by pair of individual ATG16L1, IL23R rs1004819, rs2201841, IGR2198a_1, IGR2096a_1 and CARD15 genotypes for disease risk influence. In almost all cases, the combined risk of susceptibility pairs was higher in patients carrying two different risk-associated gene variants together than individuals with just one polymorphism. The highest OR was found for IL23R rs2201841 homozygous genotype with combination of positive CARD15 status (P < 0.001, OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 2.05-40.74).

    Conclusion: The present study suggests a cumulative effect of individual IBD susceptibility loci.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2010;16;2;176-83

  • Nod1 and Nod2 direct autophagy by recruiting ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial entry.

    Travassos LH, Carneiro LA, Ramjeet M, Hussey S, Kim YG, Magalhães JG, Yuan L, Soares F, Chea E, Le Bourhis L, Boneca IG, Allaoui A, Jones NL, Nuñez G, Girardin SE and Philpott DJ

    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    Autophagy is emerging as a crucial defense mechanism against bacteria, but the host intracellular sensors responsible for inducing autophagy in response to bacterial infection remain unknown. Here we demonstrated that the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for the autophagic response to invasive bacteria. By a mechanism independent of the adaptor RIP2 and transcription factor NF-kappaB, Nod1 and Nod2 recruited the autophagy protein ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the bacterial entry site. In cells homozygous for the Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 frameshift mutation, mutant Nod2 failed to recruit ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane and wrapping of invading bacteria by autophagosomes was impaired. Our results link bacterial sensing by Nod proteins to the induction of autophagy and provide a functional link between Nod2 and ATG16L1, which are encoded by two of the most important genes associated with Crohn's disease.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: MOP480142, MOP81360; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK61707

    Nature immunology 2010;11;1;55-62

  • Differential involvement of Atg16L1 in Crohn disease and canonical autophagy: analysis of the organization of the Atg16L1 complex in fibroblasts.

    Fujita N, Saitoh T, Kageyama S, Akira S, Noda T and Yoshimori T

    Department of Cellular Regulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

    A single nucleotide polymorphism in Atg16L1, an autophagy-related gene (ATG), is a risk factor for Crohn disease, a major form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is still unknown how the Atg16L1 variant contributes to disease development. The Atg16L1 protein possesses a C-terminal WD repeat domain whose function is entirely unknown, and the Crohn disease-associated mutation (T300A) is within this domain. To elucidate the function of the WD repeat domain, we established an experimental system in which a WD repeat domain mutant of Atg16L1 is stably expressed in Atg16L1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Using the system, we show that the Atg16L1 complex forms a dimeric complex and that the total Atg16L1 protein level is strictly maintained, possibly by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Furthermore, we show that an Atg16L1 WD repeat domain deletion and the T300A mutant have little impact on canonical autophagy and autophagy against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Therefore, we propose that Atg16L1 T300A is differentially involved in Crohn disease and canonical autophagy.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;47;32602-9

  • Autophagy 16-like 1 rs2241880 G allele is associated with Crohn's disease in German children.

    Lacher M, Schroepf S, Ballauff A, Lohse P, von Schweinitz D, Kappler R and Koletzko S

    Department of Paediatric Surgery, Research Laboratories, University of Munich, Munich, Germany. martin.lacher@lmu.de

    Aim: Genome-wide association studies have described an association of the ATG16L1 (autophagy 16-like 1) gene rs2241880 variant with Crohn's disease (CD). Therefore, we evaluated this polymorphism in early-onset CD in 152 children and 253 controls and for the first time determined ATG16L1 colonic expression in German CD children.

    Methods: Investigation of rs2241880 allele frequencies using a predesigned single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay. Analysis of digenic epistasis between rs2241880 and the three common nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing two (NOD2/CARD15) mutations. Determination of ATG16L1 gene expression in large-bowel biopsies of selected patients and controls using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Results: The rs2241880G risk allele frequency was higher in CD compared with controls (63.0% vs. 47.4%; p = 0.0002). No epistasis between NOD2/CARD15 mutations and rs2241880 was observed; however, carriers of both variants had significantly increased disease risk. Transcriptional analysis did not reveal over- or underexpression of ATG16L1 in CD patients compared with controls.

    Conclusion: We confirmed the association of CD with ATG16L1 rs2241880 variant in early-onset CD. As no epistatic interaction with three common NOD2/CARD15 mutations was observed, the p.Thr300Ala substitution is an independent risk factor for paediatric CD and supports the role for autophagy in disease pathogenesis.

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2009;98;11;1835-40

  • Lack of association of NKX2-3, IRGM, and ATG16L1 inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility variants with celiac disease.

    Dema B, Fernández-Arquero M, Maluenda C, Polanco I, Figueredo MA, de la Concha EG, Urcelay E and Núñez C

    Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

    Evidence about the presence of susceptibility factors shared among different autoimmune diseases is increasing. Based on this idea, NKX2-3, ATG16L1, and IRGM which are well-established inflammatory bowel disease risk factors, could be new celiac disease (CD) candidate genes. NKX2-3 encodes a transcription factor that in mice seems to be involved in gut development. The ATG16L1 and IRGM genes act in autophagy, a process related to innate and adaptive immunity. We aimed to study the implication of five polymorphisms in these genes in CD susceptibility: rs10883365 and rs888208 in the NKX2-3 gene, rs2241880 in ATG16L1, and rs10065172 and rs4958847 in IRGM. Association studies were performed using 725 Spanish CD patients and 956 ethnically matched healthy controls, as well as 309 parent-child trios. Genetic frequencies were compared with the chi(2) test and the familial study used the transmission disequilibrium test. Differences between CD patients and controls did not reach significance when genotypic and allelic frequencies were compared. No differential transmission of alleles or haplotypes from heterozygous parents to affected children was observed in the familial study. In conclusion, no evidence of association with CD has been reported for the Crohn's disease susceptibility polymorphisms studied in the NKX2-3, ATG16L1, and IRGM genes.

    Human immunology 2009;70;11;946-9

  • Role of ATG16L1 Thr300Ala polymorphism in inflammatory bowel disease: a Study in the Spanish population and a meta-analysis.

    Márquez A, Núñez C, Martínez A, Mendoza JL, Taxonera C, Fernández-Arquero M, Díaz-Rubio M, de la Concha EG and Urcelay E

    Immunology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

    Background: Thr300Ala polymorphism in ATG16L1 was reported as a susceptibility factor to Crohn's disease (CD). Inconsistently replicated associations with ulcerative colitis (UC) and specifically with ileal CD were also reported. Our aims were: to replicate the ATG16L1 Thr300Ala association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Spanish population, to perform a meta-analysis to determine the risk conferred to the different IBD subgroups, and to test for the interaction with CARD15 or IL23R risk loci.

    Methods: Thr300Ala (rs2241880) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped in 712 IBD patients and 745 controls by TaqMan technology. Genetic frequencies were compared with chi-square tests. Our findings were pooled in a meta-analysis.

    Results: In Spain, we observed an association of rs2241880 with CD (P = 0.008; odds ratio [OR, 95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.28 [1.06-1.54]), but not with UC. No significant differences emerged when patients were stratified by clinical features. Similarly, the meta-analysis demonstrated a significant association only with CD (P < 10(-4); OR [95% CI] = 1.33 [1.28-1.38]). A significant difference between ileal CD patients and controls was observed, but heterogeneity was found in comparisons involving colonic CD patients and definite conclusions cannot be drawn. No interaction between rs2241880 and the established CARD15 or IL23R susceptibility variants was observed.

    Conclusions: The Thr300Ala polymorphism is associated with CD, regardless of the CARD15 or IL23R status, but not with UC. Stratification by clinical phenotypes did not show definitive results because of the existing heterogeneity among studies.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2009;15;11;1697-704

  • Association of IL23R p.381Gln and ATG16L1 p.197Ala with Crohn disease in the Czech population.

    Dusatkova P, Hradsky O, Lenicek M, Bronsky J, Nevoral J, Kotalova R, Bajerova K, Vitek L, Lukas M and Cinek O

    Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Motol, and Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic.

    Objectives: An association of variants in the genes encoding the interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R, p.Arg381Gln, rs11209026), and the autophagy-related gene 16-like 1 (ATG16L1, p.Ala197Thr, rs2241880) with Crohn disease (CD) was identified by whole genome association studies, and subsequently confirmed by other works. The aim of this study was to assess this association in the Czech population.

    In a case-control study 333 patients with CD (137 paediatric and 196 adult-onset) and 499 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan SNP assays.

    Results: The IL23R p.381Gln allele was protective against CD in the Czech population (allelic frequency 3.2% in patients vs 5.5% in control subjects; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.93, P=0.02). ATG16L1 p.197Ala allele conferred increased risk of CD (allelic frequency 60% in patients vs 51% in controls; OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52, P=0.03). There was no appreciable difference in the effect of the associated alleles across the strata of CARD15-conferred risk. The IL23R and ATG16L1 variants did not influence the age at diagnosis, and in the genotype-phenotype analysis, the only detected association was a weak one between IL23R p.381Gln and involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract (uncorrected P=0.031).

    Conclusions: We confirmed the role of IL23R and ATG16L1 in the CD susceptibility in the Czech population, and found a weak protective effect of IL23R p.381Gln against upper gastrointestinal tract involvement.

    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 2009;49;4;405-10

  • Contribution of IL23R but not ATG16L1 to Crohn's disease susceptibility in Koreans.

    Yang SK, Park M, Lim J, Park SH, Ye BD, Lee I and Song K

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea.

    Background: Recent genome-wide association studies in Caucasian populations identified IL23R and ATG16L1 as susceptibility genes to Crohn's disease (CD). We tested 5 IL23R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 12 ATG16L1 SNPs in Korean patients to determine whether these genes are associated with susceptibility to CD in a non-Caucasian population.

    Methods: We analyzed 5 IL23R SNPs and 12 ATG16L1 SNPs in 380 patients with CD and 380 healthy controls.

    Results: Two IL23R gene variants, an intronic SNP rs1004819 and intergenic SNP rs1495465, showed significant associations with CD; the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for rs1004819 was 1.822 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.164-2.852, P = 0.009) and aOR for rs1495965 was 1.650 (95% CI = 1.102-2.471, P = 0.015). The genotype-phenotype analysis showed subphenotype specificity to stricturing and penetrating behaviors. On the other hand, none of the 12 ATG16L1 SNPs showed any positive association with CD in Koreans. The contribution of IL23R variants in Korean CD patients overall is low in comparison with studies of Caucasian.

    Conclusions: Our data in Koreans support the previous Caucasian reports of an association of the IL23R gene with CD.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2009;15;9;1385-90

  • Genetic risk profiling and prediction of disease course in Crohn's disease patients.

    Henckaerts L, Van Steen K, Verstreken I, Cleynen I, Franke A, Schreiber S, Rutgeerts P and Vermeire S

    Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Section, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. liesbet.henckaerts@uzleuven.be

    Clinical presentation at diagnosis and disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) are heterogeneous and variable over time. Early introduction of immunomodulators and/or biologicals might be justified in patients at risk for disease progression, so it is important to identify these patients as soon as possible. We examined the influence of recently discovered CD-associated susceptibility loci on changes in disease behavior and evaluated whether a genetic risk model for disease progression could be generated.

    Methods: Complete medical data were available for 875 CD patients (median follow-up time, 14 years; interquartile range, 7-22). Fifty CD-associated polymorphisms were genotyped. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, multiple logistic regression, and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses (GMDR) were performed, correcting for follow-up time.

    Results: Homozygosity for the rs1363670 G-allele in a gene encoding a hypothetical protein near the IL12B gene was independently associated with stricturing disease behavior (odds ratio [OR], 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-18.83; P = .007) and with shorter time to strictures (P = .01), especially in patients with ileal involvement (P = .0002). Male patients carrying at least one rs12704036 T-allele in a gene desert had the shortest time to non-perianal fistula (P < .0001). The presence of a C-allele at the CDKAL1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs6908425 and the absence of NOD2 variants were independently associated with development of perianal fistula (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.13-69.78; P = .04 and OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83; P = .004, respectively), particularly when colonic involvement and active smoking were present.

    Conclusions: CD-associated polymorphisms play a role in disease progression and might be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from an early top-down treatment approach.

    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2009;7;9;972-980.e2

  • Association between genetic variants in myosin IXB and Crohn's disease.

    Cooney R, Cummings JR, Pathan S, Beckly J, Geremia A, Hancock L, Guo C, Morris A and Jewell DP

    Wellcome Trust Centre of Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. rachel.cooney@ndm.ox.ac.uk

    Background: Genetic variation in myosin IXB (MYO9B) was found to be associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) in a recent collaborative study. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1545620 at the 3' end of the gene was found to be significantly associated with UC and weakly associated with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of our current study was to replicate these findings in an independent UC cohort and to investigate association with CD. We also investigated subphenotype association and interactions with CARD15, IL23R, ATG16L1, and the IBD5 risk haplotype.

    Methods: In all, 652 CD patients, 650 UC patients, and 1190 controls were genotyped for 8 MYO9B SNPs. Haplotype testing, epistasis testing with known polymorphisms, and subphenotype analysis were performed.

    Results: An intronic SNP rs2305767 in the MYO9B gene was associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) overall (corrected P-value 0.002, odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.86). On individual disease analysis an association was found with CD (corrected P-value 0.001, OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.73) but not with UC. Analysis of the common MYO9B haplotypes showed significant association for CD and UC alone and IBD overall. No subphenotypic association was found. These data support an association between CD and SNPs in MYO9B independent of the established effects of SNPs in CARD15, IL23R, ATG16L1, and the IBD5 haplotype. There was no evidence of epistasis between SNPs in MYO9B and these established genes.

    Conclusions: MYO9B variants may be involved in IBD pathogenesis.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2009;15;7;1014-21

  • Association of ATG16L1 and IRGM genes polymorphisms with inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis approach.

    Palomino-Morales RJ, Oliver J, Gómez-García M, López-Nevot MA, Rodrigo L, Nieto A, Alizadeh BZ and Martín J

    Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López-Neyra, CSIC, Granada, Spain.

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and IRGM (rs13361189 and rs4958847) genes polymorphism in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Our study included 557 CD and 425 UC patients and 672 ethnically matched Spanish controls and a meta-analysis with the data published to date. The polymorphisms were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the ATG16L1 rs2241880 G allele between CD patients and controls in the Spanish population: P=6.5 x 10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=1.62. Although no differences were observed between UC patients and controls in the Spanish cohort, a meta-analysis demonstrated that the ATG16L1 G allele increase significantly risk for UC (P=0.0003, pooled OR=1.08). In addition, our meta-analysis data showed that IRGM rs13361189 and rs4958847 polymorphisms were associated with CD (rs13361189 C allele P=1.07 x 10(-19), pooled OR=1.34; rs4958847 A allele P=2.78 x 10(-17), pooled OR=1.31) and UC (rs13361189 P=0.0069, pooled OR=1.16; rs4958847 P=0.014, pooled OR=1.13). In conclusion, our results confirm the ATG16L1 rs2241880 and IRGM rs13361189 and rs4958847 polymorphisms as important markers for CD susceptibility and indicate that these variants are also associated with UC.

    Genes and immunity 2009;10;4;356-64

  • ATG16L1 T300A polymorphism and Crohn's disease susceptibility: evidence from 13,022 cases and 17,532 controls.

    Zhang HF, Qiu LX, Chen Y, Zhu WL, Mao C, Zhu LG, Zheng MH, Wang Y, Lei L and Shi J

    Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

    Many studies have reported the association between the autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (ATG16L1) T300A polymorphism (rs2241880) and Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 24 studies including 13,022 cases and 17,532 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the ATG16L1 T300A polymorphism was associated with CD risk in Caucasians (P < 0.01). The pooled estimations of OR(1) (GG vs. AA) and OR(2) (GA vs. AA) in Caucasian studies by Bayesian meta-analysis method was [1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-2.05] and (1.39, 95% CI 1.27-1.51), respectively. The mode of heritance of the G allele was most likely to be co-dominant in Caucasians. However, no significant association was found in Asians. This meta-analysis suggests that the G allele of ATG16L1 T300A is a low-penetrant gene for developing CD in Caucasians.

    Human genetics 2009;125;5-6;627-31

  • Genetic variants in IL-23R and ATG16L1 independently predispose to increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease in a Canadian population.

    Newman WG, Zhang Q, Liu X, Amos CI and Siminovitch KA

    Academic Department of Medical Genetics, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

    Goals: To establish the relevance of variants in the IL-23R and ATG16L1 genes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    Aim: Three recent genome wide association studies have identified variants in the IL-23R and ATG16L1 genes, which modulate susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD).

    Methods: We genotyped 1028 IBD patients, including 443 CD and 347 ulcerative colitis (UC) non-Jewish cases, 238 (183 CD and 55 UC) Jewish cases, and 1005 ethnically matched control subjects for 18 and 11 variants, respectively, in the IL-23R and ATG16L1 genes, including the IL-23R (R381Q) and ATG16L1 (T216A) variants, previously associated with CD.

    Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms within each of 3 haplotype blocks across the IL-23R gene were associated with an increased risk of CD. Notably, the minor allele of the IL-23R R381Q variant was present in 2.9% of cases and 6.0% controls (P=0.0001, odds ratio=0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.69). Homozygosity for the minor (T) allele of the ATG16L1 T216A polymorphism was strongly protective for CD (P=0.0001, odds ratio=0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.68). No phenotypic associations were detected and no interactions between the genes to increase disease risk were established.

    Conclusions: We confirm the association of CD with variants in the IL-23R and ATG16L1 genes and the more modest association of the IL-23R R381Q variant with UC. Our results also suggest that these variants act independently of one another to influence risk and pathogenesis of IBD.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA016672

    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 2009;43;5;444-7

  • Autophagy gene ATG16L1 but not IRGM is associated with Crohn's disease in Canadian children.

    Amre DK, Mack DR, Morgan K, Krupoves A, Costea I, Lambrette P, Grimard G, Dong J, Feguery H, Bucionis V, Deslandres C, Levy E and Seidman EG

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. devendra.amre@umontreal.ca

    Background: Recent genome-wide studies have implicated the autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether these genes were associated with CD in Canadian children.

    Methods: A case-control study was carried out at 2 pediatric gastroenterology clinics in Canada. Confirmed cases of CD <20 years diagnosed using standard criteria were classified according to the Montreal Classification scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2241880 (ATG16L1) and rs10065172 (IRGM) along with CARD15 SNPs, SNP8, SNP12, and SNP13 were genotyped.

    Results: A total of 289 CD cases and 290 controls were studied. The mean age (+/-SD) of the cases was 12.1 (+/-3.5) years of age. Most cases were male (55.4%), had disease location L3 +/- L4 (56.7%), and an inflammatory phenotype B1 +/- p (87.2%) at diagnosis. rs2241880 (ATG16L1) was strongly associated with CD (allelic P = 1.24 x 10(-6)). Children with GG genotype had a more than 3-fold elevated risk for disease as compared to the wildtype AA homozygotes (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.93-4.94; P = 1.8 x 10(-6)). Association with SNP rs2241880 was specific for ileal disease (with or without colonic involvement) (case-based allelic P = 0.02; P-value versus controls = 9.5 x 10(-8)). The frequency of IRGM SNP rs10065172 was higher in cases but differences with controls were not statistically significant. No interactions between CARD15 and either ATG16L1 or IRGM were evident.

    Conclusions: We have confirmed associations between CD and ATG16L1 in a pediatric cohort of Canadian children. Associations with IRGM need to be further evaluated in larger studies.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2009;15;4;501-7

  • Confirmation of multiple Crohn's disease susceptibility loci in a large Dutch-Belgian cohort.

    Weersma RK, Stokkers PC, Cleynen I, Wolfkamp SC, Henckaerts L, Schreiber S, Dijkstra G, Franke A, Nolte IM, Rutgeerts P, Wijmenga C and Vermeire S

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands. R.K.Weersma@int.umcg.nl

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)-Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)-are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders with a complex genetic background. A genome-wide association scan by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) recently identified several novel susceptibility loci.

    Methods: We performed a large replication study in 2,731 Dutch and Belgian IBD patients (1,656 CD and 1,075 UC) and 1,086 controls. In total, 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed moderate or strong association in the WTCCC study, along with SNPs in the previously identified genes IL23R, ATG16L1, and NELL1, were studied.

    Results: We confirmed the associations with IL23R (rs11209026, P=2.69E-12), ATG16L1 (rs2241880, P=4.82E-07), IRGM (rs4958847, P=2.26E-05), NKX2-3 (rs10883365, P=5.91E-06), 1q24 (rs12035082, P=1.51E-05), 5p13 (rs17234657, P=2.62E-05), and 10q21 (rs10761659, P=8.95E-04). We also identified associations with cyclin Y (CCNY; rs3936503, P=2.09 E-04) and Hect domain and RCC1-like domain 2 (HERC2; rs916977, P=1.12E-04). Pooling our data with the original WTCCC data substantiated these associations. Several SNPs were also moderately associated with UC. Two genetic risk profiles based on the number of risk alleles and based on a weighted score were created. On the basis of these results, we calculated sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for CD.

    Conclusions: We replicated genetic associations for CD with IL23R, ATG16L1, IRGM, NKX2-3, 1q24, 10q21, 5p13, and PTPN2 and report evidence for associations with HERC2 and CCNY. Pooling our data with the results of the WTCCC strengthened the results, suggesting genuine genetic associations. We show that a genetic risk profile can be constructed that is clinically useful and that can aid in making treatment decisions.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2009;104;3;630-8

  • Molecular prediction of disease risk and severity in a large Dutch Crohn's disease cohort.

    Weersma RK, Stokkers PC, van Bodegraven AA, van Hogezand RA, Verspaget HW, de Jong DJ, van der Woude CJ, Oldenburg B, Linskens RK, Festen EA, van der Steege G, Hommes DW, Crusius JB, Wijmenga C, Nolte IM, Dijkstra G and Dutch Initiative on Crohn and Colitis (ICC)

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. R.K.Weersma@int.umcg.nl

    Background: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have a complex genetic background. We assessed the risk for both the development and severity of the disease by combining information from genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    Methods: We studied 2804 patients (1684 with Crohn's disease and 1120 with ulcerative colitis) and 1350 controls from seven university hospitals. Details of the phenotype were available for 1600 patients with Crohn's disease and for 800 with ulcerative colitis. Genetic association for disease susceptibility was tested for the nucleotide-binding and oligomerisation domain 2 gene (NOD2), the IBD5 locus, the Drosophila discs large homologue 5 and autophagy-related 16-like 1 genes (DLG5 and ATG16L1) and the interleukin 23 receptor gene (IL23R). Interaction analysis was performed for Crohn's disease using the most associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for each locus. Odds ratios were calculated in an ordinal regression analysis with the number of risk alleles as an independent variable to analyse disease development and severity.

    Results: Association with Crohn's disease was confirmed for NOD2, IBD5, DLG5, ATG16L1 and IL23R. Patients with Crohn's disease carry more risk alleles than controls (p = 3.85 x 10(-22)). Individuals carrying an increasing number of risk alleles have an increasing risk for Crohn's disease, consistent with an independent effects multiplicative model (trend analysis p = 4.25 x 10(-23)). Patients with Crohn's disease with a more severe disease course, operations or an age of onset below 40 years have more risk alleles compared to non-stricturing, non-penetrating behaviour (p = 0.0008), no operations (p = 0.02) or age of onset above 40 years (p = 0.028).

    Conclusion: Crohn's disease is a multigenic disorder. An increase in the number of risk alleles is associated with an increased risk for the development of Crohn's disease and with a more severe disease course. Combining information from the known common risk polymorphisms may enable clinicians to predict the course of Crohn's disease.

    Gut 2009;58;3;388-95

  • rs224136 on chromosome 10q21.1 and variants in PHOX2B, NCF4, and FAM92B are not major genetic risk factors for susceptibility to Crohn's disease in the German population.

    Glas J, Seiderer J, Pasciuto G, Tillack C, Diegelmann J, Pfennig S, Konrad A, Schmechel S, Wetzke M, Török HP, Stallhofer J, Jürgens M, Griga T, Klein W, Epplen JT, Schiemann U, Mussack T, Lohse P, Göke B, Ochsenkühn T, Folwaczny M, Müller-Myhsok B and Brand S

    Department of Medicine II, Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany.

    Objectives: Recently, a North American genome-wide association study identified three novel gene variants in PHOX2B, NCF4, and FAM92B as well as one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs224136) in the intergenic region on chromosome 10q21.1 as being associated with Crohn's disease (CD). However, their influence on European CD patients as well as ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. Therefore we aimed to replicate these novel CD susceptibility variants in a large European cohort with inflammatory bowel disease and analyzed potential gene-gene interactions with variants in the NOD2/CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 genes.

    Methods: Genomic DNA from 2,833 Caucasian individuals including 854 patients with CD, 476 patients with UC, and 1,503 healthy unrelated controls was analyzed for SNPs in PHOX2B (rs16853571), NCF4 (rs4821544), and FAM92B (rs8050910), including rs224136 on chromosome 10q21.1.

    Results: In our study population, no association of PHOX2B (P=0.563), NCF4 (P=0.506), FAM92B (P=0.401), and rs224136 (P=0.363) with CD was found. Similarly, none of these SNPs was associated with UC. In contrast, all analyzed SNPs in NOD2/CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 were strongly associated with CD with P values ranging from 5.0x10(-3) to 1.6x10(-22), but there was no epistasis with polymorphisms in PHOX2B, NCF4, FAM92B, and rs224136.

    Conclusions: In contrast to the North American population, PHOX2B, NCF4, FAM92B, and rs224136 are not associated with CD in the European population, whereas NOD2/CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 are strongly associated with CD in both the North American and European populations, confirming these three genes as major CD susceptibility genes in Caucasian populations.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2009;104;3;665-72

  • A common role for Atg16L1, Atg5 and Atg7 in small intestinal Paneth cells and Crohn disease.

    Cadwell K, Patel KK, Komatsu M, Virgin HW and Stappenbeck TS

    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Recently identified genetic determinants for enhanced susceptibility to Crohn disease (CD) included polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM1 loci suggesting that the autophagy pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. We have generated and analyzed three mouse models with diminished expression of autophagy proteins and show how the loss of function of various autophagy components contributes to CD pathogenesis. In the mouse small intestine, one common cellular target of Atg16L1, Atg5 and Atg7 is the Paneth cell, a specialized epithelial cell whose main function is the delivery of antimicrobial factors into the intestinal lumen by production and secretion of its characteristic cytoplasmic granules. Autophagy-deficient Paneth cells exhibited a striking loss of function in this granule exocytosis pathway. Transcriptional analysis revealed a gain of function whereby the gene expression associated with inflammatory responses was increased in autophagy-deficient Paneth cells. Importantly, we validated these findings by analyzing intestinal tissues from CD patients. Similar Paneth cell abnormalities were observed in CD patients homozygous for the ATG16L1 risk allele. Thus, one role for the autophagy pathway in CD pathogenesis is through selective effects on the biology and specialized properties of Paneth cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: U54 AI057160, U54 AI057160-07; NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK52574

    Autophagy 2009;5;2;250-2

  • Multiple regulatory and effector roles of autophagy in immunity.

    Deretic V

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, 87131, USA. vderetic@salud.unm.edu

    Autophagy is a cytoplasmic homeostasis pathway, enabling cells to digest their own cytosol, remove toxic protein aggregates, and eliminate defective or surplus organelles. A plenitude of studies has now expanded roles of autophagy to both effector and regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immunity. In its role of an immunological effector, autophagy plays many parts: (i) In its most primeval manifestation, it captures and digests intracellular microbes, (ii) it is an antimicrobial output of Toll-like receptor (TLR) response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP), and (iii) it is an effector of Th1-Th2 polarization in resistance or susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. As a regulator of immunity, autophagy plays a multitude of functions: (i) It acts as a topological inversion device servicing both innate and adaptive immunity by delivering cytosolic antigens to the lumen of MHC II compartments and cytosolic PAMPs to endosomal TLRs, (ii) it is crucial in T cell repertoire selection in the thymus and control of central tolerance, (iii) it plays a role in T and B cell homeostasis, and (iv) it is of significance for inflammatory pathology. A properly functioning autophagy helps prevent autoimmunity and assists in clearing pathogens. When aberrant, it contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI069345, AI42999, AI45148, R01 AI042999, R01 AI045148, R01 AI045148-11, R01 AI069345, R01 AI069345-03, R37 AI042999

    Current opinion in immunology 2009;21;1;53-62

  • Autophagy and pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity.

    Delgado M, Singh S, De Haro S, Master S, Ponpuak M, Dinkins C, Ornatowski W, Vergne I and Deretic V

    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

    Autophagy is a physiologically and immunologically controlled intracellular homeostatic pathway that sequesters and degrades cytoplasmic targets including macromolecular aggregates, cellular organelles such as mitochondria, and whole microbes or their products. Recent advances show that autophagy plays a role in innate immunity in several ways: (i) direct elimination of intracellular microbes by digestion in autolysosomes, (ii) delivery of cytosolic microbial products to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in a process referred to as topological inversion, and (iii) as an anti-microbial effector of Toll-like receptors and other PRR signaling. Autophagy eliminates pathogens in vitro and in vivo but, when aberrant due to mutations, contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease. In this review, we examine these relationships and propose that autophagy is one of the most ancient innate immune defenses that has possibly evolved at the time of alpha-protobacteria-pre-eukaryote relationships, leading up to modern eukaryotic cell-mitochondrial symbiosis, and that during the metazoan evolution, additional layers of immunological regulation have been superimposed and integrated with this primordial innate immunity mechanism.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI069345, AI42999, AI45148, R01 AI042999-12, R01 AI045148-11, R01 AI069345-03

    Immunological reviews 2009;227;1;189-202

  • Clinical and molecular characteristics of isolated colonic Crohn's disease.

    Hancock L, Beckly J, Geremia A, Cooney R, Cummings F, Pathan S, Guo C, Warren BF, Mortensen N, Ahmad T and Jewell D

    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. laurahancock@doctors.org.uk

    Background: Clinical, serological, and molecular data support the existence of discrete subsets of Crohn's disease (CD) defined by location of disease. Little is known about the epidemiology and natural history of isolated CD of the colon (Montreal Classification L2) because most studies have not accurately distinguished it from ileocolonic disease. Our objectives were to describe the clinical features and natural history of isolated colonic CD in a rigorously characterized patient cohort and to investigate the association of polymorphisms in a number of genes with colonic location of disease and disease behavior.

    Methods: Patients with L2 disease were identified from a database of 675 CD patients. Only patients with a normal small bowel enema (70%), ileoscopy alone (30%), or both (20%) were included. Genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP or the iPLEX platform.

    Results: In all, 135 patients were classified with L2 disease. L2 disease was more common in women (74.0% versus 58.0%; P = 0.0004; odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-3.26) and in never smokers (48.9% versus 36.9%; P = 0.008; OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.45); 20.7% underwent colonic resection for severe disease. We confirmed that carriage of the HLA-DRB1*0103 allele is strongly associated with isolated colonic CD (14.9% versus 4.0%; P = 0.000016; OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.25-9.47) and report the novel association of this allele with time to first surgical event (log rank P = 0.001). There was no association with any of the known CD susceptibility loci (NOD2, IBD5, NOD1, IL23R, ATG16L1) and isolated colonic CD. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in MEKK1 (rs832582) was associated with CD susceptibility overall (15% versus 19%; P = 0.0083; OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54). The association was strongest in those patients not carrying a NOD2 mutation and had no effect on disease location.

    Conclusions: This study describes the clinical features of isolated colonic CD and demonstrates the importance of the HLA region in determining the molecular basis of colonic inflammation.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2008;14;12;1667-77

  • A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse and human intestinal Paneth cells.

    Cadwell K, Liu JY, Brown SL, Miyoshi H, Loh J, Lennerz JK, Kishi C, Kc W, Carrero JA, Hunt S, Stone CD, Brunt EM, Xavier RJ, Sleckman BP, Li E, Mizushima N, Stappenbeck TS and Virgin HW

    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a complex inflammatory disease involving the small intestine, is controlled by over 30 loci. One Crohn's disease risk allele is in ATG16L1, a gene homologous to the essential yeast autophagy gene ATG16 (ref. 2). It is not known how ATG16L1 or autophagy contributes to intestinal biology or Crohn's disease pathogenesis. To address these questions, we generated and characterized mice that are hypomorphic for ATG16L1 protein expression, and validated conclusions on the basis of studies in these mice by analysing intestinal tissues that we collected from Crohn's disease patients carrying the Crohn's disease risk allele of ATG16L1. Here we show that ATG16L1 is a bona fide autophagy protein. Within the ileal epithelium, both ATG16L1 and a second essential autophagy protein ATG5 are selectively important for the biology of the Paneth cell, a specialized epithelial cell that functions in part by secretion of granule contents containing antimicrobial peptides and other proteins that alter the intestinal environment. ATG16L1- and ATG5-deficient Paneth cells exhibited notable abnormalities in the granule exocytosis pathway. In addition, transcriptional analysis revealed an unexpected gain of function specific to ATG16L1-deficient Paneth cells including increased expression of genes involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalling and lipid metabolism, of acute phase reactants and of two adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin, known to directly influence intestinal injury responses. Importantly, Crohn's disease patients homozygous for the ATG16L1 Crohn's disease risk allele displayed Paneth cell granule abnormalities similar to those observed in autophagy-protein-deficient mice and expressed increased levels of leptin protein. Thus, ATG16L1, and probably the process of autophagy, have a role within the intestinal epithelium of mice and Crohn's disease patients by selective effects on the cell biology and specialized regulatory properties of Paneth cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI062773, R01 AI062773, R01 AI062773-01A1, R01 AI062832, R01 AI062832-04, U54 AI057160, U54 AI057160-010005, U54 AI057160-05S10018; NIAMS NIH HHS: T32 AR007279, T32 AR007279-30, T32 AR07279; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK43351, P30 DK040561, P30 DK040561-13, P30 DK043351, P30 DK043351-18, P30 DK052574, P30 DK052574-09, P30 DK52574

    Nature 2008;456;7219;259-63

  • ATG16L1 and IL23 receptor (IL23R) genes are associated with disease susceptibility in Hungarian CD patients.

    Lakatos PL, Szamosi T, Szilvasi A, Molnar E, Lakatos L, Kovacs A, Molnar T, Altorjay I, Papp M, Tulassay Z, Miheller P, Papp J, Tordai A, Andrikovics H and Hungarian IBD Study Group

    1st Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. kislakpet@bel1.sote.hu

    Background: North American and European genome-wide association scans have identified ATG16L1 and IL23R as novel inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes and subsequent reports confirmed these findings in large independent populations. The aims of this study were to investigate the association and examine genotype-phenotype relationships in a Hungarian IBD cohort.

    Methods: 415 unrelated IBD patients (CD: 266, age: 35.2+/-12.1 years, duration: 8.7+/-7.5 years and UC: 149, age: 44.4+/-15.4 years, duration: 10.7+/-8.9 years) and 149 healthy subjects were investigated. IL23R Arg381Gln (R381Q, rs11209026) and ATG16L1 Thr300Ala (T300A, rs2241880) polymorphisms were tested using LightCycler allele discrimination method. Detailed clinical phenotypes were determined by reviewing the medical charts.

    Results: The association between IL23R rs11209026, ATG16L1 rs2241880 and CD was confirmed (OR(IL23R381Q): 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87; OR(ATG16L1300AA): 1.86, 95% CI: 1.04-3.40). No difference was found between patients with UC and either controls or CD. In CD, IL23R 381Gln heterozygosity was associated with inflammatory disease (70% vs. 34%, p=0.037), while disease restricted to the colon was more prevalent in patients with the ATG16L1 300Ala/Ala homozygosity (33.3% vs. 21.1%, p=0.036). In addition, carriage of the variant alleles did not predict response to steroids, infliximab or need for surgery.

    Conclusions: We confirmed that ATG16L1 and IL23R are susceptibility loci for CD in Hungarian CD patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the reported phenotype-genotype associations found in this study.

    Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver 2008;40;11;867-73

  • Contributions of IBD5, IL23R, ATG16L1, and NOD2 to Crohn's disease risk in a population-based case-control study: evidence of gene-gene interactions.

    Okazaki T, Wang MH, Rawsthorne P, Sargent M, Datta LW, Shugart YY, Bernstein CN and Brant SR

    Harvey M. and Lyn P. Meyerhoff Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    Background: IBD5, IL23R, and ATG16L1 genetic variations are established Crohn's disease (CD) risks alleles. We evaluated these in a population-based case-control study within a cohort to determine their penetrance, population attributable risk, independence, and relationship to other established CD risk factors, including NOD2.

    Methods: DNA from 213 CD, 118 [corrected] ulcerative colitis, and 315 [corrected] healthy control subjects from the population based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry were genotyped for IBD5 and IL23R single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),and for the Thr 300Ala ATG16L1 SNP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for these and nongenetic risk factors.We introduce multidimensionality reduction (MDR) to explore gene– gene interactions.

    Results: ATG16L1, IBD5, and IL23R SNPs were significantly associated with CD. Multivariate analysis showed independent CD association for carriers of ATG16L1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.24), IBD5-IGR2230 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.30-3.59), and IL23R-rs10889677 (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.39-3.28) while retaining association for NOD2 mutation carriers (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 2.68-7.38), IBD family history (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.42-5.31), tobacco (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.14), and Jewish ethnicity (OR = 20.1, 95% CI 2.16-186.8). IL23R minor variants for Arg381Gln and Intron 6 rs7517848 showed independent, CD protection and 3' untranslated variant rs108896778 showed risk. MDR analysis suggested an interaction between IBD5, ATG16L1, and IL23R risk alleles. Penetrance values for ATG16L1 and IBD5 were 0.27% for heterozygotes, and 0.35% and 0.44%, respectively, for homozygotes. IL23R rs108896778 penetrance was 0.37%.

    Conclusions: A population-based analysis of CD risk factors is useful for characterizing the epidemiology of multiple CD genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Gene-gene interactions are likely, but require further evaluation in large population-based cohorts.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK058189, R01 DK058189-05, R01DK58189

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2008;14;11;1528-41

  • ATG16L1 T300A shows strong associations with disease subgroups in a large Australian IBD population: further support for significant disease heterogeneity.

    Fowler EV, Doecke J, Simms LA, Zhao ZZ, Webb PM, Hayward NK, Whiteman DC, Florin TH, Montgomery GW, Cavanaugh JA and Radford-Smith GL

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Laboratory, Royal Brisbane and Women's Research Foundation, Brisbane, Australia.

    Objectives: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two most common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), representing a significant health-care burden. A variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (T300A) has been newly identified as a CD susceptibility locus by genome-wide association. Our aim was to assess the contribution of T300A in determining disease susceptibility and phenotype in two independent Australian IBD cohorts and explore the relationship between T300A and known CD risk factors (NOD2[nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2] status and smoking).

    Methods: In total, 669 CD and 543 UC cases, and 1,244 controls (study 1), 154 CD cases and 420 controls (study 2), and 702 unaffected parents from both groups were genotyped. We conducted case-control and family association analyses, and investigated relationships between T300A and disease subgroups and between NOD2 status and cigarette smoking (CD only).

    Results: The strong association between CD and T300A was confirmed (P < 0.001), with a two-fold increase in disease risk associated with the GG genotype (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.58), while ileal CD risk was almost three-fold (OR 2.73, CI 1.87-4.0). ATG16L1 and NOD2 were found to contribute independently to CD risk. A greater than seven-fold increased CD risk was observed for current smokers with a GG genotype (vs nonsmoking AA genotype; P < 0.001, OR 7.65, CI 4.21-13.91). A significant inverse association was found between T300A and UC (P= 0.002). This was strongest for patients with extensive, severe disease.

    Conclusions: We confirm the strong association between T300A and CD, specifically ileal subphenotype, and also report the first strong association of this variant with UC.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2008;103;10;2519-26

  • Lack of evidence for association of primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis with risk alleles for Crohn's disease in Polish patients.

    Gaj P, Habior A, Mikula M and Ostrowski J

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical Center for Postgraduate Education at the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. pawelgaj@tlen.pl

    Background: Numerous papers have addressed the association of mutations and polymorphisms of susceptibility genes with autoimmune inflammatory disorders. We investigated whether polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease could be classified also as predisposing factors for the development of primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis in Polish patients.

    Methods: The study included 60 patients with CD, 77 patients with PSC, of which 61 exhibited IBD (40 UC, 8 CD, and 13 indeterminate colitis), and 144 patients with PBC. All the patients were screened against Crohn's disease associating genetic polymorphisms. The polymorphisms were chosen according to previously confirmed evidence for association with Crohn's disease, including Pro268Ser, Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and 1007fs in NOD2/CARD15, Leu503Phe/-207G>C in SLC22A4/OCTN1/SLC22A5/OCTN2, Arg30Gln in DLG5, Thr300Ala in ATG16L1, and Arg381Gln, His3Gln and exon-3'UTR in IL23R. Genotyping was carried out using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.

    Results: We confirmed a strong association between three NOD2/CARD15 gene variants (Pro268Ser, OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.34-4.75); (Arg702Trp, OR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.99-22.17); (1007fs, OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 3.94-23.29), and a weak association between both the protective OCTN1/OCTN2 CC haplotype (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.08-0.94), and a variant of ATG16L1 gene (Thr300Ala, OR = 0.468, 95% CI = 0.24-0.90) with Crohn's disease. In contrast, none of the polymorphisms exhibited association with susceptibility to primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, including a group of primary sclerosing cholangitis patients with concurrent IBD.

    Conclusion: Although the clinical data indicate non-random co-occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis, consistently with the previously published studies, no genetic association was found between the genetic variants predisposing to Crohn's disease and hepatobiliary autoimmune disorders. However, since estimation of genetic variant disproportion is limited by sample size, these negative results may also indicate that eventually shared genetic predispositions are too little to be captured by small patient groups.

    BMC medical genetics 2008;9;81

  • Replication of interleukin 23 receptor and autophagy-related 16-like 1 association in adult- and pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease in Italy.

    Latiano A, Palmieri O, Valvano MR, D'Incà R, Cucchiara S, Riegler G, Staiano AM, Ardizzone S, Accomando S, de Angelis GL, Corritore G, Bossa F and Annese V

    Struttura Complessa di Endoscopia Digestiva, Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza-I.R.C.C.S., Viale Cappuccini 1, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Aim: To investigate gene variants in a large Italian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort, and to analyze the correlation of sub-phenotypes (including age at diagnosis) and epistatic interaction with other IBD genes.

    Methods: Total of 763 patients with Crohn's disease (CD, 189 diagnosed at age < 19 years), 843 with ulcerative colitis (UC, 179 diagnosed < 19 years), 749 healthy controls, and 546 healthy parents (273 trios) were included in the study. The rs2241880 [autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1)], rs11209026 and rs7517847 [interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R)], rs2066844, rs2066845, rs2066847 (CARD15), rs1050152 (OCTN1), and rs2631367 (OCTN2) gene variants were genotyped.

    Results: The frequency of G allele of ATG16L1 SNP (Ala197Thr) was increased in patients with CD compared with controls (59% vs 54% respectively) (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.08-1.45, P = 0.003), but not in UC (55%). The frequency of A and G (minor) alleles of Arg381Gln, rs11209026 and rs7517847 variants of IL23R were reduced significantly in CD (4%, OR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.87, P = 0.005; 28%, OR = 0.64, CI = 0.55-0.75, P < 0.01), compared with controls (6% and 38%, respectively). The A allele (but not G) was also reduced significantly in UC (4%, OR = 0.69, CI = 0.5-0.94, P = 0.019). No association was demonstrated with sub-phenotypes and interaction with CARD15, and OCTN1/2 genes, although both gene variants were associated with pediatric-onset disease.

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the association of IL23R polymorphisms with IBD, and ATG16L1 with CD, in both adult- and pediatric-onset subsets in our study population.

    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 2008;14;29;4643-51

  • Association of IL23R, TNFRSF1A, and HLA-DRB1*0103 allele variants with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes in the Finnish population.

    Lappalainen M, Halme L, Turunen U, Saavalainen P, Einarsdottir E, Färkkilä M, Kontula K and Paavola-Sakki P

    Research Program for Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, Finland.

    Background: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), 2 major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are complex disorders with significant genetic predisposition. The first CD-associated gene, CARD15/NOD2, was recently identified and since then several reports on novel IBD candidate genes have emerged. We investigated disease phenotype association to genetic variations in IL23R, ATG16L1, DLG5, ABCB1/MDR1, TLR4, TNFRSF1A, chromosome 5 risk haplotype including SLC22A4 and SLC22A5, and HLA-DRB1*0103 allele among Finnish IBD patients.

    Methods: A total of 699 IBD patients were genotyped for disease-associated variants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion or Sequenom iPLEX method.

    Results: Five markers spanning the IL23R gene were associated with CD. The SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) rs2201841 gave the strongest association (P = 0.002). The rare HLA-DRB1*0103 allele was found to associate with UC (P = 0.008), and the TNFRSF1A A36G variant was associated with familial UC (P = 0.007). Upon phenotypic analysis we detected association between familial UC and rare TNFRSF1A alleles 36G and IVS6+10G (P = 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively). In addition, IL23R markers were associated with stricturing CD (P = 0.010-0.017), and ileocolonic CD was more prevalent in the carriers of the same 2 TNFRSF1A variants (P = 0.021 and P = 0.028, respectively). Less significant genotype-phenotype associations were observed for the TLR4 and HLA variants.

    Conclusions: We were able to replicate the association of the IL23R variants with CD as well as HLA-DRB1*0103 with UC; confirmation of TNFRSF1A association with UC needs additional studies. Our findings also suggest that polymorphisms at IL23R and TNFRSF1A, and possibly HLA and TLR4, loci may account for phenotypic variation in IBD.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2008;14;8;1118-24

  • Genome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease.

    Barrett JC, Hansoul S, Nicolae DL, Cho JH, Duerr RH, Rioux JD, Brant SR, Silverberg MS, Taylor KD, Barmada MM, Bitton A, Dassopoulos T, Datta LW, Green T, Griffiths AM, Kistner EO, Murtha MT, Regueiro MD, Rotter JI, Schumm LP, Steinhart AH, Targan SR, Xavier RJ, NIDDK IBD Genetics Consortium, Libioulle C, Sandor C, Lathrop M, Belaiche J, Dewit O, Gut I, Heath S, Laukens D, Mni M, Rutgeerts P, Van Gossum A, Zelenika D, Franchimont D, Hugot JP, de Vos M, Vermeire S, Louis E, Belgian-French IBD Consortium, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Cardon LR, Anderson CA, Drummond H, Nimmo E, Ahmad T, Prescott NJ, Onnie CM, Fisher SA, Marchini J, Ghori J, Bumpstead S, Gwilliam R, Tremelling M, Deloukas P, Mansfield J, Jewell D, Satsangi J, Mathew CG, Parkes M, Georges M and Daly MJ

    Bioinformatics and Statistical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    Several risk factors for Crohn's disease have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies. To advance gene discovery further, we combined data from three studies on Crohn's disease (a total of 3,230 cases and 4,829 controls) and carried out replication in 3,664 independent cases with a mixture of population-based and family-based controls. The results strongly confirm 11 previously reported loci and provide genome-wide significant evidence for 21 additional loci, including the regions containing STAT3, JAK2, ICOSLG, CDKAL1 and ITLN1. The expanded molecular understanding of the basis of this disease offers promise for informed therapeutic development.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000934; NIAID NIH HHS: AI06277, R01 AI062773, R01 AI062773-02; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK064869, DK62413, DK62420, DK62422, DK62423, DK62429, DK62431, DK62432, P30 DK040561-13, P30 DK063491-019004, P30 DK063491-029004, P30 DK063491-039004, P30 DK063491-049004, P30 DK063491-05, R01 DK064869-04, U01 DK062413-06, U01 DK062420, U01 DK062420-01, U01 DK062420-02, U01 DK062420-03, U01 DK062420-04, U01 DK062420-05, U01 DK062420-06, U01 DK062422, U01 DK062422-07, U01 DK062423, U01 DK062423-06, U01 DK062429, U01 DK062429-07, U01 DK062431, U01 DK062431-06; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02

    Nature genetics 2008;40;8;955-62

  • Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B interacts with Atg16L and modulates autophagosome formation.

    Itoh T, Fujita N, Kanno E, Yamamoto A, Yoshimori T and Fukuda M

    Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan.

    Macroautophagy is a mechanism of degradation of cytoplasmic components in all eukaryotic cells. In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are wrapped by double-membrane structures called autophagosomes, whose formation involves unique membrane dynamics, i.e., de novo formation of a double-membrane sac called the isolation membrane and its elongation. However, the precise regulatory mechanism of isolation membrane formation and elongation remains unknown. In this study, we showed that Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B (and Rab33A) specifically interacts with Atg16L, an essential factor in isolation membrane formation, in a guanosine triphosphate-dependent manner. Expression of a GTPase-deficient mutant Rab33B (Rab33B-Q92L) induced the lipidation of LC3, which is an essential process in autophagosome formation, even under nutrient-rich conditions, and attenuated macroautophagy, as judged by the degradation of p62/sequestosome 1. In addition, overexpression of the Rab33B binding domain of Atg16L suppressed autophagosome formation. Our findings suggest that Rab33 modulates autophagosome formation through interaction with Atg16L.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;7;2916-25

  • Genetic determinants of ulcerative colitis include the ECM1 locus and five loci implicated in Crohn's disease.

    Fisher SA, Tremelling M, Anderson CA, Gwilliam R, Bumpstead S, Prescott NJ, Nimmo ER, Massey D, Berzuini C, Johnson C, Barrett JC, Cummings FR, Drummond H, Lees CW, Onnie CM, Hanson CE, Blaszczyk K, Inouye M, Ewels P, Ravindrarajah R, Keniry A, Hunt S, Carter M, Watkins N, Ouwehand W, Lewis CM, Cardon L, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Lobo A, Forbes A, Sanderson J, Jewell DP, Mansfield JC, Deloukas P, Mathew CG, Parkes M and Satsangi J

    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London School of Medicine, 8th Floor Guy's Tower, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK.

    We report results of a nonsynonymous SNP scan for ulcerative colitis and identify a previously unknown susceptibility locus at ECM1. We also show that several risk loci are common to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (IL23R, IL12B, HLA, NKX2-3 and MST1), whereas autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM, along with NOD2 (also known as CARD15), are specific for Crohn's disease. These data provide the first detailed illustration of the genetic relationship between these common inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 089120

    Nature genetics 2008;40;6;710-2

  • CARD15 and IL23R influences Crohn's disease susceptibility but not disease phenotype in a Brazilian population.

    Baptista ML, Amarante H, Picheth G, Sdepanian VL, Peterson N, Babasukumar U, Lima HC and Kugathasan S

    Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR. marcialbaptista@hotmail.com

    Background: Although many genetic variants are identified in association with Crohn's disease (CD), CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 association with CD have been firmly confirmed in Caucasians of European ancestry. The prevalence of CD is rapidly rising in Brazil, where European ancestry is firmly admixed with natives and Africans, resulting in a heterogeneous population. We investigated the contribution of CARD15, IL23R, and ATG16L1 with CD risk in a heterogeneous Brazilian population.

    Methods: Genotyping for CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 3020insC), IL23R (rs1004819, rs7517847, rs11209026, rs10889677, rs1495965), and ATG16L1 (rs2241880) was performed in 187 children and adults with CD and 255 healthy ethnically matched controls. Clinical records were systematically reviewed and detailed phenotypic information was obtained.

    Results: At least 1 CARD15 risk allele was present in 30% of the CD patients compared with 10% of controls. Variants of CARD15 (3020insC and R702W) and IL23R (rs1004819, rs11209026, and rs1088967) were associated with CD. However, no genotype-phenotype correlations were found among the Brazilian CD population with CARD15 or IL23R variants. No significant association was achieved with ATG16L1.

    Conclusions: CARD15 and IL23R confer susceptibility to CD in the Brazilian population. However, the presence of these variants did not influence disease phenotype. Further research should be focused on larger sample sizes with population admixture analysis to better understand the risks and genotype-phenotype correlation in populations like Brazil where the prevalence of CD is rapidly rising.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2008;14;5;674-9

  • [Correlation of the autophagosome gene ATG16L1 polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease].

    Zhi J, Zhi FC, Chen ZY, Yao GP, Guan J, Lin Y and Zhang YC

    Institute of Digestive Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. pancula@163.com

    Objective: To understand the relationship between the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ATG16L1 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, rs2241880.

    Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 80 IBD patients (including 40 with Crohn's disease and 40 with ulcerative colitis) and 50 healthy controls, and the genomic DNA was extracted from the white blood cells. Specific primers were designed according to the target gene sequence for PCR amplification of the target gene fragment, and the PCR products were purified followed by sequence analysis of the target region of ATG16L1 gene. The results of the sequence analysis were compared with the BenBank data to analyze the relationship between the allele gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to Crohn's disease.

    Results: No significant differences were noted in the ATG16L1 gene SNP site rs2241880 polymorphisms among the patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and the control subjects (Chi(2)=4.94, P=0.293).

    Conclusion: ATG16L1 gene polymorphisms in the SNP site rs2241880 are not found to correlate to the susceptibility to Crohn's disease as reported in literature. The SNP site associated with Crohn's disease susceptibility identified in foreign populations does not seem to be identical with that in Chinese population.

    Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 2008;28;4;649-51

  • The ATG16L1 gene variants rs2241879 and rs2241880 (T300A) are strongly associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease in the German population.

    Glas J, Konrad A, Schmechel S, Dambacher J, Seiderer J, Schroff F, Wetzke M, Roeske D, Török HP, Tonenchi L, Pfennig S, Haller D, Griga T, Klein W, Epplen JT, Folwaczny C, Lohse P, Göke B, Ochsenkühn T, Mussack T, Folwaczny M, Müller-Myhsok B and Brand S

    Department of Medicine II-Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany.

    Objectives: We analyzed ATG16L1, a recently identified Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility gene, in a large cohort with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including potential interactions with other IBD genes as well as factors regulating its gene expression.

    Methods: Genomic DNA from 2,890 Caucasians including 768 patients with CD, 507 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 1,615 healthy controls was analyzed for 9 different ATG16L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping included CARD15/NOD2 variants p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg, and p.Leu1007fsX1008 and polymorphisms in SLC22A4/OCTN1 (1672 C-->T) and SLC22A5/OCTN2 (-207 G-->C) as well as 10 CD-associated IL23R variants. The transcriptional regulation of ATG16L1 was studied in intestinal epithelial cells following stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and proinflammatory cytokines and in a murine ileitis model and CD biopsies.

    Results: All nine ATG16L1 gene variants analyzed displayed highly significant associations with CD demonstrating a CD-protective effect for the minor allele. The strongest associations were found for rs2241879 and the coding SNP rs2241880 (T300A); P= 3.6 x 10(-6) and 3.7 x 10(-6), respectively (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84 for both variants). The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed no significant associations. In UC, only rs6431660 was weakly disease-associated. There was no evidence for epistasis between the ATG16L1 gene and other susceptibility genes (IL23R, CARD15, SLC22A4/5). ATG16L1 mRNA expression was not upregulated in CD and murine ileitis, and was less than threefold increased in cells stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines and TLR ligands.

    Conclusion: ATG16L1 is a CD susceptibility gene without epistatic interaction with other CD susceptibility genes and is not upregulated in intestinal inflammation.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2008;103;3;682-91

  • ATG16L1 and IL23R are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases but not with celiac disease in the Netherlands.

    Weersma RK, Zhernakova A, Nolte IM, Lefebvre C, Rioux JD, Mulder F, van Dullemen HM, Kleibeuker JH, Wijmenga C and Dijkstra G

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)--Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)--and celiac disease are intestinal inflammatory disorders with a complex genetic background. Recently, two novel genes were found to be associated with IBD susceptibility. One, an uncommon coding variant (rs11209026) in the gene encoding for the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R), conferred strong protection against CD. The other, rs2241880 in the autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (ATG16L1), was associated with CD. We performed a case-control study for the association of IBD with IL23R and ATG16L1 in a Dutch cohort. We also looked at the association of IL23R and ATG16L1 with celiac disease.

    Methods: Five hundred eighteen Dutch white IBD patients (311 CD and 207 UC, including 176 trios of patients with both parents), 508 celiac disease patients, and 893 healthy controls were studied for association with the rs11209026 (IL23R) and rs2241880 (ATG16L1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).

    Results: The rs11209026 SNP in IL23R had a protective effect for IBD in the case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.37, P= 6.6E-09). Both CD (OR 0.14, CI 0.06-0.37, P= 3.9E-07) and UC (OR 0.33, CI 0.15-0.73, P= 1.4E-03) were associated with IL23R. For ATG16L1, the rs2241880 SNP was associated with CD susceptibility (OR 1.36, CI 1.12-1.66, P= 0.0017). The population-attributable risk of carrying allele G is 0.24 and is 0.19 for homozygosity for allele G in CD. No association was found between IL23R or ATG16L1 and celiac disease.

    Conclusions: We confirmed the association of IL23R and ATG16L1 with CD susceptibility and also the association of IL23R with UC. We found IL23R and ATG16L1 were not associated with celiac disease susceptibility.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2008;103;3;621-7

  • Autophagy gene ATG16L1 influences susceptibility and disease location but not childhood-onset in Crohn's disease in Northern Europe.

    Van Limbergen J, Russell RK, Nimmo ER, Drummond HE, Smith L, Anderson NH, Davies G, Gillett PM, McGrogan P, Weaver LT, Bisset WM, Mahdi G, Arnott ID, Wilson DC and Satsangi J

    Gastrointestinal Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh, UK. johanvanlimbergen@hotmail.com

    Background: The rs2241880A/G variant of the ATG16L1 gene has been associated with susceptibility to ileal Crohn's disease (CD) in adults. Our aim was to assess whether germline variation of ATG16L1 acts as an independent determinant of susceptibility to childhood-onset CD in the high-incidence Scottish population.

    Methods: In all, 2195 subjects (361 children (inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] diagnosis <17 years), their parents (n = 634), 855 adult IBD patients, and 345 controls were genotyped. Case-control analysis was powered to detect effect sizes with an odds ratio (OR) >1.39 in pediatric CD. Case-control analysis, transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT), analysis of variance (ANOVA) of growth parameter z-scores, Kruskal-Wallis test (age at diagnosis), and multifactorial genotype-phenotype analysis (Montreal classification) were performed. 7.8% of pediatric CD patients and 37.2% of adult CD patients had pure ileal disease.

    Results: We confirmed the association of the rs2241880G-allele with adult-onset CD (60.7% versus controls 53.9%, P = 0.01, OR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.63) in contrast to childhood-onset CD (54.1% versus controls, P = 0.95, OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.80-1.26). TDT analysis was negative. Genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated an association of pure ileal disease with the rs2241880G-allele (P = 0.02, OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74). Using binary logistic regression analysis we confirmed the effect of rs2241880 genotype (GG) on ileal disease versus colonic disease (P = 0.03, OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.65). ATG16L1 genotype did not influence age at CD diagnosis. ANOVA of z-scores of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) at CD diagnosis in children showed no association with genotype.

    Conclusions: The ATG16L1 variant is associated with susceptibility to adult CD in Scotland, but not early-onset disease. These contrasting effects are primarily driven by differences in disease location between early-onset and adult-onset disease.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 072789/Z/03/Z

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2008;14;3;338-46

  • Classification of genetic profiles of Crohn's disease: a focus on the ATG16L1 gene.

    Grant SF, Baldassano RN and Hakonarson H

    The Center for Applied Genomics and Division of Human Genetics, The Abramson Research Center of the Joseph Stokes Jr Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104-4318, USA. grants@chop.edu

    Inflammatory bowel disease constitutes two related clinical entities, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which have increased in prevalence over the last decade. Family and twin studies have strongly indicated that genetic factors play a large role in an individual's risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease. Despite this, it has proven difficult to isolate disease genes that confer susceptibility to this disease using classical candidate gene and linkage approaches, with the notable exception of the isolation of the caspase recruitment domain family, member 15 (CARD15) gene. However, over the last 2 years, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have become feasible, where modern high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technologies can be applied to large and comprehensively phenotyped patient cohorts. Such approaches have enabled scientists to robustly associate specific variants with many complex diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, Type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In the inflammatory bowel disease field, positive associations with CD and UC coming from GWA studies have been reported for an ever increasing number of genes. The most consistently and strongly associated variants have been in the CARD15, the interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R) and autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) genes. With respect to ATG16L1, the G allele of SNP rs2241880 has been shown in multiple association studies to confer strong risk for CD, although its association with UC remains more debatable. This SNP is in fact a common coding variant, specifically a threonine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid position 300 of the ATG16L1 protein (T300A), and appears to account for all of the disease risk conferred by this locus. This review addresses recent advances in GWA studies of inflammatory bowel disease, with specific focus on the growing evidence of the ATG16L1 gene's role in CD and how its protein product operating within the autophagic pathway makes autophagy an attractive therapeutic target for this debilitating disorder.

    Expert review of molecular diagnostics 2008;8;2;199-207

  • ATG16L1 Ala197Thr is not associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease or with phenotype in an Italian population.

    Perricone C, Borgiani P, Romano S, Ciccacci C, Fusco G, Novelli G, Biancone L, Calabrese E and Pallone F

    Gastroenterology 2008;134;1;368-70

  • Impaired autophagy of an intracellular pathogen induced by a Crohn's disease associated ATG16L1 variant.

    Kuballa P, Huett A, Rioux JD, Daly MJ and Xavier RJ

    Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

    The genetic risk factors predisposing individuals to the development of inflammatory bowel disease are beginning to be deciphered by genome-wide association studies. Surprisingly, these new data point towards a critical role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. A single common coding variant in the autophagy protein ATG16L1 predisposes individuals to the development of Crohn's disease: while ATG16L1 encoding threonine at amino acid position 300 (ATG16L1*300T) confers protection, ATG16L1 encoding for alanine instead of threonine (ATG16L1*300A, also known as T300A) mediates risk towards the development of Crohn's disease. Here we report that, in human epithelial cells, the Crohn's disease-associated ATG16L1 coding variant shows impairment in the capture of internalized Salmonella within autophagosomes. Thus, we propose that the association of ATG16L1*300A with increased risk of Crohn's disease is due to impaired bacterial handling and lowered rates of bacterial capture by autophagy.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL88297; NIAID NIH HHS: AI062773, AI065687, AI067152; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK062432, DK064869, P30 DK040561-13

    PloS one 2008;3;10;e3391

  • IL23R R381Q and ATG16L1 T300A are strongly associated with Crohn's disease in a study of New Zealand Caucasians with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Roberts RL, Gearry RB, Hollis-Moffatt JE, Miller AL, Reid J, Abkevich V, Timms KM, Gutin A, Lanchbury JS, Merriman TR, Barclay ML and Kennedy MA

    Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Objective: Recently, separate genome-wide association analyses have identified nonsynonymous SNPs in IL23R and ATG16L1 (rs11209026; c1142G>A, R381Q, and rs2241880; c1338A>G, T300A, respectively) as strong candidate susceptibility factors for Crohn's disease (CD) in whites. The aim of our study was to test whether these SNPs are associated with CD in a population-based cohort of New Zealand Caucasian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.

    Methods: Allele frequencies of rs11209026 and rs2241880 were determined in 496 CD patients, 466 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 591 controls. Distribution of the relevant alleles was compared between controls and IBD patients. rs11209026 and rs2241880 genotype distributions were examined both within IBD clinical subphenotypes and CARD15 genotypes.

    Results: rs11209026 and rs2241880 were both associated with CD (P valuers11209026=0.0026, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.81; P valuers2241880=0.0001, OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.67). In addition, there was evidence for association of rs11209026 with UC (P value=0.037, OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.98). No significant association was observed between IL23R genotype or ATG16L1 genotype and IBD subphenotypes. IL23R was associated with CD and UC only in the absence of CARD15 mutations, whereas ATG16L1 was associated with CD in the presence and absence of CARD15 mutations.

    Conclusions: We replicated the previously reported associations between CD and rs11209026 and rs2241880, confirming that IL23R and ATG16L1 are susceptibility loci for CD in the New Zealand population. We also provide further evidence for association of rs11209026 with UC and a report of an additive effect between IL23R and CARD15 genotypes in CD.

    The American journal of gastroenterology 2007;102;12;2754-61

  • Genome-wide association scanning highlights two autophagy genes, ATG16L1 and IRGM, as being significantly associated with Crohn's disease.

    Massey DC and Parkes M

    Cambridge IBD Genetics Research Group, Addenbrooke's Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

    The era of genome-wide association (GWA) scanning has shed new light on the genetic basis of common disease and nowhere is this better illustrated than Crohn's disease (CD). CD is a chronic debilitating inflammatory bowel disease characterized by stricturing and fistula formation. Mainstays of current therapy are immune suppression and surgery. The pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, but it has long been recognized that both genetic susceptibility and bacterial antigens play important roles. A variety of intracellular bacteria have been postulated to trigger CD, but the evidence for any one organism is equivocal. The current consensus is that commensal gut bacteria provide the drive for CD-related inflammation. Three GWA scans undertaken in the last 6 months have identified 10 new loci demonstrating highly significant and replicated association with CD. Two of the strongest hits implicate genes IRGM and ATG16L1, which encode proteins thought to be critical to the autophagy pathway. The critical next step is functional characterization of the CD-associated genetic variants in IRGM and ATG16L. It seems highly plausible that variation in these genes holds the key to understanding exactly which bacteria drive the intestinal inflammation of CD and the mechanism by which they do this.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0800383

    Autophagy 2007;3;6;649-51

  • Association of the T300A non-synonymous variant of the ATG16L1 gene with susceptibility to paediatric Crohn's disease.

    Baldassano RN, Bradfield JP, Monos DS, Kim CE, Glessner JT, Casalunovo T, Frackelton EC, Otieno FG, Kanterakis S, Shaner JL, Smith RM, Eckert AW, Robinson LJ, Onyiah CC, Abrams DJ, Chiavacci RM, Skraban R, Devoto M, Grant SF and Hakonarson H

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 5-M01-RR-000240

    Gut 2007;56;8;1171-3

  • Confirmation of the role of ATG16L1 as a Crohn's disease susceptibility gene.

    Cummings JR, Cooney R, Pathan S, Anderson CA, Barrett JC, Beckly J, Geremia A, Hancock L, Guo C, Ahmad T, Cardon LR and Jewell DP

    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. fraserc@well.ox.ac.uk

    Background: A German genome-wide nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) association study identified ATG16L1 as a Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility gene. The association appeared to be confined to the nsSNP rs2,241,880 and was confirmed in 2 German independent case-control collections (combined P = 4.0 x 10(-8), odds ratio [OR] 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-1.74), a CD transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) collection, and an independent UK cohort. A weak statistical interaction with CARD15 was demonstrated. No association with ulcerative colitis (UC) was demonstrated. The aims of the study were to replicate the association with CD, examine subphenotype associations and statistical interactions with CARD15, IL23R, and the IBD5 risk haplotype, as well as explore the association with UC.

    Methods: The study included 645 CD and 676 UC rigorously phenotyped patients recruited from a single UK center. Unaffected controls comprised either spouses of patients (141) or individuals recruited from well-person clinics (1,049). The nsSNP rs2,241,880 was genotyped using MassArray (Sequenom).

    Results: A strong association with CD was demonstrated (P = 2.33 x 10(-7), OR 1.45 [1.25-1.67]), but no significant association was demonstrated with any subphenotype. We failed to replicate the reported interaction between rs2,241,880 and the CARD15 low-risk haplotypes dd and Dd. No significant statistical interaction with the 3 known CD susceptibility genes was seen. No association with UC susceptibility (P = 0.37, OR 1.06 [0.93-1.22]), or any UC subphenotype was identified.

    Conclusions: We confirmed the findings that ATG16L1 is a CD susceptibility gene and found no evidence of interaction with CARD15, IL23R, or IBD5.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Inflammatory bowel diseases 2007;13;8;941-6

  • Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/540; Medical Research Council: G0000934, G0100594, G0501942, G0600329, G0600705, G0800759, G0901461, G19/9, G90/106, G9806740, G9810900; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 090532

    Nature 2007;447;7145;661-78

  • A nonsynonymous SNP in ATG16L1 predisposes to ileal Crohn's disease and is independent of CARD15 and IBD5.

    Prescott NJ, Fisher SA, Franke A, Hampe J, Onnie CM, Soars D, Bagnall R, Mirza MM, Sanderson J, Forbes A, Mansfield JC, Lewis CM, Schreiber S and Mathew CG

    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.

    A genome-wide association scan of nonsynonymous DNA polymorphisms identified association of a threonine-to-alanine substitution (T300A) in the autophagy-related 16-like gene ATG16L1 with Crohn's disease. We investigated this association in independent U.K. cohorts of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    Methods: The T300A variant (rs2241880) was genotyped in an independent sample of 727 Crohn's disease and 877 ulcerative colitis cases, and in 579 controls. We then performed an extension analysis combining these data with the U.K. data from the initial study to give a total of 1236 U.K. Crohn's disease cases and 1235 controls to estimate disease risk and test for interaction with the CARD15 and IBD5 risk loci and for association with disease subtypes.

    Results: The association of T300A was replicated in the independent sample of 727 Crohn's disease cases (P = .001), and was strongly associated in the extended analysis of 1236 Crohn's cases (P = 2.4 x 10(-6)). The 300A/A genotype conferred a 1.65-fold risk of Crohn's disease, with a 2.2-fold risk of ileal disease. Analysis of the interaction of ATG16L1 with CARD15 and IBD5 indicated that all 3 loci contribute independently to disease risk. Homozygosity for the risk allele at all 3 loci conferred a combined risk of 20.4 (95% confidence interval: 8.71, 47.7) for Crohn's disease. The ATG16L1 risk genotype showed a modest but significant association with ulcerative colitis (P = .026).

    Conclusions: The association of ATG16L1 with Crohn's disease and possibly with ulcerative colitis supports a role for autophagy in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02

    Gastroenterology 2007;132;5;1665-71

  • Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for Crohn disease and implicates autophagy in disease pathogenesis.

    Rioux JD, Xavier RJ, Taylor KD, Silverberg MS, Goyette P, Huett A, Green T, Kuballa P, Barmada MM, Datta LW, Shugart YY, Griffiths AM, Targan SR, Ippoliti AF, Bernard EJ, Mei L, Nicolae DL, Regueiro M, Schumm LP, Steinhart AH, Rotter JI, Duerr RH, Cho JH, Daly MJ and Brant SR

    Université de Montréal and the Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, 5000 rue Belanger, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8, Canada. rioux@broad.mit.edu

    We present a genome-wide association study of ileal Crohn disease and two independent replication studies that identify several new regions of association to Crohn disease. Specifically, in addition to the previously established CARD15 and IL23R associations, we identified strong and significantly replicated associations (combined P < 10(-10)) with an intergenic region on 10q21.1 and a coding variant in ATG16L1, the latter of which was also recently reported by another group. We also report strong associations with independent replication to variation in the genomic regions encoding PHOX2B, NCF4 and a predicted gene on 16q24.1 (FAM92B). Finally, we demonstrate that ATG16L1 is expressed in intestinal epithelial cell lines and that functional knockdown of this gene abrogates autophagy of Salmonella typhimurium. Together, these findings suggest that autophagy and host cell responses to intracellular microbes are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI062773; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 46763, DK43351, DK62413, DK62420, DK62422, DK62423, DK62429, DK62431, DK62432, P30 DK040561-12, P30 DK063491-019004, P30 DK063491-029004, P30 DK063491-039004, P30 DK063491-049004, U01 DK062420, U01 DK062432-06

    Nature genetics 2007;39;5;596-604

  • A genome-wide association scan of nonsynonymous SNPs identifies a susceptibility variant for Crohn disease in ATG16L1.

    Hampe J, Franke A, Rosenstiel P, Till A, Teuber M, Huse K, Albrecht M, Mayr G, De La Vega FM, Briggs J, Günther S, Prescott NJ, Onnie CM, Häsler R, Sipos B, Fölsch UR, Lengauer T, Platzer M, Mathew CG, Krawczak M and Schreiber S

    Institute for Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 24105 Kiel, Germany. jhampe@1med.uni-kiel.de

    We performed a genome-wide association study of 19,779 nonsynonymous SNPs in 735 individuals with Crohn disease and 368 controls. A total of 7,159 of these SNPs were informative. We followed up on all 72 SNPs with P <or= 0.01 with an allele-based disease association test in 380 independent Crohn disease trios, 498 Crohn disease singleton cases and 1,032 controls. Disease association of rs2241880 in the autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (ATG16L1) was replicated in these samples (P = 4.0 x 10(-8)) and confirmed in a UK case-control sample (P = 0.0004). By haplotype and regression analysis, we found that marker rs2241880, a coding SNP (T300A), carries virtually all the disease risk exerted by the ATG16L1 locus. The ATG16L1 gene encodes a protein in the autophagosome pathway that processes intracellular bacteria. We found a statistically significant interaction with respect to Crohn disease risk between rs2241880 and the established CARD15 susceptibility variants (P = 0.039). Together with the lack of association between rs2241880 and ulcerative colitis (P > 0.4), these data suggest that the underlying biological process may be specific to Crohn disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000934; Wellcome Trust: 068545/Z/02

    Nature genetics 2007;39;2;207-11

  • Association analysis of genetic variants in IL23R, ATG16L1 and 5p13.1 loci with Crohn's disease in Japanese patients.

    Yamazaki K, Onouchi Y, Takazoe M, Kubo M, Nakamura Y and Hata A

    Laboratory for Gastrointestinal Diseases, SNP Research Center, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Kanagawa, Japan. kyama@src.riken.jp

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis are characterised by chronic transmural, segmental and typically granulomatous inflammation of the gut. Each has a peak age of onset in the second to fourth decades of life and prevalence has been increasing significantly in both Western countries and Japan over the last decade, while their pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Recently, positive association of CD with the variants in interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R), autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) genes and chromosome 5p13.1 locus was reported through genome-wide association studies which are now recognised as a robust tool for the identification of susceptibility genes for complex diseases. To examine an association of reported susceptible variants in the three loci with Japanese CD patients, a total of 484 CD patients and 439 controls were genotyped. No evidence of positive association for any of these loci with CD was found in the Japanese population, even after clinically stratified subgroups of CD were used. Our result revealed a distinct ethnic difference of genetic background of CD that we reported previously in other genes between Japanese and Caucasian populations. Further genetic studies are required to confirm our findings with ethnically divergent populations.

    Journal of human genetics 2007;52;7;575-83

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Cloning and analysis of human Apg16L.

    Zheng H, Ji C, Li J, Jiang H, Ren M, Lu Q, Gu S, Mao Y and Xie Y

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

    Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system, which delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. In yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate, together with Apg16, form a multimeric complex, which plays an essential role in autopihageosome formation. By large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA encoding a putative protein with 607 amino acid residues, which shows 90% identity and 93% similarity to mouse Apg16L. This protein, designated human Apg16L, contains a coiled-coil domain and a motif with seven WD repeats, which are also shared by mouse Apg16L. Database searching revealed that Apg16L is mapped to chromosome 2q37.1 and there exist at least four splice variants.

    DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 2004;15;4;303-5

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.

    Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P and Gray A

    Departments of Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology and Protein Chemistry, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. hclark@gene.com

    A large-scale effort, termed the Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), was undertaken to identify novel secreted and transmembrane proteins. In the first of several approaches, a biological signal sequence trap in yeast cells was utilized to identify cDNA clones encoding putative secreted proteins. A second strategy utilized various algorithms that recognize features such as the hydrophobic properties of signal sequences to identify putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human cDNA libraries. A third approach surveyed ESTs for protein sequence similarity to a set of known receptors and their ligands with the BLAST algorithm. Finally, both signal-sequence prediction algorithms and BLAST were used to identify single exons of potential genes from within human genomic sequence. The isolation of full-length cDNA clones for each of these candidate genes resulted in the identification of >1000 novel proteins. A total of 256 of these cDNAs are still novel, including variants and novel genes, per the most recent GenBank release version. The success of this large-scale effort was assessed by a bioinformatics analysis of the proteins through predictions of protein domains, subcellular localizations, and possible functional roles. The SPDI collection should facilitate efforts to better understand intercellular communication, may lead to new understandings of human diseases, and provides potential opportunities for the development of therapeutics.

    Genome research 2003;13;10;2265-70

  • Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate.

    Mizushima N, Kuma A, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto A, Matsubae M, Takao T, Natsume T, Ohsumi Y and Yoshimori T

    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi 332-0012, Japan. nmizu@nibb.ac.jp

    Macroautophagy is the major intracellular degradation system delivering cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. We have shown that, in yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 protein conjugate, which is formed by a ubiquitin-like system, is essential for autophagosome formation. In yeast, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate interacts with a small coiled-coil protein, Apg16, to form a approximately 350 kDa multimeric complex. We demonstrate that the mouse Apg12-Apg5 conjugate forms a approximately 800 kDa protein complex containing a novel WD-repeat protein. Because the N-terminal region of this novel protein shows homology with yeast Apg16, we have designated it mouse Apg16-like protein (Apg16L). Apg16L, however, has a large C-terminal domain containing seven WD repeats that is absent from yeast Apg16. Apg16L interacts with both Apg5 and additional Apg16L monomers; neither interaction, however, depends on the WD-repeat domain. In conjunction with Apg12-Apg5, Apg16L associates with the autophagic isolation membrane for the duration of autophagosome formation. Because these features are similar to yeast Apg16, we concluded Apg16L is the functional counterpart of the yeast Apg16. We also found that membrane targeting of Apg16L requires Apg5 but not Apg12. Because WD-repeat proteins provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, the approximately 800 kDa complex is expected to function in autophagosome formation, further interacting with other proteins in mammalian cells.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 9;1679-88

  • The sequence of the human genome.

    Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides P, Ballew RM, Huson DH, Wortman JR, Zhang Q, Kodira CD, Zheng XH, Chen L, Skupski M, Subramanian G, Thomas PD, Zhang J, Gabor Miklos GL, Nelson C, Broder S, Clark AG, Nadeau J, McKusick VA, Zinder N, Levine AJ, Roberts RJ, Simon M, Slayman C, Hunkapiller M, Bolanos R, Delcher A, Dew I, Fasulo D, Flanigan M, Florea L, Halpern A, Hannenhalli S, Kravitz S, Levy S, Mobarry C, Reinert K, Remington K, Abu-Threideh J, Beasley E, Biddick K, Bonazzi V, Brandon R, Cargill M, Chandramouliswaran I, Charlab R, Chaturvedi K, Deng Z, Di Francesco V, Dunn P, Eilbeck K, Evangelista C, Gabrielian AE, Gan W, Ge W, Gong F, Gu Z, Guan P, Heiman TJ, Higgins ME, Ji RR, Ke Z, Ketchum KA, Lai Z, Lei Y, Li Z, Li J, Liang Y, Lin X, Lu F, Merkulov GV, Milshina N, Moore HM, Naik AK, Narayan VA, Neelam B, Nusskern D, Rusch DB, Salzberg S, Shao W, Shue B, Sun J, Wang Z, Wang A, Wang X, Wang J, Wei M, Wides R, Xiao C, Yan C, Yao A, Ye J, Zhan M, Zhang W, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Zheng L, Zhong F, Zhong W, Zhu S, Zhao S, Gilbert D, Baumhueter S, Spier G, Carter C, Cravchik A, Woodage T, Ali F, An H, Awe A, Baldwin D, Baden H, Barnstead M, Barrow I, Beeson K, Busam D, Carver A, Center A, Cheng ML, Curry L, Danaher S, Davenport L, Desilets R, Dietz S, Dodson K, Doup L, Ferriera S, Garg N, Gluecksmann A, Hart B, Haynes J, Haynes C, Heiner C, Hladun S, Hostin D, Houck J, Howland T, Ibegwam C, Johnson J, Kalush F, Kline L, Koduru S, Love A, Mann F, May D, McCawley S, McIntosh T, McMullen I, Moy M, Moy L, Murphy B, Nelson K, Pfannkoch C, Pratts E, Puri V, Qureshi H, Reardon M, Rodriguez R, Rogers YH, Romblad D, Ruhfel B, Scott R, Sitter C, Smallwood M, Stewart E, Strong R, Suh E, Thomas R, Tint NN, Tse S, Vech C, Wang G, Wetter J, Williams S, Williams M, Windsor S, Winn-Deen E, Wolfe K, Zaveri J, Zaveri K, Abril JF, Guigó R, Campbell MJ, Sjolander KV, Karlak B, Kejariwal A, Mi H, Lazareva B, Hatton T, Narechania A, Diemer K, Muruganujan A, Guo N, Sato S, Bafna V, Istrail S, Lippert R, Schwartz R, Walenz B, Yooseph S, Allen D, Basu A, Baxendale J, Blick L, Caminha M, Carnes-Stine J, Caulk P, Chiang YH, Coyne M, Dahlke C, Mays A, Dombroski M, Donnelly M, Ely D, Esparham S, Fosler C, Gire H, Glanowski S, Glasser K, Glodek A, Gorokhov M, Graham K, Gropman B, Harris M, Heil J, Henderson S, Hoover J, Jennings D, Jordan C, Jordan J, Kasha J, Kagan L, Kraft C, Levitsky A, Lewis M, Liu X, Lopez J, Ma D, Majoros W, McDaniel J, Murphy S, Newman M, Nguyen T, Nguyen N, Nodell M, Pan S, Peck J, Peterson M, Rowe W, Sanders R, Scott J, Simpson M, Smith T, Sprague A, Stockwell T, Turner R, Venter E, Wang M, Wen M, Wu D, Wu M, Xia A, Zandieh A and Zhu X

    Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. humangenome@celera.com

    A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2001;291;5507;1304-51

Gene lists (2)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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