G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 1, cytosolic
G00000795 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000007849 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000162368 (Ensembl human gene)
51727 (Entrez Gene)
1211 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CMPK (GeneCards)
191710 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:18170 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P30085 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)


Literature (16)

Pubmed - other

  • Nucleotide binding to human UMP-CMP kinase using fluorescent derivatives -- a screening based on affinity for the UMP-CMP binding site.

    Topalis D, Kumamoto H, Amaya Velasco MF, Dugué L, Haouz A, Alexandre JAC, Gallois-Montbrun S, Alzari PM, Pochet S, Agrofoglio LA and Deville-Bonne D

     Laboratoire d'Enzymologie Moléculaire et Fonctionnelle, FRE 2852 CNRS-Paris 6, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris, France Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, UMR CNRS 6005, FR 2708, Université d'Orléans, UFR Sciences, Orléans, France Unité de Biochimie Structurale, URA CNRS 2185, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Unité de Chimie Organique, URA CNRS 2128, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Plate-Forme 6- Cristallogénèse et Diffraction des Rayons X, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Unité de Régulation Enzymatique des Activités Cellulaires, CNRS URA 2185, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

    Methylanthraniloyl derivatives of ATP and CDP were used in vitro as fluorescent probes for the donor-binding and acceptor-binding sites of human UMP-CMP kinase, a nucleoside salvage pathway kinase. Like all NMP kinases, UMP-CMP kinase binds the phosphodonor, usually ATP, and the NMP at different binding sites. The reaction results from an in-line phosphotransfer from the donor to the acceptor. The probe for the donor site was displaced by the bisubstrate analogs of the Ap5X series (where X = U, dT, A, G), indicating the broad specificity of the acceptor site. Both CMP and dCMP were competitors for the acceptor site probe. To find antimetabolites for antivirus and anticancer therapies, we have developed a method of screening acyclic phosphonate analogs that is based on the affinity of the acceptor-binding site of the human UMP-CMP kinase. Several uracil vinylphosphonate derivatives had affinities for human UMP-CMP kinase similar to those of dUMP and dCMP and better than that of cidofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. The uracil derivatives were inhibitors rather than substrates of human UMP-CMP kinase. Also, the 5-halogen-substituted analogs inhibited the human TMP kinase less efficiently. The broad specificity of the enzyme acceptor-binding site is in agreement with a large substrate-binding pocket, as shown by the 2.1 A crystal structure.

    The FEBS journal 2007;274;14;3704-3714

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Phosphorylation of Cytidine, Deoxycytidine, and Their Analog Monophosphates by Human UMP/CMP Kinase Is Differentially Regulated by ATP and Magnesium.

    Hsu CH, Liou JY, Dutschman GE and Cheng YC

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St., SHM B226, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

    Human UMP/CMP kinase (cytidylate kinase; EC is responsible for phosphorylation of CMP, UMP, and deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) and also plays an important role in the activation of pyrimidine analogs, some of which are clinically useful anticancer or antiviral drugs. Previous kinetic data using recombinant or highly purified human UMP/CMP kinase showed that dCMP, as well as pyrimidine analog monophosphates, were much poorer substrates than CMP or UMP for this enzyme. This implies that other unidentified mechanisms must be involved to make phosphorylation of dCMP or pyrimidine analog monophosphates inside cells by this enzyme possible. Here, we reevaluated the optimal reaction conditions for human recombinant human UMP/CMP kinase to phosphorylate dCMP and CMP (referred as dCMPK and CMPK activities). We found that ATP and magnesium were important regulators of the kinase activities of this enzyme. Free magnesium enhanced dCMPK activity but inhibited CMPK activity. Free ATP or excess ATP/magnesium, on the other hand, inhibited dCMPK but not CMPK reactions. The differential regulation of dCMPK versus CMPK activities by ATP or magnesium was also seen in other 2'-deoxypyrimidine analog monophosphates (deoxyuridine monophosphate, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine monophosphate, and gemcitabine monophosphate) versus their ribose-counterparts (UMP and 5-fluorouridine monophosphate), in a similar manner. The data suggest that the active sites of human UMP/CMP kinase for dCMP and for CMP cannot be identical. Furthermore, enzyme inhibition studies demonstrated that CMP could inhibit dCMP phosphorylation in a noncompetitive manner, with Ki values much higher than its own Km values. We thus propose novel models for the phosphorylation action of human UMP/CMP kinase.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63477; NIAID NIH HHS: R01-AI38204

    Molecular pharmacology 2005;67;3;806-14

  • Beta-amyloid protein converting enzyme 1 and brain-specific type II membrane protein BRI3: binding partners processed by furin.

    Wickham L, Benjannet S, Marcinkiewicz E, Chretien M and Seidah NG

    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we screened a human brain cDNA library for possible interacting proteins with the C-terminal cytosolic tail of the beta-secretase beta-amyloid protein converting enzyme (BACE)1. This identified seven potential candidates, including the brain-specific type II membrane protein BRI3. Co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BACE1 and BRI3 co-localize and interact with each other via the cytosolic tail of BACE1. Furthermore, pulse and pulse-chase analyses revealed that the pro-protein convertases furin, and to a lesser extent PC7 and PC5A, process BRI3 into a C-terminal secreted approximately 4-kDa product. Thus, furin efficiently processes both pro-BACE1 and its novel interacting protein pro-BRI3.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;92;1;93-102

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Substrate-induced conformational changes in human UMP/CMP kinase.

    Segura-Peña D, Sekulic N, Ort S, Konrad M and Lavie A

    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

    Human UMP/CMP kinase plays a crucial role in supplying precursors for nucleic acid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of UMP, CMP, and dCMP into their diphosphate form. In addition, this kinase is an essential component of the activation cascade of medicinally relevant nucleoside analog prodrugs such as AraC, gemcitabine, and ddC. During the catalytic cycle the enzyme undergoes large conformational changes from open in the absence of substrates to closed in the presence of both phosphoryl donor and phosphoryl acceptor. Here we report the crystal structure of the substrate-free, open form of human UMP/CMP kinase. Comparison of the open structure with the closed state previously reported for the similar Dictyostelium discoideum UMP/CMP kinase reveals the conformational changes that occur upon substrate binding. We observe a classic example of induced fit where substrate-induced conformational changes in hinge residues result in rigid body movements of functional domains to form the catalytically competent state. In addition, a homology model of the human enzyme in the closed state based on the structure of D. discoideum UMP/CMP kinase aids to rationalize the substrate specificity of the human enzyme.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI46943

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;32;33882-9

  • Reaction of human UMP-CMP kinase with natural and analog substrates.

    Pasti C, Gallois-Montbrun S, Munier-Lehmann H, Veron M, Gilles AM and Deville-Bonne D

    Unité de Régulation Enzymatique des Activités Cellulaires, CNRS URA 2185, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

    UMP-CMP kinase catalyses an important step in the phosphorylation of UTP, CTP and dCTP. It is also involved in the necessary phosphorylation by cellular kinases of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies. The reactivity of human UMP-CMP kinase towards natural substrates and nucleotide analogs was reexamined. The expression of the recombinant enzyme and conditions for stability of the enzyme were improved. Substrate inhibition was observed for UMP and CMP at concentrations higher than 0.2 mm, but not for dCMP. The antiviral analog l-3TCMP was found to be an efficient substrate phosphorylated into l-3TCDP by human UMP-CMP kinase. However, in the reverse reaction, the enzyme did not catalyse the addition of the third phosphate to l-3TCDP, which was rather an inhibitor. By molecular modelling, l-3TCMP was built in the active site of the enzyme from Dictyostelium. Human UMP-CMP kinase has a relaxed enantiospecificity for the nucleoside monophosphate acceptor site, but it is restricted to d-nucleotides at the donor site.

    European journal of biochemistry 2003;270;8;1784-90

  • Characterization of human UMP/CMP kinase and its phosphorylation of D- and L-form deoxycytidine analogue monophosphates.

    Liou JY, Dutschman GE, Lam W, Jiang Z and Cheng YC

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    Pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase [UMP/CMP kinase (UMP/CMPK);EC] plays a crucial role in the formation of UDP, CDP, and dCDP, which are required for cellular nucleic acid synthesis. Several cytidine and deoxycytidine analogues are important anticancer and antiviral drugs. These drugs require stepwise phosphorylation to their triphosphate forms to exert their therapeutic effects. The role of UMP/CMPK for the phosphorylation of nucleoside analogues has been indicated. Thus, we cloned the human UMP/CMPK gene, expressed it in Escherichia coli, and purified it to homogeneity. Its kinetic properties were determined. UMP and CMP proved to be far better substrates than dCMP. UMP/CMPK used all of the nucleoside triphosphates as phosphate donors, with ATP and dATP being the best donors and CTP being the poorest. Furthermore, UMP/CMPK was able to phosphorylate all of the deoxycytidine analogue monophosphates that we tested. The relative efficiency was as follows: arabinofuranosyl-CMP > dCMP > beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thia-CMP > Gemcitabine monophosphate > beta-D-2',3'-dideoxy-CMP; beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-5-fluoro-CMP; beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thia-CMP > beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-CMP > beta-L-dioxolane-CMP. By comparing the relative V(max)/K(m) values of D- and L-form dideoxy-CMP, we showed that this kinase lacked stereoselectivity. Reducing agents, such as DTT, 2-mercaptoethanol, and thioredoxin, were able to activate this enzyme, suggesting that its activity may be regulated by redox potential in vivo. UMP/CMPK localized predominantly to the cytoplasm. In addition, 196-amino acid UMP/CMPK was the actual form of UMP/CMPK, rather than the 228-amino acid form as suggested before.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63477; NIAID NIH HHS: AI38204

    Cancer research 2002;62;6;1624-31

  • Characterization of human UMP-CMP kinase enzymatic activity and 5' untranslated region.

    Pearman AT, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM and Stafforini DM

    Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA.

    We have cloned a cDNA for human UMP-CMP kinase from a macrophage cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that this cDNA is derived from the same gene as a previously reported EST-derived cDNA. Here we show that a conspicuous difference between these two clones, 73 additional 5' nucleotides in the EST clone, including a putative translational start site, is not functionally significant. This work shows that the additional 5'sequence in the EST clone was unnecessary for enzymatic activity and nonfunctional in the initiation of translation. Specifically, we found that protein expressed by both the macrophage-derived cDNA and the extended cDNA had the same relative molecular mass, consistent with use of an ATG internal to the macrophage-derived clone as the functional start site. In addition, this work more precisely defines the catalytic activity of UMP-CMP kinase. Here, we show a 3-fold greater substrate preference for CMP relative to UMP, identify ATP and UTP as the preferred phosphate donors for the reaction, and demonstrate that the reaction is Mg2+-dependent. In addition, investigation of UMP-CMP-kinase expression revealed two mRNA products in immune tissues and cancer cell lines. The smaller RNA product was previously undescribed.

    Life sciences 2001;69;20;2361-70

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • Phosphorylation of deoxycytidine analog monophosphates by UMP-CMP kinase: molecular characterization of the human enzyme.

    Van Rompay AR, Johansson M and Karlsson A

    Division of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Phosphorylation of deoxycytidine analogs by cellular enzymes is a prerequisite for the activity of these compounds. We have investigated the kinetic parameters for the phosphorylation of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC) and 2', 2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) to their diphosphate forms catalyzed by human UMP-CMP kinase. We cloned the cDNA of this enzyme to enable characterization of the recombinant protein, determine its expression in different tissues, and determine the chromosome location of the gene. We showed that the recombinant UMP-CMP kinase phosphorylated CMP, dCMP, and UMP with highest efficiency and dUMP, AMP, and dAMP with lower efficiency. The monophosphates of araC and dFdC were shown to be phosphorylated with similar efficiency as dCMP and CMP. We further showed, in a combined enzymatic assay, that human deoxycytidine kinase and UMP-CMP kinase together phosphorylated araC, dFdC, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine to their diphosphate forms. Northern blot analysis showed that the UMP-CMP kinase mRNA was ubiquitously present in human tissues as a 3.9-kb transcript with highest levels in pancreas, skeletal muscle, and liver. The human UMP-CMP kinase gene was localized to chromosome 1p34.1-1p33 by radiation hybrid analysis. We further expressed the UMP-CMP kinase as a fusion protein to the green fluorescent protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and showed that the fusion protein was located in the cytosol and nucleus.

    Molecular pharmacology 1999;56;3;562-9

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Human liver protein map: update 1993.

    Hughes GJ, Frutiger S, Paquet N, Pasquali C, Sanchez JC, Tissot JD, Bairoch A, Appel RD and Hochstrasser DF

    Medical Biochemistry Department, Geneva University.

    This publication updates the reference human liver protein map. By microsequencing, 27 spots or 34 polypeptide chains were identified. The most abundant polypeptides detected on the silver stained liver map were key elements in major hepatic biochemical pathways. The new polypeptides and previously known proteins are listed in a table and/or labeled on the protein map, thus providing the 1993 reference human liver SWISS-2DPAGE database. SWISS-2DPAGE and the SWISS-PROT protein sequence databases are closely linked together through the use of common accession numbers.

    Electrophoresis 1993;14;11;1216-22

  • Human liver protein map: a reference database established by microsequencing and gel comparison.

    Hochstrasser DF, Frutiger S, Paquet N, Bairoch A, Ravier F, Pasquali C, Sanchez JC, Tissot JD, Bjellqvist B, Vargas R et al.

    Medicine Department, Geneva University, Switzerland.

    This publication establishes a reference human liver protein map obtained with immobilized pH gradients. By microsequencing, 57 spots or 42 polypeptide chains were identified. By protein map comparison and matching (liver, red blood cell and plasma sample maps), 8 additional proteins were identified. The new polypeptides and previously known proteins are listed in a table and/or labeled on the protein map, thus providing a human liver two-dimensional gel database. This reference map can be used to identify protein spots on other samples such as rectal cancer biopsies.

    Electrophoresis 1992;13;12;992-1001

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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