G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
kinesin heavy chain member 2A
G00000760 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000068796 (Ensembl human gene)
3796 (Entrez Gene)
1189 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
602591 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6318 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O00139 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • HK2

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Targeting of integrin beta1 and kinesin 2alpha by microRNA 183.

    Li G, Luna C, Qiu J, Epstein DL and Gonzalez P

    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    MicroRNA 183 (miR-183) has been reported to inhibit tumor invasiveness and is believed to be involved in the development and function of ciliated neurosensory organs. We have recently found that expression of miR-183 increased after the induction of cellular senescence by exposure to H(2)O(2). To gain insight into the biological roles of miR-183 we investigated two potential novel targets: integrin beta1 (ITGB1) and kinesin 2alpha (KIF2A). miR-183 significantly decreased the expression of ITGB1 and KIF2A measured by Western blot. Targeting of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of ITGB1 and KIF2A by miR-183 was confirmed by luciferase assay. Transfection with miR-183 led to a significant decrease in cell invasion and migration capacities of HeLa cells that could be rescued by expression of ITGB1 lacking the 3'-UTR. Although miR-183 had no effects on cell adhesion in HeLa cells, it significantly decreased adhesion to laminin, gelatin, and collagen type I in normal human diploid fibroblasts and human trabecular meshwork cells. These effects were also rescued by expression of ITGB1 lacking the 3'-UTR. Targeting of KIF2A by miR-183 resulted in some increase in the formation of cells with monopolar spindles in HeLa cells but not in human diploid fibroblast or human trabecular meshwork cells. The regulation of ITGB1 expression by miR-183 provides a new mechanism for the anti-metastatic role of miR-183 and suggests that this miRNA could influence the development and function in neurosensory organs, and contribute to functional alterations associated with cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts and human trabecular meshwork cells.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY016228, EY01894, EY019137, EY05722, P30 EY005722, R01 EY001894, R01 EY016228, R21 EY019137

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2010;285;8;5461-71

  • Plk1 and Aurora A regulate the depolymerase activity and the cellular localization of Kif2a.

    Jang CY, Coppinger JA, Seki A, Yates JR and Fang G

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    The microtubule depolymerase Kif2a controls spindle assembly and dynamics and is essential for chromosome congression and segregation. Through a proteomic analysis, we identified Kif2a as a target for regulation by the Polo-like kinase Plk1. Plk1 interacts with Kif2a, but only in mitosis, in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. Plk1 phosphorylates Kif2a and enhances its depolymerase activity in vitro. Inhibition or depletion of Plk1 decreases microtubule-associated Kif2a signals and increases the spindle microtubule intensity in vivo. Interestingly, Aurora A also interacts with and phosphorylates Kif2a. Phosphorylation of Kif2a by Aurora A suppresses its depolymerase activity in vitro, and inhibition of Aurora A increases the microtubule-associated Kif2a signals and reduces the spindle microtubule intensity in vivo. Thus, Kif2a is regulated positively by Plk1 and negatively by Aurora A. We propose that this antagonistic regulation confers differential stability to microtubules in the spindle versus at the pole versus in the cytosol, and that this spatial differential stability is important for spindle assembly and function.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR11823-10; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL079442, R01 HL079442; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM062852

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 9;1334-41

  • DDA3 recruits microtubule depolymerase Kif2a to spindle poles and controls spindle dynamics and mitotic chromosome movement.

    Jang CY, Wong J, Coppinger JA, Seki A, Yates JR and Fang G

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    Dynamic turnover of the spindle is a driving force for chromosome congression and segregation in mitosis. Through a functional genomic analysis, we identify DDA3 as a previously unknown regulator of spindle dynamics that is essential for mitotic progression. DDA3 depletion results in a high frequency of unaligned chromosomes, a substantial reduction in tension across sister kinetochores at metaphase, and a decrease in the velocity of chromosome segregation at anaphase. DDA3 associates with the mitotic spindle and controls microtubule (MT) dynamics. Mechanistically, DDA3 interacts with the MT depolymerase Kif2a in an MT-dependent manner and recruits Kif2a to the mitotic spindle and spindle poles. Depletion of DDA3 increases the steady-state levels of spindle MTs by reducing the turnover rate of the mitotic spindle and by increasing the rate of MT polymerization, which phenocopies the effects of partial knockdown of Kif2a. Thus, DDA3 represents a new class of MT-destabilizing protein that controls spindle dynamics and mitotic progression by regulating MT depolymerases.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR011823, RR11823-10; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL079442, R01 HL079442; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM062852, R01 GM062852

    The Journal of cell biology 2008;181;2;255-67

  • The kinesin-13 proteins Kif2a, Kif2b, and Kif2c/MCAK have distinct roles during mitosis in human cells.

    Manning AL, Ganem NJ, Bakhoum SF, Wagenbach M, Wordeman L and Compton DA

    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

    The human genome has three unique genes coding for kinesin-13 proteins called Kif2a, Kif2b, and MCAK (Kif2c). Kif2a and MCAK have documented roles in mitosis, but the function of Kif2b has not been defined. Here, we show that Kif2b is expressed at very low levels in cultured cells and that GFP-Kif2b localizes predominately to centrosomes and midbodies, but also to spindle microtubules and transiently to kinetochores. Kif2b-deficient cells assemble monopolar or disorganized spindles. Chromosomes in Kif2b-deficient cells show typical kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but the velocity of movement is reduced approximately 80% compared with control cells. Some Kif2b-deficient cells attempt anaphase, but the cleavage furrow regresses and cytokinesis fails. Like Kif2a-deficient cells, bipolar spindle assembly can be restored to Kif2b-deficient cells by simultaneous deficiency of MCAK or Nuf2 or treatment with low doses of nocodazole. However, Kif2b-deficient cells are unique in that they assemble bipolar spindles when the pole focusing activities of NuMA and HSET are perturbed. These data demonstrate that Kif2b function is required for spindle assembly and chromosome movement and that the microtubule depolymerase activities of Kif2a, Kif2b, and MCAK fulfill distinct functions during mitosis in human cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51542, GM69429, R01 GM051542, R01 GM069429, R37 GM051542

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;8;2970-9

  • Kinesin-1 plays multiple roles during the vaccinia virus life cycle.

    Schepis A, Stauber T and Krijnse Locker J

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Cell Biology and Biophysics Program, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The cytoplasmic distribution of cellular structures is known to depend on the balance between plus- and minus-end-directed motor complexes. Among the plus-end-directed kinesins, kinesin-1 and -2 have been implicated in the outward movement of many organelles. To test for a role of kinesin-1 previous studies mostly relied on the overexpression of dominant-negative kinesin-1 constructs. The latter are often cytotoxic, modify the microtubule network and indirect effects related to altered microtubule dynamics should be excluded. In the present study we present a novel kinesin-1 construct, encompassing the first 330 amino acids of kinesin heavy chain fused to GFP (kin330-GFP) that does not alter microtubules upon its overexpression. Kin330-GFP functionally inhibits kinesin-1 because it induces the peri-nuclear accumulation of mitochondria and intermediate filaments. Using this construct and previously established siRNA-mediated knock-down of kinesin-2 function, we assess the role of both motors in the subcellular distribution of distinct steps of the vaccinia virus (VV) life cycle. We show that kinesin-1, but not kinesin-2, contributes to the specific cytoplasmic distribution of three of the four steps of VV morphogenesis tested. These results are discussed with respect to the possible regulation of kinesin-1 during VV infection.

    Cellular microbiology 2007;9;8;1960-73

  • The novel cargo Alcadein induces vesicle association of kinesin-1 motor components and activates axonal transport.

    Araki Y, Kawano T, Taru H, Saito Y, Wada S, Miyamoto K, Kobayashi H, Ishikawa HO, Ohsugi Y, Yamamoto T, Matsuno K, Kinjo M and Suzuki T

    Laboratory of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

    Alcadeinalpha (Alcalpha) is an evolutionarily conserved type I membrane protein expressed in neurons. We show here that Alcalpha strongly associates with kinesin light chain (K(D) approximately 4-8x10(-9) M) through a novel tryptophan- and aspartic acid-containing sequence. Alcalpha can induce kinesin-1 association with vesicles and functions as a novel cargo in axonal anterograde transport. JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1), an adaptor protein for kinesin-1, perturbs the transport of Alcalpha, and the kinesin-1 motor complex dissociates from Alcalpha-containing vesicles in a JIP1 concentration-dependent manner. Alcalpha-containing vesicles were transported with a velocity different from that of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP)-containing vesicles, which are transported by the same kinesin-1 motor. Alcalpha- and APP-containing vesicles comprised mostly separate populations in axons in vivo. Interactions of Alcalpha with kinesin-1 blocked transport of APP-containing vesicles and increased beta-amyloid generation. Inappropriate interactions of Alc- and APP-containing vesicles with kinesin-1 may promote aberrant APP metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;6;1475-86

  • A family-based association study of kinesin heavy chain member 2 gene (KIF2) and schizophrenia.

    Li C, Zheng Y, Qin W, Tao R, Pan Y, Xu Y, Li X, Gu N, Feng G and He L

    Bio-X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, PR China.

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease characterized by multiple genetic susceptibility elements. The human KIF2 gene represents an orthologue of the murine Kif2a, which plays an important role in the transport of various membranous organelles and protein complexes on microtubules. To examine whether this gene is involved in schizophrenia etiology, we undertook studies of transmission disequilibrium in a cohort of affected family samples to test for association. Although, we failed to detect any positive results in single markers, a common two-SNP haplotype (rs2289883/rs464058, G/A) showed a significant association with the disease and a four-SNP haplotype (T/G/A/G) with a frequency of 23.4% was identified in parental chromosomes and showed a significant association with the disease (P=0.00795). Our results demonstrate that the KIF2 gene, located at 5q12.1, is a potential schizophrenia susceptibility gene.

    Neuroscience letters 2006;407;2;151-5

  • Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle.

    Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA and Körner R

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates the sister chromatids into two nascent cells, such that each daughter cell inherits one complete set of chromosomes. Errors in spindle formation can result in both chromosome missegregation and cytokinesis defects and hence lead to genomic instability. To ensure the correct function of the spindle, the activity and localization of spindle associated proteins has to be tightly regulated in time and space. Reversible phosphorylation has been shown to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms for the organization of the mitotic spindle. The relatively low number of identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of spindle components, however, has hampered functional analysis of regulatory spindle networks. A more complete inventory of the phosphorylation sites of spindle-associated proteins would therefore constitute an important advance. Here, we describe the mass spectrometry-based identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites from purified human mitotic spindles. In total, 736 phosphorylation sites were identified, of which 312 could be attributed to known spindle proteins. Among these are phosphorylation sites that were previously shown to be important for the regulation of spindle-associated proteins. Importantly, this data set also comprises 279 novel phosphorylation sites of known spindle proteins for future functional studies. This inventory of spindle phosphorylation sites should thus make an important contribution to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation, function, and integrity of the mitotic spindle.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;14;5391-6

  • Efficient mitosis in human cells lacking poleward microtubule flux.

    Ganem NJ, Upton K and Compton DA

    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.

    Chromosome segregation relies on the dynamic properties of spindle microtubules (MTs). Poleward MT flux contributes to spindle dynamics through the disassembly of MT minus ends at spindle poles coupled to the continuous poleward transport of spindle MTs. Despite being conserved in metazoan cells, the function of flux remains controversial because flux rates differ widely in different cell types. In meiotic systems, the rate of flux nearly matches that of chromosome movement, but in mitotic systems, flux is significantly slower than chromosome movement. Here, we show that spindles in human mitotic cells depleted of the kinesin-13 proteins Kif2a and MCAK lack detectable flux and that such cells frequently fail to segregate all chromosomes appropriately at anaphase. Elimination of flux reduces poleward chromosome velocity approximately 20%, but does not hinder bipolar spindle assembly, chromosome alignment, or mitotic progression. Thus, mitosis proceeds efficiently in human cells lacking detectable poleward MT flux. These data demonstrate that in human cultured cells, kinetochores are sufficient to effectively power chromosome movement, leading us to speculate that flux is maintained in these cells to fulfill other functional roles such as error correction or kinetochore regulation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM008704, GM51542

    Current biology : CB 2005;15;20;1827-32

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The KinI kinesin Kif2a is required for bipolar spindle assembly through a functional relationship with MCAK.

    Ganem NJ and Compton DA

    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, 410 Remsen Bldg., Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

    Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. Bipolar spindle assembly was restored in cells lacking Kif2a by treatments that altered microtubule assembly (nocodazole), eliminated kinetochore-microtubule attachment (loss of Nuf2), or stabilized microtubule plus ends at kinetochores (loss of MCAK). Thus, two KinI motors, MCAK and Kif2a, play distinct roles in mitosis, and MCAK activity at kinetochores must be balanced by Kif2a activity at poles for spindle bipolarity. These treatments failed to restore bipolarity to cells lacking the activity of the kinesin Eg5. Thus, two independent pathways contribute to spindle bipolarity, with the Eg5-dependent pathway using motor force to drive spindle bipolarity and the Kif2a-dependent pathway relying on microtubule polymer dynamics to generate force for spindle bipolarity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM008704, GM51542, R01 GM051542, R37 GM051542, T32 GM008704

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;166;4;473-8

  • Genome-wide survey of human alternative pre-mRNA splicing with exon junction microarrays.

    Johnson JM, Castle J, Garrett-Engele P, Kan Z, Loerch PM, Armour CD, Santos R, Schadt EE, Stoughton R and Shoemaker DD

    Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC, Merck & Co., Inc., 12040 115th Avenue N.E., Kirkland, WA 98034, USA. jason_johnson@merck.com

    Alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing plays important roles in development, physiology, and disease, and more than half of human genes are alternatively spliced. To understand the biological roles and regulation of alternative splicing across different tissues and stages of development, systematic methods are needed. Here, we demonstrate the use of microarrays to monitor splicing at every exon-exon junction in more than 10,000 multi-exon human genes in 52 tissues and cell lines. These genome-wide data provide experimental evidence and tissue distributions for thousands of known and novel alternative splicing events. Adding to previous studies, the results indicate that at least 74% of human multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;302;5653;2141-4

  • Identification of a novel human kinesin-related gene (HK2) by the cDNA differential display technique.

    Debernardi S, Fontanella E, De Gregorio L, Pierotti MA and Delia D

    Division of Experimental Oncology A, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy.

    We have used the cDNA differential display technique to isolate genes regulated by the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide (HPR), a cancer chemopreventive agent in vivo and a powerful inducer of apoptotic cell death in vitro. Here we report the identification of a novel gene, the expression of which is markedly up-regulated in tumor cells after treatment for 30-60 min with HPR. The full-length cDNA of this gene, determined by screening of a human placenta cDNA, is 3.5 kb long and contains an open reading frame of 2037 nt. The gene is > 90% homologous to the mouse KIF2, a gene belonging to the family of kinesin-related motor proteins, and we therefore named it HK2 (human kinesin 2). A shorter form of the HK2 mRNA (HK2s), containing a 57-nt deletion in the open reading frame, has also been detected. Northern analysis revealed that HK2 is widely expressed among hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cell lines and tissues. By the use of radiation hybrids, HK2 has been localized to chromosome 5q12-q13. Kinesins constitute a superfamily of motor proteins that use energy liberated from ATP hydrolysis to move cargo along microtubules and are implicated in mechanisms of mitosis or meiosis. The role of HK2 in the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses elicited by HPR remains to be established.

    Genomics 1997;42;1;67-73

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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