G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
inner membrane protein, mitochondrial
G00000754 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000132305 (Ensembl human gene)
10989 (Entrez Gene)
1186 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
IMMT (GeneCards)
600378 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6047 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q16891 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • HMP
  • P87
  • P89

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • The mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin exists as a complex with SAM50, metaxins 1 and 2, coiled-coil-helix coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 3 and 6 and DnaJC11.

    Xie J, Marusich MF, Souda P, Whitelegge J and Capaldi RA

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. cxjing@uoregon.edu

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been produced which reacts with human mitofilin, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein. This mAb immunocaptures its target protein in association with six other proteins, metaxins 1 and 2, SAM50, CHCHD3, CHCHD6 and DnaJC11, respectively. The first three are outer membrane proteins, CHCHD3 has been assigned to the matrix space, and the other two proteins have not been described in mitochondria previously. The functional role of this new complex is uncertain. However, a role in protein import related to maintenance of mitochondrial structure is suggested as mitofilin helps regulate mitochondrial morphology and at least four of the associated proteins (metaxins 1 and 2, SAM50 and CHCHD3) have been implicated in protein import, while DnaJC11 is a chaperone-like protein that may have a similar role.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;18;3545-9

  • Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 Interactome: evidence for the close connectivity of risk genes and a potential synaptic basis for schizophrenia.

    Camargo LM, Collura V, Rain JC, Mizuguchi K, Hermjakob H, Kerrien S, Bonnert TP, Whiting PJ and Brandon NJ

    Merck Research Labs, Merck & Co., Boston, MA 02115, USA. miguel_camargo@merck.com

    Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a schizophrenia risk gene associated with cognitive deficits in both schizophrenics and the normal ageing population. In this study, we have generated a network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) around DISC1. This has been achieved by utilising iterative yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) screens, combined with detailed pathway and functional analysis. This so-called 'DISC1 interactome' contains many novel PPIs and provides a molecular framework to explore the function of DISC1. The network implicates DISC1 in processes of cytoskeletal stability and organisation, intracellular transport and cell-cycle/division. In particular, DISC1 looks to have a PPI profile consistent with that of an essential synaptic protein, which fits well with the underlying molecular pathology observed at the synaptic level and the cognitive deficits seen behaviourally in schizophrenics. Utilising a similar approach with dysbindin (DTNBP1), a second schizophrenia risk gene, we show that dysbindin and DISC1 share common PPIs suggesting they may affect common biological processes and that the function of schizophrenia risk genes may converge.

    Molecular psychiatry 2007;12;1;74-86

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin controls cristae morphology.

    John GB, Shang Y, Li L, Renken C, Mannella CA, Selker JM, Rangell L, Bennett MJ and Zha J

    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    Mitochondria are complex organelles with a highly dynamic distribution and internal organization. Here, we demonstrate that mitofilin, a previously identified mitochondrial protein of unknown function, controls mitochondrial cristae morphology. Mitofilin is enriched in the narrow space between the inner boundary and the outer membranes, where it forms a homotypic interaction and assembles into a large multimeric protein complex. Down-regulation of mitofilin in HeLa cells by using specific small interfering RNA lead to decreased cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis, suggesting abnormal mitochondrial function. Although gross mitochondrial fission and fusion seemed normal, ultrastructural studies revealed disorganized mitochondrial inner membrane. Inner membranes failed to form tubular or vesicular cristae and showed as closely packed stacks of membrane sheets that fused intermittently, resulting in a complex maze of membranous network. Electron microscopic tomography estimated a substantial increase in inner:outer membrane ratio, whereas no cristae junctions were detected. In addition, mitochondria subsequently exhibited increased reactive oxygen species production and membrane potential. Although metabolic flux increased due to mitofilin deficiency, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was not increased accordingly. We propose that mitofilin is a critical organizer of the mitochondrial cristae morphology and thus indispensable for normal mitochondrial function.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K01-CA82231; NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001219, RR01219

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;3;1543-54

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease.

    Goehler H, Lalowski M, Stelzl U, Waelter S, Stroedicke M, Worm U, Droege A, Lindenberg KS, Knoblich M, Haenig C, Herbst M, Suopanki J, Scherzinger E, Abraham C, Bauer B, Hasenbank R, Fritzsche A, Ludewig AH, Büssow K, Buessow K, Coleman SH, Gutekunst CA, Landwehrmeyer BG, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a valuable approach for characterizing proteins of unknown function. Here, we have developed a strategy combining library and matrix yeast two-hybrid screens to generate a highly connected PPI network for Huntington's disease (HD). The network contains 186 PPIs among 35 bait and 51 prey proteins. It revealed 165 new potential interactions, 32 of which were confirmed by independent binding experiments. The network also permitted the functional annotation of 16 uncharacterized proteins and facilitated the discovery of GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein, which enhances huntingtin aggregation by recruitment of the protein into membranous vesicles. Coimmunoprecipitations and immunofluorescence studies revealed that GIT1 and huntingtin associate in mammalian cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, GIT1 localizes to neuronal inclusions, and is selectively cleaved in HD brains, indicating that its distribution and function is altered during disease pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS31862

    Molecular cell 2004;15;6;853-65

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Yeast two-hybrid screens implicate DISC1 in brain development and function.

    Millar JK, Christie S and Porteous DJ

    Medical Genetics Section, Department of Medical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, EH4 2XU, Edinburgh, UK. Kirsty.Millar@ed.ac.uk

    DISC1 is a candidate gene for involvement in the aetiology of major psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia. We report here the results of DISC1 yeast two-hybrid screens using human foetal and adult brain libraries. Twenty-one proteins from a variety of subcellular locations were identified, consistent with observations that DISC1 occupies multiple subcellular compartments. The cellular roles of the proteins identified implicate DISC1 in several aspects of central nervous system development and function, including gene transcription, mitochondrial function, modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, neuronal migration, glutamate transmission, and signal transduction. Intriguingly, mutations in one of the proteins identified, WKL1, have been previously suggested to underlie the aetiology of catatonic schizophrenia.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;311;4;1019-25

  • Manifold decreased protein levels of matrin 3, reduced motor protein HMP and hlark in fetal Down's syndrome brain.

    Bernert G, Fountoulakis M and Lubec G

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation and although known for more than a hundred years, the underlying pathomechanisms for the phenotype and abnormal brain functions remain elusive. Performing protein hunting in fetal Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) brain we detected aberrant expression of several proteins. Fetal brain cortex from controls and Down's syndrome at the early second trimester of gestation was used for expressional analysis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion of spots and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization spectroscopical identification followed by quantification of spots with specific software was applied. The nuclear matrix protein matrin 3, cytoskeletal motor protein HMP, and the circadian clock protein hlark were significantly decreased in fetal DS brain. C8ORF2 protein was reduced but did not reach statistical significance. Prox1 and predicted protein Dj149A16.6 were comparable between groups. Reduction of brain proteins may represent or cause deficient cytoskeletal structure, transcription machinery and exocytosis, functions already known to be deteriorated in DS brain. Some of the described proteins were only predicted and we here show the existence of the corresponding proteins in fetal human brain.

    Proteomics 2002;2;12;1752-7

  • Defective interplay of activators and repressors with TFIH in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Liu J, Akoulitchev S, Weber A, Ge H, Chuikov S, Libutti D, Wang XW, Conaway JW, Harris CC, Conaway RC, Reinberg D and Levens D

    Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Inherited mutations of the TFIIH helicase subunits xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) B or XPD yield overlapping DNA repair and transcription syndromes. The high risk of cancer in these patients is not fully explained by the repair defect. The transcription defect is subtle and has proven more difficult to evaluate. Here, XPB and XPD mutations are shown to block transcription activation by the FUSE Binding Protein (FBP), a regulator of c-myc expression, and repression by the FBP Interacting Repressor (FIR). Through TFIIH, FBP facilitates transcription until promoter escape, whereas after initiation, FIR uses TFIIH to delay promoter escape. Mutations in TFIIH that impair regulation by FBP and FIR affect proper regulation of c-myc expression and have implications in the development of malignancy.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM37120, GM48518, R37 GM41628

    Cell 2001;104;3;353-63

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21.

    Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, Watanabe H, Yada T, Park HS, Toyoda A, Ishii K, Totoki Y, Choi DK, Groner Y, Soeda E, Ohki M, Takagi T, Sakaki Y, Taudien S, Blechschmidt K, Polley A, Menzel U, Delabar J, Kumpf K, Lehmann R, Patterson D, Reichwald K, Rump A, Schillhabel M, Schudy A, Zimmermann W, Rosenthal A, Kudoh J, Schibuya K, Kawasaki K, Asakawa S, Shintani A, Sasaki T, Nagamine K, Mitsuyama S, Antonarakis SE, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Nordsiek G, Hornischer K, Brant P, Scharfe M, Schon O, Desario A, Reichelt J, Kauer G, Blocker H, Ramser J, Beck A, Klages S, Hennig S, Riesselmann L, Dagand E, Haaf T, Wehrmeyer S, Borzym K, Gardiner K, Nizetic D, Francis F, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Yaspo ML and Chromosome 21 mapping and sequencing consortium

    RIKEN, Genomic Sciences Center, Sagamihara, Japan.

    Chromosome 21 is the smallest human autosome. An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic cause of significant mental retardation, which affects up to 1 in 700 live births. Several anonymous loci for monogenic disorders and predispositions for common complex disorders have also been mapped to this chromosome, and loss of heterozygosity has been observed in regions associated with solid tumours. Here we report the sequence and gene catalogue of the long arm of chromosome 21. We have sequenced 33,546,361 base pairs (bp) of DNA with very high accuracy, the largest contig being 25,491,867 bp. Only three small clone gaps and seven sequencing gaps remain, comprising about 100 kilobases. Thus, we achieved 99.7% coverage of 21q. We also sequenced 281,116 bp from the short arm. The structural features identified include duplications that are probably involved in chromosomal abnormalities and repeat structures in the telomeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the chromosome revealed 127 known genes, 98 predicted genes and 59 pseudogenes.

    Nature 2000;405;6784;311-9

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Mitofilin is a transmembrane protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane expressed as two isoforms.

    Gieffers C, Korioth F, Heimann P, Ungermann C and Frey J

    Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Bielefeld, Germany.

    Mitofilin, also known as heart muscle protein, is a recently identified mitochondrial protein. We have isolated two human cDNAs that encode different isoforms of mitofilin. Using reverse PCR, we provide evidence that both isoforms are derived by alternative splicing and encode two proteins of 88 and 90 kDa that are detected in immunoblot analyses with mitofilin-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy, fractionating of human osteosarcoma cells, and protease protection experiments with isolated mitochondria and mitoplasts indicate that mitofilin is an integral membrane protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane. 35S-labeled mitofilin is transported into isolated yeast mitochondria in a reaction that depends on the membrane potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane (delta psi). During mitochondrial in vitro import, mitofilin is proteolytically processed to the mature protein that is also detected in cellular fractions, indicating that the amino-terminal leader sequence is removed. Sequence analysis and our results suggest that mitofilin is anchored in the inner mitochondrial membrane with an amino-terminal transmembrane domain, while the majority of the protein is extruding into the intermembrane space.

    Experimental cell research 1997;232;2;395-9

  • Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags.

    Hillier LD, Lennon G, Becker M, Bonaldo MF, Chiapelli B, Chissoe S, Dietrich N, DuBuque T, Favello A, Gish W, Hawkins M, Hultman M, Kucaba T, Lacy M, Le M, Le N, Mardis E, Moore B, Morris M, Parsons J, Prange C, Rifkin L, Rohlfing T, Schellenberg K, Bento Soares M, Tan F, Thierry-Meg J, Trevaskis E, Underwood K, Wohldman P, Waterston R, Wilson R and Marra M

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. lhillier@watson.wustl.edu

    We report the generation of 319,311 single-pass sequencing reactions (known as expressed sequence tags, or ESTs) obtained from the 5' and 3' ends of 194,031 human cDNA clones. Our goal has been to obtain tag sequences from many different genes and to deposit these in the publicly accessible Data Base for Expressed Sequence Tags. Highly efficient automatic screening of the data allows deposition of the annotated sequences without delay. Sequences have been generated from 26 oligo(dT) primed directionally cloned libraries, of which 18 were normalized. The libraries were constructed using mRNA isolated from 17 different tissues representing three developmental states. Comparisons of a subset of our data with nonredundant human mRNA and protein data bases show that the ESTs represent many known sequences and contain many that are novel. Analysis of protein families using Hidden Markov Models confirms this observation and supports the contention that although normalization reduces significantly the relative abundance of redundant cDNA clones, it does not result in the complete removal of members of gene families.

    Genome research 1996;6;9;807-28

  • A novel human gene that is preferentially transcribed in heart muscle.

    Icho T, Ikeda T, Matsumoto Y, Hanaoka F, Kaji K and Tsuchida N

    Department of Molecular Cellular Oncology and Microbiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.

    We have cloned a human cDNA fragment for a gene that is expressed primarily in the heart. To explore its biological function, we have isolated full-length cDNA clones of the gene. DNA sequencing of the 2.7-kb cDNA revealed a 2274-bp ORF. Close to the N terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence is a possible ATP-binding domain that has been assembled by a fusion of B- and A-type adenine nucleotide-binding motifs. In the middle of the sequence is a long stretch of alpha-helical residues that could form a coiled-coil. These features imply that this is a sequence encoding a new human motor protein.

    Gene 1994;144;2;301-6

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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