G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 3
G00000736 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000010717 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000117528 (Ensembl human gene)
5825 (Entrez Gene)
1156 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ABCD3 (GeneCards)
170995 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P28288 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • PMP70
  • ZWS2

Literature (28)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 199 drug-related genes and commonly measured quantitative traits of 752 healthy Japanese subjects.

    Saito A, Kawamoto M and Kamatani N

    Division of Genomic Medicine, Department of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. a-saito@horae.dti.ne.jp

    With dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for 199 drug-related genes, we examined associations between 4190 SNPs and 38 commonly measured quantitative traits using data from 752 healthy Japanese subjects. On analysis, we observed a strong association between five SNPs within the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene and serum total bilirubin levels (minimum P-value in Mann-Whitney test=1.82 x 10(10)). UGT1A1 catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin with glucuronic acid, thus enhancing bilirubin elimination. This enzyme is known to play an important role in the variation of serum bilirubin levels. The five SNPs, including a nonsynonymous SNP-rs4148323 (211G>A or G71R variant allele known as UGT1A1*6)-showed strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. No other genes were clearly associated with serum total bilirubin levels. Results of linear multiple regression analysis on serum total bilirubin levels followed by analysis of variance showed that at least 13% of the variance in serum total bilirubin levels could be explained by three haplotype-tagging SNPs in the UGT1A1 gene.

    Journal of human genetics 2009;54;6;317-23

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • Effect of testosterone metabolites on ABC half-transporter relative gene expression in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Petroni A, Cappa M, Carissimi R, Blasevich M and Uziel G

    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy. anna.petroni@unimi.it

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder associated with reduced very long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation, mainly affecting the nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the testes. The clinical manifestations of hypogonadism, alopecia and the impairment of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase, which converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, clearly point to an involvement of androgens in this pathology. The disease is characterized by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which codes for the peroxisomal ABC half-transporter ALDP, and by a broad range of clinical manifestations. The altered function of ALDP can be compensated by the overexpression of proteins belonging to the same family of ABC half-transporters. A promising therapeutic approach is represented by the activation of these proteins by specific agonists. In this study we evaluated the effect of the testosterone metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol) on the expression of the ABC half-transporters encoded by the ABCD2 and ABCD3 genes, in fibroblasts drawn from controls and from two affected brothers. The two patients presented the same mutation in exon 9 but had different clinical manifestations, one patient being asymptomatic and the second one severely affected. When the cells were stimulated with testosterone metabolites, only the severely affected patient showed a significant increase in ABCD2 mRNA levels, while the ABCD3 expression remained unchanged in both patients.

    Journal of inherited metabolic disease 2007;30;5;828

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Role of Pex19p in the targeting of PMP70 to peroxisome.

    Kashiwayama Y, Asahina K, Shibata H, Morita M, Muntau AC, Roscher AA, Wanders RJ, Shimozawa N, Sakaguchi M, Kato H and Imanaka T

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Japan.

    Pex19p is a protein required for the peroxisomal membrane synthesis. The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) is synthesized on free cytosolic ribosomes and then inserted posttranslationally into peroxisomal membranes. Pex19p has been shown to play an important role in this process. Using an in vitro translation system, we investigated the role of Pex19p as a chaperone and identified the regions of PMP70 required for the interaction with Pex19p. When PMP70 was translated in the presence of purified Pex19p, a large part of PMP70 existed as soluble form and was co-immunoprecipitated with Pex19p. However, in the absence of Pex19p, PMP70 formed aggregates during translation. To identify the regions that interact with Pex19p, various truncated PMP70 were translated in the presence of Pex19p and subjected to co-immunoprecipitation. The interaction was markedly reduced by the deletion of the NH(2)-terminal 61 amino acids or the region around TMD6. Further, we expressed these deletion constructs of PMP70 in fusion with the green fluorescent protein in CHO cells. Fusion proteins lacking these Pex19p binding sites did not display any peroxisomal localization. These results suggest that Pex19p binds to PMP70 co-translationally and keeps PMP70 as a proper conformation for the localization to peroxisome.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2005;1746;2;116-28

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette proteins PMP70 (ABCD3) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1).

    Tanaka AR, Tanabe K, Morita M, Kurisu M, Kasiwayama Y, Matsuo M, Kioka N, Amachi T, Imanaka T and Ueda K

    Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), half-size ATP-binding cassette transporters, are involved in metabolic transport of long and very long chain fatty acids into peroxisomes. We examined the interaction of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters with ATP using rat liver peroxisomes. PMP70 was photoaffinity-labeled at similar efficiencies with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP and 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP when peroxisomes were incubated with these nucleotides at 37 degrees C in the absence Mg2+ and exposed to UV light without removing unbound nucleotides. The photoaffinity-labeled PMP70 and ALDP were co-immunoprecipitated together with other peroxisomal proteins, which also showed tight ATP binding properties. Addition of Mg2+ reduced the photoaffinity labeling of PMP70 with 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP by 70%, whereas it reduced photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP by only 20%. However, two-thirds of nucleotide (probably ADP) was dissociated during removal of unbound nucleotides. These results suggest that ATP binds to PMP70 tightly in the absence of Mg2+, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP in the presence of Mg2+, and the produced ADP is dissociated from PMP70, which allows ATP hydrolysis turnover. Properties of photoaffinity labeling of ALDP were essentially similar to those of PMP70. Vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping in PMP70 and ALDP was not observed. PMP70 and ALDP were also phosphorylated at a tyrosine residue(s). ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of PMP70 and ALDP are involved in the regulation of fatty acid transport into peroxisomes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;42;40142-7

  • Two splice variants of human PEX19 exhibit distinct functions in peroxisomal assembly.

    Mayerhofer PU, Kattenfeld T, Roscher AA and Muntau AC

    Dr. v. Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Lindwurmstrasse 4, D-80337 Munich, Germany.

    PEX19 has been shown to play a central role in the early steps of peroxisomal membrane synthesis. Computational database analysis of the PEX19 sequence revealed three different conserved domains: D1 (aa 1--87), D2 (aa 88--272), and D3 (aa 273--299). However, these domains have not yet been linked to specific biological functions. We elected to functionally characterize the proteins derived from two naturally occurring PEX19 splice variants: PEX19DeltaE2 lacking the N-terminal domain D1 and PEX19DeltaE8 lacking the domain D3. Both interact with peroxisomal ABC transporters (ALDP, ALDRP, PMP70) and with full-length PEX3 as shown by in vitro protein interaction studies. PEX19DeltaE8 also interacts with a PEX3 protein lacking the peroxisomal targeting region located at the N-terminus (Delta66aaPEX3), whereas PEX19DeltaE2 does not. Functional complementation studies in PEX19-deficient human fibroblasts revealed that transfection of PEX19DeltaE8-cDNA leads to restoration of both peroxisomal membranes and of functional peroxisomes, whereas transfection of PEX19DeltaE2-cDNA does not restore peroxisomal biogenesis. Human PEX19 is partly farnesylated in vitro and in vivo. The farnesylation consensus motif CLIM is located in the PEX19 domain D3. The finding that the protein derived from the splice variant lacking D3 is able to interact with several peroxisomal membrane proteins and to restore peroxisomal biogenesis challenges the previous assumption that farnesylation of PEX19 is essential for its biological functionality. The data presented demonstrate a considerable functional diversity of the proteins encoded by two PEX19 splice variants and thereby provide first experimental evidence for specific biological functions of the different predicted domains of the PEX19 protein.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;291;5;1180-6

  • Targeting elements in the amino-terminal part direct the human 70-kDa peroxisomal integral membrane protein (PMP70) to peroxisomes.

    Biermanns M and Gärtner J

    Department of Pediatrics, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

    Peroxisomes are multipurpose organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. All peroxisomale matrix and membrane proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm. While a clear picture of the basic targeting mechanisms for peroxisomal matrix proteins has emerged over the past years, the targeting processes for peroxisomal membrane proteins are poorly understood. The 70-kDa peroxisomal integral membrane protein (PMP70) is one of the proteins located in the human peroxisome membrane. PMP70 belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. It consists of six transmembrane domains and an ATP-binding fold in the cytosol. Here we describe that efficient peroxisomal targeting of human PMP70 depends on three targeting elements in the amino-terminal protein region, namely amino acids 61 to 80 located in the cytosol as well as the first and second transmembrane domains. Furthermore, peroxin 19 (PEX19) interactions are not required for targeting human PMP70 to peroxisomes. PEX19 does not specifically bind to the targeting elements of human PMP70.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;285;3;649-55

  • Characterization and functional analysis of the nucleotide binding fold in human peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporters.

    Roerig P, Mayerhofer P, Holzinger A and Gärtner J

    Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde, Department of Pediatrics, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) are half ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the peroxisome membrane. Mutations in the ALD gene encoding ALDP result in the X-linked neurodegenerative disorder adrenoleukodystrophy. Plausible models exist to show a role for ATP hydrolysis in peroxisomal ABC transporter functions. Here, we describe the first measurements of the rate of ATP binding and hydrolysis by purified nucleotide binding fold (NBF) fusion proteins of PMP70 and ALDP. Both proteins act as an ATP specific binding subunit releasing ADP after ATP hydrolysis; they did not exhibit GTPase activity. Mutations in conserved residues of the nucleotidases (PMP70: G478R, S572I; ALDP: G512S, S606L) altered ATPase activity. Furthermore, our results indicate that these mutations do not influence homodimerization or heterodimerization of ALDP or PMP70. The study provides evidence that peroxisomal ABC transporters utilize ATP to become a functional transporter.

    FEBS letters 2001;492;1-2;66-72

  • Human adrenoleukodystrophy protein and related peroxisomal ABC transporters interact with the peroxisomal assembly protein PEX19p.

    Gloeckner CJ, Mayerhofer PU, Landgraf P, Muntau AC, Holzinger A, Gerber JK, Kammerer S, Adamski J and Roscher AA

    GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Mammalian Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany.

    Four ABC half transporters (ALDP, ALDRP, PMP70, and PMP69) have been identified in the mammalian peroxisomal membrane but no function has been unambiguously assigned to any of them. To date X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the only human disease known to result from a defect of one of these ABC transporters, ALDP. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro GST pull-down assays, we identified the peroxin PEX19p as a novel interactor of ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70. The cytosolic farnesylated protein PEX19p was previously shown to be involved in an early step of the peroxisomal biogenesis. The PEX19p interaction occurs in an internal N-terminal region of ALDP which we verified to be important for proper peroxisomal targeting of this protein. Farnesylated wild-type PEX19p and a farnesylation-deficient mutant PEX19p did not differ in their ability to bind to ALDP. Our data provide evidence that PEX19p is a cytosolic acceptor protein for the peroxisomal ABC transporters ALDP, PMP70, and ALDRP and might be involved in the intracellular sorting and trafficking of these proteins to the peroxisomal membrane.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;271;1;144-50

  • PEX19 binds multiple peroxisomal membrane proteins, is predominantly cytoplasmic, and is required for peroxisome membrane synthesis.

    Sacksteder KA, Jones JM, South ST, Li X, Liu Y and Gould SJ

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Peroxisomes are components of virtually all eukaryotic cells. While much is known about peroxisomal matrix protein import, our understanding of how peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) are targeted and inserted into the peroxisome membrane is extremely limited. Here, we show that PEX19 binds a broad spectrum of PMPs, displays saturable PMP binding, and interacts with regions of PMPs required for their targeting to peroxisomes. Furthermore, mislocalization of PEX19 to the nucleus leads to nuclear accumulation of newly synthesized PMPs. At steady state, PEX19 is bimodally distributed between the cytoplasm and peroxisome, with most of the protein in the cytoplasm. We propose that PEX19 may bind newly synthesized PMPs and facilitate their insertion into the peroxisome membrane. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the loss of PEX19 results in degradation of PMPs and/or mislocalization of PMPs to the mitochondrion.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD10981, P01 HD010981; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45787, R01 DK045787

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;148;5;931-44

  • Homo- and heterodimerization of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette half-transporters.

    Liu LX, Janvier K, Berteaux-Lecellier V, Cartier N, Benarous R and Aubourg P

    INSERM U342, Institut Cochin de Génétique Moléculaire, Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, 82 Avenue Denfert Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.

    Mammalian peroxisomal proteins adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), and 70-kDa peroxisomal protein (PMP70) belong to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Unlike many ABC transporters that are single functional proteins with two related halves, ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70 have the structure of ABC half-transporters. The dysfunction of ALDP is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which saturated very long-chain fatty acids accumulate because of their impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. No disease has so far been associated with mutations of adrenoleukodystrophy-related or PMP70 genes. It has been proposed that peroxisomal ABC transporters need to dimerize to exert import functions. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show that homo- as well as heterodimerization occur between the carboxyl-terminal halves of ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70. Two X-ALD disease mutations located in the carboxyl-terminal half of ALDP affect both homo- and heterodimerization of ALDP. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the homodimerization of ALDP, the heterodimerization of ALDP with PMP70 or ALDRP, and the heterodimerization of ALDRP with PMP70. These results provide the first evidence of both homo- and heterodimerization of mammalian ABC half-transporters and suggest that the loss of ALDP dimerization plays a role in X-ALD pathogenesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;46;32738-43

  • Peroxisome synthesis in the absence of preexisting peroxisomes.

    South ST and Gould SJ

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Zellweger syndrome and related diseases are caused by defective import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. In all previously reported Zellweger syndrome cell lines the defect could be assigned to the matrix protein import pathway since peroxisome membranes were present, and import of integral peroxisomal membrane proteins was normal. However, we report here a Zellweger syndrome patient (PBD061) with an unusual cellular phenotype, an inability to import peroxisomal membrane proteins. We also identified human PEX16, a novel integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and found that PBD061 had inactivating mutations in the PEX16 gene. Previous studies have suggested that peroxisomes arise from preexisting peroxisomes but we find that expression of PEX16 restores the formation of new peroxisomes in PBD061 cells. Peroxisome synthesis and peroxisomal membrane protein import could be detected within 2-3 h of PEX16 injection and was followed by matrix protein import. These results demonstrate that peroxisomes do not necessarily arise from division of preexisting peroxisomes. We propose that peroxisomes may form by either of two pathways: one that involves PEX11-mediated division of preexisting peroxisomes, and another that involves PEX16-mediated formation of peroxisomes in the absence of preexisting peroxisomes.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD10981, P01 HD010981; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45787, R01 DK045787

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;144;2;255-66

  • Identification of a common PEX1 mutation in Zellweger syndrome.

    Collins CS and Gould SJ

    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    The Zellweger spectrum of disease, encompassing Zellweger syndrome and the progressively milder phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum disease, is due to a failure to form functional peroxisomes. Cell fusion complementation studies demonstrated that these diseases are genetically heterogeneous, with two-thirds of all patients lying within a single complementation group, CG1. Molecular genetic and cell biology studies have shown that PEX1 is deficient in many CG1 patients. However, previous studies have focused on mildly affected patients and there is still no report of two mutant PEX1 alleles in any Zellweger syndrome patient. Furthermore, mutations in the PMP70 gene have also been identified in two Zellweger syndrome patients from CG1, raising the possibility that CG1 patients may represent a mixture of PEX1-deficient and PMP70-deficient individuals. To address the molecular basis of disease in Zellweger syndrome patients from CG1, we examined all 24 PEX1 exons in four patients, including both patients that have mutations in PMP70. PEX1 mutations were detected in all four patients, including a 1-bp insertion (c.2097insT) in exon 13 that was present in three of the four patients. Subsequent studies demonstrated that this mutation is present in one-half of all CG1 patients and correlates with the Zellweger syndrome phenotype. As this mutation leads to a loss of protein function its frequency makes it the most common cause of Zellweger syndrome, helping to explain the high percentage of patients that belong to CG1.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD10891; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK45787

    Human mutation 1999;14;1;45-53

  • Genomic organization of the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein gene (PXMP1).

    Gärtner J, Jimenez-Sanchez G, Roerig P and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany. gaertnj@uni-duesseldorf.de

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) is a member of a family of half-ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins located in the human peroxisomal membrane. Other members include the PMP70-related peroxisomal membrane protein, the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), and the adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein. The functions of ABC transporters in the peroxisomal membrane are poorly understood. Evidence from yeast and human mutants suggests that they are involved in the peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs into the organelle. We report the cloning and characterization of the human PMP70 structural gene (gene symbol: PXMP1) localized on human chromosome 1p21-p22. PXMP1 is approximately 65 kb in length, contains 23 exons, and is quite different in structure from the gene (ALD) that encodes the related protein, ALDP. We also analyzed the 5' flanking region of the human PXMP1 gene and the corresponding region of murine Pxmp-1. Both promoters have features of housekeeping genes, including a high GC content and multiple consensus Sp1 binding sequences. In more than 3 kb of Pxmp-1 5' flanking sequence we did not identify a consensus peroxisomal proliferator responsive element.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 10981

    Genomics 1998;48;2;203-8

  • Absence of mutations raises doubts about the role of the 70-kD peroxisomal membrane protein in Zellweger syndrome.

    Paton BC, Heron SE, Nelson PV, Morris CP and Poulos A

    American journal of human genetics 1997;60;6;1535-9

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy protein-deficient mice represent abnormality of very long chain fatty acid metabolism.

    Kobayashi T, Shinnoh N, Kondo A and Yamada T

    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    We have generated a line of mice deficient in adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) by gene targeting in order to clarify the pathophysiology of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). ALDP-deficient male and female mice appeared normal clinically at least up to 12 months. Western blot analysis showed the absence of ALDP in the brain, spinal cord, lung, and kidney and normal expression of PMP70 in the liver, lung, and kidney. The amounts of C26:0 increased by 73-240% in the brain, spinal cord, lung, and kidney. beta-Oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in cultured hepatocytes and fibroblasts was reduced to 35-50% of normal. Light and electron microscopy did not show demyelination in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve. Thus, the deficiency of ALDP in mice impairs the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation but does not duplicate the clinical and pathological abnormalities of the human ALD. These observations suggest that the accumulation of VLCFA alone is not sufficient to cause demyelination in the nervous system.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;232;3;631-6

  • Correction by gene expression of biochemical abnormalities in fibroblasts from Zellweger patients.

    Shimozawa N, Suzuki Y, Tomatsu S, Tsukamoto T, Osumi T, Fujiki Y, Kamijo K, Hashimoto T, Kondo N and Orii T

    Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

    Zellweger syndrome is a prototype of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and a fatal autosomal recessive disease with no effective therapy. We identified nine genetic complementation groups of these disorders, and mutations in peroxisome assembly factor-1 (PAF-1) and the 70-kD peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) genes have been detected by our group F and Roscher's group 1, respectively. We now describe permanent recovery from generalized peroxisomal abnormalities in fibroblasts of a Zellweger patient from group F, such as biochemical defects of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, plasmalogen biosynthesis, and morphologic absence of peroxisomes, by stable transfection of human cDNA encoding PAF-1. In the light of these observations, we designed a gene expression system using fibroblasts from patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. In Zellweger fibroblasts obtained from Roscher's group 1 and transfected with human cDNA encoding PMP70, peroxisomes were not morphologically identifiable, and peroxisomal function did not normalize.

    Pediatric research 1996;39;5;812-5

  • The 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein: an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein involved in peroxisome biogenesis.

    Gärtner J and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    The 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) is a major component of peroxisomal membranes. cDNAs for human and rat PMP70 have been cloned and sequenced and the gene mapped to human chromosome 1p21-22. The predicted amino acid sequence showed homology to members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. In humans, mutations in the PMP70 gene have been found in a subset of patients with Zellweger syndrome, a lethal inborn error of peroxisome biogenesis. These results suggest that PMP70 functions in transporting molecules or possibly peptides across the peroxisomal membrane and has an important role in peroxisome assembly.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P30HD27799

    Seminars in cell biology 1993;4;1;45-52

  • Localization of the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein to human 1p21-p22 and mouse 3.

    Gärtner J, Kearns W, Rosenberg C, Pearson P, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PXMP1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. In humans, mutations in this gene may be responsible for a subset of patients with Zellweger syndrome, a lethal inborn error of peroxisome assembly. The PXMP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p21-p22 by in situ hybridization and its murine homologue (Pxmp-1) to chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross analysis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-74101; NICHD NIH HHS: P30HD10981-16, P30HD27799

    Genomics 1993;15;2;412-4

  • A polymorphic synonymous mutation (K54K) in the human 70 kD peroxisomal membrane protein gene (PMP1).

    Gärtner J, Obie C, Moser H and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P30HD27799

    Human molecular genetics 1992;1;8;654

  • Mutations in the 70K peroxisomal membrane protein gene in Zellweger syndrome.

    Gärtner J, Moser H and Valle D

    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.

    The peroxisomal membrane protein, with a relative molecular mass of 70,000 (M(r) 70K) (PMP70), is an important component of peroxisomal membranes and an ATP-binding cassette protein. To investigate its possible involvement in Zellweger syndrome (ZS), an inborn error of peroxisome assembly, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs for human PMP70 and mapped the gene to chromosome 1. Amongst 32 probands with ZS or related disorders, we found two mutant PMP70 alleles in single ZS probands from the same complementation group. One allele has a donor splice site mutation and the second a missense mutation. Our results suggest that PMP70 plays an important role in peroxisome biogenesis and that mutations in PMP70 may be responsible for a subset of ZS patients.

    Nature genetics 1992;1;1;16-23

  • Nucleotide sequence of the human 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein: a member of ATP-binding cassette transporters.

    Kamijo K, Kamijo T, Ueno I, Osumi T and Hashimoto T

    Department of Biochemistry, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano, Japan.

    The cDNA sequence of human liver 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (hPMP70) was determined. The nucleotide sequence contains an open reading frame of 1977 base pairs and encodes an amino acid sequence of 659 residues which exhibits 95.0% identity with that of rat liver PMP70. hPMP70 shares close similarity to the members of a superfamily of ATP-binding transport proteins.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1992;1129;3;323-7

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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