G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001956
Gene symbol
NPTX1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
neuronal pentraxin I
Orthologue
G00000707 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000171246 (Ensembl human gene)
4884 (Entrez Gene)
1112 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NPTX1 (GeneCards)
Literature
602367 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7952 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q15818 (UniProt)

Literature (9)

Pubmed - other

  • Neuronal pentraxin 1 contributes to the neuronal damage evoked by amyloid-beta and is overexpressed in dystrophic neurites in Alzheimer's brain.

    Abad MA, Enguita M, DeGregorio-Rocasolano N, Ferrer I and Trullas R

    Neurobiology Unit, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

    Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) is thought to play a central role in the progressive loss of synapses, the neurite damage, and the neuronal death that are characteristic in brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms through which Abeta produces such neurotoxicity remain unclear. Because Abeta depresses synaptic activity, we investigated whether the neurotoxicity of Abeta depends on the expression of NP1, a protein involved in excitatory synapse remodeling that has recently been shown to mediate neuronal death induced by reduction in neuronal activity in mature neurons. We found that treatment of cortical neurons in culture with Abeta produces a marked increase in NP1 protein that precedes apoptotic neurotoxicity. Silencing NP1 gene expression by RNA interference (short hairpin RNA for RNA interference) prevents the loss of synapses, the reduction in neurite outgrowth, and the apoptosis evoked by Abeta. Transgene overexpression of NP1 reproduced these neurotoxic effects of Abeta. Moreover, we found that NP1 was increased in dystrophic neurites of brains from patients with sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Dual immunohistochemistry for NP1 and tau showed that NP1 colocalizes with tau deposits in dystrophic neurites. Furthermore, NP1 colocalized with SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa) in the majority of dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid deposits. NP1 was also increased in cell processes surrounding amyloid plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 (mutant amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1) transgenic mice. These findings show that NP1 is a key factor for the synapse loss, the neurite damage, and the apoptotic neuronal death evoked by Abeta and indicate that Abeta contributes to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease by regulating NP1 expression.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2006;26;49;12735-47

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Specific sensitivity of small cell lung cancer cell lines to the snake venom toxin taipoxin.

    Poulsen TT, Pedersen N, Perin MS, Hansen CK and Poulsen HS

    Department of Radiation Biology, Section 6321, Finsen Center, National University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant disease, for which no satisfactory treatment is presently available and consequently, new specific therapeutic targets are in high demand. A global gene expression analysis previously performed, identified the neuronal pentraxin receptor (NPR) as highly and relatively specifically expressed in SCLC, consistent with the neuroendocrine features of this cancer. Normally, NPR is exclusively expressed in neurons, where it associates with the homologous proteins neuronal pentraxins 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2) in complexes capable of binding the snake venom neurotoxin taipoxin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effect of taipoxin in SCLC-cell lines and to determine if toxicity correlates to NPR and NP1 and NP2 expression levels. NPR was detected by Western blot analysis in all the tested SCLC and in control cell lines of different origin. The receptor co-purified with cell membrane in SCLC, indicating that NPR is surface associated. Microarray signals for NP1 and NP2mRNA was detected in a subset of SCLC-cell lines and validated by Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, NP1 protein was detected by Western blot analysis in a few SCLC-cell lines, but not in the control cell lines. A number of SCLC-cell lines showed marked sensitivity to taipoxin (IC50: 3-130 nM) at toxin concentrations leaving the control cell lines unaffected. The sensitivity to taipoxin did not correlate with the expression levels of NP1 protein and NP2-mRNA, suggesting that expression of these proteins may not be required for taipoxin induced toxicity in SCLC. The demonstrated toxic effect of taipoxin in SCLC may prove to be of importance for designing novel specific treatment modalities for this disease.

    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2005;50;3;329-37

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Plexina1 autoinhibition by the plexin sema domain.

    Takahashi T and Strittmatter SM

    Department of Neurology and, Section of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) binds to neuropilin-1 (NP1) and activates the transmembrane Plexin to transduce a repulsive axon guidance signal. Here, we show that Sema3 signals are transduced equally effectively by PlexinA1 or PlexinA2, but not by PlexinA3. Deletion analysis of the PlexinA1 ectodomain demonstrates that the sema domain prevents PlexinA1 activation in the basal state. Sema-deleted PlexinA1 is constitutively active, producing cell contraction, growth cone collapse, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The sema domain of PlexinA1 physically associates with the remainder of the PlexinA1 ectodomain and can reverse constitutive activation. Both the sema portion and the remainder of the ectodomain of PlexinA1 associate with NP1 in a Sema3A-independent fashion. Plexin A1 is autoinhibited by its sema domain, and Sema3A/NP1 releases this inhibition.

    Neuron 2001;29;2;429-39

  • Biochemical interactions of the neuronal pentraxins. Neuronal pentraxin (NP) receptor binds to taipoxin and taipoxin-associated calcium-binding protein 49 via NP1 and NP2.

    Kirkpatrick LL, Matzuk MM, Dodds DC and Perin MS

    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), neuronal pentraxin 2 (NP2), and neuronal pentraxin receptor (NPR) are members of a new family of proteins identified through interaction with a presynaptic snake venom toxin taipoxin. We have proposed that these three neuronal pentraxins represent a novel neuronal uptake pathway that may function during synapse formation and remodeling. We have investigated the mutual interactions of these proteins by characterizing their enrichment on taipoxin affinity columns; by expressing NP1, NP2, and NPR singly and together in Chinese hamster ovary cells; and by generating mice that fail to express NP1. NP1 and NP2 are secreted, exist as higher order multimers (probably pentamers), and interact with taipoxin and taipoxin-associated calcium-binding protein 49 (TCBP49). NPR is expressed on the cell membrane and does not bind taipoxin or TCBP49 by itself, but it can form heteropentamers with NP1 and NP2 that can be released from cell membranes. This is the first demonstration of heteromultimerization of pentraxins and release of a pentraxin complex by proteolysis. These processes are likely to directly effect the localization and function of neuronal pentraxins in neuronal uptake or synapse formation and remodeling.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS30541

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;23;17786-92

  • Mouse and human neuronal pentraxin 1 (NPTX1): conservation, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization.

    Omeis IA, Hsu YC and Perin MS

    Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    We have previously identified novel members of the pentraxin family (neuronal pentraxin 1 and 2) that are expressed in the nervous system. Neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1) was identified as a rat protein that may mediate the uptake of synaptic material and the presynaptic snake venom toxin, taipoxin. NP2 was identified as a separate gene discovered by screening for a human homolog for NP1. Here, we report human cDNA and mouse genomic DNA sequences for NP1 (gene symbol NPTX1). Human NP1 and mouse NP1 show 95 and 99% amino acid identity, respectively, with rat NP1 and conserve all potential glycosylation sites. Like rat NP1, human NP1 message is large (6.5 kb) and is exclusively localized to the nervous system. The mouse NP1 gene is 13 kb in length and contains four introns that break the coding sequence of NP1 in the same positions as the introns of the human NP2 gene. The human and mouse NP1 genes are localized to chromosome 17q25.1-q25.2 and chromosome 11e2-e1.3, respectively. These data demonstrate the existence of a separate family of pentraxin proteins that are expressed in the human brain and other tissues and that may play important roles in the uptake of extracellular material.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG0210; NINDS NIH HHS: NS30541

    Genomics 1996;36;3;543-5

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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