G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
EH-domain containing 3
G00000697 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000013016 (Ensembl human gene)
30845 (Entrez Gene)
1097 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EHD3 (GeneCards)
605891 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3244 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9NZN3 (UniProt)

Literature (11)

Pubmed - other

  • A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 22 loci associated with eight hematological parameters in the HaemGen consortium.

    Soranzo N, Spector TD, Mangino M, Kühnel B, Rendon A, Teumer A, Willenborg C, Wright B, Chen L, Li M, Salo P, Voight BF, Burns P, Laskowski RA, Xue Y, Menzel S, Altshuler D, Bradley JR, Bumpstead S, Burnett MS, Devaney J, Döring A, Elosua R, Epstein SE, Erber W, Falchi M, Garner SF, Ghori MJ, Goodall AH, Gwilliam R, Hakonarson HH, Hall AS, Hammond N, Hengstenberg C, Illig T, König IR, Knouff CW, McPherson R, Melander O, Mooser V, Nauck M, Nieminen MS, O'Donnell CJ, Peltonen L, Potter SC, Prokisch H, Rader DJ, Rice CM, Roberts R, Salomaa V, Sambrook J, Schreiber S, Schunkert H, Schwartz SM, Serbanovic-Canic J, Sinisalo J, Siscovick DS, Stark K, Surakka I, Stephens J, Thompson JR, Völker U, Völzke H, Watkins NA, Wells GA, Wichmann HE, Van Heel DA, Tyler-Smith C, Thein SL, Kathiresan S, Perola M, Reilly MP, Stewart AF, Erdmann J, Samani NJ, Meisinger C, Greinacher A, Deloukas P, Ouwehand WH and Gieger C

    Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK. ns6@sanger.ac.uk

    The number and volume of cells in the blood affect a wide range of disorders including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, infectious and immune conditions. We consider here the genetic variation in eight clinically relevant hematological parameters, including hemoglobin levels, red and white blood cell counts and platelet counts and volume. We describe common variants within 22 genetic loci reproducibly associated with these hematological parameters in 13,943 samples from six European population-based studies, including 6 associated with red blood cell parameters, 15 associated with platelet parameters and 1 associated with total white blood cell count. We further identified a long-range haplotype at 12q24 associated with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in 9,479 cases and 10,527 controls. We show that this haplotype demonstrates extensive disease pleiotropy, as it contains known risk loci for type 1 diabetes, hypertension and celiac disease and has been spread by a selective sweep specific to European and geographically nearby populations.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: MOP77682, MOP82810, NA6650; Medical Research Council: G0000111; NCRR NIH HHS: U54 RR020278, U54 RR020278-01; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL056931, R01 HL056931-02, R01 HL056931-03, R01 HL056931-04; Wellcome Trust

    Nature genetics 2009;41;11;1182-90

  • EHD3 regulates early-endosome-to-Golgi transport and preserves Golgi morphology.

    Naslavsky N, McKenzie J, Altan-Bonnet N, Sheff D and Caplan S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

    Depletion of EHD3 affects sorting in endosomes by altering the kinetics and route of receptor recycling to the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that siRNA knockdown of EHD3, or its interaction partner rabenosyn-5, causes redistribution of sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) to enlarged early endosomes and disrupts transport of internalized Shiga toxin B subunit (STxB) to the Golgi. Moreover, under these conditions, Golgi morphology appears as a series of highly dispersed and fragmented stacks that maintain characteristics of cis-, medial- and trans-Golgi membranes. Although Arf1 still assembled onto these dispersed Golgi membranes, the level of AP-1 gamma-adaptin recruited to the Golgi was diminished. Whereas VSV-G-secretion from the dispersed Golgi remained largely unaffected, the distribution of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) was altered: it remained in peripheral endosomes and did not return to the Golgi. Cathepsin D, a hydrolase that is normally transported to lysosomes via an M6PR-dependent pathway, remained trapped at the Golgi. Our findings support a role for EHD3 in regulating endosome-to-Golgi transport, and as a consequence, lysosomal biosynthetic, but not secretory, transport pathways are also affected. These data also suggest that impaired endosome-to-Golgi transport and the resulting lack of recruitment of AP-1 gamma-adaptin to Golgi membranes affect Golgi morphology.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 1R01 GM074876, R01 GM074876

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 3;389-400

  • Myosin Vb interacts with Rab8a on a tubular network containing EHD1 and EHD3.

    Roland JT, Kenworthy AK, Peranen J, Caplan S and Goldenring JR

    Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-2733, USA.

    Cells use multiple pathways to internalize and recycle cell surface components. Although Rab11a and Myosin Vb are involved in the recycling of proteins internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Rab8a has been implicated in nonclathrin-dependent endocytosis and recycling. By yeast two-hybrid assays, we have now demonstrated that Myosin Vb can interact with Rab8a, but not Rab8b. We have confirmed the interaction of Myosin Vb with Rab11a and Rab8a in vivo by using fluorescent resonant energy transfer techniques. Rab8a and Myosin Vb colocalize to a tubular network containing EHD1 and EHD3, which does not contain Rab11a. Myosin Vb tail can cause the accumulation of both Rab11a and Rab8a in collapsed membrane cisternae, whereas dominant-negative Rab11-FIP2(129-512) selectively accumulates Rab11a but not Rab8a. Additionally, dynamic live cell imaging demonstrates distinct pathways for Rab11a and Rab8a vesicle trafficking. These findings indicate that Rab8a and Rab11a define different recycling pathways that both use Myosin Vb.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-68485, P30 CA068485; NEI NIH HHS: EY-08126, P30 EY008126; NICHD NIH HHS: HD-15052, P30 HD015052; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-20593, DK-58404, DK-59637, F32 DK072789, F32DK-072789, P30 DK020593, P30 DK058404, P60 DK020593, R01 DK048370, R01 DK070856, R01DK-070856, R01DK-48370, U24 DK059637; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM073846, R01 GM073846-01A1, R01 GM073846-02, R01 GM073846-03, R01GM-073846, R01GM-074877

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;8;2828-37

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Interactions between EHD proteins and Rab11-FIP2: a role for EHD3 in early endosomal transport.

    Naslavsky N, Rahajeng J, Sharma M, Jovic M and Caplan S

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5870, USA.

    Eps15 homology domain (EHD) 1 enables membrane recycling by controlling the exit of internalized molecules from the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) en route to the plasma membrane, similar to the role described for Rab11. However, no physical or functional connection between Rab11 and EHD-family proteins has been demonstrated yet, and the mode by which they coordinate their regulatory activity remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that EHD1 and EHD3 (the closest EHD1 paralog), bind to the Rab11-effector Rab11-FIP2 via EH-NPF interactions. The EHD/Rab11-FIP2 associations are affected by the ability of the EHD proteins to bind nucleotides, and Rab11-FIP2 is recruited to EHD-containing membranes. These results are consistent with a coordinated role for EHD1 and Rab11-FIP2 in regulating exit from the ERC. However, because no function has been attributed to EHD3, the significance of its interaction with Rab11-FIP2 remained unclear. Surprisingly, loss of EHD3 expression prevented the delivery of internalized transferrin and early endosomal proteins to the ERC, an effect differing from that described upon EHD1 knockdown. Moreover, the subcellular localization of Rab11-FIP2 and endogenous Rab11 were altered upon EHD3 knockdown, with both proteins absent from the ERC and retained in the cell periphery. The results presented herein promote a coordinated role for EHD proteins and Rab11-FIP2 in mediating endocytic recycling and provide evidence for the function of EHD3 in early endosome to ERC transport.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR018759

    Molecular biology of the cell 2006;17;1;163-77

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • EHD3: a protein that resides in recycling tubular and vesicular membrane structures and interacts with EHD1.

    Galperin E, Benjamin S, Rapaport D, Rotem-Yehudar R, Tolchinsky S and Horowitz M

    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Israel 69978.

    Here we report the characterization of an eps15 homology (EH) domain containing protein designated EHD3. EHD3 was mapped to human chromosome 2p22-23, while the murine Ehd3 homolog was mapped to chromosome 17p21. Both the human and the mouse genes contain a polymorphic (CA) repeat in their 3'UTR. One 3.6-kb Ehd3 transcript was mainly detected in adult mouse brain and kidney and at day 7 of mouse development. On the other hand, human tissues exhibited two, 4.2- and 3.6-kb, EHD3 RNA species. They were predominantly expressed in heart, brain, placenta, liver, kidney and ovary. EHD3, expressed as a green fluorescent fusion protein was localized to endocytic vesicles and to microtubule-dependent, membrane tubules. There was a clear colocalization of EHD3-positive structures and transferrin-containing recycling vesicles, implying that EHD3 resides within the endocytic recycling compartment. Shuffling the N-terminal domain of EHD1 (previously shown to reside in the transferrin-containing, endocytic recycling compartment) with that of EHD3 resulted in a chimeric EHD protein that was localized mainly to tubules instead of the endocytic vesicles, implicating the N-terminal domain as responsible for the tubular localization of EHD3. Mutant EHD3 forms, missing the N-terminal or the C-terminal domains, lost their tubular localization. Results of two-hybrid analyses indicated that EHD1 and EHD3 interact with each other. In addition, EHD1 and EHD3 could be coimmunoprecipitated from cellular extracts, confirming the interaction implied by two-hybrid analysis. Moreover, coexpression of EHD1 and EHD3 resulted in their colocalization in microtubule-dependent tubules as well as in punctate forms. Based on its specific intracellular localization and its interaction with EHD1, we postulate that EHD3 localizes on endocytic tubular and vesicular structures and regulates their microtubule-dependent movement.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2002;3;8;575-89

  • Association of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor with EHD1 and SNAP29.

    Rotem-Yehudar R, Galperin E and Horowitz M

    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    Ligand-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a central role in regulating signaling conveyed by tyrosine kinase receptors. This process depends on the recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, clathrin, dynamin, and other accessory proteins to the ligand-bound receptor. We show here that besides AP-2 and clathrin, two other proteins participate in the endocytic process of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R); they are EHD1, an Eps15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein 1, and SNAP29, a synaptosomal-associated protein. EHD1 and SNAP29 form complexes with alpha-adaptin of AP-2 and co-localize in endocytic vesicles, indicating a role for them in endocytosis. EHD1 and SNAP29 interact directly with each other and are present in complexes with IGF-1R. After IGF-1 induction, EHD1 and IGF-1R co-localize intracellularly. Overexpression of EHD1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells represses IGF-1-mediated signaling, as measured by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation, indicating that EHD1 plays a role as a down-regulator in IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;35;33054-60

  • EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4 encode novel members of a highly conserved family of EH domain-containing proteins.

    Pohl U, Smith JS, Tachibana I, Ueki K, Lee HK, Ramaswamy S, Wu Q, Mohrenweiser HW, Jenkins RB and Louis DN

    Molecular Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Neurosurgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    Exon trapping from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC 78138) mapping to the 19q13.3 glioma tumor suppressor candidate region yielded two exons that recognized a 3.6-kb transcript on Northern blot. Screening of a human fetal brain cDNA library with these exons identified three novel genes, designated EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4, which are homologous to the recently characterized human EHD1 (testilin/HPAST) and its mouse homolog Ehd1, as well as to homologs in Drosophila (Past1) and Caenorhabditis elegans. Alignment of the predicted peptide sequences revealed striking similarities, with multiple conserved regions that include a nucleotide-binding consensus site at the N-terminus, a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and an eps15 homology (EH) protein-binding domain with an EF-hand motif at the C-terminus. The genes are specifically expressed, with EHD2 highly expressed in heart, EHD3 in brain and heart, and EHD4 in heart and pancreas. EHD2 was confirmed to originate from BAC 78138 at 19q13.3; radiation hybrid mapping localized EHD3 and EHD4 to 2p21 and 15q11.1, respectively; EHD1 has been previously mapped to 11q13. The three EHD1 paralogs therefore represent novel members of a family of human EH domain-containing proteins that may play a role in endocytosis and signaling. Mutation analysis of the five coding exons of EHD2 in gliomas failed to detect any tumor-specific alterations, thus indicating that EHD2 is an unlikely candidate for the 19q tumor suppressor gene.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 50905, CA 69285

    Genomics 2000;63;2;255-62

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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