G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit
G00000671 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000070492 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000065000 (Ensembl human gene)
8943 (Entrez Gene)
1091 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
AP3D1 (GeneCards)
607246 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
O14617 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • ADTD

Literature (30)

Pubmed - other

  • Linkage and genome-wide association analysis of obesity-related phenotypes: association of weight with the MGAT1 gene.

    Johansson A, Marroni F, Hayward C, Franklin CS, Kirichenko AV, Jonasson I, Hicks AA, Vitart V, Isaacs A, Axenovich T, Campbell S, Floyd J, Hastie N, Knott S, Lauc G, Pichler I, Rotim K, Wild SH, Zorkoltseva IV, Wilson JF, Rudan I, Campbell H, Pattaro C, Pramstaller P, Oostra BA, Wright AF, van Duijn CM, Aulchenko YS, Gyllensten U and EUROSPAN Consortium

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

    As major risk-factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits has been of interest for decades. Recently, a limited number of common genetic variants, which have replicated in different populations, have been identified. One approach to increase the statistical power in genetic mapping studies is to focus on populations with increased levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and reduced genetic diversity. We have performed joint linkage and genome-wide association analyses for weight and BMI in 3,448 (linkage) and 3,925 (association) partly overlapping healthy individuals from five European populations. A total of four chromosomal regions (two for weight and two for BMI) showed suggestive linkage (lod >2.69) either in one of the populations or in the joint data. At the genome-wide level (nominal P < 1.6 x 10(-7), Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05) one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs12517906) (nominal P = 7.3 x 10(-8)) was associated with weight, whereas none with BMI. The SNP associated with weight is located close to MGAT1. The monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzyme family is known to be involved in dietary fat absorption. There was no overlap between the linkage regions and the associated SNPs. Our results show that genetic effects influencing weight and BMI are shared across diverse European populations, even though some of these populations have experienced recent population bottlenecks and/or been affected by genetic drift. The analysis enabled us to identify a new candidate gene, MGAT1, associated with weight in women.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/710; Medical Research Council: MC_U127561128

    Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2010;18;4;803-8

  • Assessment of a polymorphism of SDK1 with hypertension in Japanese Individuals.

    Oguri M, Kato K, Yokoi K, Yoshida T, Watanabe S, Metoki N, Yoshida H, Satoh K, Aoyagi Y, Nozawa Y and Yamada Y

    Department of Cardiology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

    Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although genetic studies have suggested that several genetic variants increase the risk for hypertension, the genes that underlie genetic susceptibility to this condition remain to be identified definitively. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to hypertension in Japanese individuals.

    Methods: A total of 5,734 Japanese individuals from two independent populations were examined: subject panel A comprised 2,066 hypertensive individuals and 824 controls; and subject panel B comprised 834 hypertensive individuals and 2,010 controls. The 150 polymorphisms examined in the present study were selected by genome-wide association studies of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke with the use of the GeneChip Human Mapping 500K Array Set (Affymetrix).

    Results: The chi(2)-test revealed that 10 polymorphisms were significantly (P < 0.05) related to the prevalence of hypertension in subject panel A. To validate the relations, these polymorphisms were examined in subject panel B. The A-->G polymorphism (rs645106) of SDK1 and the C-->G polymorphism (rs12078839) of RABGAP1L were significantly associated with hypertension in subject panel B. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates, as well as a stepwise forward selection procedure revealed that the A-->G polymorphism of SDK1 was significantly associated with hypertension in both subject panels A and B, with the G allele protecting against this condition.

    Conclusions: SDK1 may be a susceptibility gene for hypertension in Japanese individuals, although the functional relevance of the identified polymorphism was not determined.

    American journal of hypertension 2010;23;1;70-7

  • Association analysis between schizophrenia and the AP-3 complex genes.

    Hashimoto R, Ohi K, Okada T, Yasuda Y, Yamamori H, Hori H, Hikita T, Taya S, Saitoh O, Kosuga A, Tatsumi M, Kamijima K, Kaibuchi K, Takeda M and Kunugi H

    The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan. hashimor@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    A susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, dysbindin, is a component of BLOC-1, which interacts with the adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex. As a direct interaction between dysbindin and AP-3 complex was reported, we examined a possible association between 16 SNPs in the AP3 complex genes and schizophrenia using 432 cases and 656 controls. Nominal association between rs6688 in the AP3M1 gene and schizophrenia (chi(2)=6.33, P=0.012, odds ratio=0.80) was no longer positive after correction for multiple testing (corrected P=0.192). The present results suggest that AP3 complex genes might not play a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in this population.

    Neuroscience research 2009;65;1;113-5

  • Molecular basis for the sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 into endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles by the ArfGAP Hrb.

    Pryor PR, Jackson L, Gray SR, Edeling MA, Thompson A, Sanderson CM, Evans PR, Owen DJ and Luzio JP

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.

    SNAREs provide the specificity and energy for the fusion of vesicles with their target membrane, but how they are sorted into the appropriate vesicles on post-Golgi trafficking pathways is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the SNARE VAMP7 is directly mediated by Hrb, a clathrin adaptor and ArfGAP. Hrb wraps 20 residues of its unstructured C-terminal tail around the folded VAMP7 longin domain, demonstrating that unstructured regions of clathrin adaptors can select cargo. Disrupting this interaction by mutation of the VAMP7 longin domain or depletion of Hrb causes VAMP7 to accumulate on the cell's surface. However, the SNARE helix of VAMP7 binds back onto its longin domain, outcompeting Hrb for binding to the same groove and suggesting that Hrb-mediated endocytosis of VAMP7 occurs only when VAMP7 is incorporated into a cis-SNARE complex. These results elucidate the mechanism of retrieval of a postfusion SNARE complex in clathrin-coated vesicles.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9310915, MC_U105178845

    Cell 2008;134;5;817-27

  • HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells occurs through a tetraspanin-containing compartment enriched in AP-3.

    Garcia E, Nikolic DS and Piguet V

    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital and Medical School of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

    Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial components of the early events of HIV infection. Dendritic cells capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer the virus to CD4+ T cells in trans through infectious synapses (trans-infection pathway). Alternatively, HIV-1 replicates in DC (R5-HIV-1) (cis-infection pathway). Here, we analyzed HIV trafficking in DC during the trans-infection pathway as well as the cis-infection pathway. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that after capture by DC, R5-HIV-1 and HIV-1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus protein G colocalized in a viral compartment enriched in tetraspanins including CD81, CD82 and CD9, although at different levels, indicating a role of the viral envelope in targeting to the tetraspanin-rich compartment. Replication of R5-HIV-1 in DC (cis-infection pathway) also led to the accumulation, in an envelope-independent manner, of mature viral particles in a tetraspanin-rich compartment. A fraction of the HIV-1-containing compartments appeared directly accessible from the cell surface. In sharp contrast with the trans-infection pathway, the delta-subunit of the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex was enriched on the HIV-1-containing compartment during R5-HIV-1 replication in DC (cis-infection pathway). Downregulation of AP-3 delta-adaptin reduced significantly viral particle release from HIV-1-infected DC. Together, these studies demonstrate a role for AP-3 in HIV replication in a tetraspanin-rich compartment in DC and contribute to the elucidation of the trafficking pathways required for DC-T cell transfer of HIV-1 infection, a critical step during the early events of HIV infection.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2008;9;2;200-14

  • Zinc transporter 2 (SLC30A2) can suppress the vesicular zinc defect of adaptor protein 3-depleted fibroblasts by promoting zinc accumulation in lysosomes.

    Falcón-Pérez JM and Dell'Angelica EC

    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. jfalcon@cicbiogune.es

    Zinc accumulation in the lumen of cytoplasmic vesicles is one of the mechanisms by which cells can store significant amounts of this essential but potentially toxic biometal. Previous studies had demonstrated reduced vesicular zinc levels in fibroblasts from mutant mice deficient in adaptor protein 3 (AP-3), a complex involved in protein trafficking to late endosomes and lysosomes. We have observed a similar phenotype in the human fibroblastoid cell line, M1, upon small interference RNA-mediated AP-3 knockdown. A survey of the expression and localization of zinc transporter (ZnT) family members identified ZnT2, ZnT3, and ZnT4 as likely mediators of vesicular zinc accumulation in M1 cells. Expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged ZnT2 and ZnT3 promoted accumulation of vesicular zinc as visualized using the indicator zinquin. Moreover, GFP-ZnT2 overexpression elicited a significant accumulation of zinc within mature lysosomes, which in untransfected M1 cells contained little or no chelatable zinc, and restored the zinc storage capability of AP-3-deficient cells. These results suggest that ZnT2 can facilitate vesicular zinc accumulation independently of AP-3 function, and validate the M1 fibroblastoid line as a human cell culture system amenable to the study of vesicular zinc regulation using techniques compatible with functional genomic approaches.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL068117, R01 HL068117

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;7;1473-83

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • CT domain of CCN2/CTGF directly interacts with fibronectin and enhances cell adhesion of chondrocytes through integrin alpha5beta1.

    Hoshijima M, Hattori T, Inoue M, Araki D, Hanagata H, Miyauchi A and Takigawa M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5-1 Shikata-cho, 2-chome, Okayama 700-8525, Japan.

    Searching for CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) interactive proteins by yeast-two-hybrid screening, we identified fibronectin 1 gene product as a major binding partner of CCN2/CTGF in the chondrosarcoma-derived chondrocytic cell line HCS-2/8. Only the CT domain of CCN2/CTGF bound directly to fibronectin (FN). CCN2/CTGF and its CT domain enhanced the adhesion of HCS-2/8 cells to FN in a dose-dependent manner. The CCN2/CTGF-enhancing effect on cell adhesion to FN was abolished by a blocking antibody against alpha5beta1 integrin (alpha5beta1), but not by one against anti-alphavbeta3 integrin. These findings suggest for the first time that CCN2/CTGF enhances chondrocyte adhesion to FN through direct interaction of its C-terminal CT domain with FN, and that alpha5beta1 is involved in this adhesion.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;5;1376-82

  • Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    Theos AC, Tenza D, Martina JA, Hurbain I, Peden AA, Sviderskaya EV, Stewart A, Robinson MS, Bennett DC, Cutler DF, Bonifacino JS, Marks MS and Raposo G

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom.

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: T32 CA 09140, T32 CA009140; NEI NIH HHS: EY015625, R01 EY015625; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR048155, R01 AR048155; Wellcome Trust

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;11;5356-72

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • AP-3 directs the intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Gag and plays a key role in particle assembly.

    Dong X, Li H, Derdowski A, Ding L, Burnett A, Chen X, Peters TR, Dermody TS, Woodruff E, Wang JJ and Spearman P

    Department of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

    Gag proteins direct the process of retroviral particle assembly and form the major protein constituents of the viral core. The matrix region of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein plays a critical role in the transport of Gag to the plasma membrane assembly site. Recent evidence indicates that Gag trafficking to late endosomal compartments, including multivesicular bodies, occurs prior to viral particle budding from the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that the matrix region of HIV-1 Gag interacts directly with the delta subunit of the AP-3 complex, and that this interaction plays an important functional role in particle assembly. Disruption of this interaction eliminated Gag trafficking to multivesicular bodies and diminished HIV particle formation. These studies illuminate an early step in retroviral particle assembly and provide evidence that the trafficking of Gag to late endosomes is part of a productive particle assembly pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA68485; NIAID NIH HHS: P30 AI054999, R01 AI32539, R01 AI40338, R21 AI055441; NICHD NIH HHS: HD15052; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK20593, DK58404

    Cell 2005;120;5;663-74

  • Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes.

    Coleman SH, Van Damme N, Day JR, Noviello CM, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Benichou S and Guatelli JC

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0679, USA.

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virulence protein Nef interacts with the endosomal sorting machinery via a leucine-based motif. Similar sequences within the cytoplasmic domains of cellular transmembrane proteins bind to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles to modulate protein traffic, but the molecular basis of the interactions between these motifs and the heterotetrameric complexes is controversial. To identify the target of the Nef leucine motif, the native sequence was replaced with either leucine- or tyrosine-based AP-binding sequences from cellular proteins, and the interactions with AP subunits were correlated with function. Tyrosine motifs predictably modulated the interactions between Nef and the mu subunits of AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3; heterologous leucine motifs caused little change in these interactions. Conversely, leucine motifs mediated a ternary interaction between Nef and hemicomplexes containing the sigma1 plus gamma subunits of AP-1 or the sigma3 plus delta subunits of AP-3, whereas tyrosine motifs did not. Similarly, only leucine motifs supported the Nef-mediated association of AP-1 and AP-3 with endosomal membranes in cells treated with brefeldin A. Functionally, Nef proteins containing leucine motifs down-regulated CD4 from the cell surface and enhanced viral replication, whereas those containing tyrosine motifs were inactive. Apparently, the interaction of Nef with the mu subunits of AP complexes is insufficient for function. A leucine-specific mode of interaction that likely involves AP hemicomplexes is further required for Nef activity. The mu and hemicomplex interactions may cooperate to yield high avidity binding of AP complexes to Nef. This binding likely underlies the unusual ability of Nef to induce the stabilization of these complexes on endosomal membranes, an activity that correlates with enhancement of viral replication.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR004050, RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201, P30 AI036214, R01 AI038201, R21 AI038201

    Journal of virology 2005;79;4;2066-78

  • An ear-core interaction regulates the recruitment of the AP-3 complex to membranes.

    Lefrançois S, Janvier K, Boehm M, Ooi CE and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    AP-3 is a heterotetrameric adaptor involved in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. The function of AP-3 as an adaptor relies on its ability to bind to membranes in an Arf-dependent fashion and to recognize sorting signals in the cytosolic tails of the transmembrane cargo. Here, we report an interdomain interaction involving the ear domain of the delta subunit and the sigma3 subunit of AP-3. This interaction interferes with the binding of AP-3 to Arf but not to dileucine-based sorting signals. As a consequence, the delta-ear inhibits the recruitment of AP-3 to membranes both in vitro and in vivo and impairs the sorting of lysosomal membrane proteins. These observations suggest a new regulatory mechanism for the recruitment of AP-3 to membranes involving delta-ear-sigma3 interactions.

    Developmental cell 2004;7;4;619-25

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19.

    Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM and Lucas SM

    Stanford Human Genome Center, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 975 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA. jane@shgc.stanford.edu

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

    Nature 2004;428;6982;529-35

  • The zinc transporter ZnT3 interacts with AP-3 and it is preferentially targeted to a distinct synaptic vesicle subpopulation.

    Salazar G, Love R, Werner E, Doucette MM, Cheng S, Levey A and Faundez V

    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    Synaptic vesicles (SV) are generated by two different mechanisms, one AP-2 dependent and one AP-3 dependent. It has been uncertain, however, whether these mechanisms generate SV that differ in molecular composition. We explored this hypothesis by analyzing the targeting of ZnT3 and synaptophysin both to PC12 synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV) as well as SV isolated from wild-type and AP-3-deficient mocha brains. ZnT3 cytosolic tail interacted selectively with AP-3 in cell-free assays. Accordingly, pharmacological disruption of either AP-2- or AP-3-dependent SLMV biogenesis preferentially reduced synaptophysin or ZnT3 targeting, respectively; suggesting that these antigens were concentrated in different vesicles. As predicted, immuno-isolated SLMV revealed that ZnT3 and synaptophysin were enriched in different vesicle populations. Likewise, morphological and biochemical analyses in hippocampal neurons indicated that these two antigens were also present in distinct but overlapping domains. ZnT3 SV content was reduced in AP-3-deficient neurons, but synaptophysin was not altered in the AP-3 null background. Our evidence indicates that neuroendocrine cells assemble molecularly heterogeneous SV and suggests that this diversity could contribute to the functional variety of synapses.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS042599, R01 NS42599-01A1

    Molecular biology of the cell 2004;15;2;575-87

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Specific regulation of the adaptor protein complex AP-3 by the Arf GAP AGAP1.

    Nie Z, Boehm M, Boja ES, Vass WC, Bonifacino JS, Fales HM and Randazzo PA

    Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Building 37, Room 4118, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Arf1 regulates membrane trafficking at several membrane sites by interacting with at least seven different vesicle coat proteins. Here, we test the hypothesis that Arf1-dependent coats are independently regulated by specific interaction with Arf GAPs. We find that the Arf GAP AGAP1 directly associates with and colocalizes with AP-3, a coat protein complex involved in trafficking in the endosomal-lysosomal system. Binding is mediated by the PH domain of AGAP1 and the delta and sigma3 subunits of AP-3. Overexpression of AGAP1 changes the cellular distribution of AP-3, and reduced expression of AGAP1 renders AP-3 resistant to brefeldin A. AGAP1 overexpression does not affect the distribution of other coat proteins, and AP-3 distribution is not affected by overexpression of other Arf GAPs. Cells overexpressing AGAP1 also exhibit increased LAMP1 trafficking via the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that AGAP1 directly and specifically regulates AP-3-dependent trafficking.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;3;513-21

  • A dual mechanism controlling the localization and function of exocytic v-SNAREs.

    Martinez-Arca S, Rudge R, Vacca M, Raposo G, Camonis J, Proux-Gillardeaux V, Daviet L, Formstecher E, Hamburger A, Filippini F, D'Esposito M and Galli T

    Membrane Traffic and Neuronal Plasticity, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U536, Institut du Fer-à-Moulin, 75005 Paris, France.

    SNARE [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor] proteins are essential for membrane fusion but their regulation is not yet fully understood. We have previously shown that the amino-terminal Longin domain of the v-SNARE TI-VAMP (tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein)/VAMP7 plays an inhibitory role in neurite outgrowth. The goal of this study was to investigate the regulation of TI-VAMP as a model of v-SNARE regulation. We show here that the Longin domain (LD) plays a dual role. First, it negatively regulates the ability of TI-VAMP and of a Longin/Synaptobrevin chimera to participate in SNARE complexes. Second, it interacts with the adaptor complex AP-3 and this interaction targets TI-VAMP to late endosomes. Accordingly, in mocha cells lacking AP-3 delta, TI-VAMP is retained in an early endosomal compartment. Furthermore, TI-VAMPc, an isoform of TI-VAMP lacking part of the LD, does not interact with AP-3, and therefore is not targeted to late endosomes; however, this shorter LD still inhibits SNARE-complex formation. These findings support a mechanism controlling both localization and function of TI-VAMP through the LD and clathrin adaptors. Moreover, they point to the amino-terminal domains of SNARE proteins as multifunctional modules responsible for the fine tuning of SNARE function.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100;15;9011-6

  • HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes.

    Janvier K, Craig H, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Sol-Foulon N, Renault L, Cherfils J, Cassel D, Benichou S and Guatelli J

    Institut Cochin, Department of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U567-CNRS UMR8104, Universite Paris V, 24 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, France.

    The maximal virulence of HIV-1 requires Nef, a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an expansion of the endosomal compartment and altering the surface expression of cellular proteins including CD4 and class I major histocompatibility complex. Here, we show that Nef stabilizes the association of AP-1 and AP-3 with membranes. These complexes remained with Nef on juxtanuclear membranes despite the treatment of cells with brefeldin A, which induced the release of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) from these membranes to the cytosol. Nef also induced a persistent association of AP-1 and AP-3 with membranes despite the expression of dominant-negative ARF1 or the overexpression of an ARF1-GTPase activating protein. Mutational analysis indicated that the direct binding of Nef to the AP complexes is essential for this stabilization. The leucine residues of the EXXXLL motif found in Nef were required for binding to AP-1 and AP-3 in vitro and for the stabilization of these complexes on membranes in vivo, whereas the glutamic acid residue of this motif was required specifically for the binding and stabilization of AP-3. These data indicate that Nef mediates the persistent attachment of AP-1 and AP-3 to membranes by an ARF1-independent mechanism. The stabilization of these complexes on membranes may underlie the pleiotropic effects of Nef on protein trafficking within the endosomal system.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8725-32

  • Site-specific cross-linking reveals a differential direct interaction of class 1, 2, and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3.

    Austin C, Boehm M and Tooze SA

    Secretory Pathways Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, England.

    We have used a site-specific photo-cross-linking approach to identify direct interactions between clathrin adaptor protein (AP)1 complexes and small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family and to explore the specificity of this interaction on immature secretory granule (ISG) membranes. ISG membranes are a well-characterized, highly enriched preparation of membranes that has previously been shown to have the membrane-associated factors for ARF1 recruitment that are not present on artificial liposomes. All three classes of ARF proteins could be recruited to ISG membranes, displaying differential requirements for GTPgammaS. We found that ARF1, ARF5, and ARF6 interacted directly with the beta1-adaptin subunit of AP-1 in the presence of GTPgammaS. Furthermore, we observed a direct interaction between the switch 1 region of ARF1 and the N-terminal trunk domains of gamma- and beta1-adaptin. In addition, both ARF1 and ARF6 but not ARF5 interacted directly with the beta3- and delta-adaptin subunits of AP-3. No interaction was observed between AP-2 and any of the ARF proteins. Our results delineate the specificity and provide evidence of a direct interaction between different ARF proteins and the AP complexes AP-1 and AP-3 on natural ISG membranes and show that residues in the switch 1 region of ARF proteins can selectively bind to the trunk domains of these complexes.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;14;4669-77

  • PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic.

    Crump CM, Xiang Y, Thomas L, Gu F, Austin C, Tooze SA and Thomas G

    Vollum Institute, L-474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201-3098, USA.

    PACS-1 is a cytosolic protein involved in controlling the correct subcellular localization of integral membrane proteins that contain acidic cluster sorting motifs, such as furin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NEF: We have now investigated the interaction of PACS-1 with heterotetrameric adaptor complexes. PACS-1 associates with both AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-2, and forms a ternary complex between furin and AP-1. A short sequence within PACS-1 that is essential for binding to AP-1 has been identified. Mutation of this motif yielded a dominant-negative PACS-1 molecule that can still bind to acidic cluster motifs on cargo proteins but not to adaptor complexes. Expression of dominant-negative PACS-1 causes a mislocalization of both furin and mannose 6-phosphate receptor from the trans-Golgi network, but has no effect on the localization of proteins that do not contain acidic cluster sorting motifs. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative PACS-1 inhibits the ability of HIV-1 Nef to downregulate MHC-I. These studies demonstrate the requirement for PACS-1 interactions with adaptor proteins in multiple processes, including secretory granule biogenesis and HIV-1 pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI49793, R01 AI048585, R01 AI048585-01A1, R01 AI048585-02, R01 AI048585-03, R01 AI048585-04, R01 AI048585-05, R01 AI049793; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK37274, R01 DK037274, R01 DK044629

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;9;2191-201

  • Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif.

    Craig HM, Reddy TR, Riggs NL, Dao PP and Guatelli JC

    Department of Pathology and, Department of Medicine, San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California, 92093-0679, USA.

    HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of AP-3. The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the interaction with mu1. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Nef, AP-1, and AP-3 (but not AP-2) were concentrated in a juxtanuclear region near the cell center, potentially facilitating interaction between Nef and the mu1 and mu3 subunits. However, leucine residues of the sorting motif were not required for this subcellular localization of Nef. These data suggest that the dileucine motif, required for optimal viral replication, functions through interactions with a variety of AP complexes, including AP-3, potentially by recruiting adaptor complexes to subcellular locations specified by additional determinants in the Nef protein.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201

    Virology 2000;271;1;9-17

  • Formation of AP-3 transport intermediates requires Vps41 function.

    Rehling P, Darsow T, Katzmann DJ and Emr SD

    Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0668, USA.

    Transport of a subset of membrane proteins to the yeast vacuole requires the function of the AP-3 adaptor protein complex. To define the molecular requirements of vesicular transport in this pathway, we used a biochemical approach to analyse the formation and content of the AP-3 transport intermediate. A vam3tsf (vacuolar t-SNARE) mutant blocks vesicle docking and fusion with the vacuole and causes the accumulation of 50-130-nanometre membrane vesicles, which we isolated and showed by biochemical analysis and immunocytochemistry to contain both AP-3 adaptors and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) pathway cargoes. Inactivation of AP-3 or the protein Vps41 blocks formation of this vesicular intermediate. Vps41 binds to the AP-3 delta-adaptin subunit, suggesting that they function together in the formation of ALP pathway transport intermediates at the late Golgi.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58689

    Nature cell biology 1999;1;6;346-53

  • A di-leucine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of LIMP-II and tyrosinase mediates selective binding of AP-3.

    Höning S, Sandoval IV and von Figura K

    Institute for Biochemistry II, University of Göttingen, Gosslerstr. 12d, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

    Among the various coats involved in vesicular transport, the clathrin associated coats that contain the adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2 are the most extensively characterized. The function of the recently described adaptor complex AP-3, which is similar to AP-1 and AP-2 in protein composition but does not associate with clathrin, is not known. By monitoring surface plasmon resonance we observed that AP-3 is able to interact with the tail of the lysosomal integral membrane protein LIMP-II and that this binding depends on a DEXXXLI sequence in the LIMP-II tail. Furthermore, AP-3 bound to the cytoplasmic tail of the melanosome-associated protein tyrosinase which contains a related EEXXXLL sequence. The tails of LIMP-II and tyrosinase either did not interact, or only interacted poorly, with AP-1 or AP-2. In contrast, the cytoplasmic tails of other membrane proteins containing di-leucine and/or tyrosine-based sorting signals did not bind AP-3, but AP-1 and/or AP-2. This points to a function of AP-3 in intracellular sorting to lysosomes and melanosomes of a subset of cargo proteins via di-leucine-based sorting motifs.

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;5;1304-14

  • Mutation in AP-3 delta in the mocha mouse links endosomal transport to storage deficiency in platelets, melanosomes, and synaptic vesicles.

    Kantheti P, Qiao X, Diaz ME, Peden AA, Meyer GE, Carskadon SL, Kapfhamer D, Sufalko D, Robinson MS, Noebels JL and Burmeister M

    Mental Health Research Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    The mouse mutant mocha, a model for the Hermansky-Pudlak storage pool deficiency syndrome, is characterized by defective platelets, coat and eye color dilution, lysosomal abnormalities, inner ear degeneration, and neurological deficits. Here, we show that mocha is a null allele of the delta subunit of the adaptor-like protein complex AP-3, which is associated with coated vesicles budding from the trans-Golgi network, and that AP-3 is missing in mocha tissues. In mocha brain, the ZnT-3 transporter is reduced, resulting in a lack of zinc-associated Timm historeactivity in hippocampal mossy fibers. Our results demonstrate that the AP-3 complex is responsible for cargo selection to lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules as well as to neurotransmitter vesicles.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS29709, NS32130; Wellcome Trust

    Neuron 1998;21;1;111-22

  • Altered expression of a novel adaptin leads to defective pigment granule biogenesis in the Drosophila eye color mutant garnet.

    Ooi CE, Moreira JE, Dell'Angelica EC, Poy G, Wassarman DA and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Drosophila eye pigmentation defects have thus far been attributed to mutations in genes encoding enzymes required for biosynthesis of pigments and to ABC-type membrane transporters for pigments or their precursors. We report here that a defect in a gene encoding a putative coat adaptor protein leads to the eye color defect of garnet mutants. We first identified a human cDNA encoding delta-adaptin, a structural homolog of the alpha- and gamma-adaptin subunits of the clathrin coat adaptors AP-1 and AP-2, respectively. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that delta-adaptin is a component of the adaptor-like complex AP-3 in human cells. We then isolated a full-length cDNA encoding the Drosophila ortholog of delta-adaptin and found that transcripts specified by this cDNA are altered in garnet mutant flies. Examination by light and electron microscopy indicated that these mutant flies have reduced numbers of eye pigment granules, which correlates with decreased levels of both pteridine (red) and ommachrome (brown) pigments. Thus, the eye pigmentation defect in the Drosophila garnet mutant may be attributed to compromised function of a coat protein involved in intracellular transport processes required for biogenesis or function of pigment granules.

    The EMBO journal 1997;16;15;4508-18

  • Beta3A-adaptin, a subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3.

    Dell'Angelica EC, Ooi CE and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Recent studies have described a widely expressed adaptor-like complex, named AP-3, which is likely involved in protein sorting in exocytic/endocytic pathways. The AP-3 complex is composed of four distinct subunits. Here, we report the identification of one of the subunits of this complex, which we call beta3A-adaptin. The predicted amino acid sequence of beta3A-adaptin reveals that the protein is closely related to the neuron-specific protein beta-NAP (61% overall identity) and more distantly related to the beta1- and beta2-adaptin subunits of the clathrin-associated adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2, respectively. Sequence comparisons also suggest that beta3A-adaptin has a domain organization similar to beta-NAP and to beta1- and beta2-adaptins. beta3A-adaptin is expressed in all tissues and cells examined. Co-purification and co-precipitation analyses demonstrate that beta3A-adaptin corresponds to the approximately 140-kDa subunit of the ubiquitous AP-3 complex, the other subunits being delta-adaptin, p47A (now called mu3A) and sigma3 (A or B). beta3A-adaptin is phosphorylated on serine residues in vivo while the other subunits of the complex are not detectably phosphorylated. beta3A-adaptin is not present in significant amounts in clathrin-coated vesicles. The characteristics of beta3A-adaptin reported here lend support to the idea that AP-3 is a structural and functional homolog of the clathrin-associated adaptors AP-1 and AP-2.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;24;15078-84

  • Characterization of the adaptor-related protein complex, AP-3.

    Simpson F, Peden AA, Christopoulou L and Robinson MS

    University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge CB2 2QR, United Kingdom.

    We have recently shown that two proteins related to two of the adaptor subunits of clathrincoated vesicles, p47 (mu3) and beta-NAP (beta3B), are part of an adaptor-like complex not associated with clathrin (Simpson, F., N.A. Bright, M.A. West, L.S. Newman, R.B. Darnell, and M.S. Robinson, 1996. J. Cell Biol. 133:749-760). In the present study we have searched the EST database and have identified, cloned, and sequenced a ubiquitously expressed homologue of beta-NAP, beta3A, as well as homologues of the alpha/gamma and sigma adaptor subunits, delta and sigma3, which are also ubiquitously expressed. Antibodies raised against recombinant delta and sigma3 show that they are the other two subunits of the adaptor-like complex. We are calling this complex AP-3, a name that has also been used for the neuronalspecific phosphoprotein AP180, but we feel that it is a more appropriate designation for an adaptor-related heterotetramer. Immunofluorescence using anti-delta antibodies reveals that the AP-3 complex is associated with the Golgi region of the cell as well as with more peripheral structures. These peripheral structures show only limited colocalization with endosomal markers and may correspond to a postTGN biosynthetic compartment. The delta subunit is closely related to the protein product of the Drosophila garnet gene, which when mutated results in reduced pigmentation of the eyes and other tissues. Because pigment granules are believed to be similar to lysosomes, this suggests either that the AP-3 complex may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes or alternatively that it may be involved in another pathway, but that missorting in that pathway may indirectly lead to defects in pigment granules.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;137;4;835-45

Gene lists (3)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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